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JEROME CARDAN.

IN TWO VOLUMES. PICCADILLY. BY HENRY MORLEY. PHYSICIAN. LONDON CHAPMAN AND HALL. : MDCCCLIV. . OF MILAN.JEROME CARDAN. 193. THE LIFE OF GIROLAIO CARDAM). II. VOL.

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... II. PROSPERING.CONTENTS TO VOL. CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS 16 CHILDREN CHAPTER FATHERLY AND HOUSEHOLD CARES PROFESSORSHIP RESIGNED III. THE PHYSICIAN AT THE SUMMIT OF HIS FAME .. 149 . THE 42 CHAPTER CARDAN'S JOURNEY TO PARIS 74 CHAPTER CARDAN IN EDINBURGH V. 110 CHAPTER CARDAN IN VI.. DENIED HIS SERVICE TO THE POPE AND TO THE KlNG OP DENMARK CHAPTER LIIE AS A PROPESSOR IN PAVIA II. PAGE 1 CARDAN. MARVELS OF SCIENCE IY.. 129 LONDON CHAPTER VH. CHAPTER How I. .

293 . . DEPTH or HIS DISTRESS . . 274 CHAPTER THE END AT ROME XII. CHAPTER VHL INFAMY PAGE 186 CHAPTER THE FATHER IN THE IX. 242 CHAPTER CARDAN AT BOLOGNA XI.IV CONTENTS. .217 CHAPTER THE LAST YEARS OP CARDAN AT PAVIA X.

B . xxx. Ferrante Gonzaga became governor of Milan. In the same year he last brought also to a successful end the of the family law- suits that had followed on his father's death. iy. I. as a Milanese. De Vita Propria. D'ArALOS dying in the year 1546. PROSPERING. p. xxv. In 1546 the money difficulty with the Bar- biani family was brought to a happy issue. but one who favoured virtue and good men1 . having pro- perty within the province and desiring quiet. Jerome re- ceived all that was due to him. 671. i. VOL. held to be essential.JEROME CARDAK CHAPTER HOW CARDAN. according to Jerome. II. of the harshest temper. He was a prince. His fame 2 Dialogua Tetira. Tom. The governor of Milan was the one particular great man whose friendship Cardan. 1 Domenico Torre 3 . Opera. DENIED HIS SERVICE TO THE POPE AND TO THE KING OP DENMARK. that delle with the heirs of his godfather. cap.

but he could be taught to reckon the well-known physician among friendly citizens over whose lives and liberties he would be properly disposed to watch. 1 there was a brilliant offer made to him. and of risk that he was quite to coward enough shun .2 JEROME CARDAN. no taste for the society of learned men. wholly from fertile Throughout he abstained profitless. so also desired the friendship of his less worthy successor. The friendship of the Cardinal Sfondrato had confirmed iv. in Jerome's case. as was great poverty. moreover. 1 Details on this subject are given in Libris Propriis (1557). therefore. they would. his favour. during the year of absence from his duties in the university of Pavia. a political disputes that were very source of trouble. indeed. and as he he had obtained D'Avalos for a cordial patron. his life and keep danger at a distance. which he refused. While the Professor of Medicine was writing indefati- gably at Milan. De Vita Propr. cap. the philosopher sought. and in those days of anarchy that was. a point worth gaining. clog his labour for the acquisition of a lasting name. desired to He work was to suffer no more all He in peace. 23. p. The man all behind enemies life to whom he could shelter himself best against best cause his property who could and time and be respected was the governor of the province. Gon- zaga had. the year of his wife's death. De . a physician.

Hieronimo twenty thousand florins. at the age of twenty. mixed up with affairs Milanese public when Jerome was a boy. stood high in the favour of the Pope. he kept his position in the army. and just B2 . Cardan in the mind of Morone was one of the a most notable of the great men who had home in Milan. with the history of which famous conclave his ciated intimately. so that to his late he became his counsellor and secretary. after the death of Bourbon before the walls of Rome. This shrewd man had been one of the chief mediators in obtaining the liberty of the Pope Clement VII. . and was at that time president of the Council of Trent. and. selfish He own even played a game so well. father to Jerome's friend.A NEW FKIEND CARDINAL MORONE. His career in Milan closed with capture and imprisonment under the custody of Constable Bourbon. he was chancellor to the last Sforzas. that. for 3 and strengthened high respect the learned Cardinal Morone. name is throughout asso- Morone the elder. his career for That check to was trifling. When it Bourbon wanted money his troops. Giovanni received. his son in gratitude for that service. Morone bought his liberty for and moreover attached himself very adroitly enemy. and though by no means creditably. and raised by ransoms. had been one of the shrewdest and most unscrupulous of Italian diplomatists closely.

in the year 1546. He after a time resigned his and was engaged in the negotiations preceding the . who was both able and prospered in the Church. Giovanni Morone. liberal. had begun In Rome of the splendid Farnese Palace. to the philosopher. liberally pension III. then opened. his last years quickly passed over his again to and in he was be found effectively using his ability and mode- ration to promote the peace arid real well-being of the Church. in the year 1529. liberal. Once he was almost elected Pope. The Pope Paul the building in his habits was he who. and was selected. in 1545. who would him. Bologna. Such was his rank and standing in the world in the year 1546. This Cardinal Morone then. having re- ceived twenty-eight votes in the conclave. as cardinal. appointed the Pope's legate in his second capital. establishment of the Tridentine Council then he was made a cardinal. a brilliant There was a fine opening in Rome if he would go and practise there. . The shadow. see. later years his liberal dislike In of the new Roman Inquisi- tion exposed him to the enmity of one bigoted Pope. made offer. however.JEROME CARDAN. entering into the service of the Pontiff. he was magnificent and an easy man. who was eight years younger than Cardan. to preside over the Council of Trent. life. the bishopric of Modena. before his father's death. and even to imprisonment.

there- have been to that old man ! Jerome declined the Cardinal Morone's it offer. and omens. he would be careful to use no expression that did not become His speech was also the refinement of a learned man. and quit a certain for an insecure position? He did not then. picking because. Peter's chair. His infallibility was wholly subject to the influence of stars. was beloved of many. An union with France. is decrepid. and in a prolix way. he went through an intricate political as in career. How great a treasure would Cardan. . or Latin. taking or matter of He entered upon no under- common business without proper astro- logical or other safe authority. had for twelve years occupied St. in great small affairs always avoiding the simplicities of yes and no. although worldly. getting promises and giving none. and dreams. he is but a crumbling wall. Jerome would have been appreciated. 5 who. was very long delayed by him. old. whether he spoke words deliberately. and was it was proposed always an encourager of learning. Italian. civilly ambiguous . Greek. When to Cardan to go into his service.THE POPE'S OFFER TO CARDAN. he shall I said. most earnestly desired. and was seventy-nine years courteous old man. Alexander Farnese. this Pope. By this Pope. because he could not get a right accord between a couple of nativities. fore. though involved conditions not to be despised. He was his a scholarly and who discoursed in a low tone of voice. The Pope.

to give up. public grounds.6 JEROME CARDAN. and had worked even more zealously for the aggrandisement of his own family. the whole duchy of Milan. The year 1546. You have not prospered since you became Duke of Milan. tells us. Margaret. He worked up domestic alliances with France and Spain. or the splendour of the Farnese house. better not said Pope to Charles. who had mar- ried the emperor's illegitimate daughter. you should not think of being a count. for they fear that you desire to enrich yourself well. than by home character as a too. . had been friendly. had keep the duchy. When you hold such titles men distrust you. After the Turkish war. and nearly obtained for his grandson Ottavio. woman by and given its it to his grandson Ottavio. the For your imperial highness. he had obtained Camarino an act resembling rob- from the hands of a bery. by the possession of such towns. You will do therefore. duke. upon between France and Spain? Turks and Protestants. indeed. Milan to some other person. kind and liberal old gentleman. was as hostile to the Pope as the old governor. but should be only emperor. was. D' Avalos. The new governor. to effect peace to subjugate the He had laboured. Gonzaga. the beginning of his end. fully he understand the probity of Morone. He had got Novara with territories for his son Pier Luigi. and out of Rome his Holiness was more freely known as a man immersed his in political business speculations. or prince.

with his wife. . The disaffected throughout Italy looked upon his Holiness as their most powerful protector. that the MS. I find stated in a note. and must merit publication. or at least distrusted the whole family of the Farnese. Pier Luigi. give it to him.STATE OF THE POPE'S AFFAIRS. not necessary here to tell how. may be that this visible participation in the projects of the it Pope made not difficult for the enemies of the Marquis to perplex his last days with imperial disfavour. of which the younger members were assuredly concerned in Chief mover among them was a great deal of plotting. by the removal of the and the withdrawal of his council of Trent to Bologna. referred to in a previous page (156). It is said to contain amusing matter. the Pope's son. The imperialists men like Gonzaga hated. is in the Chigi library at Rome. vailed upon his friend the 1 Marquis d'Avalos who was rather credulous. with a prettily turned speech. i In Ranke's History of the Popes. that It is He was the working spider had charge of the whole cobweb of Farnese diplomacy. and bring her to propose that he should It home to Milan as his future mistress. to which I owe some of these particulars. nothing better than that you should give son. Covered or open there was almost always a breach be- tween the Pope and Emperor. life of D'Avalos. garet. to perfume himself and go to court aa governor of Milan. Marfar. to my grand- your son-in-law. there to do homage to Margaret. But to 7 I see whom? Surely not to your French it rival. This idea the Pope carried so that he pre.

checked the emperor in the of his success against the Protestants. and have identified himself with one of two contending liberality parties. he gone to Rome he would have been drawn into the current of political affairs. little On Had the whole. there can be doubt that the physician. the old it man There were found. in which he had been enraged greatly died. assassi- and family manager. and full through jealousy. the Pope wilfully. that he himself being compelled into a policy that for a time was hostile to the interests of his immediate family. crumbling wall Jerome as a desired. was said. also. It suited his . After an angry inter- view with the Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. decided prudently. it is certain after that the old man died a little more than three years Cardan had declined to pass into his service. in refusing the Pope's offer. a fatal distillation caused by the sharp throbs of anger. Pier Luigi. to retain the position that he held professor in the University of Pavia. The Pope. with all his and splendour. chiefly at the instigation of Ferrante Gonzaga and . was nated. then. at his selfishness. autumn of the year 1546. indeed. that his son It is stream enough to add. no better than a for a philosopher to lean upon. That is a cause of death that may be questioned. but of the effects of anger. own blood turned against him. three drops of co- agulated blood in his heart. was.8 troops in the JEROME CARDAN. the family that he had laboured his all his days to aggrandise.

He had contra- Lib. Jerome had gone to Pavia with great honour. that study of his profession which he had suffered to become lax at Milan. alike 1 . Pavia that he It was probably at had the opportunity of establishing a friendship with a very famous teacher. bound the new professor to for a time the lecture-table He had quitted Pavia only while trouble made the university a bankrupt. He had the of and based the study of the human frame on actual dissection of the divine image. Opera. Gianbatista then was of an age to study medirelative. and the reasons given for its refusal. but he did not remain absent longer than a year. . that it placed him in the best position for the education of his eldest son cine. Opera. p. whose fame he was already surpassing. accom- panied and lauded by his former teacher. De Vita Propria.THE POPE'S OFFER DECLINED. His love for his studies his love for his son. i. 131. and 2 De in the last book of De Libris Propriis. will be found in chapter iv. and a young Gaspar Cardan. ult. Tom. Curtius. Authority for the details of the succeeding offer. defied Vesalius was prejudices rapidly. worked with him under Jerome's and supervision. . and in that year was tempted by another dazzling offer 2 . habits as a student. the bold founder of modern anatomy. it 9 enabled him to renew with energy. i. Prop. Andreas Vesalius. thriving his age. Tom. In 1547 he re- turned to the duties of his professorship. and a far more important advantage attached to it was. Lib. under the best conditions.

. was given (by me) 2 in Fraser's De Lib. Around however. Tom. for Cardan says that. and from his own treatise De Radice China. and he was sought as a star by rival He was Professor of Anatomy in three or four Italian towns at once. There 1 Details concerning Vesalius are drawn from the life prefixed by Boerhaave and Albinus to his Corporis Humani Fabrica. Magazine for November. curiosity and admiration brought throngs to his lecture-rooms. p. the young men of the profession gathered. all the hard and illustrated his doctrine from limbs of dogs dissected out for by demonstrating him by an assistant. going and most eminent professor of the old school. . that he absolutely raved sumption of Vesalius. 138. dieted Galen on a thousand points. Prop. Lib. skipped passages. founded upon that and other authority. A sketch of his career. an easyfuriously. who. with Sylvius of Paris at their head. who was not thirty years old when he overthrew the ancient system by the publication of his book upon the Fabric of the Vesalius. friends as they were. ult. to the disgust and alarm of the whole body of rule of thumb physicians. who. universities. Op. Human Body. In that way he came to Pavia1 but although the friendship established between it himself and Cardan was very intimate. at the pre- He became so angry. they never met 2 . i. seems to have been maintained exclusively by written intercourse. giving a short winter-course at each one in succession. which is full of autobiographical matter. in teaching Galen to his pupils. attacked him Vesalius had studied under Sylvius. 1853.10 JEKOME CARDAN.

over to respect. too. and about conventional respectability. 11 was every reason why two such men should be friends. however. who was compelled by the prejudices of society to plunder churchyards. his luxury had not yet marred the polish or the keenness of his wit. and to keep dead bodies concealed sometimes even in his bed. wished to his to secure long for himself by attaching court some very eminent physician. life his name to appear in the King of Denmark.ANOTHER FRIEND VESALIUS. when he taught at Pavia. Christian III. they had both triumphed in Vesalius was a a battle with the world. both physicians. ing of interests to pleasure. man thirteen years his junior. yet with no clashdisagree. and to that fact the other also testified on the occasion that has caused present narrative. probably would like Jerome cutions he. lessness all the better for the persefor his bold care- had experienced. Certainly the friends. the whom old practitioners were groaning. On the other hand. whom Jerome knew how young anatomist. the other in anatomy . to that professors of fact anatomy and medicine were one testifies by statements and allusions scattered through his works. Christian had be- haved in but a heathenish way towards the Roman . Since. make them They both loved at and although Vesalius indolently wasted life. They were both famous: one eminent in mathematics. Again. the court of Madrid the mature years of his that time was in the future taste for .

venturing upon complicity with Christian's accession having been heartily opposed by the bishops. it Church. by force every bishop in his dominions. power of All Italy. . and the beginning of his reign having been much conthree fused with civil war. that he for had done the public only dimly knew in its news from Denmark must have found way only in the shape of strange rumours and legends to the people of the south of Europe. his majesty. The bishops after a time on condition that they would submit to the new order of things. liberated. others. in defiance of his pledged faith.12 JEROME CARDAN. desired was not likely that his patronage would be afraid of by any but a bold man who was not heretics. piety This act of perfidy or had been committed about ten years before Christian for wished an Italian physician to his household. to He life had bribed his nobles by securing them every just and unjust privilege. and abolished totally the Roman were Catholic form of worship. at a time for a when it was not even easy man in Milan to know accurately what was being done in Venice. One only preferred to die in prison. he had not proved an enlightened ruler. years seized when he had been upon the throne. and among and death over their vassals. and though he had been so good as Danish Catholicism. His dominions during his reign had been at no time free from intestine to assassinate strife .

however. Being requested then to name some other illustrious physician whom he would advise the ambassador to seek on the part of his master. and society upon its whom had then at last begun to shower pecuniary blessings. had several lucrative professorships. and was therefore perhaps not likely to object on theological grounds to a royal patient. he named Jerome Cardan. The his offer 13 of the King of Denmark was made through first ambassador in the instance to Vesalius. large practice. He had achieved at last his conquest of the world . He was habitually acting in defiance of Church bigotry. declined King of Denmark's offers. had a before him. whom it had taken fifteen years in the beginning of his career to acquire the art of hoping for nothing. different career Vesalius. a tax and six Hungarian gold crowns. of course. who was at the same time eminent and bold. that done. punctually . On the part of the King of Denmark. The ambassador went therefore to Cardan. and held out him just expectations of ad- vancement the at Madrid. and a share in the revenue accruing from which would probably be less on furs. he had only to receive homage and collect his tribute. He therefore. there was offered to the prospering philosopher a yearly stipend of three hundred in plain cash. a phy- sician. and a the his father also to was apothecary to emperor.THE KING OF DENMARK'S OFFER TO CARDAN. He already possessed good private means.

upon eternal things with a surprising boldness but though he ran the risk of being called by his own Church an impious . but which might be make. and as a physician. He remained at Pavia. free maintenance for himself and a household of five. and the amount of which would said to fluctuate. The people of Denmark he considered to be almost barbarous. which he cer- would never do. That he would have from the king.14 received. he said. There was offered to him. in addition to this salary. that they used and precepts very ferent from those of Rome. Jerome was not to be tempted. and would not suit his sickly constitution. a race of turbulent men. not soil felt more congenial to his mind than to their would be that he to his body. The climate of Denmark. and he philosophised . JEROME CARDAN. together with the other sum. or to live openly at variance with those about him. together with allowance for three horses. an income of eight hundred crowns. In Denmark he seems have would have been almost banished from that republic of letters in which he had always hoped to a laurelled citizen. and estranged from the consolations of his Church. and that he should be compelled either to give tainly up the religion of his country. become He urged rites strongly the heresy dif- of the Danes. more he might receive or other from the courtiers Danes who came to him for counsel. He took no part in the quarrel between Catholic and Protestant. was cold and moist.

The heresy so widely propagated would. His opinion of the Protestant cause he incidentally expressed in comments on the horo- scope of Luther. Neither for Pope nor heretic would he appointed path. ut si nihil ". 465. . He would remain at home. Danish offer. possit. aliud errorem convincat. multitude ista opinionum ostendere tamen . fall he said and the stars said to pieces of itself ." .THE KING OF DENMARK'S OFFER DECLINED. for "it would rear up an infinite number of heads. aberrare. eum Veritas una tantum sit. p. w as r his duty to his His . still 15 Cardan held with the whole force mystical pretensions. man or an atheist. against acceptance of the children. in plurality there must be error1 . by so that. were recently left motherless. Church and philosopher so joined were never to be parted. v. too_. of his superstition to side of his its By the dark own fancy he clung firmly to the dark side of his Church's faith. requisite His other children. Op. if nothing else convicted multitude of opinions is it of falsehood. and loved him with a beautiful devotion." Another reason. move out of his i . since truth one only. Tom. urged by him with equal emphasis. cine at While he was teaching mediPavia. plurimos necessario De Exemplis centum geniturarum. eldest son was of an age to require univer- sity education Jerome was proud of him. yet that very it would be shown that. solvitur in seipso infinitaque reddit capita. he could most readily secure for him all advantages.

16

JEROME CARDAN.

CHAPTER
LIFE AS A PROFESSOR IN PAVIA

II.

CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN.

THE
liberal.

stipend attached to the professorship at Pavia was
It consisted in

the

first

year of two hundred
to four

and

forty,

and in the year 1547 was increased
1
.

hundred gold crowns

Pavia was the same university
entered as a neglected youth,

which Cardan had

first

when

at the

age of nineteen he escaped from bondage

in his father's house.
to

The honours

that were at last paid

him

there, the profitable medical reputation that ac-

crued to him from his prominent position as a teacher of
his art,

and the wide

difference

between the actual salary
to

he was receiving, and the few crowns paid
Plat lecturer upon arithmetic,

him

as a

made up

a

sum of worldly
felt for
!

good
he

fortune, so unexpected, that

Jerome
a dream

a time,

says, as

though

it

had been

all

Vesalius was perhaps the only medical teacher in Italy

who was then

able to

fill

his lecture-room.

He He

had a

stimulating subject.

His

dissections of real

human bodies
was a

attracted the curious as
1

much

as the inquiring.
i.

De Lib.

Prop. Lib.

ult.

Op. Tom.

p. 108.

Geniturarum Exem-

plar (ed. Lugd. 1555), p. 80.

CARDAN AS PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE.
man

17

of the world too, strong-willed, and perhaps overbear;

ing in his temper, but of courteous habits

young, hand-

some, well-dressed, affable, and a fluent speaker, master of

an admirable

style.

body calculated

to

Jerome Cardan had nothing in his win for his learned expositions of

Hippocrates the accident of popularity.

He

was a

sickly

man, rather small of
lean,

stature, thin-armed, narrow-chested,
fall

and gouty.

His teeth were beginning already to

out.

He

was a fair-complexioned man, with yellow

hair,

having bald protuberant temples, and a luxuriant beard

under the chin.

The massive

temples, indicating as

we

now

say Ideality, indicated as he then said the influence

of Taurus at his birth.

He

had an ugly

scar

upon

his his

forehead, small grey-blue, weak, short-sighted eyes
left

eye, since the first attack

of gout, watered habilip.

tually,

and a pendulous lower

He

was not trim of

dress or suave of manner.

He had
;

a harsh, abrupt voice,

and a

slight stutter in his speech

he stooped when he
Furthermore,

walked, and was ungainly in his gesture.
his
wlas

whole skin had been subject to an eruption since he
twenty-four years old, and did not become sound
till

again

he was

1

fifty-one

.

i This personal description of Cardan is taken partly from the chapter De Vita Propria, and chiefly from the account of himself in the third and longest dissertation on hia own horoscope. Geniturarum

Exemplar

(ed.

Lugd. 1555), pp.

57140.
C

VOL.

II.

18

JEROME CARDAN.

On

the other hand, he was renowned for learning
;

;

he

was very earnest

students

would

like his eccentricities,

and he worked indefatigably in

his calling.

For he devoted

himself exclusively at Pavia to the study of his profession,

because he was determined to work
that he

down

the old belief

was properly versed only in mathematics and
1
.

astrology

His public teaching in the university

is

partly

represented
at

by the

written Commentaries on Hippocrates,
heartiest good-will.

which he laboured with the
to put the
free

Into

them he endeavoured

whole pith of Hippocrates
elucidations

and Galen, adding such
as should cause the

comments and

complete work to represent also the
his time.

whole pith of the medical science of

Whoever may

desire to ascertain

what

sort of teaching

was contained in the

lectures delivered

on the Principles

and Practice of Medicine by

a first-rate professor in the

middle of the sixteenth century, should turn to Cardan's

Commentaries on Hippocrates.

In the opinion of their

writer they excelled his other works.

They were

written,

he

said, in the years of his

complete maturity, when he
leisure.
all

had

also the

advantage of full

Though treating
it.

df

his art generally, they

embraced

that was in

They

were De

filled

with the divine opinions of Hippocrates, and
pp. 56, et
for this fact

1

Libris Propriis (ed. 1557),

seq.,

and

succeeding details concerning literary at Pavia.

work done while Cardan was

MASTERPIECES.
they were written, he added, with the noblest purpose
namely, to increase health

19

among men.
others,

Upon
fame.

that work,

and upon three

Jerome,

towards the close of

life,

rested his assurance of immortal
:

The

other three were
that
;

first,

the Arithmetic (in-

cluding the tenth book
discussed in these pages
finally, a systematic

on the Great Art) already

next, a

book on Astrology and
;

work on Music.

been the

first

among moderns

He claims to have by whom an attempt was

made

to restore the art of music to its true position as a

science.

To

those four books he was disposed to add his
writings,

work on Physiognomy. His other
become more popular,
as they

he said, might

were more

attractive to the

multitude, but those were the firm
his fame.

pillars to

the temple of

Of them,

too, the

Commentaries on Hippocrates were

most to be relied upon, because they would be most
widely read.
all

The

art of healing,

he

said,

concerns

men

;

the

name of its great
and
his

author, therefore, will be in

eternal honour,

doctrine sought

by thousands.

For

his other great works,

Jerome expected a much more
His mathemati-

restricted circle of appreciating readers.
cal writings could

be comprehended only by the learned.

Astrology was falling into undeserved discredit, and the
study of it was confined to a small number of men,
lords or princes,

great

and philosophers.

Then,

as for music,

c 2

20
they

JEROME CARDAN.

who
its

did not practice

it

would scarcely care

to read

about

rules

and

principles, while they
Still,

who

did,

had not

the wit to comprehend them.

for their originality,

and because they advanced four
that the four treatises here

sciences,
all,

Cardan believed

named

except that upon

Arithmetic and Algebra, written at Pavia

would be
as

known and esteemed by future generations
the

be "eternal

human

race

1

."

Physicians

now no longer quote Hippocrates. Astrology
Music
all its

has given place to an exact science of Astronomy. has attained in

forms a

new development, and few
Only the

musicians send their thoughts back to Cardan. mathematicians,

occupying ground that has long been

highly cultivated, look back to him in their traditions as
a famous pioneer.

For

his ingenuity,

Jerome was

called

by

his friend

Alciat a

man

of inventions.

The works just named, and
which commenced

the treatise upon Subtle Things, belong, with a few others,
to a distinct period of his literary
life,

when he removed

to Pavia,

and ended in the year 1552.

Upon

his writings during that period

more

will

be said

presently.

Andrea

Alzate, Latinised Andreas Alciatus, the great

jurist of his age,

was another of the

professors in the
thither,

University of Pavia
1

when Cardan was summoned

De

Libris Propriis (ed. 1557), p. 70.

A FRIEND AND COLLEAGUE
and he was not
the greatness
pher.
less

ALCIAT.

21

ready than Vesalius to recognise

of

the Milanese physician

and philoso-

Jerome, on his part, seems to have admired Alciat
eight years his senior
;

who was

more than any other

of his literary friends
a brief sketch of his

he was even moved to write
1
.

life

Alciat, the only son of a

noble family, was born in a village of the Milanese from

which he took
studied at Pavia
laws,

his

name

Alzate,

near Como.

He

and Bologna.

He

became doctor of

and having noble birth and a rich patrimony,
very great ability and eloquence, his talents
early.

as well as

were acknowledged

Already

at the age of twenty-

two he was a professor
Paradoxes

at Pavia, where he wrote his Legal " Paradoxa Juris." That was a work which

created uproar

among all
it

old-fashioned commentators

upon

jurisprudence;
principles of

expounded with

new vigour

the best

Roman law, and

laid the strong foundations

of

its

author's fame.
still

Alciat in Italy, and Zase in Ger-

many, are indeed
nents of the

remembered

as the first liberal

expo-

Roman jurisprudence. At the beginning of his
shrewd
jurist

practice, this

had made himself remarkable
he opposed

when,
with

as advocate in a certain witch-process,

all his

energy the barbarous custom of extracting con-

Vita Andreas Alciati. Opera, Tom. ix. pp. 569, 570. In the sketch of Alciat given above, the personal details are all taken from the notes Whatever is there said more than Cardan tells, will left by Cardan.
be found in Ersch und Griiber's Allgemeine Encyklopadie.

astrology. The dauphin. that practising astrology should be severely punished. men Cardan took his opinion on that head very good-humouredly. and creased so for his renown in- much that he was to a certain extent contended by rival princes. All that such people assert about themselves he declared to be nothing but fantastical invention. He set himself also against and declared later in life. and for an acute counsellor whose wit was marketable as fame. he loved money and both inordi- . where Francis gave him a salary of twelve hundred ducats. A proposed reduction Avignon when he was of his salary caused him to leave twenty-nine years old. where he practised and acquired great fame and profit. cheerfully the same time the liberty he took.22 fessions JEROME CARDAN. and printing it ing out at book of horoscopes. when his opinion was heard with respect by every prince in Europe. and retaliated upon his friend by calculating his nativity. by torture from presumed witches. called From Milan. A as man much profoundly versed in law. before one lecture. to Bourges. Alciat was I. and honoured his lectures sometimes even by personal attendance. and go to Milan. He was placed in charge of the provisioning of the town during the following years of distress and famine. Students came from foreign lands to hear his brilliant and profound expositions of the laws. in a small point- From Pavia the law professor was induced by the offer of high pay to remove to Avignon. made him a present of four hundred ducats.

in compelling Alciat to teach at Pavia. in 1550. and commanded him. was lecturing lived . if any king then reign- ing should desire so much. warned of his . and to the last unmarried. from Pavia to Bologna. In 1547 he also. he could give still more important aid in the establishment of a sound system of home polity. Francesco Sforza. there finally Alciat and lectured maintaining at the same time another fifty-eight years fore- house at Milan old. he removed. Disturbed in his teaching by the wars. knowing these things. to leave the King of France. Duke of Milan. Renewed disturbances im- poverished that university. with a salary of one thousand two hundred ducats.ALCIAT. He was not to receive less there than was paid to him at Bourges. with the promise of thirteen hundred and ducats yearly. and the duchy of Milan having been bequeathed V. and teach again at Pavia. where Cardan recently a widower. used his power over Alciat as territorial lord. nately 23 could prompt and aid very substantially any king- in quarrel with his neighbours. to Pavia. Home troubles Duke abating. friend's death in a Jerome had been dream. The lawyer went again. At the same time. was again fetched back to Pavia. in 1537. as to Charles of Milan. Charles "also used his influence. until he died. on pain of all property belonging to for- feiting his patrimony and him in the Milanese. therefore. and the purchasable jurist was enticed to Ferrara by Duke Hercules fifty II.

for The two gouty professors could Alciat suffered most. the physician undisputed. He surpassed in his calling all predecessors. an apostolic protonotary instead.24 JEROME CARDAN. see he did not at it. his but also Apart from the gout. and was entitled to Cicero's praise of Scaevola as the best orator among lawyers. he had incomparable erudition. All the compulsions put upon Alciat had been profit- able to him. and was afflicted in his hands as well as feet . but the immediate cause of his death was a fever. stores . of a bad constitution. He had come end of those wanderings which he to the travels of the sun. eater. when Cardan was at Pavia with two such men as Alciat and Vesalius for friends and colleagues. the The Emperor had made him Pope would have created him a a Count Cardinal. the best lawyer among orators. was not only true. that praise. too. He was at last wholly unable to walk. Jerome thinks that his friend must have been the happiest of men. all why he should hurt his income by accepting He became. therefore. Palatine . He was tormented with gout. observes. his great dinners. the jurist was arranging a complete edition of to the his works. but the price of he was a mighty condole together. If he had not been tortured by the gout. as in Cardan. felicity was without equal. not the result. had himself boastfully compared who traverses all parts to light and warm them. In 1547. but that honour being incompatible with the continued practipe of his very lucrative profession.

Giovanni Battista does not seem to have followed him 1 2 De Ut. 157. cap. he was smooth. great wealth. of middle stature and broad-chested. universal fame in his own lifetime. De Vita Propria. and the practice of his profession he cured. the wife of his friend Annibale della Croce1 . lips. as one might say. detestable in most men. Pavia not only in the writing the cultivation of in 1547 of lectures. among others. Jerome was engaged of books. 2. ex Adv. who had long suffered from a diseased hip but he had the education of his eldest son and of his young relative 2 Gaspardo Cardan to superintend. who had Boscano 3 lately attended . him at Milan. and ears.25 of books. Cap. p. cheerful. iii. he was. and an eloquence so singular. . influence with every prince in Europe. Alciat cultivated friendships . with large great eyes. adds Jerome. Lib. but in him had a certain grace. but in such a way that even all those who did not know who he when they saw him freely gave him their respect. troops of attendants on his lectures. at was. is even gay in his manners he passed through life perhaps that one reason why unenvied and unopposed : he often laughed while he spoke is a practice which. cap. 156. that men when he spoke might believe they were hearing a new Cicero. large salaries. so that. says Cardan. bull-faced. A pupil to Pavia. xxxv. the delivery friendships. p. nose. Ibid. He was features.

less and was aided regulation by example than by precept mind. in the of his Clara was a good girl. . that he gave ungrudgingly as a home debt. 1562). Bas. . prolific. on his father's side. had established low practice in Milan. The account here given of Jerome's children is taken from statements made by him in his last essay on his own horoscope and the 1 2 horoscopes of his household. he curried favour with the thriving man. p. married. in the Geniturarum Exemplar. one of the in his prosperity. Jerome's eldest son 3. In her and when she became marriageable. 262. as were long-lived and moderately . relations who re- Jerome had a great many before relations said. also a physi- who. she had not been without maternal and after her mother's death was guided by father's her grandmother Thaddaea. There was even a second Jerome Cardan1 cian. of strong constitution training. quiet.26 JEROME CARDAN. for the Cardans. some strong passions. like his father. she was a good daughter. pages. entrusted to The young Gaspar had been membered him him by another Cardan of the same name. and became a He will not again be mentioned in these Grian Battista. to the payment of which. quite out Her oddities lay of her sphere . Synesiorum Somniorum (ed. was studious and but he had. where druggists. whole life she gave no trouble to her father more than belonged to the payment of her dowry. when Jerome the philosopher was for himself a at Pavia.

she had become justly entitled. By his mother he had been known only an object of of solicitude. He grew. whom Jerome himself despised while he took pleasure in their voices. Aldo Urbano. 27 by her good conduct. but a decided as scapegrace. what six an abscess in the brain . Jerome's hours in the study De Vita Propria. They none of the toils from which the hard- working philosopher came for relaxation to the dice-table. who had come into the world under a most flattering configuration of the planets. in the year 1543. the quick boy learnt evil ways. to all whom the stars promised lavishly talents and their most glittering rewards. and too much visited by men of low lect and morals. also with months of He was three years old before he learned to walk. free and under irregular training in a house not rattle from the intel- of dice. To the 1 children. then with his father called fever. however. the last born. or to that refreshment of music which could then hardly be attained except in company with all men who were. for other faculties that they possessed. He had been born on the 25th before Lucia's afflicted. then with dysentery. three years death. and during those three years he first had been with convulsions. grew up a clever child. . to be despised and shunned. 62. May.THE THREE CHILDREN. into better health. p. Cardan confesses and deplores the hurt that he did that he set in his to his children by the bad example felt own house 1 .

p. Seneca. and after his return from that journey made some amends to his children for his absence by the composition of a Into it little Book of Precepts3 for their use. i.28 JEROME CARDAN. De Libris Propriis. and also deaf and dumb 1 . is for the time . Where they have been taken from by him. 109. or Publius Syrus his day. from the . as from Cicero. being unable to see beyond his table blind. Tom. xiv. others they were not unfrequently adapted to his use before they were adopted The little Book of Precepts to life. his children it is is important to this history of Cardan's because in the highest in degree characteristic of the writer. But the philosopher was not neglectful of his charge. Lib. . for. In 1547 he was called to see a patient in Genoa 2. ancients. Lib. among which are some taken. like the chief part of the learning of the time. ult. 1 If we keep mind 2 3 De Subtilitate. wording it in proverbs. Hieronymi Cardani Medici Mediolanensis Libellus Frseceptorum Filiis. were the hours during which they had no father to watch over them writes . the man who and intent upon his writing. Op. for he was apt at writing pithy and freely scattered them about his works. as is Cardan has properly said. therefore. he put in a con- densed form what he took to be the elements of wisdom. some were Italian proverbs current in but the greater number were sentences. his own.

that otherwise can easily be misinterpreted. for example. for the convenience of the reader. half-bitter words. the temper of the days in which he lived. 29 the events of his career thus far detailed. is in that respect extremely curious. They will help us also to form a just measure of the quality of his mature intellect. but I have.THE BOOK OF PRECEPTS. at the fair same time preserving a balance between the trivial and the weighty matters it. prefixed asterisks to those sayings which illustrate most effectively either the life of Cardan or his times. in order that we may put the right construction upon some of his half-wise. sometimes in a very striking way. they serve to illustrate. books on Consolation and on Wisdom. . we shall receive a very distinct notion of Jerome's personal character we shall see that he was at heart a gentleman as well as a philosopher. also. obviously riper much when he wrote them than it was when he wrote the Incidentally. and a man of the world according to the temper of the day in which he lived. The following selection from these precepts contains about one-fourth of the whole. I have retained the original form of the tract. and have endeavoured to retain also its exact spirit. discussed in The Preface and Conclusion have not these precepts been abbreviated. Comment upon would be impertinent . the chapter upon travelling.

CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. seek help from It is temerity to beg that God will do for us what we can do ourselves. Receive. although fortune does contribute something to chief part of it lies yet the in ourselves. as from God. to you. daily. * for Do not labour at interpretations of the sacred page. if. must keep his from vice. Chapter the First. Whoever would be taught spirit free of God. is they are manifold. or that you see the dead. Many. efforts are of no avail. know that they are deceived: for it. my sons. using His name only in reverence. ON THE WORSHIP OF GOD. Speak of Him seldom. being free. think that the chief part of happiness depends on fortune. and there all danger in that work.30 JEROME CARDAN. . * good that happens Do not believe that demons speak to you. if Give thanks to God you can. you would not become slaves. * Never swear to keep a secret. but never seek experience : upon the matter for many things lie hidden from our sight. When human God. his body free from grossness. " PREFACE. You will be- come better by doing so.

food should precede drink and exceed it. Next to God. or men in great power. wants * more than he ought Do not resist princes. ought to please him. begets lightning. princes Time governs end to time. Prefer water to wine. Passionate or jealous princes do not serve. or be silent. life. After these two. never fancy that you are forgiven. even though you are on the side of justice. Power joined to anger or sus- picion. . study most your way of lies for that at the beginning of all. and among wines prefer the white. Be content with food of one kind at a time. labour should precede food. * Never do what will displease a prince. 31 ON THE OBSERVANCE DUE TO PRINCES.CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. you must take thought of princes that offence. ON LIFE. lest you become gluttonous. Chapter the Second. you give them no Be gentle before them. such prac- is He who is pleased with more than to want. . Sleep should precede labour. If you have done * it. princes. Do tice not wilfully court princes or governors suspicious. Look for the Chapter the Third. govern men. or the populace. and do not live within their reach.

not eat mushrooms. take heed of the faith of those who bring the cup to you. ON JOURNEYS. and famine. for they spare few and slay many. or anything Do that grates upon the teeth . Hold hyacinth in your hand promote sleep and protect you against plague and Chapter the Fourth. think of the road and nothing else. a of a fine purple red.32 JEROME CARDAN. or walking through a town. for safety or for any useful purpose. snakes. plague. * Never spend it much time in a lonely inn. Dismiss * careful thoughts 1 when you to retire to bed. * Never take choice morsels from strangers. lightning. the original . * Never leave the public road except of necessity. * When you are on the road." 1 the mineral. * When you are invited to a feast. if you must go. Eat only twice a day. and only once of meat. or ride into at night. acting upon Or jacinth gem of Milton's " hyacinthine locks. * Never walk under the eaves of houses . many things may happen to you. Avoid war. * for Avoid travelling alone. and do not drink two kinds of wine. or without knowing whence they come. Never sleep all on feathers. or frogs.

Though nothing hinders you from knowing what can- not concern you. firm always obstinate never. do not seek to knowjk _ D /& H UFIVEB8IT1 . and happy. this rule. ON PRUDENCE IN GENERAL. Chapter the Sixth. Know that a good humour in an ill event bears half the weight of ill. . AND FIRST ON FORTITUDE. or stormy water in a boat. ON THE fair VIRTUES. men are worn down by cares. 33 falling have twice escaped being killed by *Do * not cross unexplored water on horseback. only by fortitude All virtues are we become like the immortal gods. I tiles. nothing secures happiness so much as prudence. ani- The mad dogs always go straight forward. Do not run your horse into deep water unless you are obliged.CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. or of wild mals. * Stand out of the way of running men. Chapter the Fifth. and honest. Live joyously when you are able . * Never associate with a stranger on the public road. What Be cannot be altered trouble yourself not about. Next to fortitude.

34 * JEROME CARDAN. Predict nothing uselessly. Joy Mourning . action. are imprudent. You words * . look his hand. never deliberate. which When Say the . Security Danger . Do not put faith in dreams . than of the preservation of it. especially because they are peculiar in our family. will know wise men by fools their works. not at his face. more be got than kept. is Fortune easily to * more easily to be found than got. not by their you may know you talk by both. Great prudence and better than great wit and little prudence. . at When with a bad or dishonest man. * It is more to prudent spend money usefully than to lay is it by. little among many words some wit * Never giggle. for more results come of the use of money. is There no necromancy : . Do not talk to other people of yourselves. but do not scorn them . Let your dress be clean and elegant. but never costly. laughter abounds in the little is mouth of fools. or your wife. it is better for is you that you put no faith in alchemy avoid what in bad repute. mind is perturbed. Familiarity Contempt. which is rest. your children. Four good mothers have begotten four bad sons Truth : Hatred .

* Remember love. is The care of a wife before the care for wealth. 35 Chapter the Seventh. Love children. that a family held together. but a good wife makes man happy. Take no wife from a witless family. she will not obey you once. Do not marry one who is quarrelsome. neither her. but give her counsel. A bad wife makes the rich the poor man wretched. parents and every member of the family love or turn out of doors. flatter your wife nor slight * A woman : left by herself thinks . D2 . you perpetuate sorrow by doing. Chapter the Eighth. too much caressed. Do not marry a woman without moderate possessions. ON PRUDENCE WITH REGARD is TO MEMBERS OF A HOUSEHOLD. ON PRUDENCE WITH REGARD TO A WIFE. .CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. not by fear or by * but by mutual respect. A woman loves or hates Never irritate she has no middle humour. suspects therefore take heed. honour brothers . or one infected by so a constitutional disease. Before other people. a wife.

for he is your own * Trust schoolmasters to teach your children. arithmetic.36 JEROME CARDAN. by the laborious exercise for payment of a difficult He who wishes to grow rich should undertake no journeys except for certainty of gain. never put faith in her as their accuser. Chapter the Ninth. Count your gold twice. Never display money or jewels. sometimes that profitable. if you do. Children chiefly follow the nature and constitution of their mother. ON PRUDENCE WITH REGARD TO WEALTH. Chapter the Tenth. as if he were legitimate. ON PRUDENCE TOWARDS CHILDREN. not to feed them. . and writing. art. Wealth comes by * by favour of princes. inheritance. art. * Educate a bastard blood. instruction in music. know- ledge of a useful good manners. * Never let your children have a stepmother . Do all not waste or despise wealth : it is the instrument of good. and ring it. weigh it. * You owe to your children agreeable names. Know how is to be mastered and to lose .

Much gold is got with little time and trouble. at the bidding of a relative or Speak only on compulsion of a an enemy's misfortune. * If necessary. bear with him or quit him. * Little gold is got in a long time 37 and with much labour. Have as many good friends you can . Chapter the Twelfth on Prudence in Business it from which " will suffice to quote one precept : Deeds are masculine and words are feminine. Be the best friends among yourselves. Chapter the Fourteenth. never of . Honours . ON PRUDENCE TOWARDS is PARENTS. if he has left trade. If he unjust. never Never desert a friend flatterer. BROTHERS. Chapter the Thirteenth. Letters are of the neuter gender. Love a just parent. AND RELATIONS." who children them victuals and the knowledge of a Chapter the Eleventh is on Prudence concerning . but before others quarrel. friend's crime. and give comfort. slip out of the tie of friendship.CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. has left his * Never complain of a father poor. break it. they strengthen reputation. ON PRUDENCE TOWARDS and neighbours as FRIENDS.

Put no trust in a red Lombard. who are wicked. talkative. morose. Contemn no man the whole man. you hate a man. Never talk about fairly to your enemies. blinking Tuscan. because hate * hardly to be hidden. never trust is him. a bearded woman. Avoid. those ON PRUDENCE IN SOCIETY. ON PRUDENCE TOWARDS ENEMIES. or too in- quisitive. calls you a sink of vices. or a Greek. Chapter the Sixteenth. Avoid nothing wickedly. a black German. envious. diligently avoid. not speak personally. enemies to Speak who hide their designs. given to laugh at others. . * Whoever calls you gambler. therefore. the company of the unfortunate. passionate. but through With enemies do messengers. a curly-pated man. proud.38 JEROME CARDAN. though only in secret. a thin Spaniard. even though you may intend If be revenged upon them. meddlesome. Do * not be querulous. for a bodily deformity the mind is . a lame Venetian. foolish. or ungrateful. * It is so much as men who speak well and act a part of happiness to mingle with the happy . Chapter the Fifteenth. a tall.

Ptolemy. : Cicero. Voyages Cario's to the Indies. Vesalius. : Virgil. Horace. : Aristotle. or while he is in bed. The misfortunes of others. but. but is putting down his precept.CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. and then a are to be Read. Galen. and so there made an exchange of gold In Poetry : for brass. and : Compendium. Avicenna. if more be taken. Theophrastus. do not seem to know. Suetonius." It is " chapter entitled What Books he remarkable that from this chapter he omits some of his own favourites. Delay Visit is 39 the handle to denial. Archimedes. Quintilian. Apollonius. if they do not tell you of them. In Mathematics truvius. Gesner. In Grammar In Rhetoric In History : Priscian. Vi- In Medicine : Hippocrates. because the life of man is long enough to read them in to . Argentonius. Pierre Bellon. Plu- . the Catiline of Sallust. Xenophon's Anabasis. some of these have is be left. Euclid. Rhases for his copiousness. is nobody while he eating. Plotinus. not his practice. " * These authors only are worthy to be read. Dioscorides. Plutarch's Lives. Homer. In Physics tarch." Then follows a short chapter on Wisdom.

not for money. Envy fear it. Stories of Boccacio. foes. The following are some of the remaining sentences: " Take care that you are better than you seem. so do not * Be more ready to help friends than to hurt * Play for relaxation. Polyphilus. become richer in information than you could otherwise be. Athenaeus . or else he differs little from a thief traitor. * To avoid falsehood wear truth as a habit." Chapters the nineteenth to the thirty-sixth and are very short. elegant composition. save buying. works of Pierre Bellon.40 Miscellaneous : JEROME CARDAK. occupy yourself only on worthy things. or amusement. Hieroglyphics of Pierius. and do not argue. last. * Never * lie. some of them containing in the original not more than a line or two. Beyond these you should not go . is to probity as shadow to the flesh . but circumvent. Mythology of Natalis. Pliny. . and want nothing in the much cost of book- way of solid learning. * Take heed that you never weaken a true cause with falsehoods. Crelius Rhodiginus. Thesaurus of the Latin lan- guage. Pausanias. Coelius Calcagninus. by using them you will economise your time. is A liar and either a fool.

