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MUSIC 2307 – HISTORY OF WESTERN MUSIC I Final Exam Considerations Final exam questions may take the form

of matching, multiple choice, or short answer. As you review, keep in mind the historical era under which each of the following questions occurs and thus the era with which each topic is most closely associated. You have already addressed many of these questions as you prepared for unit exams. Please note that no world music questions will appear on the final.

GREECE AND EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What four types of remnants from past eras provide information for the study of music history? What is the doctrine of "ethos"? What were the viewpoints of Plato and Aristotle on music in education? What is retained of Greek music and/or beliefs about music in the sacred music of the Middle Ages? List and define three instruments used by the ancient Greeks. In what social contexts were each of these most likely to be used?

MIDDLE AGES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Why are the dates 476 and 1453 significant? Explain how Gregorian chant became the most predominant body of chant and how is reflects political aims? What is a "neume"? How is a "heighted neume" different? What are the names of the authentic modes? The plagal modes? Define final and reciting tone. What are Guido’s contributions to notation and the transmission of music? What are the main distinctions between the Proper and the Ordinary of the Mass? What are the five main parts of the Ordinary? What is the Liber Usualis? What was its purpose? What are the differences between syllabic, melismatic, and neumatic text setting? Why is the Credo set in syllabic style? What is the structure of most sequences? Who were the goliards and how do their songs reflect their station in life? Who were the jongleurs? The troubadours? The trouvères? What was a central theme for the songs of the latter two groups? What is the form for most songs of the Minnesingers? Describe the following: vielle psaltery shawm What is the difference between the portative organ and positive organ? Define "motet" and describe its evolution. Define “clausulae.” What is the Magnus liber organi and what does it contain? What is florid organum? From what is the "tenor" derived in this style? What was the Ars Nova? Define isorhythmic motet. Include talea and color and what each refers to in your definition. What is the function of mensuration signs? Be able to identify these signs in terms of time and prolation. Why is Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame such a significant work in the history of western music? What are the names of the three formes fixes and what is the identifying musical form of each? Why is the Squarcialupi Codex significant? What are the characteristics of the fourteenth-century madrigal? Define musica ficta? Why is it so named?

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.


RENAISSANCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. What is equal temperament? What is the Dodekachordon, who wrote it, and why is it important? What effect did printing from movable type have on music? What is distinctive about the "contenance angloise" and how was this style transmitted to the continent? Why is the Burgundian court important? What is the rationale for moving the borrowed tune (formerly the chant) to the next to the lowest voice part? What is a particular hazard in terms of attribution of Josquin's works (determining which works were written by him)? What are some of the characteristics of Josquin's style? What do the titles of some of Josquin's masses (the Ordinary) tell us about the manner in which masses were named? What was Luther's position on music in the church? Who did his Deudsche Messe address? What was the most important type of music in the Lutheran Church in the Renaissance? How is contrafactum defined? Why was it necessary during the Protestant Reformation? What were the collections called that contained music of which Calvin would approve? What was the reason for forming the Church of England? What was the Counter-Reformation? What was the purpose of the Council of Trent? What was their position on music? How did Palestrina's Pope Marcellus Mass conform to their requirements? How was Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier (1528) significant in telling us about life in the courts during the Renaissance? How do the fourteenth-century and the sixteenth-century madrigal differ? How are the mid-sixteenth-century madrigals different from the early century examples? What are madrigalisms? Who were the Meistersingers and who was the most well-known of them? What is the Musica transalpina? Describe the contents of the collection titled The Triumphes of Oriana? Who was responsible for organizing the volume? In what notational system was the lute part written in lute songs and who was a leading omposer of this genre? Why does there appear to be more instrumental music after 1450? What is contained in the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius that is important for understanding the musical instruments of the Renaissance? Define consort and broken (mixed) consort. Define cori spezzati. With what institution was Gabrieli associated? What effect did the place Gabrieli work have on his composition? What is the significance of Gabrieli’s Sonata pian’ e forte? What is the name of the most frequently used secular tune to unify a mass?