" . he appends to them the following " CONCLUSION." How much Jerome himself had spent on them we : ought not to inquire many of the precepts here cited have been manifestly warnings to his children against doing that which he himself had done. or a good one. Do not spend upon animals more than a thousandth part of your income. to It is. his Having ended compendium of precepts. Never leave him road. much easier know these things than to do them. who observes them. is not necessary to hap- but he will be happy however. Observation of all these rules piness.CARDAN'S COUNSEL TO HIS CHILDREN. 41 loose Have no upon the * horse.

rich. and enmity. " What may of children? We are old and they are sick. much esteem we bearing envy . Then let be well cared 1 for. despised. and for the succeeding details. 975983. their exiles. where no other reference has been appended.42 JEROME CARDAN. There nothing that the parent it will suffers which he may not hope that child 1 not be suffered by his . Utilitate - De Ibid. p. 248.). poor. we to see amended in the child. and let ex Adyersis Capienda (ed. The whom parent no father ever was more fond. cit. pp. THERE is no fault in the parent. let her eat this and not eat that." first 2 joy of the parent said the philosopher. than . they grateful is among friends and in of home. they robust. and of we weak. the is first joy of the the mother when a child is to be born. MARVELS OF SCIENCE THE PROFESSORSHIP RESIGNED. that we may not hope we not hope young. . they sound. for the account of the six joys of parents in their children. said Cardan. CHAPTER FATHERLY AND HOUSEHOLD CARES III.

astrology. The second joy have some is when the child appears. still And as the fear in- creases. greater becomes the solicitude and watchful at once care. At once let it fine honey. But " it is first when infants first begin to use their feet that they become delightful. If they become frightened. structed in arithmetic and painting. first teeth appear. fear : for As the joy increases. but long is lactation a good thing Plotinus said to have been suckled until he was seven years old. memory and his With syllogisms cultivate his reason." ! Surely we have here an insight into Jerome's heart Let the young child.JOYS OF HOME. with a few grains of powdered hyacinth or emerald. but not be led to immerse himself in such pursuits. seu . says. and this is the third still joy of parents. 1 He should be taught also a good hand. Greek and Latin1 is The preceding summary taken from Cardan's Proxenata. her never lift 43 her arms over her head. cially to Let him be taught music. let tivate his When he about seven to cul- him be taught elements of geometry imagination. and espelet him be inplay upon stringed instruments . greater becomes the they are both one feeling. writing. and when he is older. It may be weaned when is the . let them be steadied by the helping nurse. so that he may ac- quire a taste for them. he further all ill. be shut out from is the sight or hearing of years old.

He should be placed under a . of a schoolmaster. de Prudentia Civili erutus. it is one Jerome thinks. the strictest temperance. master who is a married man1 and who. Ut.44 It is the fourth JEROME CARDAN. 2 Proxenata. ex Adv. p. He would encouand teach rage in boys the use of the most laborious games. however. Home must not be too the father must not be lost in the master. for these and the next details. . Elzevir. if it can be afforded. says that they should be entrusted to a severe cruel teacher. Elsewhere. he gives as one strong expres- sion of a general faith in the importance of rough training for a boy. joy of parents to see the mind expand within the growing child. in many passages. with hunger. and even who would train toil. in one place. discipline his creed assumes severe. and the hatred of the children only upon his head. 1 Liber recens in lucem protractus vel e tenebris : De Ludg. pp. Jerome. 1627. and subject them of home 2 . them up in familiarity with blows. them to regard nothing as more atrocious than the use of dice. that render the rich man of the morning the beggar of the night. 981. and firm in virtue. Bat. that the necessary whippings may come fall only from his hand. p. Cap. and use. 691 694. a milder aspect. should have charge only of a single family. The discipline should be severe. If children are to become well trained. to a sharp despotism outside the doors That. 695.

in vi fugere oportet verbera: nam etsi perficiant ex his. "Absint denique blanditiae omnes. above flatter. 696. 251. they are apt to turn out fools or rascals . * By nature. Again." 3 De Ut. he though by the aid of these the children may filled be made to learn. et Proxenata. The manner jests that mixed with All things must not pass the bounds of decency. more than and that in using force blows are to be avoided. yet. choose those masters 45 men for who both know how to teach and really wish to do it 1 . advises the philosopher. says. Cap. impleto cerebro lacrymali materia. but there train is nothing you would up good youths. taught merrily. " Meliores sunt in universum blanditiae yi. the task. ubi defecerit aetas. do not but reward him solidly is The expense of a good teacher better than to incur it if not light. Children should be trained to take written is taught them. Flatter not the pupils. may be . p. cit. except Greek and Latin3 And. he inclines most to believe that kindness in the teacher will do force.THE SCHOOLMASTER." . Adr. and sound. says Jerome. It is evident that he sways curiously between two opinions. stulti ant improbi evadunt. and to answer questions inof teaching should be pleasant. flatter 2. and shrank hoc velint: magnus enim "Eos eligas qui sciant docere. after all. not the teacher. 695. p. Eorum loco perpetua sint benefacta. For. tsediumque majus. Proxenata. for great are the weariness and labour that attend all. 4 p." * Loc. et maxime ab educatoribliB. the brain being with lacrymal 4 matter. et qui labor. notes of what stantly. Cardan was very kind.

691. risk all wealth. own actions while he remains obedient After the age of twenty. but not sooner. and dear to them is the hope that they will see their race continued. also. " whenever doubts arise. sixth joy of the parents is When a child marries. 696. p. p. 87. is good. his age had faith in the rod. and. he knew to be wholesome. With these fatherly reflections some astute sayings are train as students. for he must be watched over with anxious tenderness . His own children he meant to but he advised fathers. 3 . rather than risk the safety of our children3 . JEROME CARDAN. " A crudelitate fui semper Geniturarum Exemplar Ibid. p. finement.46 from cruelty 1 but ." says the father. 1555). Fear. All these constraints were to be put upon a son in love." to put out in the (ed. for then they may see him goto verning his themselves. and his reason succumbed to the opinions of Solomon. . and hunger useful to a boy. "we must though it were of a hundred thousand Spanish crowns." When fifth the son has attained the age of twenty comes the joy of his parents. by conkeeping down his passions and begetting sober ways . the complete. but not unless coupled with low diet2 . give daughters in marriage. mingled. 1 who had sons alienus. 2 Proxenata. Such thoughts disclose to us the vulnerable spot in the strong heart of the philosopher.

to watch over him. and really seemed like a shadow thrown before by the cala- mity. xxxvi. and that she believed him to be dying. and even tem- pers. There were fatherly dreams also. men and misers 1 . cap. had appeared at Gianbattista's at Milan. Aldo. The vision of the night had warned for energetic measures. p. He 3 administered an- was kept upon the stomach.A SON world. those who were ingenious with who had ingratiating ways. 694. 47 who were courteous and able should be active put with princes. and in three days was well Another dream3 was yet more curiously ominous. therefore. Jerome. if he would preserve him of necessity his child. . with the sons of rich men. those who were and laborious great with rich merchants. with people hating their kindred and the like. in the year 1547. 264. p. . whose wife had not then long been dead. Lib. He administered a powder composed of pearl and gems. those artificers. without delay. Cardan being then 1 Proxenata. dreamt that there remained to him but a single son. this. that his eyes were distorted. 3 9 De Vita Synesiorum Somniorum Propria. as fellow-pupils. other. convulsed. It It acted as an emetic. that those ILL. He ran home. The boy slept. One night. of which a portent birth. In the year 1550. In the morning he went out thinking of pursued by the nurse. with old especially. and was was who told him that his son. perspired.

she asked him for five masses . replied to him only with sad looks and silence. that his soon fell off. Lucia remain- ing. he dreamt that he had married a second wife. her to be living. five in it one day in May. willing to be touched. quoting even. and frequently warned fathers against them. who stood by. because he feared and it import. he thought and had died. when he had dropped asleep. That phantom was the only second wife taken by the philosopher. the harsh line Lurida terribiles miscent aconita noyercae. stood his eldest son And lo ! ! between the two dead women They had between them Gianbattista. Then it appeared to him also mother came to them. label and having touched him. He did not marry again in the The second wife of his dream having disappeared speedily. whom he knew to be dead. its which he bore unwillingly. and was reproaching Lucia with the fact that his new wife was quieter than she had been. between the hours of three and the afternoon.48 JEROME CARDAN. because happened to be Sunday. ten years before his wife. fastened a on his forehead. then she touched him. and although she was dead. in one place. flesh. The new wife soon disappeared. who held stepmothers in dread. Lucia. would take her son away with her into the . a youth of sixteen. but as he had been when he was that Lucia a child of seven years old. indeed. Jerome feared not as he then was. and Lucia re- maining.

that she whom he thought would hold him by the to hand'. He gives minute directions for the management of servants. The good servant carries is fire a straight line before him. Two mass of or three facts detail may be here set down out of a large 1 concerning household economy contained in Cardan's works. Great watch to be kept over 1 These domestic details are chiefly taken from chapters xxxviii. VOL. is nothing needing so much care in a household as nothing that will grow so imso it moderately when it is not wanted. to be alive. Then he turned Lucia and besought her not to touch the child. of Proxenata (pp. they must not be struck or treated as if they were A man's nurse to be regarded with as much reA bad servant may be at once known spect as a superior. 155 199). and xxxix. shades. he to be in regarded with distrust. or fall into ashes A servant who carries perversely when it is required. entitled respectively. Cap. A few facts among them are extracted from the fourth book De Ut. 49 and he entreated. There fire. If he hold it at is his side.AN EVIL DREAM. ex Ady. Res Domesticaet ejus Conservatio: GEconomica distributio et Praecepta. therefore. E . She did not. II. occasionally looking at it as he goes. She bade him be of good cheer. by his carrying of fire. At last they departed. of Clara. slaves. and the boy was forced away from his father by one of the women over a small bridge. is but when they have grown up. Boys who are to be preferred may be corrected by the stick. behind him is to be dismissed at once.

is It is a common thing for servants. four measures of victual seventeen farthings. Tlie practice usual in cardinals' houses of lockis ing them in from the outside after dark. hearts. if one should be ill inconvenient. in the night. the household together sud- and each take a tremendous oath. for assistance. as he swears. when their food given out. if one has three or four good servants. none can go out is difficult. and. to make good their claim. to simulate an extraordinary appetite. because. in con- secration of his vow. There should be . JEROME CARDAN.50 servants. escape Jerome recommends systems of dissimulation and espial. denly. or take The usual daily allowance for a servant flat two pounds of bread. and sell out of doors. but there is need to take care that the vessels is used do not corrupt the food that put into them. after eating for two or three days a very large allowance. by the adoption of which any man suspected of secret ill-doing may be let tricked into betrayal of himself. involving if death upon himself within twelve months. and for other Frangible vessels in a household must be left to princes. to some one watch while they are eating. the thief will be dehis heart. but to prevent theft. wine. call Has anything been stolen. or in case of accident. set it by what is it given to them to their sweetis in excess. in so doing. let tected by the movement of It is well. Make a sign upon each man's breast. not to stint them. he be guilty.

he Since it is very customary to it steal linen at recommends that corner. use might boards He had in his study four locked cupbills one for literary papers. one for the courtesies and compliments of and one for waste. he advises the addition of two small and apparently accidental marks each piece. them. Now. be marked very distinctly in one and since that mark may by chance be obliterated. two wine-cellars. and a false accusation might thereupon be brought against the laundress. It was thought prudent by Jerome that men should all keep not only their own papers. even sheets of empty words and begging arise. of which he gives a picture. therefore. one for and papers touching upon money life. for Jerome gives a diagram in explanation of his meaning.HOUSEKEEPING. the wash. but to writings addressed letters. There are as it may be facts guessed from the character of these examples few connected with the social history of Italy in the sixteenth century of which illustrations are not to be found in Cardan's works. we have come back to the physician's E2 . and also a contrivance. for the more effectual securing of a bedroom door. affairs. Jerome init vented a lock that would betray any one who opened by stealth. there being to each lock a duplicate key. The practice upon some other portion of of marking linen probably was then not general. 51 and everything should be kept locked.

value. also fourthly. but on his return he had brought home with him a work that had he wrote the been written on his journey to and fro.52 study. Tom. Some of the works not yet specified as having been written between the years 1546 and 1552 may be menit tioned briefly 1 said that . first. namely. and. . . but as they con- De Libris Propriis. JEROME CARDAN. now They are as much extinct as the megatherium. 72. is the au- thority until another reference occurs. in particular trades. in the case of old thirdly." it is Of the Commentaries on Hippocrates and Galen. Opera. 71. in the case of diseased people . ult. and an Italian popular treatise meant to be both instructive and amusing. although the author himself rested his hope of fame chiefly upon them. i. and would about twenty-five volumes of the magnitude of that in the reader's hand. secondly. After his return from Genoa little has been book of Precepts. of subjects. " De le Burle Calde. Afterwards he wrote all sorts ten books of explained problems upon classified. and there arises a fit opportunity for giving some additional account of the pen work done by him during these years of his professorship at Pavia. pp. In his day they were valuable. four in the case of books on the Preservation of Health young and healthy people people . fossil and they 1 still have a kind of Lib. to say that they enough form about an eighth part of the fill whole mass of Cardan's published writings.

1 . . and dances time . the one concerning which Cardan himself would most wish a biographer to speak Metoposcopy self. Apud Thomam Jolly. being an account of the various musical instru- ments then commonly in valuable work. was at the time a respects original ." it eiconibus complexa. rhythms. This. too. fully. . Libris et xiii.METOPOSCOPY. is that upon a kind of physiognomy invented by him- or rather amplified so largely from a few existing hints. but lines that science concerned chiefly with the not the furrows 1 upon the forehead. mode of composing songs and counterpoint the fifth was on the structure and use of in- struments. to state their bulk. 1658. books. from are taken the succeeding state- ments. the study of is them is a part of Metoposcopy. That was the Lutetia first pub- lished edition of the book. own the fourth of the . it is any biographical not requisite to speak more of them here. choruses. many it may be on were one or two Italian tracts music left among his writings. hymns. tain little matter that has 53 interest. five It is enough The work on Music was divided into . octingentis faciei huraanae Parisiorum. The first treated of general rules and principles the third of the music of the writer's the second of ancient music. Of the works hitherto undescribed. and in said also that there use. as to rank practically as a new invention. There are fine lines upon "HieronimiCardani Medici Mediolanensis Metoposcopia. Melam- podius had written upon the mysteries of warts upon the face .

but had gone well then the professor's salary of two hundred and forty gold crowns being again stopped by the troubles. the direction. illustrated with a great number of plates. cap. Metoposcopia. iv.54 JEROME CARDAN. horizontally across the whole forehead. . one above another. it is necessary for the metopos- copist to observe the position. colour. that it to say. 6. The signification of 2 De Vita Propria. Until that year all at Milan in the year in Pavia. Venus. but it was not until one first hundred and eight years afterward that they were partially made public by a bookseller in Paris. the forehead as there are Jerome applied eluci- Astrology in a minute and systematic way to the dation of them. beginning close over the eyes. Mars. During the vacation year 1550. when the subject of has not broken fast 3 as The forehead was as the mapped out by Cardan an astrologer. lines Of and upon the forehead. then. p. 1 Saturn. . . in the morning. Seven lines drawn at equal distances. Moon. upon the hand . A few words will explain the nature of the science. length. he remained in Milan1 In the succeeding year he resumed his lectures. indicate respectively the regions of the the Sun. Cardan wrote thirteen books of Metoposcopy. This important work was written 1550. Mercury. Jupiter. and the observation is is to be taken at a proper time. much head has been since mapped out by Gall as a phrenologist.

on the left. he discovers has a such a combination to betray. betokens that she like is to die by A waving line. so that begins in the region of Mars. Ibid. already discussed. strenuous. women all marriage and in lent for a It is also excel- man to have a perpendicular line running from line not quite the nose half-way up to form a T.AN ASTROLOGER ON FOREHEADS. Jerome presents head after head. by his system. . but it the same line be crooked. in the region of the Sun. 3 Ibid. straight line Thus. p. violence 2 . and a . Hogarth's line of beauty. 34. and forehead reading thus philosophically allied to the science of palmistry. p. p. if a woman running horizontally across the forehead. chandise. and noble victor in all his undertakings. each planet is 55 is always the same. p. and under each writes the character and fortune which. marked upon the forehead with every combination of lines that had occurred to him. 4 Ibid. and ends on the right hand. with a it horizontal. He will be brave. woman Conform with such lines will be generous and fortunate 4 figurations that by no means - flatter their possessor 1 Metoposcopia. just in the region of above the middle fortunate in if life. over one eye to the possessor in the region of the Moon assures good fortune upon water and in merwith this line will be fortunate in their undertakings 3 . 33. 37. Mars she will be and get the better of her husband1 . but running obliquely. 11.

navel. which in other books was made same principles the meaning of lines upon the knee. and that she is destined to a left wretched end cheek. by building one false science Astrology based upon astronomical observations based upon truth had in it some tangible matter error based but Metoposcopy based upon Astrology error is upon one of the most unsubstantial speculations that built was ever up by a scientific man. a most atrocious monster. A woman with a wart upon her is little to the left of where the dimple or should be. 1557). 188. between the eyes. The books on years at Pavia. let be enough to has a wart at add concerning warts. shortly 3 . on the The published work is but a fragment of the entire to explain treatise. p. that a woman who is the root of the nose. but I cite none of these. 2 3 De Libris . arm. in part. afterwards. a 1 . it the majority. they being discussed and illustrated as lines 3 upon the forehead . Subtilty occupied Cardan during three and were. and foot. minutely as the result obtained Such was the on another. Propriis (ed. guilty or capable of the worst crimes that a foul imagination can conceive. at Paris. in the year 155 1 They acquired great popularity.56 JEROME CARDAN. " Hieronimi Cardani Medici Mediolanensis De Subtilitate. will be eventually poisoned by her husband. more fully. and * Metoposcopia. error . Libri xxi. first published at Nuremberg.

Op. for this account of the first conception of the work. something besides ourselves1 . compared with statements in De Lib. 71.Tom. he says. . not only was writing by day among his other labours. and for three years. written in the most delight- not without some agreeable obscurity. There is something within us. He began then to write it it. Eerrandum Gonzagam Mediolanensis ProApud Jacobum Dupuys. wherein all there were revealed the secrets of the world about him. Lib.p. Parisiis. and he derived such pleasure from the contemplation of this book.THE BOOKS ON SUBTILTY. little and about geometry. p. 299. commenting on such a dream. all In it was made clear whatever was dark in the sciences. This is the edition cited in succeeding references. De Subtilitate. and he could not hope to make a mortal work so perfect as the one of which he dreamed. i. and he remembered even its form and plan. Lib. wherein appeared to him that he saw a book in treatises. 1551. we are told. 1 ult." Dupuys emblem and sign " The Samaritan Woman. and the idea of his own name. Then there arose in it him a great desire to write such a book. Prop. were soon reprinted at 57 Lyons and at Basle. containing various the middle a ful style. xviii. that when he was awake the delight abided with him. twenty-one parts. These books." that Scrip- ture subject being chosen because it introduced the image of a well. were first suggested to their author in a it dream. Ad had Illustrem Principem for his vincise Praefectum. though that he was larger and more ambitious than any had yet attempted.

58 but also often JEROME CARDAN. printed. which was to take a comprehensive and philosophical survey of nature according. or his acquired knowledge as a philosopher. to point out. He saw in dreams its title. With these works Jerome took great pains. to describe the circle of the sciences. of course. number of the books. . and seeing the it in dreams by night. When it really it was first printed at treatise Nuremberg on Subtilty he never dreamt of again. the subtle truths which underlie the wonderful variety of things which fill the universe . and the two together very "perfectly fulfilled his purpose. eorumque Usn. It was repeatedly rewritten and remodelled. that on the Variety of Things cost him more trouble than anything he ever undertook. to the philosophy of his own century. to the elucidation of them. Dreams had stimulated him also. larger than his own. to the production of that treatise The object of both was the same. reading it. and (expressing each by those of its difficult facts which were most of comprehension) to apply his wit." It was published six years later. The was followed up in the same vein by another upon the 1 Variety of Things . and by another author. as well as he could. 1 The books five or " De Varietate Berum. and many parts of it were transferred into the books on Subtilty. He dreamt that was and that there were two or three copies in town an admirable work. and it the order of their contents.

p. DeLibrisPropriis. was building his own furnace at Saintes with bleeding hands. Jerome's quick wit the reader may have itself to was ready to apply any topic ranging between speculation on the Cosmos and the management of washerwomen. Aristotle. on Subtilty were so exact in their method very 59 as to exclude many topics for which there was room found in the is other treatise.CAKDAN AND PALISSY. knowledge current in his time and his neighbours taught above the level of the philosophers. rise His generalisations upon nature do not. 1 Cardan's fame as an author was ult. applications life. 74. common as to the raising of sunken the cure of smoky chimneys. Opera. as writing ink and such matters. Lib. Palissy knew more truth about those ways of nature that he had observed than had been perceived by all Aristotle. or than was taught by the learned of that century I might almost add of the next. was not often to good purpose. which to be taken as the sequel or appendix to it 1 . however. Tom. Bernard Palissy. the manufacture of for. perceived. . of whom crisis the world then knew nothing. Pliny. i. of knowledge to vessels. and contain many isolated specimens of ingenuity. These productions attained great popularity. The poor potter. learnt among He from what they had . at the of his fate. while Cardan wrote upon subtilty at Pavia. and who. and Theophrastus it where they differed from such guides.

of which. prodiere. ii. Prop. In the work on Subtilty. it. 79. it whatever he wrote was sought eagerly. Palissy.60 at its height JEROME CARDAN. but with difficulty compreThen he treats of matter which he supposed as to we suppose now 1 be composed of ultimate parts. was in the copied. 173. et seq. world witnessed Scaliger's attack upon weak. true and philo- sophical opinions. or Cardan himself. statim in " Cum primum in publicum omnium manibus esse eceperunt: et tot eruditorum testimonio comprobari: ut nesciam an in propriis an in alienis libris nostra magis leguntur. pp. and another All the into the hands of Julius Caesar Scaliger. or hended 3 . in a thick book. scholastic. and of the resulting controversy. and was so much quoted and " I do not that he says: in know whether I was most read my own it 1 works. upon such subjects. which not only pointed out the incorrectness of his theory concern- ing mountains and the structure of the globe. trivial. or in the works of other people . minute." De Lib." . intelligi- "Est Subtilitas ratio qusedam. p. we shall hereafter be compelled to speak. probably. when his work on Subtilty appeared at Paris. 2 See the Life of Bernard Palissy of Saintes." A copy of fell was obtained by Bernard Palissy 2 . never heard of saw the few sentences written in nervous French. 3 vol. but for the first time promulgated. Cardan subtle things as those intelligible at the outset defines which are sensible by the senses. by the intellect. hands of all men. difficile bilia ab intellectu qua sensibilia a sensibus comprehenduntur.

the book passes on to the description of a few mechanical contrivances of a wonderful lamp. earth. heat breeds putridity. in that part of Cardan's work to which i Compare the statements in book i. 61 hard and eternal. siphons. Its first discoverer was Bernard Palissy. He endeavours why why to explain why fire can be struck out of a stone. is He teaches that . and destroyed six men. many sources.ELEMENTS ORIGIN OF SPRINGS. because nothing treats further of fire. He treats of air. but the The true theory of springs. In their creation the Divine Being has produced. pumps. scales. and water it. levers. of the origin of rivers.Saints' procession. Of the earth. as one burst at Pavia during the All. he says. as of most other processes of nature. out of which things have been created according to their form and nature. dryness and moisture. " Divina igitur sapientia in unoquoque fecit optimum quod ex tali materia poterat excogitari. and so forth. of tides. Having discussed matter and first princi- ples. He how of lightning. produced out of artillery. a string will not burn when it' is tied round an egg. of shows to know those cannons that will burst." . was unknown to him. they have. he says. the best combi- nation that was possible of an existing material. cold and heat. eternal like Himself 1 . Jerome's contrivance for the raising of sunk vessels. fire he excludes. there are but three elements. air. with the dictum in book xi. chief is air converted into water. of the cause of plague.

but stones. being agitated by frequent movements. origin is still . ii. besides that they also for the most part grow. we find it Palissy directly alludes." The notion that earth taken from stone leaves mountain. and gives birth to mountains as to pimples rising from a body. left most natural and common. and the earth do not decay. 2 quam ccelurn quiescere. round and in the middle of the world these things are demonstrated by mathematics. less whence happens that stones. rotunda atque medio mundi: hsec autem a mathematicis demonstrantur. hereafter 2 itself decays . all mountains are more or composed of soil is Their height above the surrounding eaten because the fields are daily down by as the rains. that " the earth : entirely stable. we shall show . they are the stones after the material of the earth has been washed away by running valley.62 JEROME CARDAN. that a Salisbury Plain would be a of Salisbury. is stated. " Terra toto stabilis est. from its 1 For the whole earth is no more able to stir place than the heavens are able to stand " their says. up by the winds. ." Ibid. p. for the water of a stream descends into the itself rises and the stony mountain it from the valley. p. near the lake is Averno r in the Terra Lavoro is or their soil heaped . he threefold. water. . Mount and only the 1 De Subtil. which what is often the case in Africa or. which case is the with a mountain called di La Nova." And of mountains. Either the earth swells. Lib. 59. Nee enim plus tota terra loco mover! potest. if all the soil were taken out it. 60.

inquiring why it is that. The . From the points which his learning ended in each separate direction he In mathematics he was left endeavoured to go on. No man so of his time knew so much that had been taught about at many things. parhelia . being that the earth was Of the heavens. sea. with other science of the same kind. He had no taste at all for revolutionary work. except in that medicine. 63 was so far curious. In other sciences he took all was taught with a few quiet modifications. comets. dis- cussing burning glasses. commonly with wrong and he went on into Metoposcopy and other nonsense. mirrors in which future or distant objects are revealed. giving a right reason for the twinkling of the fixed stars. and he made a great and real advance . There were seven reasons then current. and that formed the body of his learning. the stars. inquiring into the composition of stars. as learning that was not to be disturbed. one of them lifted stars. but as it was the orthodox belief. and the work next treated.ORIGIN OP MOUNTAINS. it passed into Cardan's mind. rainbows. moon and stars seem to go with us. in the natural sciences he was his face turned in placed the by his learning direction. shadows . stones left. proceeded to consider why the earth is higher than the and held up by the and light. the soul of the universe. The philosopher having discussed the subject of moun- tains. when we travel. with his face turned in the right direction.

p. i. in his sixth book. of course without any idea of electricity. first There was a good deal of correct knowledge then afloat concerning optical laws. own One of them.64 book upon Light curate in its JEROME CAKDAN. He attributes the phenomenon to the fatness and warmth inherent in the constitution of the amber. Guerini. and using some of the knowledge that he formerly obtained from his friend the jeweller. studied the subject. and describes three remarkable agates in his possession. is. treatise next passes to substances compounded of the elements. point- ing out how to tell those that are false. He treats also of the properties of gems. such as the belief that trees emit when the end of a rainbow rests upon them. earths and gems. inquiring. He then. it philosophy. . to metallic substances. and by its aid Jerome was ready to correct some popular sweet odour errors. separate existence. He knew The that rainbows belong to the eye. more than usually acJerome's father had. and been the of Archbishop Peckham's Perspective 1 . and in the seventh book of stones and gems. and have not out of the eye a substantial. on the whole. treats in detail of the seven metals. which he had found to display its great virtue in promoting sleep. 4. why amber attracts straws and other light substances. had incorporated in substance a profile nearly resembling that of the 1 Emperor Vol. among other things. may be editor remembered.

No wonder. and of their propagation. Cardan quotes Joannes Leo. not renowned than was the Milesian in the days of Virgil. p. when there it is is no poisonous animal in only by the fox. 466. and by edition. and recopied into VOL. treating of the power of warmth as a principle of life. will understand and answer questions for a quarter of an hour. wool. II. was added in a subsequent Tom. GENERATION FROM PUTRIDITY. and in this is contained. The next book treats of perfect animals. over which quicklime has been scattered. " Now. " is Britannia famous for her therefore.GEMS Galba1 . under the head less of sheep. from that of horses wasps. 65 is He which here reproduced. the praise of English wool. Egypt the executioner and that the upper half being then placed upon a hearth. who related that in cuts criminals in half. gives a fac-simile thereof." says Jerome. and hornets out of mules. F . the ninth treats of the animals generated from putridity. The eighth book is botanical. iii. the country. how from the putrid matter of oxen we get bees. this In book. and 1 infested now The figure the works.

Nee mirum cum nee infestum prseter vulpem olim et lupum. but even the wolves terminated. The nature and temper of man is discussed in the next book. the wolf formerly. if you would have black-eyed children. 192. and the which cannot deceive but are deceived. Lib. to a Men who . omni alio potu arcentur. There no serpents on account of " the immense cold. rore coeli sitim sedant greges. He adds that the moist grass of Eng- land is quite full of worms. because the waters of the land are 1 deadly to them . the human. . which neither deceive nor are deceived deceived . ab De Subtilitate." Then he goes on to state thirst how the sheep in England slake their are deprived of every upon the dews of heaven. p. and other kind of drink. shows how. of his form. treats of education. imo vellcre est. The same book treats of man's religion. x. you must entrust them to a black-eyed n/urse. is full and assigns that as the reason why are the air of crows that feed upon them. he says the divine. There are three kinds of men. . nune vero exterminates etiam lupis.66 JEROME CARDAN." From book to other animals the philosopher rises in the next man and the creation of him. and the proportion between different parts of the human body. which deceive but are not belluine. all now being ex- the flocks wander in safety. 1 Cardan inquires why chil- " Ergo nunc Britannia inclyta nullum animal venenatum mittat. quod aquae ibi ovibus sint exitiales." &c. deceive and are deceived belong compound sort they are part human and part belluine. tuto pecus vagatur.

246. The sense of smell suggests the question. to a survey of his wisdom his faculties. why is it that are is men more also who smell well rarely are far-sighted ? and ingenious than other people In this chapter explained fall why is people who have sharp eyes are slow to in love. F2 . and by a just connexion with the main also subject there room found for an inquiry why thorns birds grow with roses." De Suspitio vero timor est parvus." et timore. and what we delight in it. From and the senses of man the theme rises to a considera- tion of his soul his passions and and intellect. is shadow of princes the cap of fools. just as Audacity through a vast Hope It needs not to be said that all former chapters of the work good sayings have as for instance. is a little Fear. as that Bashfulness consists of Hope and Fear . including an artificial and a passive memory. 67 why the drinking of potable gold touches upon the admiration of beauty among Senses reason other things. perhaps.THE SHEEP OF BRITAIN. and for instructions how to catch and fish. Here we meet with a few shrewd definitions. velut Subtil. The sense of hearing suggests a discussion upon hydraulic organs and upon music. from the ver* r "Verecundia ex spe constat est." "Invidia vero odium audacia spes tenue " maxima. Envy is a thin Hate. that the been scattered. p. and how to keep flies from horses. dren resemble parents. procures long life. and in the next book upon the for proceeds to inquire what beauty is. is Suspicion 1 . a proverb taken.

treats of who vexed Angels and treasure-hunters. upon Here occurs the dog held is consideration in a man's why is it that the eye of a black all hand hinders dogs in his neighbourhood to from barking. wheels. JEROME CARDAN. last. in which book are explained a method of writing in cipher. and screws. especially geometry and music. is The nineteenth book upon Demons. scientific expositions upon pulleys. The sixteenth is upon Sciences. and a method of telegraphing and of talking by the use of torches. and how useful such an eye must be thieves. many witnesses a very nice but very just distinc- The fifteenth book upon Subtilty discusses miscellaneous curiosities. into the headache given. and includes an exposition of the signs of the weather.68 nacular. and for their truth. . also. a method of fortifying a town. Here is a place also for the narration of dreams. who is . and that it needs more courage and impudence to deny a falsehood attested by a great number of witnesses. It contains. which is There a special inquiry Telchinnes. The next book giving their names. is The next book Marvels one of them rope-dancing. The twenty-first and in- of the Universe and the Divine Being. and one the author has found useful. charms are discussed. it is false. The next book is upon Arts and Mechanical Contrivances. subterranean demons. than to sustain a truth against which so declare that tion. Intelligences.

cujus imperium nullis finitur limitibus. to whom owe all truth that is here written : pardon in me the errors which my ambition and my rashness and my haste have bred. me velut terras vermem in umbra scientise direxisti. Cum vero tu nullis indigeas. I pay to Thee incessant thanks for the innumerable benefits that I at have received Thy hands. claritas infinita. by whose nod all things are moved. all to Thyself only. " cujus sapientia omnem unus atque incomparabilis. and all heavenly powers. . one and incom- whom there is nothing. the sea and earth. est infinite clearness. cujus nutu cuncta moventur. guide me to better things. gratias perpetuas pro innumeris erga me beneficiis ago. quod maria terraque faciunt. qui excedit cogitationem.ONWARD AND UPWARD. therefore." The work 1 described in this brief summary was in its Tu igitur altissime Deus. quod cseli. and by illuminating my mind out of Thine unwearied goodness. cui quicquid veri hie scriptum est debeo: errores. whose empire has no bounds. who hast led me as a worm I of the earth under the shadow of knowledge. and I can add nothing all Heaven. out of thought. whose wisdom exceeds parable. totus in teipso. extra quera nihil est. aquoomnia bonaprofluunt. pro tua indefessa liberali- tate ad meliora dirige. mentemque meam illuminando. complete in Thyself." addere possim. tibi soli notus. nee quicquam caelorumque potestates. Most High God. ignosce mihi. solus vere aeternus. temeritasque ac celeritas pepererunt. 69 : voked thus by the philosopher in his concluding sentences " Thou. And though Thou needest to the voice of nothing. ambitio mea. universaeque ipsius mundi partes. and 1 the corners of the world . qui solus lumen verum praebes. who alone known affbrd- the true light. from whom all good things flow.

81. Tom. 72. cap. ult. Libris Propriis.. cap. Ferrante governor of Gonzaga. stayed In 1550. and his professorship was not assumed again for eight whole years. and being very entertaining. she had not touched. to please the public. Jerome. was extremely popular. for this story of the cat's conduct 3 and 4 De consequences. ult. as be- away from Pavia because the his salary. Op. ? Who can doubt what followed At the end of the year. but there satisfy the wise 1 . his lectures ceased. but a cat of the most placid character having been tiles left at home one day. xii. fulfilled. Ibid. and tore them upon the house-top. 2 De Vita Propria. dragged out upon the some of his written lectures (written after delivery. it was of a kind. whom he praises most for a late negotiation which he had conducted. were other of his writings more likely to These Twenty-one Books upon Subtilty citizen to the were dedicated by the prudent his province. His reason 1 for retirement4 was again the turmoil in the i. i. he said. p. university was unable to pay In the succeeding year he 2 again lectured there. and which had justified some hope of peace. Tom. De its Libris Propr. The hope was not fore said. "Gallorege . Lib. time regarded as a monument of wisdom. xxxvii.70 JEROME CARDAN. to her The book upon Fate. Jerome himself did relied not count it among the works upon which he most for immortality. p. which lay more ready ckws. quite unexpectedly. he taught extemporaneously 3 ). Lib.

one of them there died out of the senate two presidents the Cardinal Sfondrato who had been friendly to Cardan. p. did. It proved . Jerome has substance a sketch in an essay on his horoscope 1 it is of here stated. and safer. Elvetii. 50. and in securing for left who had The assisted him the professorship at Pavia. .to be well there that he did so. all and Turkey were convulsed. had been thirty. survive their father. were no salaries paid in the year after he and moreover. Of the Cardinal Sfondrato. and become the father of two eight-month boys. It was by care of one of them that Cardan earned his friendship. professor of civil law in after a Pavia at the age of called. He had begun life as a private man." The other considerations connected with the same subject form the continuation of the passage.) When urgente commotaest Italia. . it thinking better so to do. to whose friendship Jerome for had been much indebted the recognition that he ob- tained from the Milanese physicians. Omnibus ergo ad interitum spectantibus deserui legend! munus. Turcae. perils. and while men were awaiting ruin. Switzerland. He had married. Italy. 1 Geniturarum Exemplar. (One the boys became a pope. They together with of four girls. quod etiam tutius esset. whose lives were preserved with difficulty. he abandoned his professorship. district.to the senate and few years had been by Francisco Sforza.DEATH OF SFONDKATO. 71 The King of France was pressing with war. to and who had been accustomed watch over his interests. melius esse ratus. after all. Duke of Milan. for Pavia was in the midst of left.

He was passionate and fate. that some. for large sums. In business he was cautious. ordained a bishop. as we have seen. In addition to the motives that have been assigned. directly afterwards he became arch- bishop and cardinal. Cardan had other reasons Pavia. and he was appointed. and he died in the summer following of a weary disease. of He believed in and in the he had often which he testified that found them true. and obtained from the townspeople a good-will that had not been earned position. V. had written a great body matter. Sortes VirgiliancB. and that. When Pope Paul III. by others in the same In the year 1544 he went to Rome and was died at the his successor. became a Duke of Milan. pru- prompt and too. erudition. end of the year 1549. he was almost elected He was then to poison. successful. attributed He was a big man. joyously disposed. Sfondrato had been made member of the secret council.72 Charles JEROME CARDAN. He delighted in gambling. of course. he had recalled his mind thoroughly to the 'pursuit of of professional physician. not without wisdom and dent. frank-looking. fifty-six years old. In the year 1541 his wife died. elegant. medicine. governor of Sienna. tall. fat and rubicund. genial. as a for retiring from his post at He considered that he had attained his end professor. somewhat prejudiced. There he remained eighteen months. and had obtained fame as a also He had completed the university edu- .

pro- bable that he was coward enough to desire a quiet and safe place in which to enjoy the was set. abandoned to Milan. any go to France and try the ground I do not know from motives. rate to He may have desired there. he had meant to go to France. went Rome and practised Gian Battista had only go through the requifor site formalities which should obtain him admission into the profession. 73 relative. at the 1551. 1 . 1 De Vita Propria. perhaps. at and. then. there was chance that he had for home. and of the young him. . his professorship in end of the year Pavia and went It is not intending to remain there. by retiring from a profitless and dangerous post. therefore.PAVIA QUITTED. even if he had no business to take him thither Having that design. life the most and to increase and yet fame by assiduity in more firmly writing. p. Jerome. 18. who studied with finally Gaspar having ob- his degree. Cardan. cation of his eldest son. to to Gaspar. to establish his great "With these hopes. hoped to indulge himself with what seemed to be at that stage of his desirable thing literary leisure. There might be peace him in Paris. literary leisure upon which his heart and as the King of France sent war out none at into other countries. tained physic. his own telling that he was actuated by these He himself says no more than that. he went back to Milan. prosperity. after quit- ting Pavia.

. who talked in a most edifying way the science of his time.74 JEROME CARDAN. BY the end of November in the same year a letter 1 It reached Cardan through the hands of merchants. Cassanate's composition. by the omission of a few masses of it surplus ver- biage. the messenger by whom it was despatched having been hindered in his progress through a country thoroughly confused with war. must now form a portion of this narrative. This epistle contained matters of importance. however. and seems to have been a I have perfect master of the ponderous scholastic style. and no reader would have patience. CARDAN'S JOURNEY TO PARIS. active literary De The letter itself is given in the work. for the whole of Dr. shortened. CHAPTER IV. How man same great 1 would be the consternation of an Libris Propriis (1557). not space here. and extends there from page 159 to page 175. and came from a brother physician. had been about two months upon the road.

whence there between them love or friend- is nothing more to be loved than virtue. I think me. JNTevertheless it this kind is broken. sympathy and a similitude of disposition. that the best basis of friendship . but by whom you have delightful friendship is been diligently studied. a faith in character because it is the property of virtue to conciliate to itself the its lies minds of men. pleasantness of studies. and extends her light. To that friendship seems to contribute not little to the life. she enters to it. which is induced by a similitude of For nothing excites more desire than likeness to and there is no claimant more ready than nature. To many the source of the most a certain others. customs also vary. a " it right to give the reason of this letter to man unknown to you from you indeed. ship. is and commerce. nothing that more attracts men into friendship. happens easily that the web of friendship of Especially when together with educa- tion. For in her the fitness of things. and to unite them in service and in friendship with each other. language. and by what recommendation friendship comes to us from strangers. and has seen and recognised the same light in another.A LONG LETTER FROM SCOTLAND. "Whence we see that there . in her is constancy. most learned man. oneself. similarity then easily be changed into a cause of differmay I think with Cicero. or hard-working physician in our 75 should own day who ! receive a business letter such as this " Health to you. in her lies their stability. and when she goes abroad. Since it is " important in all new conjunctions of events. to understand how they arose. and in turn 'receives into herself that which was arises in another. of study ence.

and not and erudition. by a legal friend. " "Wherefore. in whom there is no work.' have seen only the Books on "Wisdom and upon Subtilty. by whom life is evidently spent on honourable and great matters. that (what is more) we even love her in an enemy. " result of out of the so numerous and important writings. in Scotland. very studious of the humaner letters but the books on Subtilty were given to me . and in doing service to the State. or by them freely given. when I practised medicine at Toulouse. We elevate and bring our highest praise to those in ceive excellent think that we perthose virtues. care. those So that on account of their virtue and probity we even love whom we have not seen. These alone out of so many are in my possession . of which you have edited a cata' logue in your book De Libris Propriis. or dangerous.76 JEROME CARDAN. The last were given to me in the year 1549. the immense labour. labours. whose virtue and whose studies are whom we and rare fruitful to others. that if I did not . but to themselves laborious. by the same friend in this year 1551. In which respect you have as much less great genius surpassed the multitude by your very great fame. So much even he well knows who has admired but the least of your lion many monuments and his claw. no industry. from the reading of which there has proceeded so great a desire for the reading of the rest. which were published with the books on "Wisdom. useless by as much as we despise those men who are to themselves or others. for I estimate the by I. with those upon Consolation.will those who have excelled in benefiting their own race. where I am now practising. and so great is virtue's force. as you have bound to yourself students of many arts by your unwearied zeal in writing. no so it is our common usage in life to extol to the skies with fame and good.

away from the art no step could be made. and that soon. despaired of for ages. the most practised industry and the extreme acuteness of judgment in your existing monuments. " But that which has delighted fifth me most is. also. and there be : 1 no passage to another calling. a new invention has to be struck out (for the novelty of a thing always begets favour) that in some particular shall be of certain use. variety. among other things. it my utmost pleasure to enjoy the fruit of the vigils and the literary toils of others so that when I regret having been without your works. and there for no prophet of honour in his own country). Eor while I think worthy of the highest praise and glory to write books that are worth reading and useful to the human race. will praise you. the method of curing aqua intercutis. I saw that you cited just exyour perience. to discover we made many attempts new things in our art . your your multifarious reading. and I healed many.COMPLIMENTARY AND INTRODUCTORY. For your copiousness in the ornate gravity of your sentences. the want of them would be felt far more seriously than it is. your observation of things. book upon Wisdom. when. to enjoy them. hurt. your pure and chaste method of narration. make it necessary that whoever comprehends the unfathomable depths of memory. I discovered. "When we ourselves long laboured in this city against envy. and grieve at it and think it my it is . At length I thought out the cure of Phthisis. . honour you. I console myself with the expectation of hereafter reading them. and that in reading venerate you. which they call Phthoe. you wrote as follows But what if the art itself yield not a livelihood. 77 hope some day. and our in- come was not so much is as our expenses is (so much harder is is the condition of a merit that seen than of one that un- known. who now survive. writing.

there be danger. But reason should if lead to invention. that for a long time I have desired nothing more than that there might be offered to me an occa- . and can make no further progress. * So. it In should be attempted experimenting. from which * it shall be nefarious to diverge (as they say) by a nail's breadth. and bound to you by your and wisdom. and stepping in the same track.78 healing many. 1 two discoveries of these and Now. by degrees. as it were. and which is destined for the safety of the whole human race. you enriched our science. another kind of business. as they who deny to them the first knowledge of things. discovered by the labour of the ancients. and experiment is a master and a cause of work in others. in one file. I. in the use of which you do not cease with assiduity of study to make yourself of value to all students of letters. and reject them as old-fashioned in their practice. JEROME CARDAN. I am more felt prolix than is But perhaps needful in a letter destined toreturn to the matter in hand. Fernel. Not a few are deceived in believing that the art of healing. by gently. For art with illustrious if it is not a light thing to adorn an and magnificent works. They would have all posterity marching. has been brought to perfection. is it of immense utility to fetch out something abstruse and recondite. and to add to it. increments of knowledge to which no wit or patience of those living before had penetrated. with the course of time. much who contend that all things have been thoroughly investigated and comprehended by the ancients. as I said to * * * they err as M. how much more in the art which is above all. virtue. remote from the vulgar method of philosophising and from popular ideas. the famous physician of Paris. to have myself so addicted erudition. not than you have bound men to less have you yours.

as the one ^Esculapius able to assist. you may possess altogether in the present case without trouble. much desired enjoyment of intercourse between us to which I can now look forward. although later than I could have wished but now that a happy opportunity has offered itself. And . I felicitate. who would not most particularly when it is is useful. sion of showing 79 how grateful my mind is towards you. joined with dignities and honour ? " But to what all this tends. because this affair. now hear. will little You. I believe rather that it will meet your best desires.] " These three. and will bring you a great increase of praise. and rise into incredible esteem. this has happened. and by me. as Cicero testifies in his second on Invention. I hope. the love of which (when glory follows virtue) is innate in generous minds as a spur always to greater deeds. as is observed in Cicero's Offices. your virtue . ever. For of things to be desired. all is we For who he who shuns what prefer diligently to pursue it. fore I Where- am far from thinking that this matter will be un- welcome to you. howbe of no use to you. admirable man. By which considerations especially as it is fair to suppose that you will be moved we seek the useful and grasp at it nor can do possibly otherwise. Myself on account of my and petition reverend lord archbishop and patron's expectation of for health from your aid only. on account of the mutual. there are three kinds. or The brother of . For through this there will be a celebration of and wisdom even at the uttermost parts of the earth through this there will be no mean addition to your household means through this you will acquire the friend. permit me not lightly to felicitate yourself and me. and with the greatest pleasure." [Here the * * * writer again gets into deep water. and therefore.COMPLIMENTARY AND INTRODUCTORY. ship of good men.

that is to say. it happens that. which was . was vexed. humane prince. which. there there is a flow of the same humour down into the lungs. a fresh accession of the complaint. the regent of the kingdom of Scotthe most illustrious Archbishop of St. This periodical distillation. retained there for a short time. except for the signs accompanying properly the fever and the actual distillation. The lungs are thus not slightly weakened. suddenly. invades the brain. because the brain could neither properly digest its own aliment (especially since it was nourished with pituitous blood). nor had it power to resolve the vapours brought into it from the parts below. or at least not assiduously sought (so does the strength of the disease seem able. in course of time. but there was a bad temperature left in the brain it was too cold and moist. at the age of about thirty. physician I have been for about four years. with a periodic asthma. which as a substance vapour or is whenever the whole body with a matter quality. Things being left in this state by a preceding is filled attack.80 the most JEROME CARDAN. but the old theory of periodic asthma " is too curious to be omitted. Medical aid having been slighted. Andrew's. ten years ago. especially as there is now a constant flow.] The first accession of the disease was a distil- lation from the brains into the lungs. by the help of the physician then present. was for the time removed." [The medical account of the case I must abbreviate a little. to destroy the strength of the body). And this accession agrees almost accurately with the conjunctions and oppositions of the moon. to] the patient apparently in good health. and most at night. so that an unnatural matter was collected in the head. the signs of which I will pass over. there is now danger. whose land. . associated at that time with hoarseness. is best known by the fact that it happens from an obvious cause.

is and insufficient even when the chest very much dilated. as it were of the it is expec- by stronger efforts chest with Being again reduced to a small quantity. watery. 81 The matter flowing down into the lungs is serous. Thin at first and in small quantity it is expelled by by the cough. pituitous. Stirred somewhat thickened torated copiously gentler coughing. II. If it were acrid or salt. with Afterwards. limpid.] " You have here the whole theory of the disease. and the writer states that the archbishop is so much reduced as to desire for himself some strong help against so serious a disorder. broken and divided by the expired air. for the air arterial pulse is soft. G . there is a hot which causes the air to and burning breath out of the mouth. the lungs would ulcerate. on account of the narrowness of the road [This is left for it. and the disease would become tabes. is dyspnoea. be rarer than is proper for health. small at the drawn in. what labour and industry I VOL. when the obstruction has been over- come by which the respiration is made unusually great and vehement. and frequent (which is the cause of increased heat). is not enough to cool the heart and lungs. which hitherto I have laboured to assuage." the main theory . "What remedies. afterwards digested and violent coughing. and sweet or insipid. The consequence stertor. if it is half thick. and hinder from passing into worse. frequent and irregular. most violent because the expelled only by the too tenacious humour adheres to the lungs and does not even reach the throat. the matter flows back into the lungs. then are added a few medical signs. and the increase of the body's heat. or difficulty of breathing. it is thick and got rid of slowly efforts. or what the Greeks called phthoe. showing the constriction and pain in the respiratory parts.A PHYSICIAN'S REPORT OF A CASE. The beginning of the attack.

that he by you would spare no cost that would attract you before some fixed day to Paris. if it please Heaven. honour a man whose reception. is leaving the great tumult of his cares and undertakings. and admired by so many scholars and venerate with fresh . For I have neither expected at any time his complete cure. you shall hereafter learn. your singular erudition and most abundant experience as a practising physician. I beseech you. partly also because of his distractions with inaffairs. were upon a thread he is so worried night and day. however. Therefore contrive. that in the midst of his vast responsibilities he can hardly cessant labours in state it as . that Lutetia (Paris). he about to all visit Paris a city flourishing as the seat of studies of entirely bent kinds. . that they may receive. which hang wholly upon him. have used. may behold you at least once. nor do I think that the most effectual help will ever bring it about.82 JEROME CARDAN". as well as of physicians. but he is so eager to profit by your presence with him. writings have already had from them a worshipful For whatever time you wish to occupy upon the journey. partly because of the moistness of the air (which par- takes somewhat of the saltness of the sea) and the strength of the winds. so that he is persuaded that he will be healed Therefore as if by the hands of a favouring Apollo. the archbishop most eagerly desires your help as the most valid protection that he can obtain against his malady (which faith is seen to conduce not a little to recovery) . and especially of medicine upon attending to his health. " Now. But since he has frequently been informed by me of your eminent virtue. the nurse of so many great philosophers. he desires in this affair not only to receive your advice. that you may be surrounded cherish. breathe. still less pay that attention to the care of health which our good Hippocrates highly desired at the hands of sick men and others.

and for the sake of . lastly. and of your singular learning and virtue. or worse. . or charge you would be at. In one of them G2 . take the necessary money from the hands of him who will deliver this. If the season and your health permit. " This one thing. you shall have the on the road. make it impossible for you to go so far as Paris. or anything else. but rather put an entire state and kingdom wish it for honour's sake. means shall not be wanting to enable you to travel post . " But now as I write the last words of this letter. and the public faith of each country pledged to you. from you. and if there be need of safe conduct of the princes it. omitting nothing that you think may be done for its subjection. at full. That all this will be done by you * * * in good faith I do not doubt. that you deal here with a most humane and liberal prince. hia on the other hand. This we entreat of you to do out of your humanity we . at least travel to Lyons. press of time. again (as we do not expect). and you are willing. and take what you think proper as a fee. household. 83 whatever escort you would have. and a famous town. or the tie of friends. be assured of. under obligation to you. " But if the season. your home studies. your advice as to the opposing of the disease I have described (that Phthisis. from whom you may fairly expect not less advantage to yourself than he is expecting. business. no mean good for by so doing you will not only be serviceable to one most excellent prince. there occur to me two passages published in your eighteenth book on Subtilty. is ready to pass over into which Heaven forbid). He : expects gain to body you will receive gain of fortune due not to fortune but rather the just reward of your labour. then I beseech that you will send us. you concede neither of our requests.THE OBJECT OF THE LETTER. which is less distant from you. which is concerning marvels. If.

I fear. you assert that you have discovered . though either invention would be in no We small degree convenient to our purpose. the most illustrious lord archbishop has commanded me to fix the month of January as that in which. which were paid to him in Milan.84 JEKOME CARDAN. have succeeded in attaining neither of these ends. and Pliny. so you may long aid the study of medicine. you bear testimony to a remarkable means of causing men to become fat in the other. Tarewell. grew best when sown with cursing and railing. begets urgency. in that NATE. WILLIAM CASSAgood in literature. and increase that daily your genius as a writer. Physician. But all need. " But enough has been said. you may be seen in Paris. and he required two hundred crowns as travelling ex- penses for the journey thither." Cardan replied to this letter that lie would go to Paris that. sent on behalf of whom this letter had been i by his body physician. William Cassanate. differ so much that I can in no way reconcile their statements. Gralen. its qualities. and that is way earning an immortal name. on some appointed day. that the winter or deprive may oppose some delay against your coming. his previous humour. 1551. precisely suited with. indeed. Pliny Ocimum has states that it not been identified with any modern herb. you of the willingness to come. Edinburgh. The lord archbishop. most excellent man. . May the Lord of men all long preserve you. a wonderful mode of relieving those who are without breath. or breathing painfully. "Finally. the 28th of September. As for ocimum1 and Dioscorides. indeed. ac- cording to the precept of Hippocrates.

and profit confusion. settled at Besangon in Burgundy. It is included in a little book entitled "Hier.CARDAN'S ANSWER TO THE LETTER. " Apud Theobaldum Paganum (who has a Pagan or Saracen on horse- for his emblem). Prseterea et multa quse ad Interrogationes et electiones pertinent superaddita. however it slightly. Geniturarum Exemplar. cussed his character in calculating his nativity 3 the only survivor of six brothers . as a meddler or negotiator. indeed. He was fourteen years younger than Jerome. Andrew's. by political He had a decided taste for the admixture of court business. Archbishop of in Cardan's Latin 1 85 called St. if Cardan had not dis. examplum back eclipsis quam consecuta est gravissima pestis. and most happy in the atmosphere of courts. 1 He was fond of the external good things name Casanate. one is exact in dates for information. He could change opinions as the exigencies of the day required. Mediol. Hamilton who was hung. but the usual spelling is Cardan spells the adopted There have been several obscure scholars of this name. having been born at six o'clock in the morning of the 5th of October. in the memory of difficult to scholars or physicians. would. Amultho . with his professional cares. be give any particulars. Card. is who has left behind him nothing by which he retained." . Et in the text. when there is a horoscope to draw upon Concerning this Cassanate. 1515. Lugduni. * His is one of the twelve horoscopes which illustrated Cardan's commentaries on Ptolemy. and in that way may have rendered himlittle by the use of a tact. " 1555. Cassanate was the son of a Spaniard. self. time-serving. Medic. a his He was man very careful of own interests. was John Hamilton. very agreeable to the archbishop.

" since " that he could scarcely find time is he to become now a foremost person in this narrative. and pleasure. to as a settle in Scotland a land rarely accepted home by strangers from the been. were promising him a considerable family. delighted in elegant company. and spent much of the great wealth that he to scrape together.86 of life JEROME CARDAN. The Koman the claim of Cardinal Beatoun to that dignity. who was next heir to the . to him there was opposed the brother of our archbishop. to the household of south . having made no provision for the administration of his kingdom. who was still living at Besancon. who was so distracted by incessant labours in state affairs to breathe. He was then thirty-six years old. who herself became one of Cardan's patrons. James Plamilton. . when he wrote to Cardan. father. Mary. must be recalled in a few words to the memory. in gaiety. He was an actor in some of the most familiar the troubles that surrounded scenes of our domestic history Mary Queen of Scots. be remembered that Mary's James V. left Cassanate had his father. The archbishop. left the office of regent open to be battled for Catholic party advocated after his death. and there he had attached for four years Archbishop Hamilton. knew how He had but the a wife and one daughter when Jerome stars knew him. in expensive entertainments. was only nine years old when that famous physician It will set out to meet John Hamilton at Paris. Earl of Arran.

passions. when she became ten years be sent to London. France. was not Cardan's connexion with him ceased. though taxed by his contemporaries with various irregularities in his private life. and had a great influence over his mind. 87 James Hamilton was declared regent by the choice of Scotland. which he began then very actively to exert. The abbot was a warm partisan of the interests of faith. demanded her his son Edward. Beatoun then seeing made the best of dilated en the regent's weakness. should first The new regent agreed. admirable temper and until about six years after great prudence. John Hamilton. and stirred up a host of The Scottish barons declared against the alliance with England. on behalf the queen.CASSANATE queen. and the cardinal then seized the persons of the Queen Mary and her mother. . Mary was not many months old as the future wife of when Henry VIII. that he acquired the temper of the religious persecutor. he displayed for a long time. and a zealous defender of the established He was it a man of strong will and great energy. time Abbot of Paisley. reside as hostages. Cardinal it. at that John Hamilton. in the fulfil- ment of his duties as a It churchman. and. that old. and there This happened in 1543. with a view to the extension of his own rule over the Scots. and that six persons of the rank should at once go to the English court. his opportunity. was natural brother to the regent. one whom was not easy to overreach or intimidate. AKCHBISHOP HAMILTON. of Scotland.

of Paisley. The Scots turned to France for help. in Abbot of Paisley became Archbishop of St. 1547. was. to Scotland six thousand French There she was at living when Cardan visited Paris. also to The and offer was made by the nobles assembled hastily confirmed in a camp-parliament. he even in went so far as to abjure the Church of the Reformers the Franciscan church at Stirling. old. wars. . offered their little queen in marriage to the dauphin. of Henry VIII. and by the advice of Mary of Guise. and the murder of Beatoun. and declared for the interests of France.88 JEROME CARDAN. on the 25th of August. Scotland was soon afterwards invaded Earl of Somerset. the child-queen. 1548. met the cardinal lender. used then his influence over his weaker so effectually. and the general peace obtained by France from the Earl of Warwick in March of the year 1550. clared the cardinal an enemy and on the at Cal- 3rd of September following. carried to in France by a fleet which had brought over soldiers. send her to the French court for and agreed education. peace. at Stirling. There followed home the decline of Somerset's power. ratified the treaty with King Henry. protector of by the the young King Edward and of England. In June. and deto his country. Andrew's. the queen-mother. six years fact. the After the death. Then followed changes of leaders. Abbot brother that James.

to The archbishop's health. The regent then. and sion twenty-four hours. and archbishop. was ambitious. and for advice in all emergencies. his strong arm. he had made that promise. the archbishop. all John Hamilton had tually to manage that was difficult in the affairs of Scotland. however. In addition vir- own ecclesiastical affairs. was unsafe for John . missing the support of promised to give up to the queen-mother his difficult position. upon the strong to his mind of his brother. was no match for her arts. Mary of Guise. failed from month month. 89 The queen-mother. and on recourse should be the King of France. and to bring them into accordance with the right sustainment of the interests of his own family. and aspired to the regency. Before the year was at an end. alone. James Hamilton. He depended for the retaining of his position. as they had already sought advice from the phy- sicians in attendance on the Emperor Charles V. had in the next place to Cardan.THE POSITION OF ARCHBISHOP HAMILTON. When Cassanate wrote to Milan. lasted which recurred every eight days. on each occato the had brought him nearly point of death. James Hamilton had not committed himself to a promise that he would resign the regency. to prevent him In such a crisis it from fulfilling it. So stood the affairs of the Hamil- tons when the archbishop's medical adviser recommended that. and at the end of the year 1551 the attacks of asthma. however. if it was for the he could regain strength.

Hamilton and it became. having replied to Cassanate's heard re- again from Scotland on the 12th of February and ceiving then the money asked for to defray his travel- ling expenses. The Cardan. that he remained in Lyons forty-six days. 19. own particular about all horoscope under the head of Journeys. in Lyons. 20. the Lake of Geneva after a straight to Lyons. 129. was possible that at he might meet the archbishop . There he found neither archbishop nor archbishop's physician. and remained thirty-eight days without any further illustrious tidings of his patient. . p. he set out on the 23rd of the same it month for Lyons. and for the next facts. he was. with a fresh remittance. but rate. Jerome. he is dates. any be met by the archbishop's physician. patients flocked to him. impossible for him to go to France. pp. where 1 was understood that There it his journey possibly might end . was not. where. he prescribed for 1 many noblemen. in discharge of the cost of his journey on to Paris. 2 own De Vita Prapria. He travelled by way of Domo d'Ossolo and the Simplon Pass. and calculates the stars by which his in- comings and outgoings were ruled. to the Geniturarum in discussing his Exemplar (written just after his return). but a correction of this and of some other slight inaccuracies of date has been made by reference See his horoscope. there to if not.90 JEROME CAKDAN. suffered to be idle. . letter. therefore. then from. through Sion and Geneva. however. and earned much Geniturarum Exemplar. reaching that town 2 journey of not quite three weeks . to trust his brother out of reach. He says there.

too. . Here.CARDAN AT LYONS. M. like all such documents. 91 Louis Birague. if possible. his offer. by which his physician was introstated. happened to be then in Lyons. the bearer of a letter from the archbishop himself. and object 1 main on to was to persuade Jerome. commander of the King's in- whose good-will once. and inevitable busispoke of its ness" that detained the archbishop at home. cap. and other Greek and Roman matters works which have had the honour of translation into Spanish. xxxii. Brissac's as his phythe sician. Brissac thought only of the aid he might have from mechanics. as before narrated. cap. duced formally. and wrote on medals. had been sought for Jerome by young Brissac. in Latin " serious. . urgent. with whom Jerome established an enduring friendship. if he would consent to be attached to him. and judge in Dauphine. we must name Guillaume Choul2 king's counsellor a nobleman of Lyons. on the part of Marshal Brissac. friends desired the presence 1 of skilled physician. his Choul was one of the most painstaking antiquaries of time. fantry. when he was at Milan. him a stipend of a thousand crowns a year. to travel 2 Ibid. castrametation. and in which his exact errand was The letter written. xv. and received the offering great physician as a friend. At length Cassanate came. ingenuity in mathematics and That however. of course. was declined. money. De Yita Propria. baths.

I had thought that I must have recourse to you as to the ^Esculapius most propitious and suitable for the quelling of my disease not that I distrusted the help I received from the learned . far to he could be prevailed upon so extend his journey. Cassanate was the bearer of three hundred crowns. " Wherefore. I have conceived the desire to send to you the man who is less. because I wish to adopt the next best course. Thus Hamilton wrote1 first : an oscillation in his style. but that But though I myself. 1557). . doctors. most learned Car- danus. payable to him for his if travelling expenses between Lyons and Edinburgh. The tone of the letter shows that the arch: bishop was a man of business " Tour letter. Urged to that opinion already by the persuasions of our physician. you have also increased our expectation that the restoration of our health will proceed chiefly and certainly from you. 1 This letter is given by Cardan in his second book De Libris Propriis (ed. neverthe- hindered by most serious and urgent and inevitable business. written on the 23rd of November. I was compelled to desist from my intention. some months ago as you have been very abundantly informed in the letter of our physician had determined for that special reason to go to Paris. from your aid I promised to myself more.92 Scotland. was received three days ago by me. and read through you have therein. equalled our opinion of your singularly recondite erudition and perfect virtue. has been unaltered. between the familiar first person left singular and the formal person plural. Inasmuch as by our physician. JEROME CARDAN.

administer my command. from whose discourse and from your mutual con- hand with greater I hope that you will become so plainly acquainted with the whole theory of my disease. fairly desire nothing to complete your absolute acquaintance with " it. the origin and progress manner of of the malady. remedies the out against the disease. this one thing I seek out of your singular humanity and the good. in my opinion. Quam quae sunt oculis subjecta. to come as far as Paris. you will consent to come for once to Scotland also. and discoveries (as you most prudently say) succeed marvellously in the hands of their inventors. The bearer of this will give you a safe conduct. and provide. sufficient. if God dispense it so) who is most healthful counsel. bring and may inquire written to you fully enough. at He has them. upon my temperament.' and what are seen are known more certainly than what are heard. we have sent to you the said studious and faithful minister to our health. that he. correctness. that inasmuch as you were willing. in affair in order that we may do whatever belongs to the ease. as plainly as seem to himself did not since this But even your eyes. because. and success. upon any conditions that you please. armed and equipped with your most prudent and (we expect. . and who begot in us the opinion of you before expressed. Nevertheless. for which he has always thirsted. that afterwards you can versation. also. one my most studious of you. as the poet says Nee retinent patulse commissa fidelius * aures. according to the terms of your letter.will you have conceived towards us. and has set before you almost the whole if it were before it. for cost and attendance .LETTER FROM HAMILTON. for the four last years 93 physician. the bearer of these.

discover. you shall in very deed and by experience " find us not so Farewell. if sent to him at Milan 1 Nei. or any other banker in Milan. before the philoso- and held out many pher could be prevailed upon to go so far from home. Francisco Eesta. but well knowing that the proposal of a journey into Scotland would have been refused. 4. " Advocabant me in Gallias.94 and JEEOME CARDAN. that I both wish and I would have you. si eo me advocassent. Edinburgh. most learned Cardanus. deduci posse. for there shall accrue to you no moderate and the greatest harvest of feme and esteem. me nullis conditionibus in Scotiam. if you will take upon your- much trouble for our sake." The text shows. " Upon all matters not mentioned in this letter. that you shall incur no waste of increase of means. the guarantee of P. to persuade yourself am able to do more things than I promise. p. 1552. 1 Geniturarum Exemplar. and visit our Lares to much of Scythians as you perhaps suppose. however. meaning that he should go to Edinburgh. Feb. with a true heart. therefore. confide in William Cassanate. without doubt. " This only. will give. self so Which. sions. 129. finally. if there be any arrangement entered into between him and you. time and labour. I will promise you. He believed that the archbishop had enticed him into France. that the account given by historians of Hamilton's affairs fits so . who delivers it. and Cassanate used various persuaattractions." A journey into frosty Scotland had by no means formed part of Jerome's plan. credo consulto veriti quod et futurum erat. best and most learned Cardanus.

De . but the fear when he got back among about est own a look of truth people. In the of the mean time. day of preparation advice was sought from the great Italian schoolmaster. of his tattle-loving additional three Therefore. nor the money nor the hope of other tries. he went therefore. The next citation is 1 from the same authority . and on the 18th of April the two physicians out. using the river Loire possible. with to explain his quick return . Vita Propria.OX TO PARIS. 130). (p. he and his new patient had been talking fire. 1 for their highway as far as upon the road on the last to Paris. By that offer Jerome was tempted. 19 and for the succeeding anecdote. he says. having received the to set hundred crowns. but found nothing worthy of a grave attention. afflicted with a serious disease. Lyons. but Cardan declined to undertake the case at such a time. 95 that he offered. the same authority compared with the fuller account given in the last book De Libris Propriis. nor the wish to see new counlest. ther Cassanate. persuaded him his . Jerome consented go on. some scandal. p. Just before quitting for departure. it. by a certain He brought money in his hand . which kindles and which the well into Cardan's narrative as perfectly to explain the real emergency by which the archbishop was detained in Scotland. profit. The man said then that he could show the way to a boy able to see demons in a pitcher. mirror of Orontius. might be invented he might be disgraced and bespattered by the gossip city.

down the river Loire. ." very brief account of his visit to the church of St. and . who gave Jerome occasion to declare dilatory. he says that he saw. At Paris there was the heartiest reception ready for the Milanese physician. whom M. then. with the addition of twelve illustrative horoscopes. 138. but who refused to visit him1 Fine. who trans- " Ubi Orontium videre i De Vita Propria. I that there were logical bound into it Ptolemy's Books on Astro- Judgments. knew to have been one of the discove- of Archimedes . The only surly man among the savants seems to have been the Orontius just mentioned. text is The general narrative of these incidents given in the amplified by reference to other mention of them in De Libris Proand especially in the Geniturarum Exemplar. upon which it is not lawful to buy. follows in A the same place. forming a considerable work. p. it to shorten his journey. These com- mentaries. in 1555. I asked whether they were to be bought. of all printers." Taking this book with him. in whom Jerome felt interest. " I ries JEROME CARDAN. 1557). sed ille ad nos venire recusavit. he wrote commentaries upon on the way to Paris. the French were the most They were first printed. contigit. were committed to a French printer. and I accepted them at length. he was led thus to show as translated me a printed copy of Archimedes. that. for it was a saint's day. priis (ed. and of his dinner with the king's physicians. into Latin. as I looked over the volume. Dionysius.96 scholar says. by Antonius Gogava saw Then. he urged me to accept them.

he touched upon a weak point in He was not an original man. H . and was Oronce purposes. making with his own hands several instruments that first had not been seen before. lay at the root of the reputa- VOL. He wrote a Description of the World and a Description of France. II. Fine. indeed labouring under a mistake out that he had squared the circle. He obtained much his knowledge from the works of a heretical contemporary. but he would have been more honoured than honouring in an exchange of courtesies with Jerome. for his fame had but an unsubsaid When M. Sebastian Munster. estawas made royal new college in Paris. had gone very early to Paris from his native town of Brian9on. a man. Orontius professor of mathematics. robust. then publicly in the College de Gervais. foreign He was therefore sought and patronised by in princes who were little want of maps or charts. Sebastian Munster. laborious. Cardan that the glass of Orontius was taken from Archimedes. and wonderfully simple-minded. give of though he did.ORONTIUS. at first privately. lated his 97 for literary name into Greek. at trans- and taught mathematics. who was seven years older than Jerome. blished a When Francis I. stantial basis. lations. He published works. certainly was a famous man. and attracted many students. and assumed a prominent position as a practical geographer. in the Dauphine. M. Fine. where he distinguished himself by mathematical tastes and a mechanical turn.

but he was unwilling to offend the emperor. delivered a A scholar of Basle Hebrew oration over him when he was dead. He wrote an admirable Cosmography. fortune favoured but that. he was made to feel the great- ness of his reputation. as a mechanist and mathematician felt much declined to become acquainted with the new guest of the learned in the town. He did not rightly use her for princes gifts. it should be added. with him abundantly. desire of the At court he was flattered kiss by the king himself that he should hands and accept court service in France. whom he considered and who was at war with . besides an Organum Urani- cum. Minister died of plague at Basle while Cardan was sailing down the Loire to Paris. far Orontius was more widely celebrated. Everywhere else. though he had worked and been largely paid. ever since he gave up the Cordelier's robe and became a Lutheran. that he had once been imprisoned for discoverstars. in whom Jerome interest. with a considerable pension . for. then. however. he died in debt and left three years after Cardan's visit to Paris a large family of children destitute. but in the world he had not due honour. ing bad omens for France among the that exception. and a great deal of Hebrew. as his master. He had been teaching Hebrew and heretical theology in that town for twenty-three years in fact. JEROME CARDAN. Orontius.98 tion of Orontius. Concerning Orontius.

the offers were repeated. experimento Vita Prop. iv. when his treatment had been found (the duke. and in the hope of service that he might render an immense stipend was offered a but in too vague to way if he would become physician her majesty. unam Csesaria nos offendere. died about that time). however. France. and were. . . 1 Cardan was to have his travelling Regis Gallonim. but they were not determinate enough. how beggarly a country Scotland was in his to Jerome took some pains show how it was that the queen could afford to make a lavish offer. at any rate. It estates. : aliam ante hanc locupletiorem paulo post cum rediissem . cap. The reference of the Queen of Scotland's wealth to the abuses of -wardship. and attributed her means of to wealth accruing from the royal fell guardianship minors. cum inter eos principes dessevirent bella . occurs et et gratia tamen spe sanitatis inductum . cum Scotorum Regina. Jerome dis- cussed terms with Cassanate but there was an agreement then drawn up.ROYAL OFFERS. H2 . if he was the patient. 99 He was called to attend the half-brother of Mary Queen of Scots (probably the young Duke de Longueville). adipiscendse. cum sanassem. refused1 . successful Afterwards. . Considering opinion. Post. . metui aliam : " Oblatas majores conditiones renui. sed nimis dissitam. when the succession on was not until they reached Paris that . cujus levirum curaveram." De in cap. xxxii. which was afterwards destroyed as being an instrument not necessary between a physician and an honourable patient. of the same book. .

Sylvius. when word was brought fire.100 JEROME CARDAN. taught anatomy from small fragments of dog. that is to say. as an impious confuter of the word of Galen. He then was absent from the gathering. Persecution of Vesalius had . He was the professor of the old school. and omitted from his teaching whatever was at all difficult even in the furiously authority he worshipped. that one day. and named Musa by is the suggestion of King Francis. but Jerome and Cassanate dined with Pharnelius and Sylvius. Jacques de la Boe was the Parisian as a little. and sought to bribe the Madrid if physicians with the promise of a baby's skeleton they would join the chase. with Jean Fernel and Jacques de la Boe. to him in the lecture-room that his house was on his class till he would not quit he had finished his prelection. Hamilton's case having already been laid before the physicians of the King of France. quite bald. Brasavolus at was a famous physician of Ferrara settled the French court. quite merry old man of and full of jokes. and to receive ten gold crowns a day while in personal attendance upon the archbishop. followed him to Madrid with state his hate. professor of anatomy. He said to have been so devoted to his calling. Cassanate took the Brasavolus he did not stranger to consult with them. expenses paid. little and Jerome describes him seventy. who worshipped Galen. who was endeavouring to hunt down his old pupil Vesalius. see.

that I too should become his enemy. that was for wrongs done to Galen and he demanded a most iniquitous thing." says Jerome. but not much. and the first physician. graphic Universelle I have been unable to trust. not on my own ferred looking for information to the Germans. I have preEven them. The French are full. best encyclopaedists. but it The information about these learned men whose fame has departed. against Vesalius. was a man fessor of entirely different in character. English biographical dictionaries. They study a man before they write even a few paragraphs about him. nothing but a part of the sketch of Orontius.SYLVIUS. He . 1 His age Jerome considered to be fifty-five. When. indeed. in spite of his undisguised contempt for court society. therefore. and if I found on any point any discrepancy. or the biographical part of English encycloThe Germans are the paedias. I have found much reason to avoid. I have not trusted without comparing two or three accounts of the same thing by independent writers." of the little Fernel1 . the other member dinner-party. 101 his become the topmost thought of old age. been helped by Tiraboschi when The Biothe question has been of an obscure Italian author. I have in this work had to rely. They are both accurate and full. I believe. He was procourt medicine in the university. and have had some aid. of course. " arising from I know not it what cause. have sought to ascertain what was the truth by reference to the original authorities. I have generally got from Zedler's Universal Lexicon. I have referred sometimes for it to the excellent Encyclopaedia of Ersch and Griiber. The English are both inaccurate and meagre. however. reading but on that of other men. from Jocher's Gelehrten Lexicon. and owe to it. . of course. professed. I have also. but much too careless about accuracy. wherever they have to put down any results of out-of-the-way reading. and he could not. dine with a strange doctor without " He was breathing animosity mounting on his hobby.

as abandon public teaching. and his wife. he gave by reason of his matheas them up. the students forced him by . He was then teaching philosophy in the College of Barbe. to He was by the great increase of his private practice. and undertook to earn money instead of spending also. obliged soon. not more than forty-six his study . was. he attained rapidly to eminence.102 was. he was a pale. He had come to when he was past the heyday of his youth. from Clermont in Picardy. but he desired to learn and not pleasures of the capital. JEROME CAKDAN. Patients flocked to him. objecting to the cost incurred for instruments matical pursuits. in fact. "With restored health lessons in oratory. to study rhetoric and philosophy. and in that by the power and the fineness of his mind. to teach. St. and his wife. he returned to town. good husband he it. By the had for time he had attained great skill in mathematics he so much weakened his health that it became necessary him to retire into the country. He devoted himself then to medicine. and in his leisure hours he explained Hippocrates and Galen. He was by that time married. received fresh and resumed the study of elegant literature and of mathematics. Pliny. and to perfect himself in mathematics. lean man. but he found leisure even then to write on Physiology. who loved Paris. He gave up all the and withdrew himself entirely from mere complimentary society to study Cicero. and Aristotle. After two years he was offered a professorship of logic.

Fernel was first compelled. for by the press of he never winnowed out the poor from among he gave time and attention. asked help of him and failed to get When. whom he favoured. The prince made him and the courtiers flocked about him. those to whom II. when he was interrupted by the command a. one of the most notable was the acquisition of the friendship of Catherine of who believed that his skill had saved her from a first state of childlessness. then dauphin. in spite of himself. affectionate tract of his 103 compulsion to expound that to them. Again. he was hindered his duties as a teacher from his studies and patients. the grateful prince did not withdraw from him the appoint- ment or its salary. his chief physician.FERNEL. and on the birth of her fee. Nevertheless. to officiate as the court physician. but he contemned a court study : life. Fernel's pure student character will not be held in the less tender recollection . No it. A own on Venesection he was also perforce lecturing about. of Henry II. in Paris. at Henry became king. in a case of considerable urgency. poor sick man last. that he would attend on great lady. other incidents of his life. at child gave him ten thousand dollars for his the same time ordering a like fee to be paid to him at the birth of every succeeding son or daughter. or who favoured him. and turned back to he refused to live at court. to His effective aid secured Fernel the dauphin's gratitude. Among Medicis.

and in a few side. also. and it was. Jerome took great the archbishop's said nothing. not mentioned in the preceding note. Nicolas Legrand. far from the extreme term of with Cardan. that he was quite unacquainted with the talked over also during dinner . who has is left little more than his name be- hind him. and objected. formed the party assembled to discuss the case of the archbishop. for his opinion.104 JEROME CARDAN. still for the fact. and coming to the . he died of six years after his dinner loss sorrow for the of the wife whom he had loved better than his studies. To one of them he was introduced by another of the king's physicians. When was talked about. he listened and He was asked at once. into Mag- He was an excellent man. I do not know his own hand or by that of his friend. when in courtesy he might have spoken. perhaps. The matter was but Cardan. De la Boe and Fernel. slightly discourteous to maintain reserve. before dinner. says Cardan. but declined to speak before the king's physicians. and who whether by nienus1 . He pined after her death. abstained from committing himself formally to an still opinion. patient. with Cassanate and Cardan. barbarously Latinised. Jerome saw sights also at Paris. has helped me now and then. that while life. months was buried by her The two French physicians. studious J Eloy's Dictionnaire Historique de la Me'decine. pains not to disease commit himself.

Aimar de Ranconet was another Paris of the eminent men in by whom Cardan was particularly welcomed. 672. when . and a student with a system. he would few hours. as of Hamilton into Amultho. and a bustling man. of mathematics. 1557). the subject of it. He was President of the Fourth Chamber of Accounts in the Parliament of Paris. daily. makes a riddle. Dionysius. Duomo is ploii into any obscure person or place 1 De Varietate Rerum d'Ossolo into Dondosola. sleep for a After a light supper. but remarkably well versed philosophy. being physician to the monks of St. Dionysius. there was nothing that appeared to him so precious as that rare and perfect horn.A DINNER PARTY. told me the real name of this gentleman. and other marble ornaments. the SimMons Sempronius. Bas. in polite literature. took us to their noble church. The barbarous Latinising of the names of persons and places. and with him Jerome had correspondence after his departure. 105 He came to see me He. when we had seen the sepulchres of kings. and rising in the night at the monks' prayer bell was sounding. refers to In another passage he among the king's treasures in the church of St. p. He was a lawyer by profession. He handled it and measured it. it carefully. and mathematics. distant about three miles from Paris. (ed. about the time when rescue here when other help all failed. There. and famed throughout the whole world. Fernel into Pharnelius. More than once he records that. and he describes it. statues. I studied carefully the horn 1 of an unicorn that was suspended in the church .

profiting by the and a stomach loaded. contemn none for rude speech. most on the acuteness and the he would despise none for poverty. for the following facts." Jerome observes. put on a studying dress. but dispositions. said I to myself. by placing him and lauding him among the number." Having it in his mind to illustrate his lately written commentary upon Ptolemy with a dozen horoscopes of eminent men. and is deceived by no show of right. he said. he proposed to do homage to Ranconet. So he studied silence of the night. who false looks into a thing perfectly. but 1 Geniturarum Exemplar. " here is a rare bird. 42. : there he died. A few scholarly and liberal words after Cardan's depar- spoken in parliament not very long ture caused Ranconet to be shut foul it is up in the Bastile on a and absurd charge said. for four hours. Then he returned to bed and worked again after the second waking. President Ran- conet was the one who won most on Cardan's affections. and Ms wife struck by lightning.106 JEROME CARDAN. judged them wisely and humanely by " their Then. but he dwells liberality of his character . Of 1 all the men that he saw in Paris. . not unlike a monastic robe. p. Ranconet begged urgently that his horoscope might not be printed. died on a dunghill. He admired the immense store of his books. His daughter. and go to work. with no greater excess of humidity than could be spat his away out of mouth. his son was hung.

some of whom would fast die by violence. travellers proceeded plea- Cardan carried away with him no sant thoughts of Paris as a town. had been worth while to was published in all affairs . the on their journey. for friend's enlife : he writes sadly when reviewing his past " I injured those whom I proposed to praise. assigned to The horoscope It prophesied to him difficulty him a wife and children of illusvisit trious character. it is Per- because of the dirt (lutum) that the town has been called Lutetia. there may be ' other derivations2 . The melancholy fate of Ranconet cation of these prophecies. of that work" On Cities" Bas. because unjust that the opportunity should be passed over of celebrating the name and for of a man whose equal he it had not known in Italy. 61. whose friendship alone France. he suggests. haps. Leaving good friends behind.AIMAR DE RANCONET. but the always full he had found of dirt. the president at Paris5 the most learned among them Aimar Ranconet1 . emitting stench. Its general construction streets had reminded him of Milan. . though. and the air unwhole- some. In the same chapter he characterises Rouen and Rome. 667. the population being at the same time dense. p. 1557). Jerome says that he refused him thought it liis 107 he request. followed the publito and Cardan seems afterwards have wished that he had complied with his treaty. p. Varietate Renim (ed. l 2 De De Vita Propria. therefore.he admits.

by the nobles. relates that it was not without because there was the most urgent danger then from war and piracy. p. from the . for in my surrounding enemies. The same authority covers the fact. so wholesome. For a serious war was the fire at that time raging between the emperor and all King of France . but the date of Cardan's arrival is said to be the 3rd of July. generous." Geniturarum Exemplar. in truth the enemy protects an alien lest he perish miserably in the hands of his own people1 . that at the end of all his was none of which he spoke with like en- thusiasm. he knew no and so handsome. and the to two physicians travelled down the Seine Rouen. that I spirit was received in the best was thought due to learning nobility . So much and good name by the French and utmost need and fear of it and truly all it is splendid. worthy of praise. river Again a was the most convenient road. even without any guarantee of public faith . as given by Cardan in three or four . That is irreconcilable with the context. which town Cardan admired travels there so much. women were being slain. sol- Marvellous chance. town so well built. liberal. yet so far was I from suffering any harm. Out of Rome. I was protected by diers of the emperor. the Queen of Cities.108 JEROME CARDAN. 131. and falsifies the whole chro1 next nology of the subsequent journey. Of this journey through France into Scotland. Cardan peril. "My journey through France was made without the knowledge of the emperor. and sword. things were being destroyed with infants.

separate works. and reached London on the 3rd of June. From that point they took ship for England. London. teenth century. and they unluckily always abound most June.FROM PARIS TO For such vinces. 109 of the coast proprotection. CALAIS. . By assuming July to have been misprinted for travellers a three days' rest in and allowing to the given are all made straight. the accounts Misprints abound in books of the six- among names and dates. caused them to be attended by an escort of fourteen horse and twenty foot soldiers to Calais. the governor his suite when Cardan and came to Boulogne.

nor did he find our sky very much darkened with crows1 . had an opportunity of acquiring a more accurate notion of this remote land than he before possessed. 2 Geniturarum Exemplar. 66. when we approach London days 3 . . Cardan remained with the archbishop 1 until nearly the Ante. however. three days.three and on the 29th of June the Milanese physician greeted personally his Scotch patient. CHAPTER CARDAN IN V. the close of his experience among From to Edinburgh was a journey of twenty. vol. p. will be more proper to relate us. as he thought he should. Cardan AFTER and his a rest in London of about companions were conducted northward by Cassa- nate. see our sheep watered upon morning dew. The philosopher. and think worth remembering it concerning Britain. what he did see. ii. He did not. journeying then in summer weather through the provinces of England. p. 131.110 JEROME CARDAN. EDINBUBGH.

124. and differed with much courtesy from his friends in other essential respects. envious. man another. Ill to He at first allowed Cassanate act in obedience to the advice taken at Paris. p. 193. urged his chief to take some active steps. At the end of forty days John Hamilton became imJerome was becoming much patient. p. One of them caused great scandal : conduct in the town he was a greedy. Tom. felt that it was proper professional to explain to the reverend lord his own position. to point out the fact that he himself dissented from the course of treatment hitherto pursued by CassaGonsilia Medica. lawless . From this course no deviation was forty days. being very anxious at once all this to get back to Milan. restless and Cardan then. ix. middle of September. Jerome traced evil to a hot one. Vita PrOpria. and for the succeeding . who during time wasted in body.FROM LONDON TO EDINBURGH. and by that time also troubled by the five Italians who had accompanied him by on his his journey. the base of the disease a cold brain. and gave diligent trial to the remedial course suggested at the consultation held over the dinner-table la with Fernel and De Boe 1 . named Paolo Paladino. facts. at last. had become extremely dissatisfied. De Opera. although his study of the case made during soon led him to form a view of its first it extremely different from that on which Cassanate had placed at all treatment was founded. The archbishop.

i The silia . a very clear notion of the state of medical science in the sixteenth century. the body physician was indignant at Cardan. whose life we it are here tracing. I think. 124148. nate under the advice of the Parisians. carefully drawn up manner of the time. and way of trying for its cure. and the archbishop lost before reproached him for the time he had coming to a right understanding. In the first place should be stated. The consequence and of this explanation was. and which were subsequently given to the world.112 JEROME CARDAN. Cassanate. A few notes from this document will not only be found amusing. as a help to those doctors is who might after the afterwards attend upon him. which occupies twenty-four double-columned folio pages in the ninth volume of Cardan's works. and to suggest what he took the proper to be the true theory of the disorder. and of the kind of practice in which the philosopher. but will suggest. that in conversa- following are notes from the fifty-second opinion in the ConMedica. of course. feared as a tale-teller. was engaged1 . being not the less annx>yed at such delay relief. It included in a volume of professional opinions. when the new system of cure was found to give The whole opinion of Cardan upon his case was written out for the archbishop at great length. whereof Jerome kept copies. pp. too. that the archbishop (an irascible man) was indignant Jerome at the body physician.

moon . It is very acutely reasoned study of asthma. but that. tions with Cassanate. 113 on the way to Edinburgh. he thought that the operations of the intellect must be impeded. based upon principles laid down by Galen.PROFESSIONAL ETIQUETTE. II. with the changes of the times. That his grace slept well. had a eater and drinker. but only generally. and rather a Upon the case. He did not believe with Cassanate that the matter finally expectorated had re- mained in intervals his grace's brain as it collected there during the attacks. one or two particulars. he might get through fifteen or twenty days without them. These were. that the archbishop's periodical attacks did not agree always. and that the VOL. in addition to the facts mentioned by him in his letter. that some- when he took care of himself. size. That the duration of each attack seldom exceeded twenty-four hours. but that sometimes it remained upon him twice as long. I . on account of the urgency of he never took the quantity of sleep requisite to from crudities. Cardan had learnt. That he was irascible skin that exhaled freely. between the If so. especially since free himself he was a great enough. after he had personally studied it. Wonderfully absurd seems now will its medical philosophy. his affairs. Cara dan's opinion resembles a long clinical lecture. a chest of fair thin neck. but in the year 2154 what be said even of our physic? Let us be modest in our treatment of the physic of Cardan.

century later medical science was but is little more advanced. 128. caused by undue heat. moreover. the kind of reasoning that Moliere burlesqued. and was very willing to receive instruction from experience that he acquired. not through the cavity of the windpipe. shrewdness and although perfectly obedient to authority. . matter was formed. sc. as he had. as water soaks through linen. he used a skilled obedience. from the food2 These notes. The thick expectorated . p. Med. and long standing in the head would turn corrupt 1 He believed that the thin fluid discharged was partly serous humour. The comments of Cassanate and Cardan on Hamilton's case illustrate perfectly This Sganarelle's theory of Lucinde's muteness in the Me'de'cm Malgre Lui. it would be coughed out during its downward passage. partly condensed vapour. 1 He F 2 A Cons. Cardan thought. produces suction from another. would not have. and rarefaction in one part of the body. He reasoned in the manner of the but he excelled other physicians of his time in . which descended from the brain into the lungs.114 lord archbishop JEROME CARDAN. its for if so. 6. though they do not contain the whole of Cardan's diagnosis. This thin humour and vapour he in- supposed to be originally drawn into the brain by the creased rarity in the substance of that organ. Act ii. but through coats. are enough to indicate the kind of reasoning he used* faculty. to express the idea roughly. Heat makes all things rare. the matter so col. the red com- plexion of a healthy lecting man .

whence its downward passage. 115 and since. Humidity. ARCHBISHOP. Purgation of the head. things to exhale and to ascend. Cardan as said must depend on the use of a food natured and humid. knew the harm that may be done by me- and had freed himself from he also many dangerous dreaded misuse of in his absurdities of practice. he would obstruct the soaking down of matter from the it brain through the coats of the windpipe. so compelling to descend coughed out during It by the main channel. he dicine. he explained. as we have before seen. much as possible cold- The cold-natured food would resist it is the attraction of the brain. cap.CASE OF JOHN HAMILTON. I 2 . one that he was in what he was believed of the safest advisers to help. the basis of the arch- bishop's cure. the unhealthy temperature of the brain. early days he lost patients by bleeding them his day. watched his cases very closely. for the nature chiefly of warm said. whom a sick man could apply for Applying theory to practice. come purgation of the body. that With view the head should be purged. of course. there should. there can be no doubt to be. was to be effected 1 De Vita Propria. xxxiii. and before that was done. and relates candidly how 1 . since the lancet. it could be was his opinion that the chief object of the cure by ? medicine should be to attack the root of the disease namely. in as far as diet was concerned.

and honey of anathardus. euphorbium. sometimes fetches out two pints of water in the four-and-twenty hours. which might be sharpened. An admirable prescription which he would recommend for the procuring of a good discharge by the nose was the or cow's milk and of water. that he was no easy Another remedy would recommend. as prepared carefully in these days. mix and dissolve in them two grains of elaterium . if requisite. over the coronal a sediment from pulp yielded by a plant called the It surpasses all drugs in its power of producing watery discharge from the mucous membranes. the nose. by the addition of This cerate. let this be drawn through the nostrils when the patient has an empty stomach. .116 through the JEROME CARD AN. had cured an asthma of seven years' standing. freely drank for eight days. Greek pitch and ship's white mustard. as approaching too near to the seat of the disease. and on the eighth day dropped upon the head suture. for half an hour. and the sutures of the skull. palate. blister fly. nightcap to suggest to an archbishop. especially the coronal suture. was water from the baths of Lucca. Applications to the palate he did not much like. and It sometimes only three or four ounces. the physician recommended an ointment to be applied over the shaven crown composed of tar. 1 Elaterium is Squirting Cucumber. would be a fearful overdose. he said. Two grains of elaterium. of following: Take of goat's each half a pint. which As a valuable itself application over the coronal suture.