BAROQUE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Who was Monteverdi’s first opera written for? What was the name of this opera and the source of its subject matter? How is L’incoronazione di Poppea significantly different in terms of subject matter and intended venue? What are the characteristics of the seventeenth-century Italian cantata as written by Barbara Strozzi? In what ways was Barbara Strozzi unique in her own time? What is an oratorio as written by Carissimi? How is it similar to opera? Different? With whom did Heinrich Schütz study? How is his style in Saul, was verfolgst du mich similar to that of his teacher? What is a Baroque suite? How are the harpsichord suites of Jacquet de la Guerre organized? What is the significance of the Vingt-quatre Violons du Roi and who employed them?


8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

With which librettist did Lully create the tragédie lyrique? What were the interludes in this works called and what did they feature? Describe the French overture with which Lully began his operas? In what form are most 17th-century dances? What are some of the unusual qualities of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas (1689)? Note the English preference for spoken drama and masques over opera, thereby delaying a solid opera tradition in England until much later. For which two genres is Arcangelo Corelli particularly well known? How many players are normally used to perform a Baroque trio sonata authentically? What instruments did Corelli feature in his trio sonatas? What structure is featured in most of Torelli's concerti? Who transferred the French harpsichord style to Germany and helped establish the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue as standard components of dance suites to be used as a basis by later composers including J.S. Bach and Handel? In what city and for what institution did Antonio Vivaldi work for most of his career? What is the typical pattern of movements in Vivaldi's concertos, including the number of movements, their tempo, and forms. What is unusual about the first four concertos in Vivaldi's Op. 8? What were Rameau's contributions to the theory of music? What terms and concepts common today did he introduce? How did Bach’s place of employment affect the type of music he composed? What was his last position (1723-50)? How did Bach learn to compose? What is a chorale prelude? What is its function? What is the character of a Bach prelude? Of the Bach fugue? Define the following terms associated with the fugue: subject / answer / countersubject / exposition / episode. What is unusual about Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto, No. 5? How does the Lutheran cantata (ex: of J.S. Bach) differ from the Italian cantata (ex: of Barbara Strozzi)? In an effort to understand how Bach’s sacred cantatas were constructed, how did he organize “Christ lag in Todesbanden”?


Define the following terms and be aware of the significance of each of the people, places, treatises, collections, etc. named. Questions may take the form of either multiple choice or short answer. You may also be asked to indicate to which era the following belong. Middle Ages: plainchant Charlemagne rhythmic modes Notker Balbulus - sequences Hildegard of Bingen Quem queritis - liturgical plays begin Minnesingers (slightly later than troubadours and trouveres; Germany) organum Leonin (Magnus liber organi) and Perotin (Cathedral of Notre Dame) Ars subtilior Landini leading Italian families as patrons (Medici, Sforza, Este, Gonzaga) equal temperament motet as sacred genre Protestant Reformation non-Catholic church music (chorale, anthems) Italian madrigal Arcadelt, Verdelot de Rore Marenzio, Gesualdo, Monteverdi Gastoldi - balletto concertato style prima pratica / seconda pratica (Artusi / Palestrina / Monteverdi) Florentine Camerata Jacopo Peri (Dafne – first opera - 1598) Caccini – monody - Le nuove musiche (1602) Monteverdi: opera and dramatic madrigal Doctrine of Affections Basso continuo (figured bass) stile concitato (Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda) recitative and aria (including recitativo secco, recitativo accompagnato, da capo aria) Teatro San Cassiano – Venice - 1637 Fugue – exposition (subject / answer), episode variations (ground bass) dance suite (standard movements) overdotting and notes inégales semi-opera opera seria sonata da chiesa sonata da camera Italian violin makers (3) concerto (grosso, solo, and orchestral) Rameau (Traité de l’harmonie – 1722)




LISTENING PORTION Prepare the following for the listening portion of your final exam. Anthology # 1, 5b, 6b, 8b, 10, 18, 25, 31a, 41, 52, 55, 57, 60, 61, 67 (Tu se’ morta and chorus), 68 (Act 1, Scene 10), 74, 75 (overture), 83b, 90 (Sinfonia and first section only) You will need to provide the following for each of these examples: composer, title, style era (Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque), genre, and a definition of the genre appropriate for the work being played. Word banks will be supplied for the composer, title, and genre. You must supply the style era, and select items that define the genre from a list of possible choices. The glossary in your textbook is a good place to start in building your definitions.