Remain in the air. careful never to go out in rain or night-air. from a height. begin to cool. in a case like that of the archbishop. the brain its is into the By this habit. after a brief pause. of certain warm medi- cated waters over the coronal suture. it was advised that pains should be taken to promote good digestion. over with hot water. Next to the correction of the brain. first wash the head it. be dashed upon suddenly the beginner can rise gradually from the then. his grace should walk under the shade in tranquil weather. 117 He advised also the use of the shower-bath. dense. as he was himself in the habit of employing Celsus. and go on rubbing until there remains not a trace of moisture.TREATMENT IN HAMILTON'S CASE. and substance rendered firm and As applications useful but less useful he suggests also the dropping. With this view. upon the hint of In a well warmed bedroom. He make use of a perfume-ball. must be to prevent the generation in the body of the peccant matter. the most important care of the physician. warm chamber for two hours before going out Cardan. then pail full of water. but among perfumes used by him he should not . pitcher to the pail rub the head with dry cloths. and to give food that would not pass into thin humour and vapour. because perfumes are drying. containing a few ashes. Vapoury winds and moist and be should air would be injurious. says kept to a natural temperature. quite cold it let a from the well.

in spite of all the in- eradicable evils of his constitution. . finely chopped. relief. The heating of the spine and vena cava on to ascend a feather bed into the head. 134. and his vigorous use of the shower-bath. several might be placed upon each other. The great physician further advised that the arch- bishop's pillow-case should be of linen. too. whatever dan's theory." Cons.118 include roses. his practice was. straw. not of leather. In matters of hygiene. from a during the night. and should be sprinkled at night with a drying perfume. hard. should lie The never on his back. brains are sleep made warmer. for JEROME CARDAN. may be said of Car- on the whole. but to wait at 1 " Stupa serici. by the scent of roses some The reverend lord should not silk1 . p. but upon unspun and be particular upon that point. of water by the mouth. that he by lying on the might obtain was to be remembered loss. made to the prescription which he gave. Med. would cause matter straightway If one silk mattress proved too hard a couch. His grace was not to go to bed immediately after eating. it or side . extremely His just hatred of feather beds. The pillow should be of dry and if that seemed to his grace too . it might be stuffed with well dried sea-weed by no means with feather. but on his face face. sensible. out the later years of may have done much to lengthen his own life. upon feathers. patient.

digestion. ubi contingat necessitas debet uti ea inter duos somnos. pro exemplo ita ut singulis duobus diebus semel. if his conserve of peaches and sugar of violets. let him subtract from his studies: life. but the whole quantity taken never was to be divided into draughts with intervals of more than an hour between them. since they hurt people who have any tendency towards consumption. -where the reverend prelate is also admonished " de venere. take time from his business and give it it to his bed. to Instead of them. 135." it Upon body chanced to be irregular in action. injure the digestive power. was advised that his grace should take a compound of rising. let him. and by disordering the stomach. if necessary. waiting after- wards five hours for breakfast." . is and let the reverend lord believe that there nothing better than a stretch of sleep. 1 Cons. " that whose words I now quote. quam bis in una die. p. for that should be the chief care of his without which happy life is quite impossible 1 . and then breakfasting lightly. he was directed drink from two to four pints of at new ass's milk in the morning. helps much to good the sleep be for from seven hours to ten. therefore. let added Jerome. least 119 he was to sleep an hour and a half. Having retired. scilicet post mediam noctem. or in several doses. if that be impossible.THE ARCHBISHOP IN BED. one dose. et melius est exercere earn ter in sex diebus. Med. for. with his hand upon his stomach. That. or. all He was to avoid purgatives.

this. proceeded to give a long series of curious. The ass. When taking the patient should not at the same time eat much. fruit. He prescribed many of diet as particularly proper to be used by the . taking care also not to be immoderate in abstinence. live in freedom. beet. She should it eat corn and barley. ought next to comb his head with an ivory comb.120 said Cardan. nourish. should be well fed. not sunny. would serve his purpose. minute directions articles upon food and cookery. be grateful to the palate. and help also to avert consumption. his body and his lungs. such as mallow. Cardan. JEROME CARDAN. and. rub well his extremities. allay the excess of heat. walk for a short time in some pleasant spot. having performed morning duties. having first decided that in every man's case an established custom ought not to be interfered with. his first His grace. and provided with mild herbs. and the blossoms of roses. as fish or especially should eat nothing very corruptible. He should avoid all immoderate excess and repletion. In discussing whether breakfast or supper should be the chief meal. have foaled recently. should use very gentle exercise. and better if the foal were not a male. being fully dressed. by which the brain is comforted. and keep his mind as quiet as he could. oil anoint his spine and chest with of sweet almonds. whose milk he was to use. might be Ass and foal should and run daily together in the meadows.

was the water from the blood of a young full-grown pig and leaves. for jesting. would fatten a man rapidly. and be found able sometimes to bring back a hectic person from the gates of death. he wondered who would employ frogs as they had been employed by some in Italy. coltsfoot Two little ounces a day of this distilled water.RECEIPTS FOB FATTENING THE ARCHBISHOP. and the juice being drank. except the with water till shell. with which. The whole animal. archbishop. turtle soup (what say the aldermen of London ?) tortoises were to be preferred. and the flesh being eaten. cut off as that people is from the whole world. the largest being the best. he begged pardon and proceeded to name more pro- vocatives of fatness. of the of which distilled Cardan had personal experience. Among others. he gave the receipt for a capital thing. he . at the outset of his career. and added his advice 121 upon the preparation of such things as would tend especially to make those fat who eat or drink them. no other food or drink being used^ for about twenty days. efficacy Another excellent thing. He so advised also distilled snails . but when there were many pleasant things that might be used. taken with a sugar for about fifteen days. though he confessed that even they might find a place in the kitchens of the Britons. Having said so much. Chief on this list is tortoise or . was to be stewed down he was as nearly as possible dissolved. great fatness would follow.

improved very deflesh. ally or on various emergencies. It of life. flavoured with wine and a cinnamon or ginger. and Arabian. Med. if other remedies should Finally. the weekly shower-bath. who was with a skin disease. to be blished only as a last resource. Greek. fattens. This was a mixture of thick barleylittle water with chicken-broth. and Cardan sought patient's also to moderate the emotions of his mind. 141. and his lordship. the despotic limitation of his hours of business. strict fast enjoined during the whole period of an attack. He suggested methods of shutting air of him up. He advised strongly the use of the bath. 1 who was recovering his Cons. if The strictness of Cardan's regimen. closing the issue recommendation of an under each knee. It is easily digested. the strong check that he put upon the arch- bishop's appetites and passions. culled from the chief authorities in medicine. when in-doors. p. Roman. from the which he was afraid. afflicted had dieted and cured the Prior Gaddi. He list added a great number of medical prescriptions. dilates the chest 1 . the daily exercise. and other such reforms in the archbishop's mode soon told upon his health. cidedly. . the lengthened period of rest. he added to his own elaborate advice a selection of prescriptions suited to the case. the wholesome bed.122 JEROME CARDAN. to be used habituwith the estafail. not the efficacy of his medicine.

sent It an ill report of the condition of the was overrun by bands of robbers. bred out De Libris Propriis (1557). There were forty nobles who arrived in Paris on that errand. there also. nineteen gold crowns in one His chief patient. that. commencing of his own treatment of John Hamilton but his fame as a practitioner was near its topmost height. for what follows. . was by no means content helper. was a princely paymaster. after 123 to part with his good friend and thirty-five days Jerome remained in Edinburgh the . his prescriptions only. for which see the last book De Libris. Tom i. as he tells us. Many were coming in from the provinces that they might have the good fortune to be in the illustrious physician as capital and obtain advice from the he passed through to Milan. 1 Opera. Scottish nobles flocked to him.SOLIDITY OF CARDAN'S REPUTATION. letters Then tell came to Cardan from Ranconet to of nobles whom his fame had brought to Paris. rather than lose the chance told of profiting by Cardan's all counsel. thieves. p. for his advice. who had himself among country. and Gaspar. 137. but the tempting report sent to him by Ranconet was sent in vain. p. and his skill was not bestowed on the archbishop and paid so liberally only. he made out of two of day 1 . So Jerome was afterwards. 181. He had despatched Gaspar fallen Cardan to France. except the specification of the presents. and there was a prince there offering a thousand gold crowns as his consultation fee.

as we are told. a foreign traveller in France. him also an invitation to the court The young King Edward VI. to There had come of London. If he had not reached London till the 3rd of July. the wealth awaiting him in Paris. 106. all this part of the story would be wrong. see the Some same book. 23. not to seek known to to be attacked. where he had to confirmed his reputation. p. By the leaves that fell he was reminded that he should not like to face the rigours of a Scottish winter. John Hamilton seemed It have been raised from a death-bed. the lungs which baffled his physicians. therefore. It tallies with the statement. 68. several times made. 131. that he remained there 75 days. might fairly expect Jerome determined. therefore. JEROME CARDAN. The conduct Early in of his one lawless follower also distressed him. 1 of the following considerations are recorded in the Geniturarura Exemplar. Jerome returned more suddenly than the archbishop desired. giving three days for a rest in town. once he wrote.124 of the war. was most desirable. For the day of leaving Edinburgh. weakened by laboured under an affection of It measles and small-pox. have much money with him. was for his reputed skill in treating such diseases that Cardan had been at great cost brought to Edinburgh. p. that the Italian physician should be persuaded to go home through London and see the king. but to travel home through the Low Countries. brings us to the 12th of September very exactly. The correction of July into June. Cassanate plagued him with his jealousy. or it was printed. It was painful first to him to be absent from his chil- dren1 . and 75 for the stay there. . for the journey to Edin- burgh. by one of which.

Nor was it then a safe time for departure . Gold sons. of which fourteen to hundred went ants. his physician Finally. Jerome supped with his reverend patron. ten gold crowns a day. His grace paid him eighteen hundred gold crowns.VKEPARIXG TO QUIT EDINBUKGH. . he reminded him. 125 September. and received many gifts from the for his archbishop and visit his friends. also. war was everywhere. upon which he could comfortably for . On the night before his departure. and got from tation of his promise to resign the regency him the archbishop said that he was relieved. among other was the welcome one of an amset out bling horse. urged me. and on the 12th of September. therefore. The archbishop who had lent some of his renewed a retrac- strength already to his brother. therefore. the consent of the archbishop was obtained. the archbishop pleaded." With difficulty. had no power he should be detained no longer. until April." my Jerome " says. Cardan himself. not cured. was short. " The love of of temptation. and. the rest to his attend- This payment was much in excess of the stipulated to Cardan. a gold chain There was presented worth a hundred and twenty-five crowns gifts. in proportion to the great length of the journey he had undertaken. Cardan's stay. that if six would wait with him months more. Cardan to retrace their and to his followers quitted Edinburgh way London. and lamented that his help should fail just when he had begun to feel its value. he begged for permission to depart.

laid in down a regimen. He was in to begin every eighth day with the shower-bath already described. from the long written opinion already mentioned it was a careful and elaborate paper of directions for his lordship's private use. The directions left with the archbishop of course. . and was meant as a substitute for his left own presence in Edinburgh. and omitting reference to the contingencies of state of health. England. left in the archbishop's hands a document distinct . at his de- parture. This has been published among Car- dan's works1 . His attendants also received In return for all this liberality. No contingency could for in arise that had not been foreseen and provided one or other of the documents. prepared among the manner recom- 1 It is inserted also the Consilia Medica. Tom ix. they omitted scientific details. It gave careful and minute directions for the patient's management of himself. JEROME CARDAN. When he came out of his chamber after the morning. with the contents of the professional opinion to which reference has already been made . 225. the physician. tallied. pp. It will be enough to show how Jerome in this paper planned out the archbishop's day. which changes of season and other accidents were not out of sight. et seq. and weather. and gave practical results in the form of precise directions. season.128 his ride through. taking an average day. gifts. Opera.

he might proceed to eat more at his discretion chicken roasted or stewed. and squeezed . some bread soaked in gravy. chewing them to promote a beneficial flow of water from the mouth. to breakfast . only lighter. like his breakfast. Having returned. with two or three grains of ginger after that. he was to proceed to and shady promenade with a couple of tears of mastic between his teeth. He was by no means to be out of doors at twilight. Next. he was to also to re- now and then upon his bed. while he gave audience to those who desired speech with him. left a Having space of nine or ten hours between the his lordship two meals. cline an hour's ride on sit. After breakfast he was to rest and The four hours after twelve o'clock were recommended as his lordship's hours of business. 127 mended his quiet in the other document. and was for to avoid as much as possible all trouble. At nine o'clock he was he was to eat first the liver of a fowl. during which. but he ought not to drink in more than ten ounces. letters he was to write no with his own hand. towards seven o'clock His supper should be was to sup. take . and should be commenced by the taking of a spoonful of pure . At four o'clock he was to go out horseback. and he might drink all wine four or five times. free from excess of moisture then about two ounces of white wine. amuse himself.REGIMEN. however.

There was a cardinal in Milan advanced in years kept. better. It JEROME CARDAN. and good ones . would be well if he would sup often on bread and goat's milk. for. who derived much benefit from two goats that he Ass's milk. was but " . however." 1 he " said. 228. p. The nature of the bed he was to use has been described already. and promised that at the end of two years when the new system should have had its a full and to perfect trial he would send a report of results Milan. every Italian prince has many. Tom. Jerome suggested to his grace the usefulness of a good clock. In it he was to secure to himself ten hours of continued sleep.128 honey. ix. Opera." All the advice left by Cardan. He it therefore rerespect- commended him able to get such a thing . . or even At eight or half-past eight his lordship was ad- vised to go to bed. would do as well. Archbishop Hamilton resolved to follow. For the better assurance of punctuality in the carrying out of the system thus laid down. 1 Consilia Medica.

yet he could not change his gallows.IN LONDON. 129 CHAPTER CARDAN IN VI. dona accepi. where he was by him. is King Edward VI. for he was to die on a In his going through England. summer Cardan. who was then desperately sick of a dropsy." VOL. London 1 . vocatus ad regem. He was brought from Italy on the account of Hamilton. 133. it is In Bishop Burnet's History of the Reformation. K . II. Archbishop of St.Andrew's. he waited on so entertained King Edward. fate . with " 1 Geniturarum Exemplar. SUMMONED His visit to to the king on his return to to Jerome continued grow rich. as himself professed. he told the archbishop. " This recorded thus under the year 1552: the great philosopher of that age. of his disease : Cardan cured him conversant both in but being a man much Astrology and Magic. passed through England. that on many occasions he writ afterwards of him. that though he had at present saved his life. and observed his extraordinary parts and virtues so narrowly. Londinum in Anglia reversus. LONDON. mentioned in most histories of England. p.

not cured the archbishop of a dropsy. and perfectly sincere. and he had then. He calculated his nativity 2 . great astonishment. and that if he lived over the year 1554. in the year 1560. as wejhave seen. being the first four days after- at Sterling. It is incorrect. 1681). 1512. He was in a taken in the capture of Dunbarton Castle. Or shall we translate " Passio Cordis make good the fame of the astrologer. that The statement Jerome had prophesied is to Hamilton his death upon the gallows. found that he would attain his through much that he anxiety and peril (as any man could see was doing when the prophesy was made). p." to . and inasat ten in the much as he was born morning. perhaps founded on a popular tradition. ii. in bishop in Scot- who died by the hands of an executioner. 26. readers will remember." It was not until October that Cardan had audience of the king. Of that certainly the stars told nothing to Cardan. and hung 1571. 208 (ed. condemned wards land summary way.130 JEROME CARDAN. In his appendix of documents. he would be in great 3 danger from passion of the heart . fectly in earnest as He was per- an astrologer. Burnet. but had taught him how to fortify himself against the attacks of asthma. as being the most wonderful person he had ever seen1 . p. on the 3rd of felicity February. as 1 many 2 3 Geniturarum Exemplar. suffering by the cord. he quotes in illustration a passage from Cardan's Horoscope of Edward. vol. or poison.

" come. that if in 1548 he had read Ptolemy's Judgments. K2 . The impression made upon Cardan by the young king was. For he lan- had graces. and he was not unversed. and he adds. One of his luckiest predictions. or of natural philosophy. deceiving . or can " I do not know 1 . Latin. he was skilled in many guages. that he had survived. I hear. of which he his discovery makes special boast/ was that in by the stars in the year 1548. The boy of so much 1 wit and so much promise was by a Geniturarum Exemplar. yet others. perhaps." he said then. very great. after the fact. Quite as a boy. his gravity was that of kingly majesty. and He was not ignorant of dialectics. Whence it will come. in Greek. the events of the year 1552 were a fulfilment.PREDICTIONS. that the wealth was to for this boy not to have been born. his native English. " or that being born and educated. he should then have discovered come through a journey. p. French. In his humanity he was a picture of our mortal state . Italian. 131 What he saw on earth he found in the heavens. his disposition worthy of so great a prince. 1549 and the three following years he should " acquire great wealth. " It would have been indeed. himself with a surprising ingenuity tell but astrology could him no truth that was hidden from his neighbours. Of that pro- phesy. better. 91. or music. I think. Spanish." he says.

for it is Cheke with whom as the lodged. who had both been handsome 2 . John Cheke was entrusted with the education of Prince Edward. I need scarcely recal the Protestant. he knows of his own. 13. Sir lie John Cheke . 3 2 Ibid. man was knighted. And was to mark in his face of death that come Otherwise he was comely. lands. 37. most probably. and endowed with He had been made chief gentleman of the king's privy chamber in 1550. p. and so begot a controversy.132 JEHOME CARDAX. and published the at seventeen result. because of his age and of his parents. of June.' Gardiner. . Ibid. p. was introduced at court by the king's tutor. the learned By the prince. the reader probably has learnt more of the date of Sir John Cheke's birth than fact." Cardan. most familiar of his English He calculated also Cheke's nativity. 1514 3 That being set down. and whom he seems to have regarded friends. He was born minutes past five in the afternoon on the 16th . great miracle being educated to a comprehension of the sum of human things. There he taught a new pronunciachancellor. and it was in the October of the suc1 Geniturarum Exemplar. when he became king. In 1544. with rhetoric. that was forbidden by the Bishop of Winchester. I do not here adorn the truth . p. but speak below the truth1 there was the too soon. 5. that Cheke Greek tion early at became a and was professor of Cambridge.

and took part in political affairs. the French In Edinburgh. . Cardan tarried for some days in London. but escaped. P. Usellze Princeps. his friend. says Cardan. He did not avoid public calamities. He assisted after- wards at two solemn theological disputations. too. cap. hair moderately long. was then aged thirty-eight. it should ambassador have been Cell 2 . to vexed and remorseful at the age of forty-three. as the die we know. Sir John Cheke was to have ill of a com- plaint which Jerome pronounced been peripneu- monia. 133 ceeding year that he "was knighted. In May. while Cardan was in Edinburgh. and had for his principal friends John Cheke (with whom 1 . iv. as one of the most learned men Jerome de- duced from the calamities stars the fact that if he could avoid public live to the he would age of sixty-one. and decent eyes of a 1 De Vita Propria. cap.SIR JOHN CHEKE. the Ducdu had been Cheke. He was holding that new dignity when. with a yellow freckled and thin skin. His Tower and the scaffold by abjuring his religion. who was thirteen years younger than Cardan. xv. 1552. body. in October. and already in high repute in England. Sir John was made chamberlain of the Exchequer for life. said. he lodged) and Claude Laval. that the representative of France. when Cardan was on his way from Paris. * Whom he calls De V. On the 25th of August of the same year. was graceful.

soon He would die of a lingerfrom the brain. is he adds. He would. and received from him the utmost respect and attention. that Edward had been They Italian left measles and small-pox. as he says. of a dry tempe- rament. hairy. The was not required with his majesty as a physician in any systematic way. for in so doing. p. He would be always busy. He was. 41. therefore. He was posure to the sun. . but to do homage to the genius of his friend.134 grey colour. with active qualities. the glory of the English people. said Jerome. grow bald. to fit ing disease. grave. weak in the arms. Yet he repressed. tall. him with weaker than fere ever. ruddy enough from ex* handsome but unequally proportioned. humane. The chief desire among the nobles evidently was 1 Geniturarum Exemplar. liberal. there It a true happiness 1 . wise. six months before Jerome attacked by the his health to inter- visited the king. himself to Considering his country. all pride in himself. and de- sired not to obtain homage for his own wit. JEROME CARDAN. there being also deflux He would be a man admirably knowing how time and place. was on the 2nd of April. he would be shrewd and ingenious. Cardan while in London lodged with Sir John Cheke. and sooner grey. with cold humour and pain in the lower extremities.

even in his adult he attempted seemed mmish 3 it . and he was greatly shocked by what he saw. but such defects do not amount to deformity. Edward's nativity calculated. a grave aspect. with Edward. grey and handsome. 19. and some wished to use him 1 as a tool . may be that before having au- dience of his majesty. KING EDWARD VI. 2 Ibid. 135 by help of cne who was renowned as an astrologer. bad habit of body than a from fixed He had therefore a somewhat projecting shoul- der blade. 1 Geniturarum Exemplar. as described somewhat below the middle height. p. The courtiers. or four times. But tion the young king commanded It his unstinted admira- and good-will. 82. sufferer He was rather of a diseases. some information of the future course of politics. p. by cutting at the band that to tie his his tongue It is very possible that he desired to speak best before the King of England. worried him. and to have out if possible to find how long he would live. decorous.THE ENGLISH COURTIERS to get. He was such as placed in the midst of the English court life it was at that time. says Jerome. eyes. Cardan prepared himself by cutting the small band under his tongue. . and he life. It has tells been said that us that three to di- he had a stutter in his speech. was a stature pale-faced. " of by Cardan.

and in all things teachable. fifteen years old. language. or does not move in accordance with their motion ?" I: But "It does 1 so move. that it is not dissipated. after having pointed out various conjunctions of the stars. light of the planets. as a blindness even when contracted from birth. long sought for in vain. Genituramm Exemplar. Affections of his that diseases. says the philosopher. p. since the motions of those stars are different. I was told that In his own he had already mastered seven languages. He was not ignorant of dialectics." I say. " he was a marvellous boy. he was perfect." What is it?" says he. only much faster than they." " But the king: How is it.133 JEROME CARDAN. 15. " of the " The concourse." But. and Latin. French. and pronounced among other things that the monarch would have trouble from quadrupeds. were not habitual were to be called and a deafness troubling him at times 1 . When I had speech with him he was and he asked me (speaking Latin with : as much polish and promptitude as I could use myself) " What is there in those rare books of yours on the Variety of Things?" cate For I was obtaining leave to dedi- them to him. Then " I: "In the first chapter I show the cause of comets. .

"This boy filled with the highest expectation every good and learned man. took concern for public liberal of affairs. But the son was 1 free from all suspicion of Geniturarum Exemplar." Then I: "It occurs as in the milky way. who. but he was bland and companionable as became his years. * * * * When it a royal gravity was you would think was an old man you saw. managed to seem bad. mind.* When many one another they produce between themselves a certain lucid and white medium. as the 137 sun shining through a crystal makes a rainbow on a wall.CARDAN'S INTERVIEW WITH THE KING/ on account of the difference of aspect. called for. Therefore. is no subjectum. diately in a strain Cardan goes on imme- of genuine and hearty admiration. for to the rainbow subjectum the wall. while he studied to be too good." But the king is " : And how can that be done . slight A very in movement of the crystal makes a great change the rainbow's place. He was played upon the lyre.the when there. . as they say 1 . 17. p. on account of his ingenuity and suavity of manners. ex ungue leonem. and in these respects emulated his father." Having given this very candid illustration of the quick- ness of the king's intelligence. and by the candles are lighted near reflection of lights.

nine months. that his vital body would five afflict him. " At the age of twenty-three years. and twenty days. continent. His disposition sophic studies. a guardian of the right. and. after a recitation of his clusions. nate. though he de- powers would be always low. patient in labour. 19. was completely trained to philo- crime. and have desires and vices growing from and he would wise." The king's death followed so soon after these predic- tions. terrible. and in his book. life for Cardan provided a sufficiently long him. severe. suffer months. he would be desire. a rememberer of wrongs and benefits . that Cardan made it his business to re-consider false them. three months. as it were. and twenty-two days." Urged clared 1 . various diseases would fall to his lot. rigid. another Solomon. languor of mind and what seemed certain enough. He would be most and for that reason the fortu- admired of nations. At the age of thirty-four years. most prudent. suffer under im- potence. . he would from skin fifty-five disease and a slight fever. and seventeen days. magnanimous.138 JEROME CARDAN. p. intelligent." One 1 Genituranim Exemplar. As long as he lived he would be constant. After the age of years. con- he proceeded to give a dissertation headed "What I thought afterwards upon the subject. to calculate the horoscope of this boy.

in the prognostic which he gave to the king's friends he this had not made a distinct reservation on account. he said. and being cast was. he said. they would have been fairly entitled to complain of him. had he foreseen it. a priest Duke Galeazio Sforza. longed his pedient. all.HOROSCOPE OF EDWARD could desire VI. He did not wish to give any opinion at He He was compelled to write : the courtiers worried him. Ascletarion to Domitian. felt the danger of predicting predict he should by chance have to King Edward's death. the other. and exto movements that from month month and year year affect the ruling planets had been carefully inquired into. One. to make such less a calculation would have cost him. instant death to himself was the reward of his true prophecy to the . he not than a hundred hours. unless all processes. But said. and strove to implicate him in their plots if and jealousies. and to ingresses. he also predicted truly. that it He entered into details for the purpose of showing to was unsafe pronounce upon the term of life in weak ternal nativities. 139 is no better evidence than there here of Jerome's good faith and sincerity as an astrologer. starved out of the world. into prison. in the most cruel manner. He remembered having read of two men who predicted death to princes. have in it for a . would. If. Of course his faith in the supposed science was not shaken. life after he had pro- few days by a wretched exJerome.

to all and by his love predict the fate then imminent. first The part played by Northand the umberland. following that the upon which formed part of and it was on the llth of June Lady Jane Grey plot became manifest. on account of her whose creed religion. that for supposing. though there is much room for differences of opinion as to the extent of his criminality policy. there- he owed to his ignorance a most fortunate escape. the king evil. as and the exact aim of his Of course there is no just reason did. was no worthy one.140 JEROME CARDAN. sincerity. been urged by his own natural for the king. and he thought. It him till was in April that those matches were agreed Northumberland's designs. Cardan imputed too King Edward was much evil to the duke. after Cardan's departure. The king was induced to disinherit in favour of that unvictim. Cardan and many others poisoned. that knew. it He for thought also in the same way a providential thing to stop in Scotland until April. as the mover in these schemes most powerful among the nobles. till that he had not agreed he should then not have reached London his last disease. was in and so should have fallen upon The king. against no fault could be objected. and in the days of the succeeding February there appeared the fatal cough. not only his sister happy Mary. . kept too jovial a first Christmas. he that he should have told fore. but also his sister Elizabeth. that never left his death in the succeeding July.

sentence. by hate than all fear. in the final very completely the candour with which Jerome spoke always the truth about himself. the exchequer. being urged. when I perceived that everything lay in the power of one man. while he who had lost also two uncles by the mother's side successively condemned and executed. . and to have been fear.CARDAN ON ENGLISH but the following passage the opinion formed after a is POLITICS. p. so Geniturarum Exemplar. illustrates The passage also. week or two of Court experience in London. that I was it. and he had conciliated to himself most of the nobles by distributing 1 Church property among them. is He speaking of his false 1 prediction : "I could indeed. affect to have known through what was about to happen. 23. I did. He chronicles impressions formed during the autumn that preceded the king's death. indeed. silent an easy thing in so conspicuous a case. the parliament. foresee but in another way. 141 not iminstructive as showing by that philosopher of English politics. but I was so far far even from thinking of such an event. the boy. enough surely from foreseeing it. fleet. after the manner of some astrologers. was misguiding everything. not more plot the king's destruction. to And when were silent through dread (for he condemned judicially as many as he chose). the Children whom he could not rule he made rulers. and the power was with him whose father the king's father had beheaded. the fortresses.

for I saw the omens of a great calamity and was alarmed.. According to the science of astrology.142 that all JEROME CARDAN. A good astrologer." The failure of the astrologer could scarcely have been of accounting for the owned more failure frankly. and at the I. many other aspects and conjunc- have the most direct influence in modifying and sometimes completely altering his fortunes. Cardan upon spoke again of the young king. so one person's stars influence the stars of another. which Edward's death prevented his design of dedicating to him. and the calcu- lations necessary for an accurate prediction thus become extremely complex. In that book on the Variety of Things. The nativity of a man's wife. for example. and the nativities of each one of his children. proving a better prophet through my mother wit than through my knowledge of this science of astrology.: who had won so largely VI. and may well cost the labourer a hundred hours of work. at once departed. never is enough. command of him who was most hostile to the king. things might be done according to one man's decision. " If Edward his esteem. for perfect accuracy. together with tions. ought to be another Argus. that boy of wondrous . as taught it by Ptolemy and by Cardan. says Jerome. son's life As one per- upon earth influences the life of another. to predict a whole life from a single horoscope. The method was in no respect evasive.

had survived. . With and salutations parents and children part." he " replies. without blenching. the his and how do they "In lians . printed at the end of the book Som2 1 De Eerum The succeeding account morum Synesiorum. that they shall there await those left to retain behind . of course. 371. the dying say that they depart into immortal life. 143 hope. he would have contributed not a little to the establishment of the whole kingdom. Cheerfully. carried away with him from England certain impressions of a people he had for among whom " It is. For ? as Plato says. of the English people is collected from Cardan's dialogue De Morte. " that the English care kisses or not at all for death. that is 1 a true republic whose kings are philosophers . they are much are. pp. They surely merit pity who with such alacrity meet death. 285." But what do they look like." he reported ." The stranger. worth little 2 consideration. figure. and have no pity on themselves. asks a speaker in dialogue through which Cardan relates familiarly impressions. they bear with constancy the final doom. they are white whiter than we not so ruddy Varietate.CARDAN ON THE ENGLISH PEOPLE. what do they look dress ? like. some months been sojourning. et seq. p. without tot- tering. and each exhorts the other him in his memory. like the Ita.

when they are led to execu- with them. tion. an English arithmetician. urbane and friendly to the stranger. that all the barbarians of Europe love the more than any race killed in among themselves. and he. and they are broad-chested. Germans. because I had a youth with like a Spaniard. had been issued at Venice in 1520 by first publisher." by Victor Trinchavello. for they are glad to boast themselves most nearly allied to them. me who looked much But perhaps these people do not know our wickedness. but they are quickly angered. ." 1 condemned. liberal. take a piper They.144 JEROME CARDAN. greedy enough and drink. but therein they do not equal the Germans. much yet. " The English are faithful. We were nearly Belgium. the French. as possible their manner and their And even in form. the things done by the Highland Scots are the most wonderful. But as for fortitude. There are some among them of great stature . are rather prone than prompt witness There are great Suiseth intellects among them Duns Scotus and who rank second to none. and therefore study to imitate as clothes. plays them up dancing to edited Richard Suiseth. In dress they are like Italians. They are strong in war. they are more like the Certain Italians all it is. Cardan's Ottaviano Scoto. to lust They 1 . whose " Calculator. and the Spaniards. and ambitious. but they after food want caution . who is himself often one of the their death. and are in that state to be dreaded.

L . And wondered much." my but The an stay in London was not. therefore. he had accepted his departure might have been still more VOL. in figure. and maintain a sort of gnashing with the teeth. was a great pleasure me to many open to the living. see so penetrated. and provinces . colour. for I seemed to be in Italy. especially when I was in England. his for example. ignorance " of the I " Truly Cardan. says the it questioner. but their mouths I could at when they opened not understand so much as a word. very long if ." discomforts that he those resulting from so. gesture.CARDAN ON THE ENGLISH PEOPLE. offer was there made to Cardan by which. it. manners. twist words in the mouth. as I said. as far as to uI did. that was ready at once to seek and beg for leave to go on with journey. II. When I looked among those groups of English sitting together. dress. and rode about on horseback in the neighbourhood of London. language. as if and wondered them they were my countrymen tongue upon gone mad and raving. I completely thought myself to be among Italians: they were like." replies this is at any rate one pleasure But the questioner then urges the must have endured. 145 And you Scotland. could be taken there his children? But then what pleasure by one whose thoughts were with by the thoughts of those for that cause only I I was so racked left at whom I had home. For they inflect the the palate.

146 hastened. p. rather than of five hundred or a thousand which 1 2 De Vita Propria. i. Another temptation acknowledge the also he resisted. Jerome set his face in a determined manner towards Milan. Op. His spirit shrank also from it foolish. he thought life being so short. the greater part of his army through the cold and hunger. De Libris Propriis. who was that time besieging Metz. as he said. to become a dead man for the sake of a livelihood. were a year. He would not go it to King of France because he and to give thought wrong to forsake his liege lord in adhesion to the enemy 1 . where he. Lib. . indeed. in prejudice of the Pope. JEROME CARDAN. Laval. if King him eight hundred gold crowns five of France. xxxii. secure his There were others services for also who endeavoured at to Charles V. and promising a chain of kiss hundred gold pieces he would hands and at once leave the court of London. therefore. and to be unhappy 2. court servitude. for a long while. Jerome declined both offers. He steadily refused to to title of King Edward be styled Defender of the Faith. in the hope of being some day happy Resisting. Tom. because. 131. and also another confidential agent of the offering further. and took from the court a reward of a hundred gold crowns. for the preceding. the French ambassador. cap. He lost would not go to the emperor because he was then in a position of the utmost difficulty. all temptation. ult.

OFFERS FROM CHARLES
he was told that he should have
1

V.

AND HENRY

II.

147

if

he would overcome his

scruple

.

In

this

mood he

quitted London.

Our

capital itself

does not seem to have

made any

great impression on him.

In a chapter upon

cities

that he

had

seen, written soon
it is

afterwards, he says of London only that

about

fifty

miles from the sea,
confess
or

upon the river Thames; but that to
it
is

what he

thinks,

not by magnificent buildings
illustrious,

by

walls that towns are

made

but by men,

brave and excellent,

who

cherish virtue.

Fine buildings
for

for a foolish people are a

handsome body

no

soul 2 .

That

is

the whole opinion given

by him.

Determining, for reasons before stated, not to go

home

through France, Jerome
to take ship

left

London

for

Dover

3
,

meaning

from that port and cross the Channel.
there,

He

was detained
winds.

however, for nine days by adverse
desire or

Now

he had conceived a
to Italy

whim

to carry

home with him
talking of that

an English boy5 and

as

he was

whim on

the evening before he sailed,

the

person with

whom

he lodged showed him a boy
years old, honest, sensible, and

named William, twelve
obedient to his parents.
lived, his father's
1

His grandfather Gregory

still

name was Laurence, and they came

of

2

De Vita Propria, cap. xxix. De Varietate Rerum (ed. cit.),
For
this,

p. 672.

and the succeeding facts, see the preface to the Dialogue de Morte, at the end of the book Somniorum Synesiorum, p. 344.

3

L2

148
a good family 1

JEROME CARDAN.
.

The

boy's father
fine

may, perhaps, have

thought that here
son out into

was a

the world.

opportunity for getting his " The fates," says Cardan,

" thrust him upon me.

Neither I nor his friends took

time to remember that the boy could not speak either
Italian or Latin
:

if I

had thought of

that,

which was the

Deginning of

all his

misfortunes, I should scarcely have

taken him away.

But next morning, when

there

had

passed only some words on the preceding evening, the
father brought

him down

in haste, the ship then being in

a hurry to depart through fear of pirates.
fell

The poor boy
scarcely rise
told of that

down upon the shore, so that he could again even when helped; and when I was
omen
I almost refused to take him."

Nevertheless, seeing

with

how much

alacrity the boy was pressed into his
like

service,

Cardan says that he did not
William himself was
to
far

to

send him

back.

from manifesting any
therefore,
it

reluctance

leave

home.

Hastily,

\vas

decided that he should be taken, and the philosopher,
taxed with a

new

responsibility, set sail across the

narrow

Channel

for

Cape Grisnez, meaning, when he reached
Belgium.
book De Libris
;

land, to turn aside directly into
1

The surname of

this family is called in the last

Propriis, Lataneus; in the preface to

course being a misprint. Cardan says of the father, " erat Ligur."

Morte, Cataneus one of It was not, perhaps, of English origin.

De

THE ENGLISH BOY.

149

CHAPTER

VII.

THE PHYSICIAN AT THE SUMMIT OF HIS FAME.

WHEN

fairly across the sea,

Cardan discovered that the
left

English boy should have been
the son of poor parents.

behind.

He

was not
after-

His paternal roof soon

wards was thought worthy of sheltering Queen Mary and
the great Philip of Spain, and he had been sent with

return to philosopher under the impression that he would
his

own

soil

another Theophrastus1

.

But there were no

means of communicating with him otherwise than by He could speak only English, and the only signs.
English that could be made available in his case
it

belonged to the store of one of Jerome's followers
vain put into requisition.

was in

He

could have been sent back by

one of the physician's friends, Gianangelo Anono,
offered to take

who
was

charge of him

if needful;

but

it

Jerome's wish that he should go back of his
1

own

accord.

De

Morte.

In the dialogue.

150

JEROME CARDAN.
therefore took pains to disgust

He

him with

the enterfor
fol-

prise on which he was engaged, by whipping him

nothing on the naked skin.
lower
stood

At

the same time, the

who had picked up some knowledge
by
to

of our tongue

he

still

improve the occasion, asking the boy, while " smarted, Volgo Doura ?" (which is English for
little

Will you go to Dover?) but the
" No." only

Spartan answered

Then

the attendant asked him, "

Volgo

Milan?" and he

signified a positive assent.

Therefore,
to

by no means meaning that the youth should come
harm, Cardan abided by his
first

intention.

While they

were on the way from England, William's father died,

and there

is

a story of a ghostly head and dead face that

appeared to the boy and frightened him

when they were

on the water

1
.

Jerome Cardan, in
Gravelines,

his route

homeward, passed through
Brussels, to Louvain.
Frisius,

Bruges,

Ghent, and

At Louvain he
named

talked with

Gemma

properly

Reinerut, but entitled Frisius from his birth in

Friesland.

Gemma

Frisius

was professor of medicine in
like

the Louvain University, and,

Cardan, excelled in

mathematics.
of Charles V,

He had

been often summoned to the court

but had refused every invitation,
life.

much
was a
;

preferring the tranquillity of academic

He

remarkably small man, of the most insignificant aspect
1

Preface to the Dialogue de Morte, for the preceding.

AT LOU VAIN

ANTWERP
at

BASLE.
Leyden,

151

and when Jerome talked with him
years old,

forty-five

and only two years distant from
the travellers went

his death.

From Louvain
Antwerp, and
for

by Mechlin

to

no pains

Antwerp they remained a little time, In that were spared there to detain them 1
at
.

town Jerome met with
shop to buy a gem, he
bruised in his
skin-deep.
left ear,

a slight accident.
fell

Going

into a

over the brasier,

was hurt and

but the injury was not more than

Antwerp was
made, and to
from

the

first

place at

which any long halt was
slightly
re-

visit that

town Cardan had diverged
original route

his track.

The

was afterwards

sumed, through Liege and Aix-la-Chapelle, to Cologne.

From Cologne
Basle.

the travellers went

up the Rhine, by
and Strasburg, to

Coblentz, Mayence,

Worms,

Spires,

At

Basle, if

Cardan had not received timely warning

from Guglielmo Gratalaro, he

would unwittingly have
That town
little

put up at a house infected by the plague.

was the second place at which he tarried for a and there the learned Carolus
lished a
Aflfaidatus

time,

(who had pubin the
liberal

work on physics and astronomy at Venice year 1547) received him into his villa. That
1

De Vita Propria, cap. xxix. for much that follows on Cardan's Whatever route, for the next incident cap. xxx. of the same work.
is

said in the text more than may be covered by these references, will be found in the Geniturarum Exemplar, pp. 138, 139.

152

JEROME CARDAN.
at His guest's departure, to accept a valuable

man,

used great

effort to

compel

him

mule, worth nearly a hundred

gold pieces.

In the course of the same journey, a noble

Genoese, named Ezzelin, offered also to the traveller an

ambling horse (the English, Jerome
language an Obin
does he

says, call

it,

in their

mean Dobbin?); but he was
was quite white, and

ashamed

to take

it,

though he had never seen an animal
It

that he thought handsomer.

there were

shown

to

him two

of the kind, from which he

might have made his own

selection.

On
to

the horse given

by

Affaidatus,

Jerome turned

aside

Besa^on, where he again stayed for some days, that being the last place at which he tarried on his way.
liberal 'and courteous scholar,

There he lodged with a

Franciscus Bonvalutus, and met with a Church dignitary,

by whom he was
with
gifts.

hospitably entertained and sent

away

His was indeed a triumphal journey home
for his

to Milan,

fame abroad was

at the highest,

and

good

gifts

awaited him at almost every stage.
travelled into Italy, through
visiting at Zurich

From Besan^on he
and Zurich, of course

Berne

Conrad Gesner,

who kept open house
naturalist

there for

all

learned

men who came
men

into his neighbourhood.

Gesner was not only the best
all

among

the scholars of his day, but of

of that century he was the pattern

man

of

letters.

He

was

faultless in

private

life,

assiduous in study, diligent

to a remote part of Europe. he could produce as much out of his life own study its as though he had no part in the therefore records. land. Prompt to serve he was an editor of other men's volumes. Cardan we might have expected. Gallarate when he and Lucia came in from paupers! He had been called. or his personal acquaintance as a friend. 1553. himself. He had been sought by the emperor Scotland. and for the Queen of He had been honoured by the King of Engforemost The men for rank and learning in many foreign countries had been eager to obtain his aid as a physician. as beyond walls. a suggester to young writers of books on which they might engage themselves. 153 in maintaining correspondence and good-will with learned men in all countries. after an absence of three hundred and ten days. though his means were small came into Zurich. He came back into Milan loaded with honours and rewards to take his undisputed place as chief physician in the city . How different that entry from the former one. Jerome re-entered Milan on the 3rd of January. hospitable to every scholar that all. for the sake of his skill. sailing across on into Italy and there Lake of Como. and a great helper to still. by the King of France. But while finding time for services to other men. them in the progress of their work. a writer of prefaces for friends.AT BESANCON AND ZURICH. that on his way through Zurich he was So then the travelling Gesner's guest.

. by which he had been He became by right the medical adviser of the great men of the place. cap. less where he would have received something stipend of eighty crowns a year.154 JEROME CARDAN. despised. Ferrante was astonished and displeased. courted him soon after his return. Having in vain laboured to persuade Jerome. first thirty thousand crowns. but to the philosopher it sounded an insult. behalf of his relative." to To the credit of the governor. He refused steadily. of which the thousand were displayed at once : Cardan refused them. who refused to sell himself into a kind of it bondage. which he had in the days of his adversity failed to attain. He profor posed to buy his service to the duke in perpetuity. Gonzaga. The on governor. Gonzaga saw it no harm in such an like offer. xxix. the better for his self-assertion 1 From this point in Cardan's career we may glance back upon the dition past. but the physician. he betook himself to threats. the Duke of Mantua. Mazenta. and illustrate the change in his con- by referring to a few small objects of ambition not yet specified. it is be added that he liked him afterwards . to take fifty-five 1 than a willing He had been crowns De Vita for a like position at Propria. explained boldly rather die why was that *' he would than be disgraced. When he was leaving Sacco he had village or some designs upon the town of Caravaggio.

at Gallarate. whither his friends advised him not Rincio. his own life. and their services were inadequately recompensed. Ambrose. thus in the plague-smitten fulfilled and impoverished functions similar to Italian towns and villages. that he its but the plague raged so would probably himself have been one of victims. . miles from Milan. 155 much in the place.MILAN OFFER FROM THE DUKE OF MANTUA. he prudently withdrew. He doubts whether either Later in of the two would be disposed to marry twice. He himself claims credit for the next fact in balancing his own account of vice and virtue. 1 De Vita Propria. one of them who married upon incomes of twenty gold crowns. therefore. Others observed upon it. on a stipend of twelve crowns a year! settled Salaried physicians. he was a rejected applicant for the office of medical attendant on the hospital of St. having looked over the ground. At the same time he had thoughts of a hundred at crowns a year Bassano. a to to go. when he was thirty-seven years old. between seven and His condition was much changed. xxxiii. Cardan names two physicians. cap. An example of such an opinion from without will occur in the course of the present chapter. hoping to perpetuate their families. profit of which would yield a yearly eight gold crowns 1 . those belonging now in England as to an union surgeon. In those days of his poverty Cesare physician. and still struggling in Milan. leading Milanese thought it no shame recommend that he should settle in a village fifty of the district of Novara.

written between 1552 and 1557. . he wrote . he had not changed his manner with his fortunes. In the year following1 however. Cardan occupied himself upon the emendation of his Books of Subtilty. overpaid. These fables have. interesting portion of his They would have formed an works. Every year works of his were being printed or reprinted in one or In 1555 his other of the literary towns of Europe. published in the latter year. indeed. speaking of himself. he wrote at the : not. We have to regret also that the familiar letters which he arranged In 1554 he wrote for publication little have escaped the . 1 The account of these books. com- mentaries upon Ptolemy. or nothing he was prosperous in his profession. and in the further preparation of his work on the Variety of Things. written on the Loire. appeared at Lyons. is from the end of the Liber de Libris Propriis.156 JEROME CARDAN. two books. what I have has been not only spontaneously offered. remained unpublished. with twelve horoscopes appended. but he was the same man still. de- and the use of men. but in a manner thrust upon me. I might have had. press. he says. in a separate work published same time in the same form. " What I have Therein. After his return from Scotland. unhappily. containing nearly three hundred signed for the pleasure of children fables. The extent of his practice interfered with his desk labour.

yet all 157 ambition 1 . also. time. Before quitting the subject of these books. published afterwards by Cardan. letter to his old patient. we should not omit to take notice of a protest. then in prison quite in an Oration faith." which included details. as the next point up to which the this several threads into which narrative occasionally divides itself have to be brought. for the second work "On many biographical own Books. . ill. among other things. a little also.BOOK-WRITING. on the subject of a 1 liberty taken at Basle with p. 92." in accordance with my earliest The dreams of his youth were realised. In the same year happened I a domestic event that gave importance to the date. having been lately Dedicatione. take it. In the year 1557 Cardan published. published in 1556. Geniturarum Exemplar. therefore. wrote a work called 'AA^eta. a Declaration of the Size of Noah's Ark. a Gaddi." other medical books. and some miscellaneous essays. to in Praise of the Milanese College good that had he come at last and. From this list I have omitted the reply because that is to Scaliger. or De In 1557 he wrote a summary of medical " Ars science entitled Curandi Parva. and. part of an affair that will require separate consideration. and made good up to that year his the register of all his writings. He wrote. In 1555 Jerome wrote on the Uses of Water.

" were interpolated opinions. Henricus Petrus. set among formers.158 his JEROME CARDAN. interpolated in one chapter half a dozen words hostile to the Dominicans. and made that interpolation the occasion of one of the very few allusions to the religious movements of the time that were pen. work on the Variety of Things. translated both in Italian and in French. who replied in few words more or offensive sentence less justification. What did a matter to him so far away. and customs under which obeyed and used for so was born. But so far as regards my own what is way of life and my religion." he says. supplement to the books on Subtilty was printed Lyons. to obey that law. so. " As the writings of Saint Jerome himself. The was reproduced in an edition published soon after at Avignon. Cardan therefore appealed to the world on the subject years afterwards in the third and last essay on his works. . they are all consistent and distinct. and use those I ceremonies. which have been centuries many by my forefathers. Jerome wrote to the printer on the subject. and Nuremberg. suffered to escape his Few as they are. The printer of an re- edition issued at Basle. I desire to follow rites. be known to all that I nowhere play the theologian. lest by men who did not agree with his any person be misguided or deceived by let it others in my works. safest. as by Richard de Blanche. That elaborate at Paris. and that I wish never to stick a hook into another man's mass.

or to make is God of my own Perfectly mouth. included his best patrons drato. was of that harmless and philosophers." says the physician. fantastic however. own. and bishops.ALLEGIANCE TO THE CHURCH. but they were continued with the greatest difficulty on account of the assiduous care of sick people. au- without will of thority to my it." all himself. in his intercourse with began some writings. the citations following. For I had about that time ascended. Lib. It attacked no Church interest. should be observed. Tom. for this and . Cardan withdrew from cause of political offence. and which. or tolerant know more than needful1 . to the highest point of my and influence. i. but never kind that may amuse can infect the crowd. While he was class true to the Church. after Archinto. et seq. " In the " I year 1557. as it were. Sfonwill Morone. and others who he did not find be here- mentioned with this allegiance incon- sistent much bold speculation upon things divine. Propr. for his pen to work out Be Libr. Hamilton. and did not hurt him. though there were many refusing acknowledge it difficult and even plotting against me. Op. that I have 159 a no wish to sow to discord. most of them magnates. p. cardinals therefore. and faithful to the priestly throughout life by which he was it supported liberally." Findall ing 1 to make time ult. 112. so that I had scarcely breathing time. His speculation.

re- Jerome had. 1 running as follows "Your two most welcome letters. a physician we have had many illus- and among the incidents of practice that occurred between the date of his return and the year is at Milan. with a : from the reverend lord. that way arose his volume upon which treats of the essences of things. he began. At the end of two years and one month there arrived a Scotchman. in the interval. He began. therefore. that end of two years he would send word how his treatment had succeeded. Of his prosperity as trations. I received through the hands of an English merchant. ed. another book on a matter of which he had had much experience. letter known to Cardan. another was brought by the lord bishop 1 at The letter is printed in the book De Libris Proprii?. a sixth or seventh. then in his most prosperous day. 1557. To hasten the com- pletion of five or six works. also. written in former months.160 JEROME CARDAN. the ideas passing through his head. one only necessary to this narrative. 1557. the Uses of Adversity. and in Dialectics. he resolved then to establish a method for the more ready finishing of books that still remained upon his hands. left It will be remembered that Cardan Edinburgh with a promise at the from Archbishop Hamilton. both written and sent but for two years no tidings of the archbishop were ceived at Milan. . to him.

VOL. II. For I had addressed very many " you. M . for the almost complete subjugation of my life disease. I had from Scoto. but am uncertain whether they have reached your hands. and sometimes once in two months. From when so I had your medicines. not only for your various and very little welcome gifts. thank you. I may this say. for strength regained. in fine. many and great benefits But now I despatch to you a and entreat and pray living letter (namely. however. prescribed and prepared with art much and dexterity. that he pay a your excellency. with your most choice commentaries on To all these I have the very difficult work of Ptolemy. Your last 161 letter Dundee. and body of the time mine I hold as received from you. All those good things. and who visit to Rome. itself. the accustomed attacks now scarcely occur once a month. then too they are not urgent and pressing. but are felt very slightly. three or four times amply and abundantly letters to replied. and.TIDINGS FKOM HAMILTON. saluting you in my name. but also for my health. this Michael). for recovered. the its disease that is peculiar to ine has nlade visits with much less frequency and violence. with. I have is given orders to a servant travelling to whom you shall know. that is in great part restored. as they used to be. the Indian balsam. " h would look like ingratitude all (and I confess to it) if I did not acknowledge those and send you back thanks. Now.

" Michael was the archbishop's first chamberlain. From our metropolitan seat of St. Jerome. p. but that we present to each other. from to my heart. Andrew's. went home returned. you send word to me by him. service. in may be always my name. without delay. that the separation of our bodies may not be a separation of our minds. Besides. year to his father's house. the physician. as has been seen. his just and high notion of the due dignity of letters. But those were refused Though rude of speech. he will. . with aid. those I wish you. that if I can be of use will you in anything. October. your excellency. Master last William Cassanate. or money. was not rude with the pen.162 JEROME CARDAN. Farewell. and he came privately authorised ments if to offer to office 1 . and has not yet certainly offices A man me. Cardan large pay- he would take offers as Hamilton's physician. and of the courtesies by literary men to one another. and the moment I have tidings of consider the thing done. 1554. not only kept all anger out of his i Geniturarum Exemplar. 193. worthy of great name and honour. send it me " intelligence. whose daily and house companionship are very pleasant to I would much urge and beg your excellency not to fall short of your usual kindness in writing to me. to salute who are of your household.

Francisco Vimercati. Vimercati was a good Greek scholar. who had taught at Milan? and had ranked the elder Scaliger among his pupils. afterwards he was summoned Turin by the Duke of Savoy. The friendship felt for Cardan by his fellow-professor. his heir. whom Among were two brother physicians. Albuzio had. his and was the best interpreter of Aristotle in ration. to Paris. There was also a Milanese patrician. printed works. like Jerome.FKIENDS AUD ASSOCIATES. Montagnano Cavallo and Aurelio Stanno. he never saw. jurisconsult astrologer. own gene- Another of Jerome's and friends was Boniface Rho- diginus. who acknowbeen called ledged himself a disciple of Cardan. cardinal. and there made professor of philo- sophy. and he thus again acquired a patron in the Church. friendship with many whom he was these His recent tour had added to the number of his friends. people by correspondence. but caused him to establish and maintain. struggled a while M2 . Alciati the Alciati the jurist. related probably to the great Ccelius Rhodiginus. was maintained by Cardinal Alciati had power to become another strong supporter of the great physician's fortunes. and there were others with in his best days personally very intimate. To name this list of friends we must not delay to add the of Gianpietro Albuzio. who might have been named Cardan little in a former chapter as fellow-professor with at Pavia. He had to by Francis I. skilled in philosophy.

after his return. In Milan. through all its trials and its struggles. and when a vacancy occurred. but a deep theologian. at Gallarate. Giuseppe Amati.164 JEROME CARDAN. in succession who became a soldier. political functionary . and who became a notary public. His elder son. but no prospect of greater gain could tempt him from From the chair of Rhetoric in Pavia he passed to the chair of Logic. His old prac- pupil and relative. He became his post. He also was a very learned physician. cap. Gaspar Cardan. Jerome names also Melchior. popular. versed not only in polite letters and history. who became a Cristofero Sacco. having with of friends are from the fifteenth chapter 1 The preceding names De Vita Propria. true as a lover to his university. xxxv. but at the age of twenty-five obtained the chair of Rhetoric at Pavia. in Greek and Hebrew. later years 1 . and one Thomas Iseus. Cardan was rarely without one or two youths under his care. though was met with an unsparing enmity. 2 De Vita Propria. a Milanese physician. Gianbatista. towards whom it he maintained always a great good-will. and from that time remained for forty years. his faithfulness was rewarded with the senior chair of medicine. . he had three pupils Fabrizio Bozio. had tice in commenced Rome 2 . and was invited to Bologna and to Pisa. With him Jerome became more intimate in Among other friends.

Tom. reprobate. for he was a glutton.GIANBATISTA. upon stupidity. Aldo gave Cardan says. . 92. This son. Certainly he and . His simplicity verged. he he was distressed by one. much trouble after his return now. that concerning Galen had forbidden any physician to use Lib. i. Milan under his but even then was not easy to procure his reception into the Milanese College of Physicians1 . Authorities for the preceding will be cited in the sequel. Milan. Op. ult. in spite of his father's praises and fond partiality. 165 much Pa via. trouble after practised at it two rejections obtained his degree at father's auspices. appended by Utilitate ex Adversis Cardan to the first edition of the work De Capienda. p. the young physician threw out a professional remark onions. but " It was Upon not to be eaten talk. perhaps. The account of the origin of Gianbatista's book is taken from the introduction to the book itself. he had himself only acquired that taste for dice which Jerome set aside when he had he had a attained the position sought so restlessly. 2 . taste not acquired at home. now by another. and sometimes by both at once. De Cibis foetidis non edendis. Aldo was becoming very little it fast a hopeless Gianbatista wrote a very book while he did not go to the fetid foods was in his father's house at press during his lifetime. does not seem to have been particularly clever. De 2 Libris Propriis." and arose out of the domestic supper- Upon the appearance of the usual salad.

some great cures. for it is was not particularly quick or brilliant. never practising in gave her father any pain. that he himself subject. Bartolomeo Sacco. p. . While he was Milan. little He began also a " tract On Lightning. and effected. in a book published after his return from England. 122. received with her from the hands of the great physician a befitting dowry. a courted her.166 foetid articles. batista Finding his father to be serious. 1 In after life she never gave him any Geniturarum Exemplar. and married her. Gian- began next morning his little treatise. after his return from his great journey. as his father declared afterwards." but that was not a kindred evident. I think. Clara. sur- Jerome contradicted that assertion. for Galen was particular upon the point in more places than one. and thought that he must intend some joke or trick. daughter." He attended poor people and others. to whom it was allowable to introduce him. or the like in food. as onions. Physician of Milan. garlic. an excellent and wealthy young man. addressed "by a Physician to Jerome Cardan." Libellous The daughter. " de- " My nativity and that of my cree to me many calamities and little good. but the little nativities of my sons promise stars! me much good and harm 1 . JEROME CARDAN." Jerome said. His son was prised. and Milanese patrician.

cap. 1 De Vita Propria. . Then. Jerome forgot. and the boy seemed to be very quick at learning. though he re- ceived in one year ten gold crowns. to read William did not appear it. except at the fact that she continued childless1 . when Jerome bought a book. he did not fulfil the trust he had too thoughtlessly accepted. xxvii. that had. says Cardan. at all solicitous to learn for he was immoderately fond rather of playing In the crowd and it with companions of his own age. his duty to his charge. because. 167 reason for an hour's regret." but the master took small pains to teach. hold of Cardan When to he reached wishes or little Milan. till he had picked up a knowledge The physician became full of occupations. At the end of a year and a half he spoke Italian well enough to complain that he had not been sent to any school. and the luckless William suffered great neglect. But there was another member brought into the housethe English Boy. or nothing could be done of Italian. He people of his country seemed to have aptitude for music. culpably must be said. nothing had been done for him. unable to explain what were his own what promises his father might have made him.THE ENGLISH BOY. been " the put under a music-master. however. hurry of his daily practice. When his conscience was uneasy at the boy's neglected education.

assist very useful the comprehension of the books on Subtilty therein expositions of some difficult passages are given. obedient. i. Cardan says. " he was so loved by me. 2 and demonstrations not commonplace. " Wherefore.168 JEROME CARDAN. that "in those days a person wrote against my It is books on Subtilty. ult. so many impediments were now raised in way by my sons. and that made me feel more heavily that I appeared to be deficient in the my duty to him. and clever. Lib. which is added to . Op. honest. was patient in enduring labour. sometimes both at once 1 . that he could not have been loved better . he was gifted with remark- ably acute vision." So lightly the philosopher thought it proper for the dignity of scholarship. my Now one troubled my waters for me. Tom. Preface to Dialogue de Morte for the preceding. reflection that the he consoled himself with the youth seemed to have no taste for study. 2 De Lib." the physician adds. Prop. who had begun p. But he was faithful. and was never querulous. that he should pass over the violent and unprovoked assault upon his credit next to be chronicled. But in mean time. The assailant 1 was the elder Scaliger. though few ." Very incidentally and without giving any date. that I could attend to little else. the other. 117. to the third edition of the work. . in reply to whom I wrote an Apology.

"aterrible some generations. and considered Verona was his heritage it is whenever he could get it." the grandson calls him indeed the whole family was terrible Boniface called . and the other children. His father. Julius Cassar Scaliger. saving their lives by flight. it is He was not then named Scaliger. He was born seventeen years before Cardan. became page to the Emperor Maximilian. He La that claimed to be descended from the princely family of Scala to which Verona had belonged. declared positively that the Scala for family had been extinct Boniface. and from which Brother Luca had drawn the were to delicious carp that him not less agreeable than mathematics. proving himself a soldier on all occasions. belonging Benedict. life as 169 it a fighter among soldiers. wherein he Titus. The to his father. the castle was attacked by the Venetians. and particularly and at the battle of Ravenna. and closed as a fighter among scholars. man. the mother. and at doubt- whether he had any time a right to take the name. taken and plundered. on the banks of the same lake of Guard a within which Jerome had once been nearly drowned. birthplace was the castle of Ripa. At twelve years old the future scholar. with the infant just born. On the other hand. fine Him he served for seventeen years. ful lost his father his elder brother. Two days after his birth he had the pressure of the times. who had done good service in war to King felt Mathias Corvinus.JEROME ASSAILED.

held himself to be a prince born to a principality that was maintained against him by the enemy. At Bologna he had made himself remarkable his hair cropped. after- Enemies of Scaliger made wards.170 JEROME CARDAN. after his place of education in Sclavonia. at length quitted for the pope- his post in the army. Da Burden. To get his own. while other Italians by having wore it tolerably long on each side of the face. in order to distinguish clearly his brother Titus. Julius Caesar. He studied especially Bologna logic and scholastic philosophy the works of Duns Scotus but a little closer knowledge of Franciscans soon disgusted him. he become thought that he could do nothing better than declare a pope. monks used He became known. resuming his old profes- sion as a soldier. as the to do. under the King of France in at last He was diverted from a military life by love of knowledge and by gout. and having been suf- . therefore. rightly or wrongly. bearing the name of Burden. and he forsook their company. Verona being in the hands of the Venetians. and. and war with Venice. He. between him and light. served Italy. Julius Caesar. and began a bold push dom by at betaking himself to Bologna with a view to prepa- ration for an entry into the Franciscan order. of the Verona story. by his crown among re- the Bolognese as Tonso da Burden. when he left therefore. tained That name he study. and undertook to prove that he belonged to a family of humble tradesfolk.

with a young woman of thirteen. the first good edition of the Table-Talk Editio altera." . de an eminent practitioner who prospered his wife greatly. it is said. SCALIGEE. and very soon to marry at Julius Caesar Scaliger thus 1'Escalle. have been maliciously exaggerated. he had an he was terrible them. how- ever. and the boys seem to have been " terrible. authoritative way. the scholar. whom all seven survived. 1667. quibus prior Cologne. they detained the physician. Within he fell that time. My all father." said his son Joseph Justus. He was more when he feared than loved at Agen. became fixed Agen of as M. He and had fifteen children. I think. In 1529 he ac- his home. a majesty. on condition that he should not be Agen longer than eight days. him to settle in the town. in familiar talk1 "my father was honoured and respected by those court gentry. a presence .J. the 171 ficiently disgusted with notion of a monk's life. caused her. Her youth must. et innumeris iisque foedissimis mendis. at any rate her charms were powerful. turned physician. then bearing the name of Burden. at the age of forty-five. cried out he frightened all of Auratus said that Julius Caesar Scaliger had a 1 The preceding sketch is amplified by reference to. passim scatebat diligentissime purgata. in love . Exemplar ilia restituta. like their grandfather and their father. and all the succeeding traits are taken from. He received his doctorate at Pavia. ad verum of Scaliger the Younger: " Scaligerana. C. as medical companied the Bishop of Agen to detained at adviser.

. he killed some. I resemble him in every respect perfectly. spirit of the family. . " was killed by . said Joseph Justus. Devil. 229. like an emperor's. p. where he was armed afterwards by Stephen. p. Yes. hurt and fled to Poland. that once for sport in lance practice others. the aquiline nose. that he He had a familiar demon his son says a devil2 urged him to write and gave him understanding. so There as is no king or emperor who has grand a way he had. 1 My brother Leonard. his fellow- sponsor. Look at me. one died a nun." tellement 2 " Erat Daernoniacus. . II estoit terrible et crioit Scaligerana (ed. was commonly. . cit). 3 Ibid.. the king.. when he engaged with eight Germans. Constant.172 face like JEROME CARDAN. . I was but eight years old when I held my my little sister at her baptism. He had two daughters the beast I do not know which of them was but they must have differed from each other much . My sister is a poor creature." Ibid. They stabbed him too. the Gascon He was so terrible. but destroyed by the envy of the nobles." Julius Caesar Scaliger A terrible man was when he believed that girded up his loins to birch Jerome Cardan. any king's. the other died the widow of two . p. habebat diabolum ut credebatur. . 233. husbands3 His sons all had the called. during a hunt. a beast1 . One of them. 228. and on the same day the birch father gave me birched me.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCALIGERS." are all selected from The succeeding citations the same work." rana. Jules Cesar de 1'Escalle de In the deed he entitled Burden 2 . Sealige- " Qui dicebatur Vasco Diabolas. bought houses. for the son says. 173 Conde would do nothing 1 . He used always to say me. she also was prompt to use. had talents of no . he therefore obtained letters of naturalisation. de TEscalle made money at Agen. mean .' So indeed he became and striking 1 but the elder Scaliger. where they 3 Scaligerana. with a bold character. Italians. p. to . may be were first printed by Bayle in his seen in a note to the article " Verona. twelve men: I never could have justice. p. 234. and they had made a lawyer of her. M. therefore. she would have won all the bad causes. 3 The Dictionary. Justus. that she had been a man." says the son. and acquired property which he could not hold securely as an alien . is and became a Frenchman. . I want you be more learned than I am." de We may as well know something too of Madame from her son Joseph : 1'Escalle " My mother was very if eloquent in Gascon." What weapon she " had. My father used to say. . letters of naturalisation tarn terribilis fuit . The new adoption " was no shock father to his patriotism. 233. My father. order. My thoroughly hated the and they hated him3 . to who became famous " my father called me ' and * my mother Joseph. and may be found scattered between the pages 227 and 243.

although they were not equal to a contest with Cardan. and a justly eminent physician." or three I must add. During the nothing . in walking. and understood Hungarian. French. that belongs to us by race. and Latin. both in the style. old pictures and new Neither ones spectacles. How could he have been puny? At the age of sixty-four he could carry a weight that four ordinary men would barely lift. Greek. and by few Frenchdialect men not to the manner born most perfectly. He was not so good a scholar and a critic as his son. declare that together tall. Spanish. two minor " characteristics. the thumb and ring-finger. Greek and Latin yet only with two fingers. first forty-seven years of his print. on account of gout. my father nor I ever have needed My father did not mend his pens. to complete our picture of the man. He thought to Xenophon and Massinissa rolled would not make a Scaliger. of course. and talked to the sick. He it was kind no lie and hated liars. He was well made.174 JEROME CARDAN. He had memory. they were . " My late father. life he published then he began to and thenceforth poured a wonderful Italian. but he was a better poet. was so bold and erect. out writings in a flood. and yet he was gouty. German. bold and erect walking. upon the same authority. it he caught the Gascon like a native. and robust. he accomplished a feat that had been achieved by no other alien. My father painted perfectly.

" energetic Scaliger the First. that the Latin of Cicero was insufficient for the purposes of scholars in that day. that they were to be earned by fighting. with his pen. The second German edition was dedicated to me month of My father always said that he should die in the October. and need scarcely be said that his notion of literary laurels was. also asserted and acknowledged. and that why books were so well printed. and that 1 it must be modified and amplified for use in Europe The Desiderii Erasmi Ciceronianus. My father. and so his literary career happened that he began with a violent assault upon Erasmus. sive De preface to the first oration is dated 1531. whom The he detested. of course. 175 made for him . is My his father wrote his copy very carefully. I cannot mend mine properly. he saw abuses more and more every day. and Cardan among them. orations Erasmus had published two Latin 1 . soon it made main himself famous. it His book was very well printed at Paris. He once imitated exactly. and he wrote epigrams against the monks. an old Arabic manuscript. Optimo Dicendi Genere. sixth edition of My father replied to the Cardan on Subtilty. upon Ciceronian the object of which was to show what most literary men of the time. four years before was half a Lutheran. did not contain one misprint. .SCALIGER AGAINST ERASMUS. so he did his death. He must win them in it tilt against renowned knights of the quill.

1 to the candid reader. who had proper principles upon Erasmus was quite unprovoked. It was also too cumbrous to suit itself to modern idioms of thought. Was there a better thing that Scaliger could do letters. and should to the end of time never be departed from by any scholar of taste. physician. 1554. sufficed for every purpose.176 as the universal JEROME CARDAN. Scaliger aspired next to be talked of as the rival of Cardan. Scaliger raised the cry of Cicero for ever. language of the learned. as used by that orator. and rude in the manner. and was just then perhaps the most renowned and popular of all contemporary philosophers. Joannes Bergius ex- Julii Caesaris Scaligeri Exotericarum Exercitationum Libri xv. de Paris. . Subtilitate ad Hieronymum Cardanum. the two names as the were placed in opposition names of rivals. That physician had been travel- ling through France. attack The but as it was Scaliger against Erasmus. On the same principle. after some years of warfare against men of lower mark. wrong in the matter. and asserted that the language. than fight Cardan in presence of the world of and make him be all confess in his throat the books on Subtilty to nonsense ? therefore He addressed Fifteen Books to of Esoteric . all His books on Subtilty were being talked of by learned men. Exercitations upon Subtilty 1 Hieronymus Cardanus which were prefaced by an address from Joannes Bergius.

" VOL. committed more errors than he attempted to By Jerome's dignified reply the attack was made to look extremely pitiful. seems to have required that on every page. was a thick military book.SCALIGER AGAINST CARDAN. but was unwilling that his comments should be he printed. certainly. in the dispute to that of a giant fighting with "Upon II. to reply to battled with its errors. A standard compares the historian of spirit Italian literature. N . Scaliger himself At abjured all imputation of a desire to raise himself upon the ruins of a brilliant reputation. with no the end. was. if it His book. and Scaliger. failed. and the opinion of the learned. Tiraboschi. for his own private amusement. jeering. as reported faults by Naudaeus. and felt it proper to admonish the occasion him as a father now and then. he. with severity. if severity be It implied by railing. when he had read sent it on to Scaliger. for was grieved at Cardan's errors. Being urged then the book more amply. that though there were Scaliger correct. quarter and no courtesy. thought that he should have put an Italian curb upon his runaway wit. plained that the fame of Cardan's 177 work having induced it. full of hard fighting. and rude personal abuse. But he was urged at last to suffer that. matters of philosophy and mathematics. him to get it. The contest was unequal. had that object. in Cardan's book. shown by Cardan a girl. he displayed his willingness to do so. Occasion when required.

824). you lie. p. " We confess. p. if it is not yielded.178 JEROME CARDAN. however. vii. at the same time 1 agree that he achieved a perfect victory over his rival ." Jerome did not trouble himself very much about onslaught. 3 He says that he added his answer to the third. too. not perceived.). 160. the quota- tion of one exercitation his it is one of those in which selected only for its he had the sense on shortness 2 . " Scaliger he says. Exotericarum Exercitationum (ed. was not worthy all to come into contest with Cardan. sweetish taste. while they acknow- ledge that Cardan erred on many points. gold has a far better taste. on the his Cardan himself says on the second3 . You that say that silver has a pleasant. vol. from this that you are divine. who know what no man it is knew? does not For act. And it. not acted upon. to the sixth impression. sixth. 1 Tirabosclii. Joseph Scaliger says. you do not perceive. the will say whom you call too rash. If Aristotelians. cit. you are not acted upon. do not enunciate. own side." The tone of Scaliger's book little may be shown by . as there were piratical issues in some towns which Cardan would not reckon with his own. ceptible. . but does not yield alone Are you not ever If it clearly divine. 2 689. 1 this which was based. edition of Storia della Letteratura Italiana (Milan. Scaliger may have replied. If you are you do not If you do not know that there is anything perIf you do not know. you enunciate. and the learned. perceive.

&c.CARDAN DEAD AND ALIVE. 1620. and what was more thought reparation unintentionally unlucky. 179 In what temper an answer was pre- pared will presently be stated. Xenophon and Massi- who told him that the renowned philosopher of that Milan had expired under the terrors of his criticism Cardan was dead. Typ. and my efforts so laborious were followed that I by a calamity so dire I thought must not neglect to leave a testimony to posterity to that the distress of 1 mind occasioned Jerome Cardan by nunc primum vulgata?. as an illustration of vanity. . belongs to the curiosities of literature. and the attack of Scaliger upon them. Tolosae. Cardan survived funeral by seventeen years the author of the succeeding harangue " When the cruelty of : fate had pressed on me so miserably that with my private glory was combined the eminent and : bitterness of public grief. quintessence of nissa. and put forth an oration which was published with some letters of his1 and which. celebrated book. his death it. was caused by the Scaliger believed belief. Accedunt prseterea N2 . In the mean time. Kaymundi Colomerii. and that Exercitations. no answer having come to the hands of Julius Scaliger after the lapse of many months. acted upon his He due to the public for the harm he had done. It was published as an appendix to the Ciceronian Orations of Erasmus. I think it must have been some jester practising on the vanity of the disinherited Prince of Verona. Julii Caesaris Scaligeri Epistolse aliquot alia quasdam opuscula.

ought to have preferred the venience. lost who am but a private man. way in which my casti- to the increase of his own " But he was so great a students that if he man as to be able to show to had judged truly. who am but a citizen of the literary world. and even (immortal gods lucubrations: for he approved of rested all an applauder of so my them much.180 JEROME CARDAN. may know how to repair. he would have seen the truth of his all the things that I had written contrary to own doctrine. of man. of whom I heard commonly . the same preconfirm sence of mind would have determined him asserted. if he had felt otherwise. that there could escape his knowledge no possible gations might have been turned celebrity. to this I who in that mind and hope wrote that he was. that he hope of his own defence in silence. great was his merit in departments of letters. despairing of his own power. " For even if his life had been a all terror to me. ignorant of his own strength : for in strength and power he so much excelled. yet so that I. trifling castigations my was not greater than rny sorrow at his death. so far as to what he had once he had asserted what could be confirmed. have !) a witness and a judge. common good to my own personal con- For the republic of letters is bereft now of a loss great and incomparable man: and has endured a after centuries which perhaps no I.

and 181 mortals. nor in the opinion should it men For be absent.SCALIGER'S all FUNERAL ORATION. to be most acute and confident in his own greatit For was easy to obtain from him. set my heart upon the winning of a sleepy " Such victory of judicious to is not in reason absent. but who does not life. even against himself. to this opinion my mind are all always has little adhered. the most simplest for little courteous of men. see that I expected hard-earned praise out of his his assent. that every man is (since we of us but more than nothing) so capable of fault that he might if this contend. but it is of no use my fame. to dispute supinely with so great a hero? in so great a conflict and so great a dust. it was not likely that I should have victory. But be the case with a most consummate man as it is often with me and some down others. even by the letters an exchange of friendship. for one almost worn down among incessant disputations. battles or Was it one long exercised in all accustomed to meet with audacity perils. the most ingenious erudite. not idle quiet through his death. through and as it were desertion of the argument. his slips from truth are not to be set in the register of errors unless he shall after- . trusted indeed that he would not vanquish me. " Especially. illustrious men. might I have been allowed to enjoy the benignity and beneficence of one whom I knew ness. con- sumed with daily cares of writing. if he pleased.

if while he was living. communion of our minds and Wherefore. madness ? how that would have gone near to So much that divine man shrewdly considered. What he could not bear. lament my lot. but instead of the anticipated victory I obtained such a result as neither a steadfast man might hope (for who would have anticipated such an end to the affair ?) or a strong man desire. I studious judgments for the public good. from a consciousness of their truth. until he supports his fault with an unworthy defence. since I had the clearest reasons for en- gaging in this struggle. pass for firmness. He does not err through anything that falls from him too hastily. that is. fierceness for courtesy. in But he had embroiled himself a more pertinacious disputation. dying he could. he bore. " My praise of this man can scarcely be called praise of loss suffered an enemy. And the what he could have borne he did not bear. Therefore. the most explicit cause of conflict. he received my endeavours to correct him silently. what living he cculd not endure. For I lament the by the whole literary republic. men may measure as but they will not be . what could have been more to my if honour? For he would have received my words as from a teacher or a father with the most modest assent. who cannot now understand. from the agitation of mind already produced. the causes of which grief the herd of they can. Obstinacy must needs wards determine to defend them.182 JEROME CAKDAN.

Royal in lenity. he may be called shameless who should venture to compare with him. For no man was more humane and courteous even lowest. as of fire. to the no man was more ready for all dealings with the greatest men. 183 real divine- measured in proportion to the merits of his ness. to master anything. but each occupied only on this or that part of philosophy.SCALIGER'S FUNEKAL ORATION. . I ask you to look round on the most consummate world of happiest of ages. For whereas learned men ought in integrity. great if his power were not more than this. But if we consider the surprising swiftness of his wit. greatest. that he appeared to have to their study. He. but also for all places. in erudition. changes of fortune. popular in the elevation of his mind. to excel in three to respects and in wit joined so completely solidity of judgment. devoted his entire Truly a great man. his embracing equally the least things and the kborious industry and his unconquered perseverance. that he seemed to have been made at once by nature wholly for himself and solely for the world. his power. Forasmuch as concerns his erudition. however. these three points met in him. his letters in this many and great men will display each own merit. so joined with the profoundest knowledge of the mysteries of nature and of God an acquaintance with humaner so letters. he was the man all not only suited for for all all hours. for men. and expounded them with much life eloquence.

184
"
I

JEROME CARDAN.
had
not, therefore, a

mind

hostile against

one whose

footprint I

had never

seen, nor

was

I envious of a

man

whose shadow never had touched mine; but on account
of the famous arguments,

many and

great, recorded in his

works, I was impelled to learn something about them.

And when the
there

Commentaries upon Subtilty were
sort of

finished,

came out a

appendix

to the former

work, the
I

book on the Variety of Things.

Then

I,

before

heard

anything of his death, after a custom certainly

common

with me, imitated myself, and composed, in three days,

an excursus on

it

in*
I

exceedingly short chapters.

After

hearing of his death
that I

formed them into one small book,
aid also to his labours; but
it
it

might lend
as

my

was

done
if

he would himself have wished
first

to

be done,
or with

he had

talked over his

work with me,

some person

my

superior in learning."

How
slight

far

Cardan was from counting Scaliger among
life,

the sorrows of his

the preceding narrative, and his
person's"
It has

mention of

"a

book against him,
said

will

have already shown.
that although

been

more than once,

rough of speech, Jerome held very exalted He notions of the courtesies due between literary men.
kept
all

personal dispute out of his books, and in his

reply to Scaliger,

who had been hunting him by name,
him with lusty vilification through page

and crying out
after page,

at

beginning with the title-page, Jerome not only

CARDAN'S ANSWER TO SCALIGER.
abstained from
all

185

mere abuse, but (no doubt

to Scaliger's

great mortification) he did not once mention the
his antagonist.

name of
" In

The book was

superscribed simply

Calumniatorem 1 ," and the name of Scaliger does not occur
in
it

once.

things his the

When, however, Jerome heard of the kind censor had said, when he supposed him dead,
of Scaliger appeared in a succeeding work,

name

coupled with friendly words and free acknowledgment of
courtesy.

The younger

Scaliger cited Cardan's answer to

his father as a literary curiosity,

because
2
.

it

was a reply
for

that never once

named

the assailant

The motive

that reservation certainly

was not disdain, but a conviction

that injurious personalities ought not to be allowed to find
their

way

into the deliberate productions of a scholar

who

desired an immortality of fame.

1

Actio Prima in Calumniatorem.
Scaligerana, p. 243.
point, mais dit, adversus

2

nomme

" Cardan a respondu a Scaliger et ne le quondam conviciatorem."

186

JEROME CARDAN.

CHAPTER

VIII.

INFAMY.

JEROME CARDAN

is

1

speaking

.

" It was on the 20th
all

of December, in the year 1557,

when

things seemed to

be prospering that I lay awake at midnight.

When

I

wished to sleep the bed appeared

to

tremble, and the

chamber with
quake.

it.

I

supposed there was a shock of earth-

was

Towards morning I slept, and awaking when it light, asked Simon Sosia, who has since followed my
and was then lying on a
little

fortunes,

chair

bed near
replied,

me, whether he had perceived anything.
'

He

Yes, a trembling of the
'

room and

bed.'

'

At what hour
Then

of the night?'
I

Between the sixth and

seventh.'

went

out, and,

when

I

was in the market-place, inquired

of people

whom

I met whether they had observed the
I returned to
to
1

earthquake.

When

my own
xl.

house a servant

came running out

me

full

of sorrow, and announced

De

Vita Propria, cap.

A PORTENT
that Gianbatista
his wife, a girl
all

GIANBATISTA MARRIED.

187
as

had brought home Brandonia Seroni

whom

he loved, but who was destitute of

good

qualities.

I drew near, saw that the deed was

done.

That was, indeed, the beginning of all ills. " I thought that a divine messenger had wished by

night to signify to

me what he knew to have been settled on
At dawn,
before he quitted

the evening before.
roof, I

my
ad-

had gone

to

my

son and said (not so
as

much

monished by the portent
like himself),
'

by

his

manner, for he was not

Son, take care of yourself to-day, or you
great harm.'
for I

may be doing some
from which I spoke,
" Not

I

remember the
;

spot

was in the doorway
to

but I do

not remember whether I

named

him the
felt

portent.

many

days afterwards I again

the chamber

tremble; I tried with

my

hand, and found that

my

heart

was palpitating,

for I

was lying on

my

left side.
:

I raised

myself, and the tumult and palpitation ceased
again,

I lay

down

and then when both returned I knew that they dethat.
I

pended upon
occasion; but

It

must have been

so

on the former

thought that the trembling

might have

had

a double cause, partly supernatural

and partly natural."
no dishonesty.

As
So,

usual, in Jerome's superstition there is

when he had read among

his father's papers that

prayer to the Virgin at a certain time on a certain morn-

ing in the year would be a cure for gout, he tried

it,

and

he adds, that a few months

after trying it

he was relieved,

188

JEROME CARDAN.

but that " at the same time he employed remedies accord1 ing to his art ."

The marriage
and

of his eldest son with a girl

who was

of

the worst repute, and
to himself, too, if

who

could bring to her husband

he should harbour her, nothing but

disgrace,

was the beginning of Cardan's great sorrow.

He

refused to admit the

new

wife to his home.

Father

and son parted in anger; but the physician's heart ached
for his foolish boy.

Care gathered about him, and the

months of
weakly

separation, during

which Gianbatista struggled
" In one word," he once said
I have been immoderate in

in a sea of trouble, were not less miserable to

the father than to the son.

of himself, "
all

I

embrace

all.
2

things that I loved

."

For about nine months he
During that him, but its mother
bitter

maintained the battle with his feelings.
time a grandchild had been born to

was no honest wife; and Gianbatista had found
reason to deplore his rashness.
his

Then Jerome heard

that
his

boy was

living with Brandonia in destitution,

and

heart could bear no more.

He
3
:

therefore wrote to him,

and his
"

letter

was

as follows

As

I feel rather pity for your fate,

my

son, than

anger against the offence which you have committed, not

1

De Vita

Propria, cap. xxxvii.
91.

2
8

Geniturarum Exemplar, p.

De

Libris Propriis.

Lib. ult.

Op. Tom.

i.

p. 117.

TROUBLES OF GIANBATISTA.
only against yourself, but against
I write to
all

189
to you,

who belong

mind

to

you these words. If you will fairly give your them, and obey them to the letter, there is yet
That you may bring your mind
any power
to

hope of saving you.
do that
(if there
is

in the prayers of a father
entreat

for a son) I entreat

and again
help being

God

as a suppliant.

" For

how can
so

I

moved

to pity

when
all

I see

you beset with

much

calamity that you want

things

of which mortals stand in need?

At

the outset, advice,
at last,

money, strength of frame

;

and now,

your health.

O

Heaven
this

!

If

you had not sought

all this

by your own

will,

sorrow would be more than I can bear.
for yourself this

But
all

since

you have compounded

cup of

miseries,

among which

I have lately understood that

you

are

contemned even by

my

friends,

and that

(I think)

through your

own

fault,

I can do nothing (for I
their good-will towards

know

their great influence

and

you and

me); but I have resolved to bear with equal mind whatever
is

in store.

Nevertheless, so great

is

my

anxiety,

that in the depth of night (though I was not used to rise

before the day,
this.

now

I rise long before

it)

I write to

you

" I call

God

to witness that I

am moved by no

anger;

that

I

would in any way have helped you, and received

you

into

my

house; but I feared (as was most likely) that

to do so

would have been rather

my own

ruin than your

which they took be greater than they . ready to destroy I . and that They supposed to my small professional returns.190 help. I JEROME CARDAN. . For you are several and young. far Therefore. and therefore with . it with a prodigal mind. am already seized . you. that would have been the labour of a very wealthy man. I as they supposed was : how I feared that I should fare worse if I received through them than through you. I think. sur- rounded by the great envy of many. was more likely that I should have fear on my own ' ' account than that I should have hope of redeeming you by my advice. income from a precarious entering upon old age. do you (who disposed) consider with A father. in precepts of the defiance of the laws of senate. ? what wonder gaped after the goods of others If they had had anything else in view. they so hurriedly into these would not have driven you tials. without any fixed property. nupat It was not to be hoped. for aged parents. and am alone. would be brought to the rescue they had profligately wasted their that they own goods. they were not evil-minded. have no wit. therefore. with art. more placably yourself. by age. are. are now. Consider too your deed which cannot be undone the if evil mind that is in those people . that I could once transform your fortunes and hers. God and man. have no property you. never could have permitted in their daughter conduct that was of the worst example.

much more to the purpose. or lose the little gains derived out of proportion of my my income printed books. and prodigality. and a so prospect of scarcely more than maintenance among many to be taxes. with the most ruinous habits of indolence. : upon the use that is to be got out of Adversity it is fit they are of use. of which an end is scarcely hoped : I am go without. impotent. How that is to be done I will now you. " In the first place. can obtain a subsistence if will you obey tell my commands. I am now finishing. without sense. for the assistance of . which you perhaps stand in present need it will be two- . as First. written two books of which you both are in much need one is entitled Consolation. I seem very opportunely to have . it may be that you. was or is any hope in our affairs. without being in any way a an impediment or cause of danger to count as infinitely more important) me and (what I without being cause of grief or care. to avoid danger. with 191 weak health. to me. living outside my house. or without repute in any. surrounded by so many to wars. they should be. that What say you ? To have done would not have been it. uncertain hold of reputation. if there but wilfully to send for But. lastly. and the other. then. which form no small . without a calling. to abandon hope of office .TO GIANBATISTA FROM HIS FATHER. luxury. in face of the great dearness of everything. and to support you. too. numerous.

to your advantage. your mind In the first in want of moderation. Whatever I can beg from friends. should fortune oppose deavours. who from the first had to support my Let it be your business to arrange with your father-in-law that when. already. from me and shall through me. ask to be visited. my en- But what all will be done through me you know those receipts from the common houses. it. place. For myself. " to you. I. do not cherish sorrow . and so. or the whole without a stipend. people. you shall share it and have half the income may bring. for I promised you a moiety of the present year's receipts. the letting shall expire. for either half of this to will come you with a stipend from the court. now permit you to obtain supplies at once for your immediate support. having shown their excretions.192 fold : JEROME CARDAN. shall become yours. is So much concerning As for the books on Consolation. and I will also I give you the same share in the coming year. in a future year. how- ever the matter may be. same me. either by by the letting of the trees. If I can beg anything at court. The Venetian ambashe will either give the me five ells of silk. or you shall have the half of what he sent help. you will have more than family. you sador gave shall have. I will take care that you have your full income. or those inhabiting the many-storied and who. the woods be after- wards separated into sales or as many lots as possible.

such. and abstained from excessive pleasures) you could meet and remedy. at past deeds. your poverty. for you could not have gone astray except with His permission. And to be calamities. congratulations over happiness are the business of a man ignorant of human nature : still less does a man VOL II. and knowingly. and be anything to the purpose (if of a father through whose work you do not go utterly to ruin) your name will endure for many ages: do you think fortune has been hard to you in these matters? You have body . not brutish not a . While. a Christian. the other (if were prudent. O . through your errors Reflect upon this. our seeming pleasures would be found. and that. sprung of a renowned city and if that family. therefore. your your absence from your wife. too. you must not bemoan them. or present fortune : 193 that for all the ills now hang over you. For the mind that is within us comes from things which seem little God. father's house.TO GIANBATISTA FROM HIS FATHER. you might understand to be vain things. an not a barbarian. arid through mine you . that God punishes me. you are a man. all these I say you have prepared for yourself willingly Wherefore. : Of what belongs to fortune you have nothing to bemoan is your nature human. your ill-repute. momently. bad as they are. Mahometan or Jew . too. not a woman Italian. if you could look a forward into coming events. . only to bear with infirm health and a weak you one was your hereditary right.

never to be angry. Do it is written. and hinders in anger. : field. nevertheless even for money contemn God would be a great deal worse. but the liar suffers this loss. is when Aristotle was asked what anger was. to all his on anything I did while I was As : for the Uses of Adversity. Fly from the dice famous. like a lunatic. man When the mind is idle. live in idleness. Therefore your grandfather Fazio imposed upon me two main precepts: one. because there one end to us foolish. mindful of the saying : of the holy into it. is need to be condoled with over sorrow. all. Never believe that for the better if your fortune will change you do not free . making a man in face and manner Therefore replied. And although contempt of money would be (if and in these times to ever) hard. evil thoughts come as weeds and snakes abound in the uncultivated not indulge in games of chance . he A tem- porary madness. Do not be a liar : that not only com- manded by Scripture and philosophy.194 JEROME CARDAN. to remember God and think benefits. from seeing There is grief and it corrupts the habit of the body. that his truth is not afterwards believed. Do not but study perpetually. daily of his vast bounty and of be thoroughly intent doing " it. the dearest of things. they teach you these things First. it Anger impedes truth. gamblers of all kinds used to be in- You lose time. the other. the mind. and esti- mation: you lose also your money.

my son. and very many more would have had not hindered. for our race is of a warm temperament. for even usurers and highway robbers usurers from care- get the happiness they havefrom virtue fulness and prudence. impiety against Christ The shadow of God's finger glides over the whole surface of the world. But if in such men any good is. springs out of good. Do not lie down too late. your mind and body from impediment: you cannot 195 set your body shall all free until you free your mind from Believe me. and of the law. and they would have if been greater and more flourishing. The far more opulent empire of the Romans and the kings of Persia God has destroyed. with many other princes. that depends upon some ! how much more " is it the case in others Do not envy those. robbers from fortitude. remained. vice. But on account of the Abra- ham. and adorn yourself with virtues. and somewhat subject to stone.TO GIANBATISTA FKOM HIS FATHER. Sleep for nine " 02 . honest men. so that of all those mighty forests not justice of a twig remains. With these virtues there are vices hateful in the sight mixed by which they are made of God. Keep your mind sedate. and of all that they have virtue. gold and silk. and manage thus your affairs. and because he pleased Him. who have become and are attired in rich or powerful through evil deeds. out of the one twig Isaac many forests have sprung that remain still. we must begin with that.

Retire to bed ten hours before the of rising. returned put on a warmer garment. and pleasant places.time by a sleep at noon. from falsehood. and return on foot. Rise in the first hour of the day. and a little meat or dried fish. supply the deficiency of bed. silent with all. rain or persee that spiration. from vain and copious speech. your hour When the shortness of the nights makes^ that impossible. Then visit patients but before supper" (Cardan used and advised only two meals daily. adorn his mind. prepare for him renown. copses. and do not reveal any . when you return home you have only to you have a change of linen dry and warm. by help of a horse. study for four hours: studies delight a man. If at any time you become wet with . Sup your fill. and visit the sick. from gambling. walking or riding in the suburbs of the town. certainly not so as to perspire. obliterate his cares. and saying nothing that does not con- cern the case before you. first hour of the day. and hang up your wet clothes near the fire. and ner. if your engagements you. seven things abstain wholly: from summer from black wine. JEROME CARDAN. as before : his duty in his calling. When you have Breakfast on bread little. to Do not exert yourself so as Set out become heated. " ride and visit groves. if we may call his early supper a late din- we please). "From fruits.196 hours. and help him to perform again. Drink very let After breakfast.

and we . Be moderately flattering towards all. " You have the book on Consolation. full For a woman fraud : animal. September the Fifth. others. you cannot be happy. live frugally. also that on the Uses of Adversity.TO GIAN BATISTA FROM HIS FATHER. " Avoid as much as you can bleeding and purging. or indulge her foolish more than proper. she will drag you into mischief. never dwell on empty promises or empty hopes. secret to a 197 is woman. be content with a famulus and a horse. is a. and give your mind to study. Farewell. and. and therefore of if you bestow over much endearment on her." Upon the many little illustrations of Cardan's daily life it and of his character contained in the preceding letter. after a time. but " my copy of it is too much engaged. " Derive instruction from admitted error. set forth Now enough of this. would be superfluous to dwell. do without a nurse for : Phocion who ruled Athens had even a smaller family. The son of course gladly became indebted to his father's overflowing love. as well as in the books on Wisdom and some Above all things. that Consider you possess only what is in your hand. " I would have sent you also the little book of Precepts. and reckon only on your actual possessions. you also the shall receive book on Water and JEther. since it has all been specially by me in the volumes named.

see preface to the Dialogue de Morte. the offer of which had been obtained through the good offices of his friends the Cardinals Alciati and Borromeo. and who had been with him The troubled physician said that he was ashamed in the sixth year to send him away untaught and unremunerated for his loss of time. beginning of the next year. exceeded further By crippling his own means. . then a fine youth. but he had been incompetent to educate perly. while he dared not send him home. if his love must not censure Jerome too his discretion. severely. he hurt the prospects of the English boy. partly his in own sins that were being punished him through his children. but he could spare nothing.198 JEROME CARDAN." He had loved them both. to the University of Pavia. four afterwards. They were. six years to little purpose. them pro- and they had too soon lost their mother. he said. He resolved to put him into busi- For this and the following. to provide for the to Cardan then sought boy William. A professorship was again accepted. The intention to seek office again mentioned by Cardan months at the in his letter to his son resulted in his return. whom he had held bound him by daily kindness. full of affection. whom he called tenderly his Guglielmina. and could not afford to establish 1 him in life. indeed. " on account of the many expenses into which I at that time was plunged by my sons 1 .

that but the butchers and neighbours had run out with weapons and drive off the pig. there. OMENS. as a business that would be tolerably and not too mean. to by wild running against him. 199 and proposed that he should and write. for either learn a trade. or either of learn to read and play. or sing easily.RECONCILEMENT ness. and so denied my son not only his servant. "and gate there were pigs." says the 1 " There was a butcher as usual outside that philosopher . new silk gown of the kind usually worn by it On a Sunday. ac- cording to his promise. and my son ran away. . which he could have done little. a trade. had in his mind shoemaking. Just before quitting Milan. last When the animal was at it left half wearied. him. went out beyond the Porta Tosa. had given him a physicians. if he chose to study. maintenance in the house. On account of that occurrence he came back to beyond his wont. Jerome undertook to provide for him. so that the thing seemed to be a prodigy. he already could read a and sing reasonably well. One of them rose up out of the mud. cap. light. and told me all. me sorrowful and asked me what it might portend to 1 him? De Vita I answered. that he should take Propria. and Cardan. xxxvi. with proper clothing. his old kindness towards his son. Jerome having resumed. William chose to be taught when they went to Pavia. Gianbatista having put on.

. and by him unhappily this narrative must for a time abide. Before proceeding further. And yet except a love of dice and of good eating he was life. and of whom it may be said incidentally that to he was friendly enough towards Cardan object of a dedication. He had been no bad friend to Jerome. on the 15th of Novem- Gonzaga. he came to a hog's end. new governor in the person of Gonsalvo Ferrante Cordova. of difficulty to permit the education As often happens in such cases. JEROME CARDAN. one or two great Spaniards had brief and temporary sway in Milan sent a di until King Philip. by leading a hog's life. The son remained in Milan. and a son who was a lover of letters. died in Brussels. for her genius who became noted and her learning. must now . ber. who believed that the simplest elements of know- ledge were as much as a prince needed. that will have an important influence upon the future course of Cardan's life. governor of Milan. the igno- rant parent left a daughter Ippolita. He was another military bold man. a comers. Duke of Sessa. be chronicled.200 care lest. able to hold the town against all chief. Ferrante In the year 1557. and of unblemished The father went to Pavia. however." an excellent young man. and Signor di Guastalla. and had been persuaded with some his children. two or three political changes in the Milanese world. be made the Don in Ferrante being dead. though he was but a hard soldier. March of the succeeding year. Prince of Molfetta.

but he did not repair directly to his see. His place was taken for a August in the same year Pope Paul IV. Another of Jerome's Fillippo Archinto. until the and was not age of 23rd of September. the last a of immense wealth and influence. and. but. d'Este. who had most influence with him were Cardan's young man Morone and Borromeo. after the see. died dropsical. become Archbishop of two years of absence from time by Ippolito II. and was succeeded by the CardiThis nal de' Medici. the most eminent among the doctors naturally became his physician.CHANGES AMONG RULERS. Carlo Borromeo was not only an archbishop. friends. 201 In Milan. indeed. the 18th of On pope was a Milanese. his first finally Milanese patron. after he had gone to Pavia. who had Milan. on which occasion he received as his fee a hundred gold crowns and a piece of silk. who took the name of Pius IV. that at the twenty-six he celebrated the assumption of his episcopal functions at Milan with a pompous entry. acting as secretary of state to his uncle. 1558. moreover nephew to his holiness. At the end of the year 1560. died in June. Borromeo was appointed Archbishop of Milan. by his munificence and other good qualities. and very kind to his own town and to his townsmen. he remained at it Rome. It happened also that the Churchmen friends. Cardinal Ippolito resigning. attained also permanent rank in the . 1565. Jerome was summoned back to prescribe for this duke.

and authority will. The defence was appended to the first edition of " The Uses of Adversity. Eloge 98. ties. I should here ac1 knowledge myself to be indebted now and then to Verri's History for information upon the affairs of Milan. written just after the events. last chapter of the work on the Uses of Adversity." Paris. therefore. grown up from a miserable " all " He of felt." paged continuously. 1665. Of that great man I trust that I shall say enough if I sum up his character in the words of a French" It man who wrote in the succeeding century: may be said of Saint Carlo Borromeo that he was an abridgment to his of all the bishops given by the Lord Church in the preceding ages. entitled Luctu. who compelled her Then. Cardan's defence of his son before the senate." He was born. 2 The succeeding narrative is drawn chiefly from two sources: 1.202 JEROME CARDAN. and of course a one-sided version of the case. written in the midst of the trouble. . his parents as it may be remembered. and he was at first entrusted to a good nurse. It Church was well for the fortunes of the sinner Cardan that he had a firm friend in Saint Carlo Borromeo. The De 2. Antoine Godeau "Eloges des Eveques qui dans tous les siecles de PEglise ont fleury en doctrine et en saintete. my adversi- and little my success. be cited only for interpolated incidents." Gianbatista Cardan had childhood. and that in episcopal virtues that him were collected all the had been distributed among them 1 . But that nurse had a jealous husband. because Jerome and Lucia. The narrative here given is based throughout on the chapter De Luctu." his father said 3. to desert her charge. and a fair statement of facts. Quoted through Count Verri's Storia di Milano. at Gallarate when were ex- tremely poor. as a saint.

At the age of twenty-two. having he obtained his doctorate. As Jerome's affairs mended. broken his son through that ear. and a big. He had the same and a fair skin. on account of poverty. broad features. and was espe- a good musician. He had large. hair. who took pains to introduce him Personally. After his covery he was found to be deaf on the right sequence of a discharge that had. his face in the year at which we now He was small of stature.GIANBATISTA. cially He became in a manner learned. his grandfather Fazio. both playing on the lyre and singing to the cymbals. and received abundant edu- cation. by whom was fed sparely with old milk. foxy and a beard that came upon late. In its and more^freely with chewed bread. who was a man of but a woman's height. had a tumid belly. into practice. restless eyes. found few who cared their hiring. in con- illness. and was seized with a it from re- which recovered with much difficulty. even somewhat smaller than his father. year it third or fourth fever. round forehead. He lived with his father. came to be better nourished. for it had only begun to form a reddish down arrive. white. the infant lute fell it 203 to accept next into the hands of a disso- woman. he had grown up into much resemblance to small. and two years afterwards succeeded in obtaining his enrolment among the members of the Milanese College of Physicians. failed previously. He had more . during his side.

was very desirous that he should be allied in good time to some prudent woman. "of evil augury. The father." young man was usually moderate in speech. if I had observed in time. and suggested to him noble maidens many among whom he might make his choice. To all such urging the young doctor answered. I should have removed at once by a division of the digits. Besides. been already said that he was born with the third "a and fourth toes of the foot right joined together. therefore. in common sense. . defect. for there was a hump on It has his back that amounted to a positive deformity. and then poured out such a torrent of words that he Though this seemed fate. the second place he wished to and in know how he among the could bring a bride to live in his father's house young men who were his father's pupils and attendants. had taken much pains to persuade the son into thoughts of marriage. and Jerome. When there it were no young men be time enough for to be her house companions would he him to bring his wife. than his grandfather's round shoulders. that in the it first place was requisite for him to devote his whole time to the perfecting of himself in his profession. too. yet he was wonderfully voluble when he became excited. fearing that he might fall into mischief through his hot temper and his simplicity. to be a madman." it notes Cardan.204 JEROME CARDAN. That fault helped him to his He was wanting. which.

One day. take this one fact for granted. Marry whom not know. The person did " said. naming them. If any other will first lady is to come beg that you . morality as between man and woman was extremely low. two It occurred to of whom he knew he that his son loved. when Cardan and came in to to his household were at breakfast. kept his own horse and his own famulus. " ?" Jerome inquired. and I do not find that in those days even arch- bishops lived more purely than their neighbours. a person batista them who said that Gian- was intending go out that morning and get married. In the mean time. in Italy. some young ladies. Three and in a part of Italy familiar with the license of the camp. I leave the reader to Jerome himself was not only prone. the beloved son spent freely his father's money. even beyond the age of seventy.THE STORY OF GIANBATISTA'S MARRIAGE. be one of those four. and all good matches. yet there was nothing in but deceit. Then Cardan. life and in its lusts. who objected In all this Jerome willingly saw it reason. therefore " If it said to the youth. really 205 had paid court to against his deformity. Why did you wish to conceal this from me ?" him to remember four damsels. prompt to lust. I will. take which of them you into the house. indulged in the luxuries of centuries ago. turning to his son. but.

" In reply to the betrayer of simply denied all his counsel. but rough. and poor." he says." He had before often warned him not to be too precipitate. Gianbatista nuptials. was a wreck made by a ruined spendthrift. Thomas's day. her father Evangelista. if would be better than that he should bring home a without marrying her to be the mother of his " I children. much astonished as his father at On on the next. he could have She presented him with and brought upon him at and her lost character. thinking that as he was a copy of my father. and nothing Then came St. The family it to belonged was not originally poor.206 tell JEROME CARDAN. it He could not afford to marry into poverty. and wild. woman " to receive grandchildren from him. or take a wife without his father's knowledge. day nothing was done. the same time the burden of maintaining three unmarried sisters and a mother. not bad fellows. She had three brothers common which she foot soldiers ignorant of any trade. who was . Grandchildren Cardan ardently desire^ desired. knowledge of any impending as and said that he was the news. me who she is. in the manner described at the beginning of this chapter. the day in that December on which Brandonia Seroni was brought home as Gianbatista's wife. far before The youth might have looked met with a herself less eligible person. his children might perhaps be copies of myself.

and helped stoutly in quarrelling by the wife's mother. and one of them once went to bully Jerome. per Hier. Med. Jerome. quartheir daily. or by the to sale of superfluous He was unable clothe properly himself or his wife. was represented by a hungry family of Even the wedding-ring that Jerome had given to his son Lucia's perhaps Brandonia silk gave secretly to her father with a piece of that he might pledge them to raise money for for himself. wearing his 1 . as we have seen. Card. filii mei. . and idlers. the streets The young physician went on foot about of Milan. and even after his father had taken pity they were upon still their state. refused to admit the bride into his house. pinched by want. and i so get more money for his Mediol. or to take Seioni family. The were woods mentioned by Cardan in his letter to his son lost estate that probably some fragments of the had been alienated only for a term of years. and supplied liberal means. Husband and wife lived thus together relling about two years. earn. and had lost all his possessions or 207 the use of them. and for upon himself the support of the nine months Gianbatista lived upon what he could possessions. Passages in the same document contain the facts stated in the next fiye sentences. The soldier brothers-in-law also plunged into the domestic war. summer Gian- clothes for batista want of others in the winter weather his wife had no prudence. Baptistae Cardani.A WRETCHED HOUSEHOLD." " Defensio Joan.

Her mother backed the assertion veheit. in the course of a great quarrel. Then Gianbatista went to his famulus. they quarrelled daily as he resolved to kill and relented he cooled. though she was strong enough to scold her husband. . Lib. He promised him money and clothes." . The infant had not been born many days told when. . as A daughter was born. a son. and Gianbatista bought some kill arsenic. and which his wife would eat. soon Jerome went to Pavia. mently. a youth who was he had his partisan in the domestic war. Against him appeal was made to the authorities. and with whom plotted mischief. she her father was named after after was named the Queen of Heaven. and after his birth her health was very feeble. he relented. 17. and John the Baptist.208 sister. iii. but that failing. Nepos meus ex filio Facius. to gave him the poison. ". she tista that Gianba- neither the infant nor the girl Diaregina were his children. whenever he be- came enraged her. At that time the troubles of the wretched family were at the worst. JEROME CARDAN. cap. Diaregina. i Paralipomenon. after Next there was a son born. and told him put it into a certain cake which was to be made. Thereafter.. and the two women not only repeated but named other men who were their fathers.. He even made a faint attempt to it Brandonia by mixing some of with her food. . called Before the birth of their second child Fazio 1 Brandonia was ill.

at Pavia Branda Porro3 citation. who adhered "at the same time expectorating wont. and out of that he was convicted and defeated. 2 3 De Vita Propria. story from the chapter De Luctu. for the last sentence. Filii mei." he says. who was at 1 Def. his practice He had just resumed his lectures. by Cardan. his professorship with a salary of six hundred gold crowns. cap. clipped money indeed 2 but the payment of congenial labour that at the . same time did not withdraw him wholly from as a popular physician. but the with whole of his wife's family into the house to live him 1 . called for the book from which he had been quoting. xii. P . . For a few minutes we must change the scene where Jerome was happily established in to Pavia. The day 209 before the crime was committed he redeemed his father-in-law's pledges. Ibid. " as was my Branda. who scorned the imputation of having made so vital a mistake. and took not a part only. Jerome younger son. The next resumes the VOL. II. who omitted the word not" from a error He was accused mildly but firmly of his to the accusation. for this incident.JEROME AT PAVIA. So he overwhelmed (e and if he was tempted into formal disputation he was quite able to silence an antagonist." freely. Now it happened that seven days before the commission s of the crime in Milan.

to the sick wife. and determined to deto the designs of fairly to Whether he was in any way privy it is his brother hard to say. but he contrived incur suspicion. He was really on the point of doing so as a relief to his anxiety. and discovered that his son would be Inter- imprisoned. that the poison had not been used. and Jerome could have travelled with this son to Milan. fates. was but a few days She vomited it at once. The mother-in-law took some of with a like Gianbatista thought. became part. partly because his sister's hus- . might have been in time to snatch his other son from the The abyss of crime into which he was about to leap. being unwilling to use force. he consulted the stars. Cardan objected wholly to the youth's departure. kept him at Pavia. it Aldo had come The cake was whose made. in the presence of the entire household. that if he went he would be wanting to return when he wr ould not have power to do so. preting that omen as having reference to Aldo. effect. as he alleged afterwards. If he had he done so. into his brother's house. and a piece of infant was given old. and was threatened with grave harm. his whole life might have ended differently.210 JEROME CARDAN. When to that avail. he says. restless. It was then vacation-time. he then his warned him privately of warning proved to be of no discovery. Pavia with him. he said him. and when he found that he could not persuade him to remain at home.

noticing the when was in making. had cured her of a disease implying taint of blood. and mother. bade them see that it was large because really he too should eat some of it. Filii mei. fit however. One of the soldier brothers entering the house soon after the cake was eaten. and. and in a fury rushed forward to kill both Gianbatista and his brother Aldo 1 . P2 . Doctors declared that she was dying lipyria.THE CRIME. but if he did not perfectly think it. he drew his sword. band had been it 211 cake at the house. They were perfectly defenceless. for he offered the cake to his father-in-law. poisoned While the her mother woman was i still lingering in life. They. found his father. and then also took a piece himself. and by no means of warlike nature. The old people recovered. The soldier's fury. and was some hours before he again came to be master of his actions. Def. possibly he meant more mischief than he achieved. which she had had consti- She was of broken left Jerome himself. overcame him. and the criminal himself was for a few days unable to go about. were sick. by them was born. Whether he thought so matters little to the actual offence. but the weak Brandonia had received a fatal dose. before he Milan. and his sister violently sick. He fell down it in a before he had completed his design. Instantly suspecting them to have been poisoned by the Cardans. too. of a fever called before the child tution.

Eesponsio ad Criminationem D. and in so doing fell with her whole weight upon the patient. 3 Ibid. 3 Aldo. one that harmonises with all other portions of the story. and the famulus were seized Again the scene has to be changed to Pavia. De Vita Propria. the 14th February. One day. and leads to the true date of the murder. p. cap. The mother ran at the nurse to box her ears. at an end. xxxvii. a person came his daughter's him that from husband telling at him his son was in prison. Where the date is said to be the 26th of February. Brandonia *of When the The day was fight was was dead 1 .212 one day set JEROME CARDAN. Mediol. Lines upon hands into his differ of course. 1560. chancing to look into his right hand. in the month of February. ex Adv. Cap. EvanSeroni (appended also to De Ut. xxvii.). 1145. Card. the nurse endeavoured to avoid the blow -by scrambling over the sick bed. On the day following. . Cardan observed a mark like a 3 bloody sword . cap. -with letters it was on a Saturday. The correction in the text is from an incidental statement in Cardan's defence of his son that the eleventh day before Brandonia's confinement was the 25th of January. Gianbatista. at the root of his ring finger He trembled suddenly. This was said when the facts were recent. it is likely that one of them may have a short line gelistae 2 Hier. up a fierce quarrel with the nurse who at- tended at the bedside. that he must come once to Milan. . Medic. but whoever looks straight lines run own probably will see that down from and 1 the roots of each of the two middle fingers. What more? to That evening.

It his- was not for him then to stand aloof. else. Jerome'a excited fancy traced the growth of the sword upward along his finger. while he was working for his son in Milan. Cardan was be seen labouring night and day for a villain whom few men thought worthy of compassion. sixty years old and greyhis- headed. The glory and hope of his for his credit in the were gone . and seen- making common cause with him. he cared no more nothing town . with no object before him but the rescue of son. He threw the whole of his personal influence and reputation at the feet of his child. standing up with all his wretchedness in/> open court to plead of all for him. he was a father. as the case went on. could not safely lavish love money on a murderer. eager to ensure to him the use good and bad arguments that wit could devise in ex- tenuation of his villany. from his daughter and his daughter's husband the extent of the calamity that had brought shame and ruin on house. since possible. or have life- regard for reputation. A physician. and not content with hired and formal advocacy. On the received the message. cleaving to him as his son. high in and time and to reputation. Sunday morning after henight travelling was hardly There he learned Cardan hastened to Milan.CARDAN SUMMONED FROM PAVIA. crossing it in the place necessary to suggest a sword hilt^ The blood and it is implies no more than redness of the line r not hard to understand how. he could not be .

for what follows. said Jerome. Seron.. 3 2 . D. He did not visit the His heart reproached him with the memory training of his children. and. and learned. the gamblers of his own wrong to and the singing people by whose presence he had suffered them be defiled. gold crowns. in order that he might go out of his prison for two hours to see a show. The chapter De Luctu. that he might not miss the spectacle He was a simpleton. B.214 JEROME CARDAN. said that she died of lipyria 3 1 . was to be 2 him in ten. Vincenzio Dinaldo. the Defence. to the prison. In the midst of such grief Gianbatista lay so callous in his cell that he could mock the old man's heart by sending a special message with a request that he would be bail for him in ten thousand gold crowns. who had attended his son's wife. But he did not go offender 1 . At his first examination Gianbatista kept his counsel. Kesponsio ad Grim. and Cardan was not without hope that he had escaped actual bloodguiltiness. where it is implied that the physicians all gave evidence at the trial. man doing that and remain in the world's eye the great that he had been. but had been his ruin. Defensio J. always his simplicity of character well-disposed. C. See also the chapter De Luctu. therefore. There was to be a sham fight under the desire to see it. Evang. filii mei. castle. who was not worth two thousand bail for . and he had a great His father.

" My heart was opened. the Palavicini. her belly was not off." he says 1 . for this incident . of accused was a member which the respectability would be in some degree tainted by his conviction. .well knowing how much hope he had not pleaded guilty ' there was for my is son's rescue if to the crime. and while he was so sitting there sounded in his ear some tones as of the voice of a priest consoling wretched men who are upon the verge of death. Woe fall is me.' I cried. for the signs of it were wanting on the tongue. the old man was studying in the library of some friends with whom he was then staying in Milan. for he guilty of his wife's death. neither her hair nor her nails had fallen and there was internally no erosion. I leapt wildly out into the court-yard where some of my friends stood. xxxvii. tumid. 215 Five physicians declared that she had not died of poison. or if ' he was really innocent. during which Jerome had been straining all energies on his behalf. One day when Gianbatista had been imprisoned for about three weeks. Evangelista Seroni and the three brothers of the deceased were also the bitterest of prosecutors. cap. broken. Against that conclusion people set the facts in evidence and the circumstance that the of the College of Physicians. will and now he has under the confessed 1 it and be condemned and De Vita Propria. " torn asunder.THE CRIME CONFESSED. and about the extremities . her body was not black.

216 axe !' JEROME CARDAN. * who said. had been twice 1 De Luctu. when he heard the evasions of his famulus. because she was ill able to suckle the infant. At once receiving my cloak.' A me messenger all. and that before attempted 1 . the criminal confessed freely all of which he was accused. Then he ' replied. and even more. I replied. Whither do you go?' I doubt whether my son. . It has lately happened." whom I had sent then ran to me and told Gianbatista. understanding that it was to be given to Brandonia for the purpose of increasing her milk. conscious of the deed. For he said that he had held the deed two it months in contemplation. When presently the person was introduced of whom the poison had been bought. was unable to restrain himself during a subsequent examination. who had at first maintained reserve. When I was nearly half-way there. has not made full confession. It is so. That youth declared that he had received the powder from his master. I went out to the market-square. I met * my daughter's husband looking sorrowful.

BEFORE The the Milanese Senate and its President Rigone 1 the formal trial of Gianbatista shortly afterwards came on. 1 De Vita Propria. but against Gianbatista the proofs apart from his confession were convincing. that poison had not caused Brandonia's death.THE CRIMINAL BEFORE THE SENATE. Sixty-four pleas in miti- gation were devised in his behalf 2 . dead woman was testified. The case against the character of the closely pressed. and Evangelista declined to aver that his daughter's character was unstained when she married. in Grim. The accusation against Aldo had not been maintained. 217 CHAPTER IX. Evang. cap. xliL fin. however. Physicians on behalf of the defendant. THE FATHER IN THE DEPTH OP HIS DISTRESS. ad . 3 Respons. the pleading for the defendant could be directed only towards the mitigation of punishment. Seroni. administration of the poison not being denied. not. own Cross-examination showed the existence of such provocation as has been already detailed.

but that he exile.218 JEEOME CARDAN. only excused the offence to when he The stood up formally be the young man's advocate. he Evidence of this will appear fully in the sequel. his son's wife had not died of had by help since. It is not easy or desirable to mitigate the universal detes- tation due to a man who can poison his wife while she has a ten-day infant at her breast. Jerome hoped vention from the governor. father. not acquitted. who was his patient and and for men who were his patients his felt it is. to plead for the 1 of his son. For Jerome. would be to would be condemned simply to the galleys To condemn him . Jerome though he struggled painfully on behalf. his. He was not really Standing before the senate in the life character of advocate. the miserable . the apologist of crime. after Through sorrows Jerome Cardan never wrote angrily of the Seroni family. . his son thought himself entitled to expect. many a foul crime of interest been favoured with a lenient sentence. true sympathy for Gianbatista none. he thought to kill all his him would be murder. feeling The of the President Rigone was strongly for merciful inter1 . natural that they should have unable to extend any of their friendly feeling to his son. to favour. against the criminal. and he believed. we may feel himself. would be cruelty. that poison . physicians said. Cardan. however. help from the great friends . therefore. having as fair a right as any man that.

(Basil. forty pages. the deed. the instrument. and external He arranged his argument under these What follows where is published at the end of the 1561). it fills a reduced outline of Cardan's speech for his son. but what arguments might by any chance weigh upon any person who had a voice in his son's fate. He all had exerted his all the dis- wit of which he was master and putation powers of such powers as he had spent once for sport on in the manufacture of a formal It an encomium of Nero and elaborate defence.A HEART IN COBWEBS. which a scholar of the sixteenth century. ex Adv. Cap. heads. was there to urge all 219 that an advocate could say. contains much strange folly that the world has now outgrown. understood the casuistry of the schools. his son. . Seven things. 1 mode of doing. although a man of quick wit and strong feeling. first edition De Ut. how little they saw what was absurd in their established way of arguing. were to be considered in the case: public example. He it. of and practised is His speech for which an outline here given. the circumstances. the person. was not for him to consider what arguments he himself thought tenable. this may be gathered even from the brief outline of in speech. handled a question of the very gravest moment to himself. How completely the puerilities of the old logicians were a part of their own sober and earnest life. the cause of the deed. not to express his individual opinions. he said 1 .

but who boasted to her husband of her faithlessness. to perpetrate. stated briefly the occasion of his son's crime. that small thefts punishment? Marby domestics were not to . and. and. ing. special provocation that consisted in Having and pointed out the the shamelessness of a wife. said to tions.220 JEROME CARDAN. He cited autho- rities to prove the superior dignity and respectability of It poison as an instrument of death. More men. by steel. Crime so perpetrated caused less scandal. in which poison have required two or three separate administra- even when no antidote was used. A contempt the why was man imprisoned ? But is not open contempt of law . If no law was offended. he had been slain by the sword than by poison. that it was said of poison- should be repressed by additional severity. because the it deed gives is more and the chance of escape that said. therefore. he proceeded to urge that those learned men were wrong who kill to kill by poison is a worse crime than to traitorous. because it was a crime easy hard to detect. Was that a just ground for severer tianus taught. again. why were not they punished the most Then. what was the offence punished? of law. was less danis He quoted Plato's Phsedo. be brought at all to public trial yet of all offences they were the severely? easiest . who not only was unfaithful. having cited examples of men who were pardoned state that for destroying their detected wives. the public example gerous. is less.

grief. The old Cornelian law. kills from some He who by the sword. in the end. He who drinks poison. leaves the result very are poisoned. between anger and just kill. need But it is not drink.PLEADING FOR A by SON'S LIFE. then. It is neces- sary of poison that the dose be that it be all taken. kills through anger. means and means not to to and. graduate in medicine and member of the at the college. only one much chance. too. ambition. argued the fatal. 22 1 the sword worse than the tacit respect for the law im- plied by the poisoner when he endeavours is to deceive it? There kills no petulance in the act of poisoning. its victim than the sword. that punished for his rash and impious confidence. . my son. or licentiousHe who uses poison. He who kills by poison. Of fifty that may is die. through a trust betrayed? is Say rather." the father said. Not so. has the knife thrust upon him. that remedies be absent or be neglected. The common " people were given to wild beasts persons of " higher grade were exiled. and that the taker trust a person whom he has capitally injured. But gave. poisoners in the eye of the law. instituted among such criminals a rule of dignity. were not they who but who killed by poison. whether he will or not. Therefore. and the son of a graduate and member. Does he he die. swaying ness. he who stabbed. urged that poison is more certain of casuist. and means to kill. necessity. same time the grandson of a jurisconsult and member of .

" he . urging the evidence of the physicians. the quantity of arsenic administered being so small. and therein he urged what he then and afterwards believed to be the truth. why are investigations entered into ? and decisions based upon them why are bodies inspected ? Again. he added. this Besides. deputed by the senate to investigate. and that she vomited. Only an ounce was used. if he did if this deed without a cause. he cians stated that said. is. there can be no case traces of poisoning did not wonder that in exist. and four or five most com- petent physicians. " It would require. but only to be exiled. either without the body or within it. even if he were guilty." Concerning the deed the pleader argued that murder by poison had not been committed. reported that no signs of poison had existed either before or after death. he were not so simple-minded he ought not to incur the ordinary penalty. Brandonia died. and the descendant of a noble race. of which the deceased took only one. if as he were not a youth. Cardan quoted to the senate the opinion of Galen on the ease with which it was possible to diagnose cases of poisoning. Her physi- from the beginning of the fever under which she had been labouring she had coldness of the extremities and shivering fits. if they do.222 JEROME CARDAN. But people do not die of poison without showing symptoms of it . the college. from natural causes. divided into three parts.

p. and as it was not. however." quantitatem ejus devorant quoOp. cit. less kill. because he vomits From these statements we must infer that the general it. and there are cases of human recovery from halfre- ounce doses taken upon a jected. " Si evomatur vix That. horses have fatal re- Even been known to take fabulous quantities without sult. sicut apparet circulatoribus qui magnam tidie et nihil penitus loeduntur." he went on to 1 una libra arsenici interficit hominem. to kill a 223 man. as may who devour daily a great deal kill a and suffer scarcely at all 1 . SON'S LIFE. 1117 . This contains is much free arsenious acid. as Dioscorides applied yellow sulphuret which to the we call is orpiment. kill. If it " twenty times the dose she took be vomited scarcely a pound of arsenic will be seen in the mountebanks of it. term arsenic was applied. full stomach and speedily In the case of Brandonia. and a decided poison. Jerome pleaded that it was not proven that the poison in the cake taken was put there by his son's wish. vomiting was speedy. according to the medical jurisprudence of the day. but much grains active than white arsenic. Cardan was not without grounds for believing that the deceased had not been actually murdered. he was at that time re- penting of his purpose. Again. it.PLEADING FOR A said. too. He himself denied that it was " ." An ounce will not dog. possible to detect traces of the poison. of which a few of white arsenic.

and who all agreed that she died of natural disease. clear from the reasons which if I my son has ad- duced. a man of no comit mon erudition. My servant did cited this in the hope. was to be seen that she had been ill from the eleventh day before her confine- ment. already penitent. of reward. laid stress Cardan returned to the medical evidence. A witness said that arsenic was given to the deceased on the tenth day succeeding in its after her confinement. not purpose. it By reference to the apothecary's books. Having spoken further upon head. and then. had known of the poison I should not have given the cake to others. as I said. for he said. from the 25th of January till her . on the testimony of three physicians who had visited the deceased when living. is to say. named the disease. But I was innocent and ignorant of this deed. that death. it. was again administered. and again adduced the authority of Galen. should have eaten none myself: and also when I heard that I was detected I should have taken flight.224 " urge. One of the three." it Having and statement (which must be owned was not worth much). and. Cardan next 'urged the fact that the other persons who had its eaten of the cake recovered after a day or two from effects. and said that was a that fever called lipyria. I think. is JEROME CARDAN. especially as I was advised by many so to do.

Q . the animus It of the accused criminal. 1119. eu- phorbium against is palsy. nor was the physicians say. cit. It is therefore clear that neither did the it. a concomitant cause.PLEADING FOR A SON'S LIFE. woman who was without it dangerously it If there were only the doubt. should be decided on the side of clemency. even though not given in a dose poisonous by itself. lipyria cold and moist r such poison would in this case rather be a benefit than a hurt . its But there was not doubt. to the He turned next killed mood in which the attempt was made. the anxious advocate proceeded to discuss the argument from other points of view. p. Poison that in operation resembles the disease would hasten a sick person's death. its effect would in fact be to prolong life. confession that he renewed 'The accused himself made and dropped the idea as he and his wife alternately quarrelled and i made " Arsenicum seu auripigmentum album. deliberately was asserted that he and with malice aforethought. poison alone in this case cause the death. It 225 might be suggested that the poison. not to destroy it." II. therefore. Op. But arsenic or white orpiment1 is warm and dry. which was not to kill a healthy person. it would prolong So the common people use the flesh of vipers against elephantiasis. If it should prove to have a life. since. VOL. enough a was sufficient to destroy ill. said Jerome. contrary operation. as Having pleaded on his son's behalf so far according to scholastic forms.

you are not bound to believe him. can I ask you to credit me on doubtful points? By simplicity he was led to take a wife without a dowry. He swears in confession as if criminal judges would put faith in him as a wife in her husband." . had begged Brandonia's father to take her away from him. that he is a man of the simplest character. without threats. man who is in constant grief. cannot never calm enough for the use it of such a faculty. will lie If any of you have known him. "acted simply. know upon that I do not Ask even his accusers. If she had not spoken those words. Out of his simplicity he has confessed the whole truth. Had he deliberated murder removal of his victim? would he have wished for the He urged it again after she had spoken those shameless words. no crime " would have been attempted. lest harm might happen. without torture. The youth. JEROME CARDAN. But why speak of His mind deliberation? is A man with an unfaithful wife. a parent in his child." said Jerome. If I a matter that is very manifest. this fact is most notorious.226 peace. that he By that you may be sure tells truth to you. We young have shown. as was proved. a deliberate. indeed. by witnesses produced. by his wife's relatives he was drawn into hostility towards errors. me. Gianbatista also. such persons lie. though. he has been guilty of His nature is innumerable better for its but of no crime. the simpleness.

but upon all such hopes Brandonia's confession rested like a curse. than mother declaring before daughter. and their children. so that even though they should be killed by a just wrath. he exclaimed: quick by this view of " If Brandonia had been my to the own daughter and it Gianbatista but as it is my son-in-law. and daughter before mother. to found again his family. proved by two witnesses. and if had been proved. they leave the reputation of their house preserved. a dishonour that they were determined should not pass unknown and unconfirmed. their husbands. the scholar Roman laws concerning murder following the provocation given that by unfaithful wives. that Q2 . but this woman cut off from them all hope. The laws it provide for no such case of provocation. as shown by Boccaccio. Stung the subject.PLEADING FOR A SON'S LIFE. they do not blast the prospects of their children . because was never contemplated. He urged an act of disloyalty unblushingly confessed was detected." to hear What could be greater horror then. Turning next dwelt upon the 227 to the cause of the offence. and moreover the desire of his old age was to live again in grandchildren. He at- had himself suffered in boyhood from the reproach taching to his birth. Upon this subject Cardan dwelt with emphasis and with keen feeling. Many wives are unfaithful. but they respect themselves. greater provocation than an act latter because the is " might be excused in a variety of ways.

perhaps. worse for us. and the It is entire shame.228 JEROME CARDAN." we are asked. I swear by the Throne in Heaven that if he bade me to supper the day afterwards vile? I would go in to him. known than un- known. known. they are known recognise such to the senate. the youth may The advocate then turned deserve to be condemned. did not sin of her own will. if will common knowledge. suspicion of un- Gianpietro di Meda. The son of the rich Gianpietro Solario. We know more than we should. his . Brand onia had made such a proclamation." to arguments for mercy. had been acquitted by the senate that was trying Cardan's son. " she. For what can be more What punishment can be too great for her who violates the rights of her own offspring. perhaps. had attempted to poison his father. We know the panders and the procuresses. for the sake of wealth. though he had prepared the poison a whole year before. The times are known it and the persons. and that my son-in-law had poisoned her. however. from that strain of anger to allude to letters in Brandonia's hand. and witnesses that had been all produced testifying that her parents were the cause of her sorrows." Immediately Jerome turned. I would that we knew nothing. and did not merit " But so much misery." he Too much is said. " to produce the evidences of her guilt. who upon mere faithfulness destroyed his wife with twenty-five wounds.

and it his when he had married her lips was proved even from the of hostile witnesses. if might he not himself have been not by his to the wife. how much ! hate and private irritation peril If he had sent her away. And what wife. man in While they were the town was dying of the wounds But he because he had put his wife away. all must have been deprived of the honours of the shut out from usually tions. pointed at by his neigh- bours ! And as it was. deprived of that taken from the infamous. love had not Gianbatista shown towards dowerless. and was prepared to not only in misery. how much among laughter would have been relations. and his nurse. by one of her paramours? If he had gone judges for a remedy. For why was the held excused? Because his love could be relied upon.229 three sisters. A father was excused by the law for the daughter. excited. After such degradakilled. is all decent intercourse. who had promised to take care of him. he incurred more manifest and imminent. but at the intercession of his father. killed her might have by stabbing. that he abandoned for her sake wealthy maidens. but even shame. sitting there. any one of whom he might have married? How long and patiently live he lived with her in misery. he escaped punishment. a inflicted. he college. slaying of his father This was a like case. That was the point . public talk. had he gone on enduring.

family. because I them. soldiers. that poison was an it agent which was more honourable to use. that one of the brothers. what might they not do What law. It is on record also. to which body he likened the most learned senate. and of his wife. can be so Scythian. already privately given to practices which were against the law. They for not known once to have secretly threatened me doing what I could sister.230 JEROME CARDAN. by the bitterness of spirit shown by He quoted from ancient history a case decided by the Areopagus. In my absence. but to defend am not here to accuse are my son. to death and infamy?" Moreover. that in the bitterest days of winter he had been forced to travel out on foot . then." said " Jerome. The boy had been despoiled by his so preyed wife's He had been upon by the avarice of his father-in-law. Sforza. as to act. or men whether they do not act. he observed. I pass over. insisted. the poverty of his sisters. He was a who had never carried arms she had three brothers. and removed from occasion for an open scandal. upon which most people peaceful doctor How so? . but " which. them the He further entreated that the senate would not be his son's influenced accusers. the petulance of his mother-in-law. since it re- spected the woman's family. not afford to do for the support of their dowerless and that fact may be seen in the public records. threatened my urge son in my ? presence.

simple of wit as any in the state and for his age. for he was the partner of my days of hardship. the sins of my youth. Surely the youth was worthy of excuse and pardon a youth. I may be reserved perhaps for greater mercies. through " I thank God. Remember of the not." And the advocate then became nothing but the grey-headed old man. and he had suggested many things all that Gianbatista should have done. if so And what could a boy then do. and. and in a miserable all childhood endured much. they had been spared that hard as he himof their self was. the Scripture pleaded. How few as most sacred senators had not erred gravely ! young men Had not all reason to be thankful. forgetting his advocacy for a cried. Let the senate ! reflect how much he to must have patiently endured The advocate opposed they were him was a clever man. in 231 summer clothes.PLEADING FOR A SON'S LIFE. He was deaf of one ear. moment. but absurd. though not without aptitude for study. that test strength under which his child had fallen? his He am spoke of own past errors. the father strug- . tried as he was. the advocate became lost in the father." " But he was so simple that he had no more prudence than a boy of ten years old. learned and acute a lawyer had himself no sensible alternatives that he was able to suggest ? Speaking next of the person of the offender. by that whom I chastised my son. O Lord.

a by the social rank of the accused man honoured by artificer or the college. "is to be forefathers. But he could some? times think well and reason as a man He owned that he could killed a . that liberty to see a show. in confessing in confessing when more ? he might have escaped by and than was suspected. " for no person of ignoble rank. and that confidant a to boy .232 JEROME CARDAN. . law inclines to mercy. but would they inflict death on a lunatic who The man because his lunacy had lucid intervals. or than any man desired to know He to told as proof of his son's simplicity how he had sent him to be bail in ten thousand gold crowns. and would say that he sinned when not in his right mind. he might have two or three hours' Then he dwelt upon blished the claim to consideration estaa graduate. earnestly pleading again and attesting that he was but as a boy of ten. so simple: "I take more thought." he said." my it shoes than he took in the marrying of his Was so not folly to wish to get rid of her? ? Could he by der. was he not foolish in using insufficient poison in having a confidant. noble by ancestry. he was urged." the old man "in the buying of wife. gling for his child. in waiting be taken when he was detected silence. doing better his condition If he meant mur. As for his boy." found among our He was a student. and was the head matured and educated by so many nights of toil to be cut off like the head of a man ignorant of yester- day as of to-morrow ? .

that the proximate cause of death was the falling of the nurse over 1 Responsio ad Criminationem D. Evang. That Seroni's daughter died through no man's crime. Pardon he did not In a second shorter address. Seroni (published in the for same work) what follows.THE REPLY TO SERONI. He had Then manner already described. Then Jerome pleaded on his 233 own behalf that as a asked. Jerome in replied to the statements formal crimination of Evangelista Seroni 1 . but perpetual exile. That is a brief outline of Cardan's speech for his son. or probably a document handed into the court. in to time applied to which the argument was from time his desire that Gianbatista's sentence should be not death. . How. shall I father he might not be bereft. Divine help had been afforded when there was none human near. when he becomes my heir. let the august senate next save father and son from the hands of cruel enemies. The hand of Brandon ia's brother Flavio had been arrested when he rushed forward fallen in the to slay Cardan's sons. arm himself avenge his father ? How much tent discord and future trouble might be sown by Gianbatista's death ? He ended the speech with a por- which he held significant of the divine will. or the galleys. he be able to smile upon a grandson whose maternal grandfather thirsted for my son's blood? to Will he not. ask.

ut in actis apparet. Quid forea cum veneno?" Op. as an indication of which there remained a scab upon her head when she died 1 it .234 JEROME CARDAN. He pointed out that the servant denied having been corrupted by his master's He said. had not helped his Gianbatista had received from him in seventeen months. . ninety gold crowns. I have attempted nothing more than has concerned the preservation of my son. turn maxirae quod diu comitiali morbo ex quo a me liberata est laboraverat. my hate who are indeed but this wrong I leave to the Just Judge to vindicate. cujus indicio fuit fovea in capite mortuse puellse p. " I solemnly swear that although stung bribes. by so many wrongs. for twenty-seven months. if I own real income why he could not must confess the truth. 1145. and " Kepente obiit. nor would I persecute those with most worthy of it. as had been shown. was I believe trifled partly a defect in himself. being a sum equal to the whole of his " The reason clothe his wife." He said that it was a false accusa- tion against himself to assert that he son's household. Many things that I could have proved I would not suffer to appear in public depositions. that her health had long been bad. for he 1 was so simple. affected by so many losses. cit. as has been ready related that he . in a quarrel with her mother. al- her body. and had himself attended her when labouring under a constitutional disease. He laid down " most certain" that as arsenic after it has been cooked ceases to be a poison.

he had on one occasion been 1 "Oh. (to use a is And he was kept poor too by the prodigal of his father-in-law. ! knew how little Oh. who to deny. that was to but a matter Granted." He replied briefly to the accusation against himself of cruelty. showed to be absurd but he said. The ground for was that a short time before the .THE KEPLY TO SERONI. rather than a conjecture stated . by his counsel it would be too clumsy for that. that he could earn little life it money. and removed to Pavia. and more the sisters-in-law And the mother-in-law and gnawed never to the bone that miserable boy of mine. I have left it to be stated here. But that little was all a poor man earning not much. parum erat hoc! fateor. .murder Jerome Cardan quitted a large practice at Milan. ." A random charge had been inserted in the crimination which accused the father of a guilty knowledge and comthe accusation plicity in his son's crime. where he accepted smaller in a few words gains. and maintaining a large household. so 235 much." P. you will say 1 . while struggling against the repro- bate courses of his son Aldo. dicetis. knowledge which I beside. 1149. . " I take it to be a spark thrown from the hot wrath of Dominus Evangelista. of modest term) whom within the public estate. . that he has wasted his told own money and am were ample means enough. that after his return from England. This accusation Cardan .

cruel if it be cruel to hate wickedness. and wrath. He to the senate. x. in- fluenced in their judgment by hostility towards himself1 . They could death to not condemn his son to the galleys without condemning to a worse fate the father. therefore. but those of evil. . He referred life. not wholly out of keeping with the roughness of the times he cut off one of his son's ears. that his son to perpetual exile. cites "He am -calls me cruel. would be far worse than death to him. Aldo was not made less wicked by his father's These were the points upon which Evangelista's do- cument of inculpation compelled Jerome ended with a personal appeal to speak.236 JEROME CARDAN. cap. He be- sought. might be sentenced only There were members of the senate. stung during supper to the infliction of a barbarous chastisement. "and what I should be a proof rather of drunkenness than cruelty." who wilfully turn into the way Truly it was a rough kind of reprimand with which to hope that a son might be turned out of the way of vice. I hate not only evil-doers." said Cardan. and found way into Evangelista Seroni's act of crimination. He had meditated over the defence of his son that has 1 De Vita Propria. as he thought. his son who was innocent . to that act afterwards as one of the misdeeds of his It its was remembered against him in the town.

aghast at the impending peril. imminentium attonitus. on the fifty-third day after his son's capture. The Seroni family. death. and shine with blood and " Jerome was beside himself with Ego memoria doloris filii perculsus. spared. sums that it was in no way possible to raise." De Vita Propria. by the past course of events. . shown. with his heart shocked by the recollection of his son's grief. that the life if peace could be made with of the condemned man would be The No terms could be made. demanded as the price of their relenting. . futurorum anxius. . therefore. He rose before the senate. and in the end was unsuccessful. anxious for the future the struggle for the life but the speech was delivered. like a sword 2 that seemed to be ascend. praeteritorum enervatus. the as Duke of Sessa. 237 been here sketched. x. The red mark. . tip. cap. The same chapter contains authority for 1 the statements that occur between this and the next reference. seemed to have reached the finger fire. foolish son had bragged to his wife's relatives of treasures that his father certainly did not possess. ing Cardan's finger. cap.SENTENCE OF DEATH. xxxvii. he tells us1 . No man stretched out a hand to rescue the philosopher from an old age of sorrow. enervated . Gianbatista was condemned to This mercy was the prosecutors. sic tamen exorsus . first-born son of his was maintained by Cardan to the end. 2 De Vita Propria. but something from the friendly intervention of the governor. hoping not much from the judicial court.

. who had donia. died almost at the same time as her father. Cap. During the night his son had perished. the 7th of April. Vita Propria. he had received them as his own blood. 3 stroyed at the same time his local reputation He had poured out his money in his son's cause. but it was only of the wretchedness that he was conscious. xxvii. three months old. in one These all had to be buried. 1105. Evidence of statements here made will appear in the sequel. p. little The left old physician and his together. his consolation in the bitterness of his affliction. when he looked. the philosopher transferred all love that was not buried with his son. the mark was gone. his solemn charge. Diaregina. The stroke that fell so heavily on Cardan's heart de. He was executed by night in his prison on . But the girl. 1560. and three funerals3 week crossed the threshold of Cardan. and within the week there died also the nurse who had come with the infant boy. ex Adv. grandson were thus alone To that infant.238 JEROME CARDAN. and wretchedness . contempt. In the morning. taken to his heart the orphan children of Branall Thrusting aside question of legitimacy. p. Time 1 3 3 De De Ut. anguish and alarm. Thus from the very summit of his fame he had been thrust suddenly into poverty. being then twenty-six years old 1 The mutilated body was delivered to the old man.

THE CATASTROPHE

THE ORPHAN GRANDSON.

239

never healed his grief; even his reason was impaired by
it.

"I was

told,"

he

says,

"that some of the senators

that they privately confessed

condemned

my

son with the
;

hope that through grief I might perish or go mad barely I escaped one of those ends God knows."
narrowness of the escape
is

how
The
life.

visible in all his after

He

could write

still,

according to the habit of the philo-

sopher,

and be beguiled from sorrow by the pen, though

into his books,

upon whatever theme they were com-

posed, there almost always crept through some chapter or
for his child. paragraph, a cry of wailing

But

in his
his
felt

conduct in society he
reason.

was no longer always master of

Mistrust became habitual ; he seems to have

like a stag at bay,

and seen in nearly all his neighbours hounds watchful for an undefended spot upon him into which to fix their teeth. Superstitions darkened heaven
for

him

like a night,

and through the midst of the night
the voice
it

there

came

in every form
son.

of the

old

man

lamenting for his
verse.

Sometimes

took the form of

One

metrical effusion, which seems to have arisen
first

naturally out of the

sense of bereavement,
to

Cardan
of

published in a philosophic treatise,

the writing
It

which he

at

once betook himself, as to an opiate.

was

a book that he undertook for the expressed purpose of

supplying medicine to sorrow.
his Latin verses,

In

it

he printed not only

but the notes for harp music, to which

240

JEROME CARDAN.
composer who was then ninety- seven These are the verses put into an

his friend Giudeo, a

years old, set
1 English form

them.
:

"

A purple flower cut by the hard plough
Droops, so to

me

ray dying son appears
I see

;

Worthy a Nestor's
Under the
axe,
'

life,

him bow

and long upon mine ears

Murmurs a
It says,
'

voice,
*

'

pitiable sire !' infant born hard years to know Three souls at once under one stroke expire,

!

My own death is the least part of my woe.
i.

1

Theonoston, Lib.
"

Op. Tom.

ii.

p. 346.

The poem

itself is

here

appended:

Ut

flos

Languescit
Filii,

purpureus duro concisus aratro sic ilia mei morientis imago nestoreos heu digni vivere in annos,
:

Qui postquam suculam vidit ssevarnque securim Exanimis jacuit, diu tandem voce recepta: 'Heu: miserande pater,' dixit, miserandaque proles, Nunc tres Concordes anima moriemur in una, Sed mea mors mihi jam minima est pars certe doloris. Infantem miseror parvum, patrisque senectam,
'

Languescentemque animum sternit pietatis imago Et quanquarn moriar primis juvenilibus annis, Quosque mihi sensus olim tribuere parentes
Carnificis dextra eripiat,

;

cum

vestra nefandos

Jura tegant,

laBtique trahant per

crimina vitam:

Immemorem tamen heu

O dolor ingens. Nobilis heu pater, en quis te solabitur inde Moerentem ? laterique hajrens comitabitur ultro ?
pietas facit!

Infantem commendo

tibi

nostrum, rogo vive,
vivere in
illo.

Obdura in
Suscipe,

soevos casus,

curamque nepotis

meque putes florentem
;

Yerum utinam possem moriens amplexier ambos. Xon licet et postquam votis vos stringo supremis,
Per tenebras nunc vado
Condidit auditis
aeternas:

jamque

valete'

ccelo his

Deus

astra sereno:
ferse."

Saxaque

fleverunt, ulularunt

undique

A DIRGE.
'

241

My little child, my father's
*

age, I

The

piteous image
I die young,

fills

me

mourn, with alarm

;

'

Though
*

and give the senses born

*

For loving nurture to the headsman's arm, While evil-doers sheltered by your laws
'

Drag

life

'

I heed not that.
'

with gladness through the ways of crime, keener sorrow draws

A

*

My spirit downward. In the coming time, My noble father, solace who shall give
To your great sorrow; who, firm to your side, Will be your comrade onward? Ah, yet live! ' To you our helpless infant I confide.
'

'

*

Harden
1

his soul to bear the hurts of fate.
;

4

Cherish the grandchild in his bloom behold Your son again Oh, wish that comes too late!
' Could but my dying arms you both enfold! In vain. I tell my last desires, and fade '

'

Departing through eternal shades.
covered up the stars

Farewell
said;

!'

God

when

this

was

Brutes moaned, and, dropping from the rock, tears

fell."

VOL.

II.

242

JEROME CARDAN.

CHAPTER

X.

THE LAST YEARS OF CARDAN AT PA VIA.

AFFLICTED and ashamed, Cardan
where
his sensitive

returned to Pavia,

mind

suffered a daily torture.

Infamy

had

fallen

upon

his house.

He

either

was endured un-

easily

by

his associates at Pavia, or

he tortured himself

with the belief that he was no longer honoured.

"I

could not," he says, " be retained with credit, or dis-

missed without a reason; I could not live safely in

my

own

country, or quit

it

without

risk.

I wandered in

despair

about the

town,

conversed with

people

who

despised me, shunned ungratefully

my

friends; I could
to go; I

not devise what to do, I not

knew not whither

do

know whether

I was most wretched or most hated1 ."

Nevertheless he remained at Pavia two more years.

He had
Maria
di

bought a house there, near the Church of Santa
2
;

Canepanova

he had, of course, by right of his

position,

been enrolled a member of the Pavian College
late

of Physicians; and before the
1

catastrophe he

had

2

De

Paralipomenon, Lib. iv. cap. Vita Propria, cap. xxiy.

vi.

SORROW AND SHAME.

243

always found that there was a great contrast between his
position at the

two towns of Milan and-Pavia.
beset

In his

own town he always was
treated with
1

by petty scandal and un-

kindness, but in Pavia he had been generously used and
respect
,

until

the

events lately detailed

shattered his reputation.

He

then found that a
in the one

man with
in

an

ill

name was spared no more

town than

the other.

He had
last

in his house successively three pupils

during the

two years spent by him in Pavia.

One

was Ercole Visconti, an only

son, entrusted to Cardan

by

his father Galeazzo 2

.

The youth belonged The Galeazzo

to a great

family, that

had

in a former century filled

an important
Visconti,

chapter in the history of Pavia.

by whom the existing castle of Pavia was built, probably was the grandfather to Jerome's pupil. Ercole was young,
handsome,
affectionate,

and a good musician.

He

often

shared the night-watches of the afflicted father, and with

him
dice.

also

Cardan sought

to kill care

by playing with the

The

other two pupils were Benedetto Cataneo, of a lawyer, and Gianpaolo Eufomia, a
considerable
erudition
3
.

Pavia,

who became

musician,
pupils,

who

acquired

The

we

shall find presently,

were made a theme for

scandal.
1

De

Vita Propria, cap. xxxiii.
father's

2

The

name

is

incidentally stated in Cardan's Defens. pro

19.
3

De Vita

Propria, cap. xxxv.

R2

244

JEROME CARDAN.
Cardan be-

Unwillingly retaining his professorship,

took himself assiduously to the writing of books.

The

work on the Uses of Adversity, which he had commenced
in his most prosperous days,

was nearly finished

;

and he

completed
text

it

with a chapter upon Grief, of which the
son's story,

was a narrative of his
it

and the moral was a

philosophical, or

should rather be said scholastic, enforceto

ment of arguments,

show

that this was

no

real cause of

sorrow to his father. His stoicism was not more genuine than
his adhesion to

some of the arguments that he had thought

proper to the disputation in his son's defence.

The book

was published, and the defence spoken by Cardan for his son was printed at the end of it, together with a frag-

ment of the young man's writing " Upon
and a fatherly laudation of his
skill as

Fretid Foods,"

a physician, which,
to effect

in the case of certain Spaniards,

had enabled him

a cure that even Jerome had in vain attempted.

The

work

on the Uses of Adversity was divided into four
first

books, of which the
adversity,

treated generally of

all

kinds of

and of the preparation of the mind against
ills;

imminent

the second treated of bodily adversity, as

deformity, disease, age, death; the third book treated of
adversity in fortune,
as
;

through poverty, envy,

exile,

anger of princes, prison

and the

last

book treated of

adversity through one's relations, as through wife and
children.
It

was thus naturally closed with the history

of his misfortune through his son.

The whole work

is

later. find rest for his own The second book was on the Prolongation partly written of Life. and to console himself with the writing of a bulky entitled all Theonoston. some of it ten years was on the Immor- tality of the Soul. and its Felicity. the rest were half tried. p. explained in it . was to upon Tranquillity. Sixty-six secrets were and of the explanations six were approved by personal experiment. The only medical work written at this time by Cardan was a comment on the Anatomy of Mundinus. and the natural vision of demons. book. two had not been tried. until Vesalius broke 1 The account of works written in these years is from the last book De Libris Propriis. also Jerome had been engaged the fourth when his son died 1 . 245 written in the temper of a follower of Epictetus. in 1561.THE SOLACE OP BOOKS. such topics as occult speaking and cipher writing medical problems. at Pavia. and was begotten of the struggle troubled mind. Tom. sought relief rather in philosophic meditations. upon book of a work on Secrets which included . but The third book. philtres. and the fifth on the Life of the Soul after Death. The first written at Pavia. was first published at Basle. . and contains It many allusions to its author's private history. for example. . Op. the fourth on Contemplation. 118. Mundinus was the text-book upon which. test After his son's death he had no heart to them any further. stone. He began work. deafness. in five books. hernia. i. &c. a medical treatise.

Lib. he became 2 3 See the preface to Mundinus. and to lose his only after Gianbatista's execution. said that he had lived happily under Ferrante inild Gonzaga. De Varietate Eerum.246 through the JEROME CAKDAN. had been put of which he had into chains and losing some small profits endeavoured to enlarge the 1 by extortion. p. if they had any anatomy to teach. while tinder the rule of a liberal successor he had lost his son 2 . instead of writing a new work of his own. 671. Dial. who was a harsh man. . cap. rule. . Only a few days prosecutor. which he named. it. sophical points of and on the application of anatomy to the diagnosis and cure of disease1 . physicians commented. but he considered him to have erred in certain respects. and. his house without any provision. Tom. Tetim. his The object of philo- comment on Mundinus was to discuss some anatomy that had been much neglected. The anatomist. Tom. a philosophical dialogue. in which he dwelt mournfully upon his sorrows. as we have seen . 93. Opera. among other things. i. entitled Tetim. office. Considering the execution of his son to have been a crime on the part of fates of those all concerned in . Opera. 129. edited Mundinus. cap. xvi. Cardan admired Vesalius. xlii. bearing particularly on the connexion and use of parts. He wrote also. p. De Vita Propria. x. he watched the who had afflicted him and noted afterwards3 that the President Rigone lived to expel his own wife from son. his harsh Evangelista Seroni. soon after his son's death.

and had said. common beggar. courage. 247 Sicily. as we have seen. generous and hu- mane." we find his opinion in a transition state.JUDGMENTS a CARDAN'S DEMON. was distressed gravely both through his family. and chiefly. says Jerome. though the belief he expresses . of Plotinus. His favourite son was hung in The prince. great patience in labour. works Cardan and many others had a very high Very few years before his great misfortune. though otherwise. he had not believed that he was aided by a demon. in the dialogue entitled " Tetim. or the hint then misapplied by many had of the learned from the ancients. a contempt of money and honours. this I well know. Scaliger. part in the boy's death suffered. and it arose in that age not unfrequently out of an unspiritual reading of some of the later Greek philosophers. for whose respect. that my good genius there was given me reason. such a faith . "I truly know of the presence near for me of no demon or genius. in his book on the Variety of Things." After his son's death. Before that date he had not adopted the super- stition of his father. He tends to is believe in a demon. some There is one particular in which the growth of Cardan's superstition after his son's death came to be very distinctly marked. and count such gifts better and ampler than the demon of Socrates. all which I make the most of. some more. by whom Cardan was deserted in his hour of need. Jerome had been discussing this subject. All others as a public man and who took less. I think.

with a mixture from Mercury and Saturn. and Socrates. for still grown up to be a young man twenty-two whose future career the provision had been to year delayed. But what is its nature? and For some are said to be saturnine. and rare one. though name of some grows to be great. what he has he did not or even hope for." The sudden of character and fortune that had fallen assisting properly on Cardan deprived him of the power of the English William who still dwelt in his house. But in his last years half the expression of an allegory. and had years old. : speaking of himself through his imaginary character " Ram. He thus wrote in the dialogue. and acquiesces in all only when he thinks that things are prepared " Tetim. All such live the ' ' miserably and perish. Ram. he is not lord of his own actions. "Ram. Cardan had strong affection for . So many and such great marvels have hap- pened to him against his will. It is suspected to be under Venus. that he has a genius. that I am forced to suspect. " Tetim. because I know no one who of has had a familiar genius of this sort except the I speak. so that desires and a great. but what he desire. so of others. and he too with whom I am very intimate. others jovial. the belief was real. loss man whom and his father. he does not have.248 JEROME CARDAN. by God. powerful. But he turns with horror from this it thought. from year him. I do not know that. himself thinks.

and was intent upon so that I again forgot my pupil. paying for his board. became requisite that William should be put out in life. now that. as you know. . 249 loved his winning ways. William. besides I had to lecture it. must go to Pavia. it When. after Gianbatista's death. After six months. that I may show how much I I love you. " I said then.CARDAN'S DEMON. that he might have tailor in instruction in the trade. I proposed that he should board out of the house. a good deal of Theonoston being written. and have ' learnt nothing . . a friend who loved me. Then for reasons which I think time thought substantial. but which I now light (for he was a youth. upon Galen's art of medicine. year through at Theonoston . a pupil. so that you may You shall then either go home. and often called him in the household Guglielmina. 1 In the preface to the Dialogue de Morte. you like I will place you in the house of some tradesman I will pay him for your keep. if . . nothing was found better than to put him with a Milan. for love of and who me thought little of his distant kin- dred). by which I was compelled to work all the . especially that part which treats of the immortality of souls. for he had been eight years at the away from Dover. and provide you with clothing. you grow to be a man. I again thought of my design that William should learn a trade. . learn a trade. The end of William's story is thus told by Jerome1 (He has just adverted to the fate of " his son) .

lodged in my own house. who had been entrusted faith. crafty man flattered the . I proposed my tailor. or I will supply you with. by somebody at Pavia. because he had been in the habit of talking with Messer Antonino Daldo. my life. excellent youth I saw that to be out of policy but. trade will " But what you choose ? (And then I made a great mistake in offering to a simple youth the most laborious. If I him to "The six months expired: the . where I was The fourth mistake was. so faithful a pupil. who pay at once agreed about the price: that I was to at the end of six months thirty-two gold crowns. On holidays ' . But I committed a third error. you must " learn reading and writing. not at Milan. which concerned neither or fortunes. by his father with so much confidence to my good sent had not kept him with me. ought to have paid every year (we agreed for three years) only a third part. honour.) Will you be a tailor ?' " He agreed to that. so that establishing yourself here in was pleased at you may earn a comfortable living/ He what I said but I added. that I did not retain. and the more willingly. regardless of youthful errors. the means of opening a shop and trade.' He ' agreed. I should have placed him to be taught residing. sus- . money with you. I That was my second error. him to that person. I should have no place but his own home.250 taking JEKOME CARDAN.

was necessity. after he had risen from his bed. on account of cold and bad food. because my son Aldo and a boy had run away. I ordered What more? him to be bled . pecting no fraud. rustics. and had theless battled lost all consciousness. was compelled to sleep in the shop : there. and four days afterwards I was sent for in the night to visit him. and was about to come to me . so that little from tailoring he went to the custody of vineyards if there . and he recovered. for many reasons partly because he did not complain much. similar . which passed away in about four days and. because he thought he had not long to live. having a farm. his master was celebrating some wedding. lecture but he. that when I chanced to be at Milan he was taken with a fever. finally. " After that I was compelled to return to Pa via to . crowns. I never- with the disease. and I neglected the matter. when he had been with me. the boy became miserable.APPRENTICESHIP AND DEATH OF WILLIAM. at the same time. He was seized with convulsions. took the youth out to play. town and spent and made love The boy danced about among the Thus it happened to all the girls. paid the thirty-two gold 251 Daldo country then throughout the summer. partly because I did not know that the disease was caused by improper and excessive labour. " He came to : me. he had two or three times had a attack. when. partly because. they came back in the evening the place was about two miles out of the night in sewing.

when he saw whom he had loved was ruined by his He accused himself most justly. had he would have become an but he perished of neglect. where the next morning he died of the distress disease and of of mind. well-born and who had been confided to him by strangers most learned man in Europe. grief.252 at Pavia. and night chills. and for that express purpose wrote a Dialogue on Death. and was well that he should grieve when he saw quick-witted. By this misfortune I lost was so overcome. ." another of my Thus William died smitten in conscience . Cardan went back to Pavia full of and set to occurred to work upon the only act of atonement that him. JEROME CARDAN. and not in a word too heavily for his neglect of duty. and the philosopher was again that another being carelessness. in the hope that he too might lived. of which the English William was the theme. In the preface he told candidly the story of his conduct in the matter. as to the the wretched end of the boy. He would compensate in some measure by conferring upon him literary for the youth's death im- mortality. become learned and famous. The Xenodochium. that I seemed to have sons. acknowledging the 1 full extent of his neglect. it He had assumed lightly a grave responsibility. concealing nothing that told hardly on himself. when the disease returned upon him. Then his 1 impious master ordered him to be taken to the poor-house . idle If William tailor .

are Latombe and Latham. had once been indebted her life. however. by what other family whose name might be rudely Latinised into Lataneus. and the young who and truly excellent a man. to the skill of the physician for It has been said that Carlo felt Borromeo was at Rome. but Thomas and Jane de Latombe are said to have held early in the next century Brambery Manor. now to determine. The Lathams mentioned are clergymen in out-of-the way places. was so great garet de' Medici.NEW DEPTHS OF dialogue itself GRIEF. and of foreign origin. I suggest the name for want of a better. indeed. Marin good-will towards him. and shrinking at face of Pa via from the men who had known his son and did not share a relief in father's pity for his fate. It may be possible to ascertain whether Philip and Mary ever were lodged in Kent by a Latombe. ten miles from Dover. William's family was good. I suppose it have been Latombe Beset by miseries. had grown up His mother. and further perplexed by a to misprint. but his activity was in other places. Cardan sought change of scene. He 1 In Hasted's Kent the only family names that seem likely to have been transformed into Lataneus. He had been known always cardinal. and if not. ob- scured by translation into Latin. . the first of his father's three wives. the youth's inscribe for the instruction of all name and the grief of the philosopher by whom he was so much loved and so much neglected. Borromeo family. He desired a removal from among the people who had seen to the his house degraded. literary 253 was meant to be the monument on which Jerome would ages. The essential part of the youth's name. it is hard 1.

a splendid college. this To good friend and patron. 1564 like . in 1562. That college was founded in June. the it building of the present edifice was begun. and as was begun chiefly through the munificence of Borromeo. in the year 1562. he was engaged in a work Bologna. for that reason. for which he could resign that which he held at Pavia. accommodation had been very bad . therefore. at a cost of sixty thousand gold crowns. Escaped from among the gossip that surrounded him. was influential at Bologna. Morone. called by his own name. in the hope of obtaining through his interest a chair at Bologna. he might hope to find his friends. but at already. and where he founded. There he was the most munificent contributor towards the erection of the university building that at this day ornaments the town.254 JEHOME CARDAN. therefore. too. and from the stigma that had been attached to his name since Gianbatista's execution. Cardan turned. and again meet with due honour out of own country. Borromeo's answer gave him all the necessary hope. Though its the university had prospered under Papal patronage. relying . early in his after life. was a man of influence even where he had studied under Alciat. the influence of that cardinal's voice in the affairs of the University of Bologna was almost that of a master. at Pavia. of which the edifice was raised from the designs of Pellegrino Pellegrini.

who had once been my pupil. my mind . and would be most proper to interpose delays. which he begins in this way to " I was professor at Pavia. a simple man. and reading in my I had a nurse and the youth Ercole Visconti. they could. the other a page. one was an amanuensis and musician. believe. Then there were doctors. to leave Pavia. cap. my professorship but the Senate took that and as if I decided angrily. xxx. . and they seem have supposed that he was acting rashly on the that it spur of his unhappiness. and force upon for him that time mature deliberation which. on the friendship of the sulted his cardinals. one. It was the year 1562. as it seemed.DESIRE FOR A REMOVAL TO BOLOGNA. layed for some time the acceptance The of his resignation. 255 Jerome to at once con- own feelings. Of these boys. having. and a famulus. to bring about their 1 De "Vita Propria. I think. a hot man. he seemed to be unwilling or indisposed to take. 1 : insults. It was then that the afflicted old man was exposed to town scandal and record house. the other Extraordinary Professor of Medicine. and as I two boys. no harm in him My rivals were most anxious that doing all I should leave the city. in which I had made up and resign ill. and endeavoured throw up his senate de- appointment in the University of Pavia. He had then no other appointment to offered him. in the disorder of his mind.

who confessed the letter to be his. Fioravanti was the hot friend. how to reply for I could not interpret the meaning of these things. but with a scandal. who desired to succeed to Cardan's vacated chair. wrote to me first a vile and filthy letter. which were Be- likely soon to remove me from connexion with them. the distressed physician received also a letter signed with the name of Fioravanti. common fame. when they did not hope senate. opening his eyes to a charge so vile. a most modest man and he his re- friend. I did . dan's nearest rival. from the though I myself was asking they resolved to kill me. JEROME CARDAN. rested. what to say. to the and a check was opposed filthiness of scandal. that they and the college. who had at first been influenced by the reports." After a few days. my kindred. wildered by this audacious censure from not know what to do. He went at once to Fioravanti. Then. for they feared the infamy and the senate. and Delfino the simple rival. were ashamed for the senate saying that they were ashamed of their relationship with me. to get my dismissal for it. and the opinion of the Now the rector was a partisan to Delfino. . in the They name of my son-in-law and in the name of my daughter.256 wish. readily did justice to his friend. CarFioravanti. and being asked upon what grounds the accusation answered upon rector. that verted instantly to the letter of his son-in-law in grief and amazement at his children's rash belief of it. not with the sword.

whose love music was a ruling taste. suffering that followed his son's crime and execu- His superstition. II. pp. Contile spoke of 1 Contile is here quoted through Tiraboschi. increased and confirmed by age. illustrious of all Italian institutions of the 1 Writing from Pavia in August. according to a custom of the age. which suddenly became one of the most kind. his as was increased tenfold by views of life gloomy fortune. vii. et seq. 276.SCANDAL AT PAVIA. and that he was rarely without pupils. Tom. that his master might more readily be poisoned. The libel 257 fact that had been founded on the for Cardan. or as singers in a comedy. S . and even Fioravanti could not to despise idle afterwards desire the aid of his boys in a church choir. VOL. without exciting Jerome's anger Visconti was at last at suspected motives. a singing boy. there was founded in Pavia the Accademia degli Affidati. swayed by the strength of Cardan's feelings into sharing the belief. generally main- tained in his house. and Ms were coloured they never before had been illustration of this fact by is his sick imaginings. that it was designed to remove all faithful attendants. sick The mind of the philosopher had no longer the strength calumny. It is evident that Jerome's intellect was greatly shaken by the tion. this account of the academy is taken. from whose Storia della Letteratura Italiana (ed. 1824). Milan. The next very striking. In May of the year 1562.

258 it JEROME CARDAN. it founded in months which be has in a short time made so high a name. Berretta. Cefalo. although not I will send you information of the forms they use. all Italy. some princes. the faculties in which they have readings. and many others not equally famous. that may exalted as a marvel without paragon. sophers. that after four years its ranked as academicians the first Rome. " Thanks be God. Corti. The Lord Marquis of Pescara made It is academician. who are to be the readers. he will also take a place in it. believed that when the Duke of Sessa comes. indeed." : In September. forty: six excellent We are more than and famous jurisconsults. in which are the first men of letters in as Branda Porro. less learned than these. the laws they observe. " There has just been established here an academy . whom it has degli my reception into the this city four Accademia since." The academy cardinals of did. Cardano. Binaschi. Delfino. and some of the chief rulers of Europe. Fifteen days after the town scandal against him had . and the Signor Federigo Gonzaga. including his Catholic Majesty Philip the Second. and the is days of meeting. Zaffire. to the same corre- spondent wrote pleased to cause Affidati. Bobbio. thus: named 3 Degli ASIdati. and among them the Lord Marquis of Pescara. take at it once so high a stand. and about fifteen of the learned in other many knights. ten philofaculties . Lucillo.

after a few felt angry apostrophes relating to a period when Jerome himself to be at war with all mankind. had exhausted the whole strength 01 adversity at length I acquiesced." he wrote in stung him as an insult. should enter the degli Affidati. xxx. chiefly because they promised. And when they found that they forced from me my I was hard consent by What could I do. to get threats. after a few days definitely fixed. he was indignant tive to shame. a beam it. and his family. " his old age 1 they took care that he for whom his country . overwhelmed by the terrible my son ? . and the colleges of Milan and of Pavia. and the senate. he relates how he observed. cap. He did so most unwillingly. Even the just homage all to his reputation things. several logians and two the Duke of Mantua and the it Marquis Pescara. 259 Cardan was asked to aid in the esta- blishment of this academy. still against his libellers. " Before was to blush. been at its height. morbidly sensiaffected in his and perceptibly mind by his son's fate. the whole body of his colleagues and his pupils. so placed that a person might be killed by falling over He questioned 1 whether that was not another foul his chief occupation in the design upon himself. to accept the resignation of my office as a lecturer. s2 ." Then. and De Vita Propria.CARDAN AND THE AFFIDATI. fate of me there. in Accademia good theo- which there were princes". when he passed through the doors of the academy.

it companion. Lib. if the fact that we may deduce so much from Cardan dedicates to him a sorrowful book. iv. vi. that his friendship proved no blessing to to it had complained him. to should be said. but a most kindly for man. is Meeting Cardan in the street. cap. and punished the philosopher by labouring to bring him into at court. .260 JEROME CAEDAN. Jerome. as a and makes him. the succeeding story. There can be no doubt that there was much plotting and contriving directed against Jerome. while praising the duke in recent books. the physician (who not his named) again requested 1 that he would take charge of De Morte. who since his son's death had been neither a reputable nor an agreeable Gianpietro Albuzio. for 2 Paralipomenon. his One whose son Cardan was refusing to take into fee. appears have been not only a most eminent. of his sorrows 2 Other physicians were of a less noble stamp. graver disrepute His standing was already lost there. assembly seems to have been the maintaining of a sullen watch against the hand of treason. house as pupil with a happened to be a man who boasted of his favour with the Duke of Sessa. speaker most generous and sympathising with himself in a dialogue upon the topic 1. with him the bereaved father found consolation in pouring out his heart. friend. he had help that would have served him better. because. trusting neglected in his son's case.

" " " Then. I served. with his son and two comtold panions. but that ligning. I. that I was abusing the governor. He even added. an angry man certainly. and he named him." Jerome goes on to relate. At and a ring was made about had not heard what I many who heard did really say. Jerome replied. that he needed no such good offices. " Why ?" asked the physician. same when he had long held to the he added madly what I did not know before. and no such favour. meeting Jerome in the open market. he cried out before witnesses that my son had perished by his own fault. certainly he did not. At tale. 261 and promised that if he would. save my son. son. not the governor's. he should know how he to restore him to the favour of the governor. " Because he would not." the prince whom Afterwards this physician. not the duke from his. his accusations last. or thought of maligning.WORRIED IN THE STREETS. that or did not positively fault my son perished by the of the governor's brother-in-law. . and was not ma- had not maligned. him had that a relation of the prince. these words people ran to us. for that (Jerome) had retired from the duke's friendship. us. know. or he could not. so that he was a maligner of princes rather than I I answered nothing to his anger. and had best take care what I said.

262 been reading JEROME CARDAN. a Spaniard doing honour to his country. told it to it. and was very near running out to cut Cardan in two (for he happened to be in the court at the time). in which he wrote of the illus- trious lord abusively. prince. He. Cardan then. and told him that he must speak well of the turning suddenly upon him. "He is here." and what strength and law was felt with the rich and powerful. told a volume of philosophy. But the physician added. Spaniard higher in authority. at who did not know the alphabet. how his reputation was shattered by the fate of his son. and turning that he him was a fool." said Adrian. and to him whole story. that he had been good enough to interfere and mitigate his anger. that if Antonio Pezono. Entering the he saw one of his learned friends. to the magnate tale." he " says. Then he attacked Jerome." They went to him. always helpful and kind. knowing. who told in presence of Cardan's medical plague. he should know how to turn the tables on his persecutor. were in the place. Adrian told the Belga. as if and he were protesting that he would " not. smaller people . "just at the porch. when he heard the a story. and throw him down the dust-hole. laughed mightily hearing of the wrath excited in him by the reading of to the doctor. his book. adding. cathedral. who was the hero of the The great man. raised another crowd. that he was compelled to oppose the machinations of the busybody.

1 person from that town to Pavia who on arriving got among evil counsellors. His behaviour repulsive . but only benches a . Hui 1 I know that to be I have seen the first cap. and wrote back. The scraps of dialogue. MESSENGER FROM BOLOGNA. like all others occurring in these volumes. and has no patients/ This letter was read to the senate at Bologna in the then to be presence of Borromeo himself. The account of these negotiations is from the Liber de Vita Propria. many bad things. there rose ! one of those present and said: false. or seen any of his " pupils. serving as pope's legate in the to put who happened town. In the mean time. expressing it. xvii. It was at first proposed an end to the negotiation with Cardan. to away high in the favour of whom he had furnished entertainment. having seen his perse- cutor thoroughly chidden. . and disliked by is all. but upon the text of that part of the letter which said that he had no * ' patients. went the Spaniards.THE SPANIARDS echoed this opinion. that he is man of ill manners. are translated literally from Cardan. one full of folly. and among them these Of Hieronymus Cardanus I have understood that he is : a professor without a class. without having attended one of the illustrious physician's lectures. Borromeo having recommended kis friend to the senate of Bologna. and he knows but little of the art of medicine. such sectarian opinions about in his that he 5 is rejected by all own city. there had been sent a . 263 and Cardan.

effect." who was pre- sent at the discussion of his silent. he who had scorned cause they demanded from him an abandonment of office dependence. the subject of his salary to be re-considered. was to much as he had at Pavia. if his appointment were confirmed.264 JEROME CARDAN. have also used it. blushed and was Cardan's enemies had overshot their mark. and for his travelling expenses he was to have nothing. refused utterly to accept dishonourable terms. though not one of first men." Borromeo added saved instantly: life " I too can testify that he it my mother's when was despaired of by all other people. but . . quite without it It was determined to use caution. with the understanding that at the end of that year he should vacate his office if the report sent to the senate of correct." Another senator said: "No The doubt the other accusamessenger. was To this decision Borromeo as- sented lista but when it was brought to Jerome by Evangeto serve princes bein- Matuliano. too. To those points he objected. the land using his help . however. or if in sity did not him should be proved any way his connexion with the univer- prove beneficial. own report. At the end of the year. tions are as true as this. and was therefore resolved that a professorship at Bologna should be offered to Cardan for one year. The unfavourable report was not. so upon such be scarcely The stipend. men in the and I.

his was unsettled. even with the best of pay. not as an ungrateful man. On the forefinger of his right hand selenite. Opera." In the year 1562. nothing baser than to be ho- " noured on such terms. because he had re- at Pavia. to Bologna. Go. the terms attached to the offer shut out all 265 debate. cap. among others. Towards midnight Paralipomenon. he had a ring. from Vilanterio. Tom. for one reason. he often was in the habit of so the jacinth he retained. from which the succeeding narrative is taken." position All his affairs were in confusion. vi. on terms that he thought not honourable. doing. hexagonal jacinth. Lib." he said to the " for I account messenger. with scarcely any other alteration in the wording than a change from the first to the third person. reply to his requests appointing him. p. being of opinion hindered sleep. and though he had almost no income already resigned his post at all. expected whose The prince was " looked forward presence he says that he to with horror. 459. On the next day there was to a come to him Paolo Andrea Capitaneo. he took off it under his pillow. x. he summarily jected the proposals from Bologna. iii. but as a man not grateful. 1 . because it promoted somnolence.CARDAN AND THE SENATE OF BOLOGNA. boy of fourteen. Cardan had 1 resigned his professorship and had already received the . that he never laid aside. of which the stone was a and on the left hand a large. the selenite and put that it Retiring for the night. on the llth of June.

and on awaking could not find the ring on his left hand." effort Jerome must be to sleep he said " if even without made. . selenite at He found the first once under the pillow. He departed. indeed smaller. for I scarcely could consider this a natural occurrence. said that persisted. that was glowing. raked among the ashes. rozio. I bade him He we were without matches and at last got up. asleep. a He aroused Giacomo Antonio Scacaba- boy of fifteen. and slept in the chamber. which again seemed to me a prodigy. blew on the coal. " my mind desponded. therefore. and was afraid to be in the dark. for a little while I gathered courage. When He I had rested and bade the boy answered. Then I was afraid there was no hope of getting flame but he brought a lamp with a cotton wick." The boy asked . hope because if I went upon so dire a prodigy it would portend destruction. ordering him to find the rings. for . who was his page." says Cardan. Jerome and then the boy looked not find it. or tinder. I commanded the boy. that the fire had been thoroughly put out light a candle with the flint. I think go and get light from the hearth. they could " Sorrowful to death on account of the omen. because he disliked the trouble. found a coal no quite bigger than a cherry. to get light in some way. and obtained a light without any emission of flame from the coal. for in vain. The jacinth. and took it with the tongs.266 he fell JEROME CARDAN. last evening.

plague. night-watching." Jerome adds. for the pillow joined close to the bed-head. do The philosopher himself then took and laid it aside for ever. besides. and palpitation of the heart. reflected on and. it would not have been in that fallen direction. whether it 267 was not neatly done ." Cardan. with Search then was again made for the ring anxious fear and care. on the excuse that his health was weak. Turning day this prodigy to use. which he was not able comprehend. it fitted he could not. only wonder. the ring. was soon found on the ground. its shape would have hindered from rolling . however. under the bed. but nothing likely to persuade a man. but Jerome was absorbed to in admiration at the prodigy. if it had rolled. and the bed had raised sides. did not. after he had worn it for years as a protection against lightning. I expressed fear. or it off. but so. It could not have where it lay. " unless it were conveyed it by hand . put on his hand. and asked the boy to so tightly that draw it off. however small his superstition.PRODIGIES. determined that he would not set foot . after the ring was found. in which there was no chink. I know. lest much the light should become extinguished. " It could not possibly have got there. that the thing was not a portent signifying the reversal of my condition and my it reputation. but the boy himself trembled with Many things may. be said. Jerome on the following his dangers .

and he told them of the portent. and said. in the diseased spirit that had come upon him since his son's death. of them. a teacher in the University. why. At any It rate. soliciting his presence. he determined not to go. the rare ac- cident happened that he was invited out to supper.268 out of doors. JEROME CAKDAN. After breakfast. He did not think his entertainer wicked enough to do him harm. warned festival by the omen. to Four or five students of Cardan's came him with Zaffiro. the doubt whether he should have returned from such a feast alive. by cap. It so happened that in the morning he was invited to the academy. They supposed it to be because he never dined that he did not care to be present. They asked his deter. taught in his place. 1 . xxx. but he excused himself on the ground of ill-health. " On your account we have had the dinner changed into a supper. but there would be others there glad to get rid of him. and Jerome hints. He said that it could not be. He Vita From this point the narrative is furnished De Propria. was a day and to all the professors and distinguished students were class be assembled. after Cardan's departure. often asked whether he would mar 1 so famous an assembly by his absence. and of mination thereupon. The host was to be the physician who." He repeated that his presence was impossible. . talking all and two They were surprised much together.

dying.THE ACADEMIC SUPPER. from this point to the end of the chapter. and would have caused himself 1 He was near if to be bled. which was soon followed by erysipelas over the face. to the all Council at Rome. but the grandfather added to his other ailments an affection of a front tooth. and he went to see a The evening was poor patient. that he should not leave the cloudy. his vow. that he would not break house. therefore. Lib. While labouring under messenger arrived from Pavia. Afterwards dreading some evil. Going then to Milan. Cardan thought of his books in which there were dark to construe to his passages that rivals might hurt. a Paralipomenon. but not knowing what. . Through that precaution he was really saved afterwards from a position of great danger. who was a butcher. 1 . and subjecting that he had written to its authority better judgment. he was there seized with a fever and weakness this of a the illness. abided by his intention. The grandson was cured. it as he was. vi. who was ride to in extreme in So he was compelled ill to Pavia a chariot. because his vow did not hinder the performance of that duty. and his was that year the hottest summer in memory. cap. know how He wrote. iii. 269 An hour afterwards came some one with more urgent entreaty. under a burning mid-day sun. summonstomach. peril. Jerome replied. ing him suddenly to his grandson.

and repairing some of the caused by the lavishing of money in his son's defence. offers that came from Bologna he had and he was finding friends and some repute again in his own town. Cardan began to write. and applying those symptoms to his written commentaries on the teeth. and was walking about the streets a month before he might have expected that he should be able to leave the house. There he had presently acute twinges of gout in the knee. a tract " On the Teeth. better hope of a subsistence was then visible than offered. to recover a part of his lost wealth and lost reputation. loss healing patients. for it was beset with bitter recollections.270 JEROME CARDAN. to seek for a professorship at the among them- and held out same time strong hopes of success. when the erysipelas had not quite disappeared. He had begun accordingly to seek an honourable appointment in his native town. Four senators in Milan severally recommended him selves. when he was checked . conjunction of the planets had not been in opposition to that remedy. No Milan Pavia he had resigned. at its suggestion. he tried certain experi- ments. though it was most hateful to him . the justly scorned." and returned to Milan. succeeded to his wish. before leaving Milan. The reputation of a applications new from discovery in medicine brought fresh men eager to make trial of his skill . When the disease abated. and he was thus enabled.

and he escaped from his brief trouble from beginning to end three weeks long unscathed. or one of the occasions. fame. and pitied all my sus- my books. and adding that life. it was only out of respect to his station in and his connexion with the college. Cardan wasted much time in prayers and petitions. too. on which the precaution he had taken . and. This was all hasty enough. but from the last fact we may conclude reasonably that this was the occasion. 271 by a rebuff of the most unexpected kind. warned him that he was accused of two most grave crimes. the witnesses against him being two physicians . they informed him that he was sentenced to perpetual exile from their territory. " Freed from those calumnies. admired misfortunes: picion councillors at my innocence. not only but with a positive accession of renown. But at last the necessary vindications came. indeed almost the whole state." The accusations are not named." he says. "I grew in The citizens. that they refrained from laying hands upon him. The senate suddenly expunged him from the list of scholars qualified to lecture. were set free from there Then came to me from cardinals and letters. Rome soothing and flattering so that in or my whole life I never met with a success greater more splendid. embraced me with peculiar love. in the absence of those who could by a word have proved his innocence of the crimes charged against him.A NEW HOPE A NEW DISASTEK.

career. the Milanese senate abided on technical grounds by the exclusion of Cardan from the right of lecturing. This I can account for only by supposing that he had been brought into collision with the ruling powers.272 JEROME CARDAN. whatever it may have been. in the submission of his writings to the Council at Rome proved the means of saving Jerome out of also reasonably conclude. however. and of whose dealings all. of that whom he was bound to say nothing would give further offence. its While reversing decision upon this case. for of was ready and bluntly. in their hearts think fairly this becoming a good On and on a later it occasion. proved to be no check to his The messenger returned from Bologna with the conditions a more cheerful face to tell him that against which he had protested were withdrawn. when the down by charge seems to have been similar. scattering to the winds with the angriest words he ever wrote. His distress at his son's fate may have him to say things which would be tortured into a nificance of that kind of treason which the citizens of Milan might patriot. and . was not set Cardan in his books. We may from the popularity to which he the citizens on his acquittal. peril. That. that suddenly attained among in his accusation some strong public sentiment may have led sig- been touched. with him he therefore said nothing at It can have had nothing that he it to do with the scandal raised to speak openly at Pavia.

. II. Bologna upon honest terms. that. life knew of nothing worse than to endure cruel faces surrounded by the and hard voices of the men who had sweetest son.ESCAPE TO BOLOGNA. 273 he was invited to although the salary was still small. I " But " because I." VOL." he says. though they were unjust. agreed to the conditions still torn from me my that were brought.

how- which it became allied. But in the bearing of adversity pelled to my I nature is not so firm.'274 JEROME CARDAN. for I have been com- endure some things that were beyond my strength. no more impatient. nor did I use my occupation rendered necessary. CHAPTER XI. De Vita Propria. . I did not learn to despise poor did not men or to forget old friends . was made no rougher. I never changed my manners. " and in the midst my successes. for in the greatest agonies of switch. no more ambitious. bit my mind I whipped my thighs with a sharply my left arm." The gloom superstition to of Cardan's sorrow was made deeper by the Sometimes. CARDAN AT BOLOGNA. and fasted. cap. have overcome nature then by art. because I was by weeping. " IN of all good fortune. when the tears would come. I social oecome harder in intercourse or costlier clothes more than assuming in my speech . much relieved but very frequently they would not. xiv." said Cardan 1 .

he implored Heaven for pity. if he became mad if he would become a men " . in the month of May. If he gave up his chair he had no means of jest to all living. since through grief and watching he must die or become mad. misery. T2 . whipping himself. fasting. he begged that need were he should die. ever. with he and he was much distressed in his mind when he could not have the is stone between his lips. and that will keep your son out of ." success He says. followed the advice of the dream. or resign his professorship. What do you lament? the slaughter of your son?" He " Can answered. The cloud went with him from Pavia to Bologna. strong force exerted . you doubt it?" The voice then said. But no against distress of mind had sub- dued Jerome's grief for his son's fate. Then he fancied that a voice cried to him one night in a dream. that to say. when he was artificial aids eating or when he was lecturing. " Put into mouth the emerald that wear your you hung about your neck. his young pupil who shared with him his night watches. when he was grieving for his son's death. in 1560. in accepting a 1 De Vita Propria. cap. and seeking forgetfulness in dice with Ercole Visconti.GRIEF. when. xliii. would seem that the upon the mind by the working of a able now and then to conquer superstitious fancy was Thus we are told 1 that in the first months of his grief. the allies 275 It were enemies.your memory.

but he should not sustain much hurt. trials name of which he should suffer and be brought into no slight anxiety. One he says in his interpretation 3 . to Having removed 1 Bologna with iii. 6. fallen. and he appears state. that of the book on Fate. finally his native In spite of its nominal reversal of still the decree of exile. . p. an event of which there had seemed to be no hope. cit. to have been virtually for the banished from the While he was preparing removal to his new home. that would be like the finding of the manuscript. which tends to confirm the opinion already expressed as to one of the grave accusations under which he had then part of in the it. There is an allusion to a dream that Cardan had at or soon after the time of his leaving Pa via. in the course of packing he discovered a manuscript. but nevertheless welcome. the happening of which would be of no use to him. in the university of that town. which he had lost for three years. Lib. 219. he quitted soil. for be restored to his country.276 professorship JEROME CARDAN. cap. to infer that Reflection upon this portent caused him he should. the Milanese senate proscribed him as a teacher. signified religion. his son Aldo and Paralipomenon. in the course of three years.). much vain search little supposed to have been It was under a iron box inside his desk 1 . 2 Synesiorum Somniorum (ed. and after stolen.

PROFESSOR AT BOLOGNA. but with a dilapidated roof that was perpetually letting pieces 1 fall. had dug main near some of the pillars. the whole palace tumbled to the ground. he had invited to to an entertainment1 . years of his At first he occupied a house next door its to a ruined palace. the main pillars being broken. At the appointed at last time. Vita Propria. . and threatened in the end to 2. with his which connexion was maintained during the next eight life. and. 277 Jerome established himself. one splendid. drawn had When he passed into the hall the mine exploded. his growing angry and impatient. where he occupied successively two sets . owner. train whom set. nothing occurred and Gramigna. rushed in with sword to ascertain the cause of the delay. cap. 2 De Paralipomenon. for the purpose of destroying certain of his enemies. that a mine in it. cap. Next door to the ruin It will be most convenient here to say that he removed afterwards to rooms in the 2 palazzo Ranuzzi. Lib. against much opposition. of which the story was. xxiii. his grandson. The treacherous host of course made for himself occasion to depart from table just before the critical moment. named Gramigna. lived. as a professor in the university. and in that state gibbeted. . and after it. The mangled body Cardan of its owner was found dead among the ruins. v. A was and the mine was explode an hour after the entertainment had commenced.

Cardan bought for himself a house near the church of S. he received also two other pupils. as we have seen already." Jerome formed also a friendship at Bologna with Mario Gessio 5 and received into his house soon after his arrival there Rodolf Silvester. the most notable of his house-pupils. Giovanni in Monte. 568.278 JEROME CARDAN. and must have looked back with some pleasure to the days when he and his master worked out together in Milan the problems of " that deuce of a Messer Zuanne da Coi. at During the eight years of his residence Bologna. . found his old pupil Lodovico Ferrari 1 . and was conspicuous been manners 2 It has said. Ferrari. was com- Vita L. break his head. a public. Vita Propria. that in the year 1562 the building of it the University of Bologna. 2 De Op. native of the town. and Camillo Zanolini. Giulio Pozzo. p. after Ferrari. as 1 now stands. also native of Bologna. who became for elegance of a notary . Ferrar. less brilliant. Tom. and was. good musician. At Bologna he lecturing upon mathematics but the death of Ferrari in office as happened when he had been scarcely a year professor. owed his whole position to Cardan. ix. a pupil who became a good all physician. xxxv. the other lodging was safe. cap. but in Towards the end of his period of residence Bologna. the only youth by whom his teaching ever was abandoned.

truly. he said 1 to prevent his room from it . Out of the difficulty that there was in pro- curing proper lecture. UNIVERSITY . either begin sooner and end sooner. same time. 279 for menced. after that year it was of course no better so far until the building works of had been completed as to admit of the opening a few halls. that could not be conveniently used by them both. filling. followed immediately the class-room at the and gave the it. De Vita Propria. cap. and in some degree perhaps 1 by conspiracies. so that there might remain due time for the suc- ceeding lecture. To him Jerome proposed that he should do one of three things. and that up to that time the accommodation the pupils and professors had been very bad. of these suggestions was the at difficulty to be solved and therefore an annual election day Cardan under- took formally to petition that the lecture clashing with his own might be was at its elsewhere height. or that Cardan should get another class-room. By none . or that he should find another class-room.DISPUTE CONCERNING LECTURE-ROOMS. or just before to an- other teacher. arose a vexation to Cardan of which he writes as if him. and one of the two be left in sole possession of the room. had been a conspiracy against His enemies.rooms. surrounded he thought. delivered. appointed a time for his lectures upon which dinner-hour. While this quarrel the old physician was in other respects full of trouble.

There seems " . and the Professor of Practice was Fracantiano. " altogether had many hearers from the beginning of the all session. and taught there his death in 1569. in too many cases emu- and envious of each Cardan had a great name.280 JEROME CARDAN. delivered an oration in his honour before the university in that town. first Practice of Medicine had other teachers. which. purporting that Cardan taught an exceedingly small class. even after great allowance has been made for the rhetoric is of old scholastic declamation. especially sent to the ears of his good patron and patient Cardinal Morone. and disputing on the subject i Because Fracantiano went from Bologna to Padua in till 1 563. to have been some ground for said the statement true." Cardan was first Professor of the Theory of Medicine. and they held by me till Lent." Jerome. Certainly there was no lack of rivalry and heartburn- ing lous among professors who were other. forming career an at under-current not unprosat Bologna. a student of his class who had become a graduate. of a kind clearly to as a physician imply that the fame of Cardan and a philosopher remained extravagantly great. for I it was not. . day. and not a winning nature. But he had not the art of soothing jealousies. and from Bologna rumours were industriously spread abroad. when Jerome had not long held his new office Fracantiano was dissecting publicly. While to his these quarrels were perous Pavia. One 1 .

when Brauda made by it. gown. with so to From that day he avoided Cardan much determination that he ordered his attendants warn him when they saw that he was near. said. " You have omitted ovV "By no means. Amused at this enmity. directly became clamorous. Fracantiano never could forget that he had been humbled in the presence of the whole academy." said the disputant. But the philosopher so essentially a had made an enemy. and made the mistake which had been corrected by Cardan once before at Pavia. ticle. He quoted Greek in support of some assertion. He quoted a denial as an affirmation. professor so interrupted rose to depart instantly. fact. Jerome quietly affirmed the and the students. some students contrived one day to beguile Cardan into a room where Fracantiano was presiding over some dissections. that a defeat by man him in such a form might have been borne with a good grace. who had been dragged to the spot against own will by his class. The and went his with so much haste that he his face became entangled in the floor. after student fashion. and fell down with If his upon mind had not been crippled past all cure by the punish- torture suffered through his son's crime and its .PROFESSORS QUARRELLING. omitting the negative par- his Jerome. of 281 an internal part before the whole academy. in order that he might turn aside and escape encountering him even in the streets. Though he was of books. the book was produced. and Fracantiano silenced.

belonged only to the small jealousies of daily there share. The Frenchman went away in his tisfied. " What had he mind?" asks the old man.282 ment. Such incidents as have been just detailed life. less reckless about money since his son's death. He used to go out in his carriage and return on foot. Lib. who were present. certainly for some years. Vita Propria. when there was yet time. whereof was perhaps no scholar who had not to endure his A Frenchman came private. that town." it The weaknesses for aggravated. Op. not on account of luxury. it Before that time he had wasted fault that was his own he had not been rich enough. indeed. at Bologna. of age being thus to enjoy the " Some wickedness. . p. cap. He had much. it is JEROME CARDAN. and become. Tom. i. Libris Propriis. cap. 2 1 3 De De Ibid. 131. he for the first time ally up a carriage until then he had ridden gener- on a mule. vii." he said in his old age. to purchase Gianbatista's life. certain that Cardan in his old age might have found comfort in his connexion with the University of Bologna. having made the change. that would suffice if his attendants. did not hear dissa- their conversation. ulfc. " If I were to 3 relate. xlii. All seemed to go well with him. but of his advancing age. one day 1 desiring to consult it Cardan in The physician answered. was impossible Cardan still abundant fruits of his renown that surrounded him. set On settling in 2 .

p. si qua alia (gloria quoe illam comitatur excepta) tota servilis est. 131. Its intellectual part it had charms his day. Tom. for him its . but as a trade. His general also mended almost from cardinals. as was carried on in with internal wars and jealousies. and two readers or secretaries. and in no other way. it the Backed by his friends the his was not only in Bologna that he found In September. " 283 I fear that how much gold I have earned by my art. et (ut vere fatear) ingenuo viro indigna. with very few domestics. ult. ut servorum fuisse hoc exercitum. Op. prospects brightening. Lib." he said. and (to confess the truth) unworthy of a high-spirited man. and with the too-frequent meanness of its relations with the external public. non aliter parare potuissem: at ea. medica arte. Nevertheless." Cardan's household a at Bologna was established on moderate scale. " I altogether. he recorded that he had cured more than ten thousand patients. " Si opes parandse erant." non mirer olim . nearly a 1 De Libris Propriis. 1563.OPINION OF PHYSIC AS A TRADE. he did not like his profession. greater than the praise of my success would be the censure of my prodigality. he abhorred it "If I had money to earn. except as a study. first. marvel that the art used to so that I do not at all be peculiar to slaves 1 . could earn it as a doctor. plenaque laboribus. But that is calling of all others (except the glory that attends it) completely servile." At the same time. i. he several had of late usually maintained affairs readers in his house. full of toil.

Cardinal Alciat. except some scrape all his and there were two professors All this knot so it who obstructed doings at Bologna. and a written charm. 11. he found that the knot had become loose. At the end of the next July. was to unravel And did. p. 2 Synesiorum Somuiorum. nine months afterwards. itself. 1 He seems Paralipomenon. cap. Jerome found one night that the collar of his shirt had become entangled with the string by which he suspended from his neck the emerald before mentioned. self for a it He his puzzled him- time over the entanglement. of course. and then allowed to remain. Soon afterwards putting hand to his neck. . and that the string was free. iii. in procuring Jerome's until the appointment Bologna and who remained death of the old man an untiring friend Cardinal Alciat caused the restoration to him. and he himself had received none of the returns. but the previous reference covers the other facts. 1 year after he quitted Pavia. some speedy unravelment of the knot in his own affairs. Lib. He had a books which had been for a printer's. who had at assisted 3 . of trouble. 252. long time lying untouched at the lecturing without in prisonas party to He was lecture hour. His son Aldo was he is never to be heard of incidentally. then.284 JEROME CARDAN. Since he had come to Bologna his little property in Milan had been held by his son-in-law. of his property. This portended.

of August. fame. by the law of Bologna. . xxvii. Fathers. There remained by Cardan only the grandchild Fazio. says Jerome. rights many judicial his misconduct. and Jerome more than once imprisoned Aldo. De Vita Propria. the general conspiracy of the physicians. p. which had at last rapidly passed through the press. His right as a father Jerome had exercised fes a citizen of Bologna.PRIVATE AFFAIRS. 32. Of Aldo 1 . to 285 have been deprived of it for a time by the imper- fect rescinding of the sentence of banishment pronounced In the succeeding month against him in his native town. conferred on tell He does not omit to us what he thought I about his fellow-townsmen. in the vain hope of checking He was the son to whom the stars had been so liberal in promises of all good things. There remained then only. These changes reopened two important sources In the same month the professor by of his income. 1 "When was 2 at Bologna. it will be enough to say that his foolish and to his father of inces- abandoned conduct was the cause sant trouble. the confidence of princes. since the senate (from whom him he received the freedom always much honour) had of the city 3 . whom he was most obstructed quitted Bologna." Ibid. had then over their sons. giving up a salary of seven hundred gold crowns. cap. genius. wealth. and disinherited. he was exiled at last. Jerome received from his printer a parcel of the missing books.

and When they have begun to quarrel they are not led on by any care for equity or moderation. ult. but they are resolved to win. p. civilised doubly difficult to deal with Some are magnificent. them on paper than by word of mouth. Jerome could. my best hope. A who thing certainly to be found hard. by a wrong Proxenata 2 De (ed. beneficent. at least while occupied in writing philosophically. . Libris Propr. believe that his mind was and old. therefore. I am bereaved of my best son. . p. they use cutting words. but that truer that they are ambitious irritated. 136. Elzevir). is not true. even for though it be against the right . For when they have no right to show in a contest. arbiter than through an man to man. and that they were deceitful. " sick. especially by those are not used to it. so that them. the youth 1 most dear to me. and reasonably is and polished. . and put them in the place of justice. "I am poor.286 JEROME CARDAN. tranquillised. he says1 " I heard much about the manners of the people. Opera. to give them soothing words while pertinaciously adhering to your rights." After he had lived four or five years at Bologna. and never slip from your main point. Lib. 467. when you have whether they offended them." he said 3 . It is easily and effeminate. Wherefore it is better to dispute with and. The chief thing. i. they never stop to first reflect caused the offence. Tom. but conceive it is an undying hate.

now nine years a wife. and therefore class. for which was not In likely that this room would be made in future treatises. He was work " On Nature. each under its own head. and with a train of philosophic meditaat tion in his mind. from 287 my other son I have but slight hope of happiness. will show that my and purer than it mind is fuller. in spite of reverse." So. who once all flourished so am now happy. whenever his topic was of a purely contemplative kind. Inas- much as he had reformed his household. I manage my affairs more compare them with my latest writings. Natural His- . and even times prove that his son's fate had been a blessing. and had become more prudent in the management of money. pen in hand. he could deceive himself. I my daughter. grief had his improved rather than impaired writing at that time a powers." in which he put down. strongly is childless. with a most numerous wisely than I used . Medicine. It is true also that as a philosopher. I teach with my mind "bent wholly on the duty.JEROME'S POSITION AT BOLOGNA. or of the continuation of my family. work are books on Algebra. nished by his approach to the allotted term of mortal was several books under the title " engaged upon Paralipo- menon. livelier. he had grounds for his assertion that he had improved by his affliction. much that he had to communicate on and all the subjects he it had spent his life in studying. ever was before." and admolife. if anybody will my former works.

Then being very tired. it is A strong spirit of meditation was upon him. 1 The fire was not iii. three) were burning. the chips that realso at this mained He wrote time many and shorter essays and dialogues. roused him and told him of his danger. and the boy.288 tory. for the following. Speculative Philosophy. embracing in fact almost the intellect final whole wide range of study to which his had been devoted. nor any of the hangings. Jerome boy drunk. easily conquered there Paralipomenon. of a purely ethical character. The painted quilt had not been injured. a new governor came to Bologna. . Lib. is That may have been the fact but it is very noticeable. 52. During the night Cardan's slept bed was on fire. but seeing that awoke in anger. and assisted in smothering the fire. Mechanics. certain that he relied in his books more practically for consolation and support upon the doctrines of Epictetus than upon those of the Church. JEROME CARDAN. cap. nor the leather covering. he fell asleep again. In the year 1565. thinking the he spoke truth he got up. on the 21st of January 1 . linen had been touched but the blankets (there w ere T . who on a chair-bed in his room. and only a small part of the . The task all it implied was a heaping up before he died of in his workshop. and on awaking found that more of his bed had been burnt. scholar's tendency. and the important in its bearing upon the events next to be told.

and that he should overcome it without external help. nor property. On account of the fire. to be often allayed. but not without danger of the all from loss faith. above of his The books. and bor put to a considerable expense through negligently having faith in false domestics. it 289* and not much smoke. the risk of laid fire fire peril and fear. He concluded. of published books. was flame with done. and. life. The it citizens might enter into the matter.. his possessions. fire the flame great and present The hidden represented dangerous snares- by domestics. On the whole the loss would be little. the disturbance great.- therefore. the danger moderate. and smoke. He should not judicially lose character. and little harm Upon life. would be and bad peril. would seem again . VOL. the danger Ifc would consist in accusation. this Cardan divined that the smoke signified infamy. because none of the hangings were burnt. however. The fact that the bed had been set onarise- by himself portended that the danger would within his own house. for they were as were conjoined. The fire was the magistracy. that he should suffer in vulgar esteem. flame. II. U . not from sharp contest. of life. and the did not 1 approach them. nor be- cause the innermost parts of the bed were safe . not in violence or poison. would not be fire hurt. and yet often break out there flattery all his all.AN OMEN OF FIRE AND SMOKE. for they were near his bed.. because the quilt had not been damaged.

with cap. 1570 Cardan. but suffered to take his own house hundred After his for a prison. The reasons for that opinion will appear in the succeeding chapter. on a Friday. He was not released. on the be fulfilled. and the door being glittering open. the afternoon sun at the same time through the window.290 It to is JEROME CARDAN. the bond was signed. us why. and at the same hour of the day. 1 . when. xliii. with a slam. In prison he was liberally used and after a confinement of eleven weeks. having given a bond in eighteen gold crowns for his honesty as gaoler to himself. of course. then nearly seventy years of age. Jerome and his friend both heard and saw it. and the faithful pupil officials had departed. . from a comparison of De Vita Propria. five years 13th of October. Rodolf Silvester left who graduated the year afterwards being left in the prison with him. . the natural effect of the concussion of shutting of the door. he returned to his own house. in the evening twilight. cap. hard to say whether this prophecy was considered afterwards. air. Jerome asked his friend It closed to shut the door. the same day on which he had entered. was suddenly cast into prison. and at the same time there was a sudden blow upon the window. It was. 1 caused by the it But Cardan dwelt upon is as a The narrative to the conclusion of the chapter iv. but there that it He does not tell is the strongest ground for believing was upon an accusation of impiety.

that they may win approval from to their kings. reason. Morone (it is published among his works). and a sign of his own death that was approaching. From this that his concerns would suffer sudden overthrow. Jerome called Rodolf to see the marvel. or you by wrong if you are undeserving of this evil before God. "But afterwards. shows that He beholds your affairs?" With these reflections he went home refreshed and fearless. but that they would be lifted up into a right position by a gentle breeze of favour. marvellous to behold. and happiness. where remained fast in an erect position. all by His mercy. He was writing a medical opinion Cardinal for the use of his pa- tient. 291 certain portent. why should you. expose them- selves to certain death. He rose that he might stoop to pick up. therefore. if they hold old man. a withered and almost infamous crime. lifted by a gentle wind.IN PRISON. many princes. and both saw he concluded that the leaf was scarcely stirred." if so he relates. "I began even in thus to reason with myself: their youth. or he would not have thought of drawing such an inference. and strength. rose with him. what happened. when a leaf of it fell to the it ground. who. when they have nothing else win by dying. and as he did so the paper. to expect He had u2 . not suffer for your guilty. it and flew upon the table. This calamity had been preceded by another portent.

292 JEROME CARDAN. by his friends He did so. seventy years old. in September. quarter. year 1571. and as a point of courtesy advised voluntarily to resign his chair. from the friendship of the leading six days of After eighty- imprisonment within his own doors he was . entered Rome/ A victory over the Turks was on that day in course of celebration. set at liberty but he was forbidden to publish any more books. and they having then obtained for him a pension from the pope. gentle breeze The came to him from the expected cardinals. left Bologna in the and during the first week of March. the famous philosopher. .

a pope of pure but austere life. THE END AT ROME. attend patients qualities the character of a He forbad physicians to who had passed three days without conhis fession of their sins . and departeth in darkness. who had caused the strenuous en- forcement of laws against heresy and blasphemy. of this activity. and Ecclesiastes vi.. . 293 CHAPTER " XII. that Cardan received a pension." THIS mournful story of the vanity of wisdom draws now to a close. and who combined with many noble most stringent persecutor. 4. officials he expressed disapprobation with in any town that did not yield yearly a large crop of penal sentences.AN AUSTERE POPE. He cometh shall in with vanity. I and yet was from Pius V. The imprisonment of Jerome believe. at Bologna was a it result. Cardan's imprisonment at Bologna had taken place under the pontificate of Pius V. his name be covered with darkness. and his under wing that he spent his last years safely in Rome as a private person.

was known man who who had blasphemously did calculated the nativity of Christ first (Naudaeus shows that he was not the so). letter to Rome dutifully sub- 1 Thuanus. any mention of such imputa- been carefully excluded from his works. in the history M." Immediately after Cardan's death. Rome the great Cardan. this charge of impiety attached to him. Now De Thou that a character of this at kind attached to Jerome when he lived the same time it Rome. He records at the same time the character he bore : that he was " a madman of impious audacity. as when Cardan at Pavia. relates. We evil. 1733. own books might be twisted and wrote a Ixii. thought that passages in his to his hurt. Lib. iii. stars who had attempted to sub- ject to the the Lord of the stars. with all his extravagant freedom of tions has self.294 JEROME CARDAN. and he who had taken so much pains to remain on traditionally as a good terms with the Church. and cast our Saviour's horoscope. of his own times 1 . De Thou that he saw at streets. Tom. ed. and at is a fact. 462. . it astrologer and was occasionally named appears from as a rank atheist. Lond. dreading already cited. and during the suc- ceeding century. p. had often won- dered at him and had spoken with him. walking about the not dressed like any other person. detect their existence indirectly in one or two sentences.revelation. that.

Peters chair could save him. and nothing than a few strong friends near St.. and endeavoured to deny them in his works. under If Cardan's enemies or Pius V. rivals brought against him in any town in which he rehis sided accusations of impiety properly substantiated philosophy. not fearing to handle the sublimest mysteries. an ecclesiastical discipline more than usually The conflict against heresy and impiety had become. Cardan could only increase his peril by becoming contumacious. During the to latter years of his life the Church was subject rigid. and sometimes his superstition. good Catholic difficult to as he professed himself to be. while spies in his house- hold might find plenty more the authorities were bound less to take sharp cognisance of the offence. being of a kind to provide plenty of evidence. or when. in the name of religion he should be put But in his dealing with princes and with the Church we have throughout seen that he was scrupulously prudent. stated that He himself had as that of he did once construct such a nativity so which he was accused. that. that into grave peril. jecting 295 them all to the authority and pleasure of the holy council. and he had said many things in the course of his works in a speculative way.THE CHAKGE OF IMPIETY. as he might be considered if he complained of them. it was not show . most earnest and severe. Such accusations being made and credited. afterwards. he wrote about a dream.

Calumny from at -which. but that he ought to know how punishment of his crime if he was guilty. He took the wisest course. "We find. To all this that he was liable to heavy penalties. This accords. indeed. He ventured no further than io leave the question of his guilt or innocence entirely open. and as he could not write what for was untrue. opera- tion of the age against him. therefore. to the stringency of the ecclesiastical spirit that new had succeeded to the laxer times of Jerome's youth and manhood. man and could sub- nothing but silence Thus he wrote of the accusation against at him by which endure the he was cast into prison Bologna : not that he was innoto cent. the old oppose in self-defence mission. that we find no precise account of the causes of his banishment from Milan and of his subsequent confinement at Bologna. and it is for that reason. for in a Book at of Advice written two or three years before his death in the course of a chapter on infer that Rome. we may he was annoyed . and would not write what might be used his destruction.296 JEROME CARDAN. with his expressed doctrine. or the wrong if he was innocent. he wrote nothing at all upon so hazardous a subject. But even such distant allusions are extremely rare. no reference in is his books to the impiety with which it notorious that he was charged. by the way. I believe. before God.

however. The prohibitions then imit posed were not removed during his lifetime.THE CHARGE OF IMPIETY. i p. did not repeat their his writings. as he says. . also that for a time the printing of his He all his had. and peril. that a philosopher imprisoned for impiety should be rescued by the leading cardinals. effort to remove the interdict upon Though taken alone the fact is an odd one. and pensioned by the Pope. The cardinals who on the last occasion intervened again to protect the philosopher in his declining years. cxi. in good time? writings to the authorities of Rome. Opera. removed to Rome. and was also finally prohibited from publishing his works. the accusation of insanity the 297 " : we find him writing When is calumny is about religion (for in these days that kind) never confess that you 1 the most erred . which had been preserved. perilous it is have . 1 I think it may be accounted for without Proxenata. and not until some time after his death that a few was of his last manuscripts." but best wholly to pass the subject over At Milan he had and we have seen books was stopped. cap. Tom. 455. saved him from After his imprisonment at Bologna he was again prohibited from teaching. this precaution. were given to the press. formally submitted been struck off the list of teachers.

not uncatholic in Borromeo. a just and strict a zealous lover of good discipline. actuated by generous and worthy motives. first In the place. himself man. should be content to see speculations If any of his had been rash. was easy to find evidence of unsound mind in mitigation of his crimes against Church discipline. therefore. but he intimately.298 JEROME CAEDAN. to which his desire to act as had always formally professed obedient child. they had not originated out of any he spirit of antagonism to the Church. imputing any inconsistent or improper conduct to the Church authorities. his intellect and understood eccentricities life. the physician. an antagonist whom whom out it was proper to destroy. to suggest. and especially since his son's death. his knew Cardan he honoured . too. and it was not natural that any rightly-disposed scholar die in prison. had saved his if mother's It was not unnatural or unchristian I may say so. an He was not. In his conduct throughit it life. of Cardan himself it may be said that he had among learned men him the greatest name in Italy. In the next place. it should be said that Cardan's friends were in the main pure-minded people. but simply an offender was merciful to pardon. spiritual Cardinal Borromeo was a son of the Church. that as . who worked as a trusted brother with the new Pope.

CARDAN PENSIONED BY THE POPE. temperate. the control of the Pope. therefore. a sincere respect for him as a man of genius and Morone had been the foremost Churchman in the last at Bosittings of the Council of Trent held logna. xv. and by writers of every creed he has always been looked back upon with a sincere respect. He could would be a wise and sufficient mea- sure in his case. seemed to have gone astray unwittingly. by compelling him to live at Rome. under 1 . and that it would be prudent so taken substitute for the means of subsistence away a pension that would for the future keep him out of mischief. . which is the evidence for all that follows till a fresh authority is cited. and accomplished man. as his immediate dependent Cardinal Morone. that it lustre of his name. second to no cardinal in influence . and. He was a just. other and the patronage was irresistible when he joined Borromeo in commending Cardan to the favourable consideration of the Pope. being scarcely of sane mind. too. 1 For the account of Cardan's patrons and friends of Rome. cap. 299 Cardan certainly was not a contumacious heretic.. respect might be paid fairly to his unex- ampled learning and the urge. had intellect. see De Vita Propria. had long been indebted to Cardan's skill as a physician. and being a most intelligent and able man. simply and without harshness. to take care that he should not again disseminate any opinions either to by lectures or by books.

Rodolf Silvester. "What man? was there in me. over Jerome's fortunes. less earnest Not than these friends. was Cardinal Alinherited. who. upon whom the old man pronounces an unusually warm panegyric for his royal qualities." Jerome had a familiar friend in his pupil from Bologna. his vast wealth. almost more than human. He enjoyed. his wisdom. and constant to the last in his care ciat. no agreeable companion. friends of Of other Jerome in his last years I need name only one. The Venetian cardinal Amulio was also his friend. old man. his most extensive knowledge. and he enjoyed most cardinal. old and despised by fortune. the splendour of his father's house. the direct favour of the venerable Bishop Taddeo Massa. Pietro Donato Cesio. it if he loved me for anything. not hope of anything that I could do. The philosopher found also at Rome a firm friend and supporter in another cardinal. the Prince of Matelica. his amenity of manners. too. with the goods of Alciat the who had lawyer. having graduated. and . prostrate." exclaimed the " that could bring me into friendly intercourse with such a Not benefits conferred. liberal patronage from the Tridentine Cristofero Mediuzio. the strong friendship which that great man had maintained with Cardan the physician. was but also for his opinion of my probity. a small town in the Roman States.300 JEROME CARDAN. went at once to establish himself as a practitioner in Rome.

the Propria. xxxv. often frequented the house of his old master. one at Pavia. xxiv. The child Fazio lived with his grandfather. it The old physician's him . cap. Tom. p. Girolamo. 639. near the church of S. and these. Young known heirs. his will. and was his property had been saved to heir. another at Bologna. De Vita Propria. and eventually sent to press. To his grandson Fazio was left. afterwards in the Via 1 . He had also one pupil. and he was from Calabria2 Aldo Cardan was disinherited. his name was Ottavio .ALDO DISINHERITED. reasons to himself. Maria di Monte Santo Pitio. i. with whatever else he owned. ee to be kept under guardianship as long as possible. For the contents of Cardan's will see Opera. Giulia. cap. included the possession of a house or two at Milan. cum Facio Cardano. yet formed a patrimony little that he had inherited from all this Fazio his father3 . and to his heirs to 4 . . Heirs belonging to his family should take it who had his not his own name on inheriting property. house at Bologna was to De Vita Dialogus 2 3 4 Ibid. although they did not amount to much. The whole property was to stand together. cap. and bore a very small proportion to the earnings of his four times larger than the life. When 1 succession failed." for certain left Whatever manuscripts he behind him were to be corrected. 301 Cardan lived at first in the square of St. by the terms of were and be subject to regulations that were equivalent to an entail. xxxvi.

and with wings outspread upon a golden ground. did not shun the dwellings of the poor. it did no hurt to mortals. litary. The occasion of his imprisonment suggested to for the eagle in his seal of the Cardan the substitution image of a swallow singing under a shade or cloud. wherewith to pay those who were friendly to and it was impatient of confinement. He took the swallow.302 JEROME CARDAN. was always busy about the race. the emperor had added a to the shield of the its Cardans an eagle without beak. s^' Another family arrangement made by Jerome when he left Bologna is extremely characteristic. for the preceding. become the property of the University to be called the College of Cardan. cap. xxxiii. and black on a white ground. its grateful remem- brance of a hospitable roof. the turret- tower being in the middle. for use as a college. The Cardans had castle for their arms a red with its turrets. he says. because it suited his own habits. had a song it. carrying. and its being conquered by no other bird 1 in flight 1 . beautiful stones within its belly. small as its it Other parallels were its was. by which it was distinguished from the arms of the Cas- tiglione family. De Vita Propria. it changed dwelling often. . was connubial not it so- yet not disposed for living in a flock. For further distinction. yet never human its on familiar footing with it. delight in mild air and warmth. went and came.

and one hundred and eleven in manuscript. i. . xlv. 3 Dialog. he burnt no less than one hundred and after 1 seventy of his books which he thought useless. to the very last month of during the whole six years of his residence in Rome. but discoursed very cleverly and several branches of study position. Although prohibited from dustriously. towards the end of his His sick mind turned sometimes with loathing even Thus he sat down one day life. p. 303 in- printing. and 1 supper was seized with De Vita Propria. for towards the close of he became garrulous. tise He His carried on to the end is his third and last trea- On Own it Books. 639. and not only played the part of analyst and critic on himself as a writer. Op. extracting from them what was good. from his dearest labour. he he left behind him one hundred and thirty-one 2 works printed. of the and was engaging himself upon the labour of his life.LAST YEARS OF THE SCHOLAR. after all. cum Facio. Jerome wrote it would seem. and told how yesterday he after supped quite cheerfully. much sound and shrewd them also at the advice to authors. He supplied same time with a practical example of good conduct. cap. Tom. which very long. that Yet. as his life. not twenty of which have seen the light. said. much at large upon the comwith and the principal on styles of adding his opinions book-writing. for when he had been three years in final revision Rome.

that after my death they memory while he was My . But there was hard comfort in one sentence that father's lips he placed upon his " : What of your sons? 3 a De Vita Propria. was published nine years after his death at Basle 3 . lilt. whether his own or those 1 so deep a loathing of all books . De Libris Propriis. Tom. in which his mind reverted to the days of his youth. Basle. still less to look at them. remained while he was then writing. Somniorum Synesiorum. were contemplative or admonitory sophic meditation. Op. for me by my son. but that comfort is They wished all his to destroy not him but me. he dealt in advice or philo- The chief exception was a copious work on the interpretation of dreams. of other men. cap. excepting melancholy. But there was reason hope dwelt in his An ancient arranging his books in expectation of approaching death. for the melancholy. Libri &c. that he could not endure to think of them. no reason for this. which. 1585. know. ." he wrote in the end2 " had been. while he explained the sorrows of his age. p. 4to.304 JEROME CARDAN. And that feeling. he added. together with the dialogue by which he had intended to immortalise the English boy." life Nearly writings in the last years of his . would be edited gone. One of the last of his writings was a dialogue between himself and his father's ghost. Lib. iv. he I said. 121. lii. and received comfort from the other world. i. " hope.

he maintained perfectly the tone and spirit of a man of genius and a scholar. a second was given to the book. and There is the old terseness in it. who would manage themselves wisely and safely in every relation of society- When it was first issued. In this enough said work-it is to be seen fairly to be on Civil that. But in the daily business of 1 life and in writing. 1627. 2 ). 305 Have you not 1 lost them by your negligence and your licentiousness ?" And who shall judge this old man ! drooping painfully under his heavy and enduring sorrow He was how to lavish of advice. When Cardan. Bat. X . 12mo. as a philo- to the last clear sopher. whenever the p. 5 VOL. and more than the old wisdom. and found long afterwards in the handwriting of a wretched scribe.PROXENATA. full of abbreviations (things which Cardan himself title detested enata. Lugd. there was no of the warping of his mind . was a long treatise under the of Prox- which was a guide to men. One of his last works. half a century after Cardan's title death. from the Elzevir press. See the preface of the editor to the Elzevir edition of Proxenata seu de Prudentia Civili. II. and it was Prudence. Jerome's faculties remained lively. wrote upon trace any abstract subject and forgot himself. Dial c. Facio. Op. in his old age. i. Tom. 639. dictated at Rome. Few men could teach better manage the affairs of life discreetly. and no man ever fell into more trouble through his own want of discretion.

63. 113. on each occasion that life. or by necessity. paying honour to them. the wounds suffered by him in his conflict with the world could not be hidden. truth. " It manifest that he who would live to the best pur- pose should cially know what he wants. 1 Proxenata (ed. 129. and that not only spearises. but generally of the whole course of his " Men rule over their fellows through religion and force. " In teaching youths who receive reason ill. if anything were done rightly in part. as it with the doctors. It would be odd. Many men. use Tell them. 68. 121. . happened to be personal. that they jests- when they prefer pleasure to mistake butterflies for birds. cit. that it may run whichever way you turn it. 101. I cite two or three words of sense gathered at random from this is book1 . as me that I had given a when it was complained against false prognosis when in consulta* tion with some other physician. or the art of fighting. indeed. have found advantage- ous to combine the art of fighting with religion. 90. for example.). " Receive equals as your betters. pp.306 topic JEROME CARDAN. therefore. difficulty In the same way you can escape out of a and give the blow you ought to take .' which he had " Instruct the mind as you bridle a horse. I said.

they disarm you. called in that he was attended by a spirits Greek an angel. and pass over to the enemy. Do not relate common things that have happened " to you. x2 . Dion. Synesius. But life their end is near. " Talk little. was in a condition of which he ought not to complain.CARDAN'S DEMON. He had been long persuaded. Plotinus. and himself. Socrates. though he. cap. Words uttered without thought are heavy losses. spirit In what way he was admonished by the 1 he could De Vita Propria. would be easy to fill chapters with such wisdom taken from this single volume that was dictated by the philosopher in his last days. 1 . and there are other aspects of his dwell." It what they are not. still less tell your secrets. he said presiding spirit. " Do not carry out by day what you have resolved upon in the night. for by night things appear as in dreams. xlvii. attended by a demon. such had attended certain men. on which we now must If in his youth Jerome inherited from his father spirits. fested a disposition to maintain but in his old age he was to be found firm in his persuasion of the fact. any opinion concerning guardian that in his maturity we have seen he rejected the idea that he was After his son's death he maniit. All had been for- tunate except Socrates and himself. too. 307 "Publish no crude books. Flavius Josephus.

Op. thought that would for which reason he passed on the wrong it and as he was passing did overturn." "You mean to say. in the di- rection contrary to that which he had chosen. cement enough to kill Another time. " his." The paper was brought." the old the 1st of man answered. I would say something. and " You wrote under the man's the physician 1 young eyes. Thus. " that one of us will die?" " Yes. it he met a coach. fell known to himself for doing afterwards there he crossed the road. cap. side of it. for the three next incidents. . If I thought that you would not take it ill. i. was sitting down among remarked. near an upper window of the house under which he should have been passing if he had not changed eight oxen 1 . Vit& Propria. a De De Libris Propriis." Cardan said to an old pupil of Gianpaolo Eufomia. Lib. xlii. 150. who was then at home " I have something to write for you. December following died one of the a young man named Virgil. Tom. and immediately from a roof. when riding on instinctive his mule. JEROME CARDAN. as he " the guests. ult. when he was walking one day in the streets of Milan. " and within the year. and had an be overturned. without any reason so." On party. p. but that he had been often secretly prompted he was unable to doubt.308 scarcely tell." one of the company inquired. Bring me a paper. Invited to a supper at Rome 2 Cardan . his course.

" He was taken ill eight days afterwards. will die soon if 309 you do not take care. saw that in no mysterious way . to may be able. and asked me to predict to him something of his his if I I told him that he was befooled by companions. An instance of this he set said. he pertinaciously denied the charge against him." he Gian Stefano mancer. in six months he died by the cord. down I in his old age: " I re- member. in the course of a long store up a very large .MARVELS. nothing He came life. who is thoroughly and honestly superstitious. it was plain me as a physician. off. and where there had been no foreboding he did not claim as a mystery the chance fulfilment of words lightly spoken. life. I then should predict begged serious. that a certain BifFo had been persuaded that I was a cheiroless. Within a week he was seized tor- ture. and died in the evening. when I was. "when was a youth. Though treasuring up every incident of justified fore- boding that arose out of the incessant watchfulness for omens. A man who sees in almost every occurrence of the day a portent upon which to speculate. Jerome was conscientious in his superstition. I to But. he urged me. his pardon him anything and put under too but that he was in great danger of being promptly hung." after his hand had been cut It is not at all necessary to doubt any of the marvels that Cardan relates. nevertheless. says Cardan.

310 JEROME CARDAN." but mis- understood the direction. He was loaded with bags which he had brought from the jeweller's. upon which a to Of this fact we will select as final illustration the story of a morning spent by Cardan at Rome1 only six months before he died. with business. 1 who was surprised to see the feeble De Vita Propria. He answered " Yes. Vincenzio. With these in his hand he walked towards the residence of the governor of the castle. of Bologna. fellow. a musician. because he wished to dive into a narrow court that led to the house of a dealer in gems. considering that he should not have far to carry them. On the way he got he had out. . he being then seventy-five years old. cap. left the carriage. xlix. for 1576. to the vicinity of which he thought mistake. whom for As he says. found no carriage. that when he went home he set it down at length in his book "Upon career his own Life. he mounted his carriage as at he used it at Rome Bologna go into the forum. self when he him- to the place appointed. who. he bade the driver. and the old man. he the was a torpid go and wait him at Campo went Altovitaro. which he had just time to complete before he died: On to the morning of the 26th of April. curious coincidences number of extremely feed his faith." an elaborate thesis on his own and character. it likely that his driver had gone by On the road he met an old friend. It seemed to him so wonderful.

and upon that the finding of the raisins. the house of the banker Altovito. that time. Commending patience. you must observe the sequences: the meeting with Vincenzio. But then. because he suffered not only from fatigue but from long fasting. but in so doing there would have been risk. having mounted into the vehicle. to Jerome went and not finding his man there. He said. Outside he saw his carriage. old gentleman with his carriage. Here were seven things. Still the old man was in doubt whether to go home. he found three raisins in his pocket. and when he had obtained rest at the other end by going into crossed it. While he was at and Jerome once rose and departed. * and " so his difficulties were entirely ended. or what to do. and because I went out just at meeting with the carriage. of fall which it was necessary that every one should out . to recover strength while so sitting. the he was being told about governor came in. was compelled might. Here. my going into the bank. and sitting it. his meeting with the driver." he said. my my going out. the governor's coming in. have begged a carriage from the governor. the driver having been met by Vincenzio. therefore. who told him of his error. to Heaven for the gift of he went back over the bridge. professing to ask some- thing that he wished to politan know about down a late change in Nea- money. he journey back again over the bridge. himself. 311 hands loaded and without his to the castle.A MORNING IN HOME.

The same "judgment of Naudaeus" is un- was luckily prefixed also to Cardan's collected works. 1 devoted wholly to his Vita Propria." In the last book. Jerome Cardan was not forbidden sion during those last days at Rome but at the period to which this last incident refers. when and where it did for the attainment of the required result. therefore. tell What I have told elsewhere diffusely I shortly here . Its narrow reasonings hare therefore influenced most readers of Cardan's last book. that. there is one short chapter 2 3 De De It xxiii. . after his seventy-fifth year. 112. in the his latest leisure. all he had abstained from labour for the sake of money. Looking back upon the and conscious that less its life that was almost completed. cap. he said when giving one of them. rather pre- supposed a knowledge of his career than engaged himself upon the composition of a distinct autobiography. Cardan. by scattered hints or by book upon himself which occupied and was the summing up of his intellectual accounts with this world. either brief narratives.312 exactly JEKOME CARDAN. ex Adv. first life 3 . cap. who prefixed to it a judgment on Cardan that has done much to disseminate a false opinion of his character. Such things do not happen to every man. ii. Ut. what I have told else- where shortly I tell here at length 2 ." to exercise his profes. all leading events had been more or revealed in his past writings. unless he liked the people with whom it was desired that he should deal 1 . published in 1643 by Gabriel Naudaeus. Brief narrations in earlier writings as had been *' so contrived.

but his mind was writing it. Grief for his dead son is still the is ruling thought. sonal information The book abounds. Sed tamen seternum vivet per seecula nomen. and who was to be met in the streets of Rome 1 . tuurn macula vi crimine nomen: Propria. and one of his very latest writings a Naenia 1 2 a funeral song placed near the end of his last De Vita 2 Ibid. neque in hunc servata dolorem ! Ipse ego. walking with dressed unlike strangers. cap. of and self-revelation. and tains a chapter all LAST THOUGHTS. nate. His book contains everywhere traces of the rack on which his spirit had been tortured. unsteady gait of a lunatic other people. a very short one on his enemies. a long one on his friends. one on his honours. bowed down to the dust when he was He was the sorrowful old man whose hopes were wrecked. of whom he will not speak. toto ut sis vivus in orbe. The lines translated in the text are these: " O sanctissima Debueram Pulsus ob invidiam patria. xiv. the rest is 313 self-dissection. list One chapter compiled of the illustrious by the old man is a long contemporaries who had named him course. Contra ego vivendo vici mea fata. tuum: notusque Bactris jam notus et Indis: Mortuus es nobis. one on his disgraces. the strange. patriot pamas. Nate. cap. odiisque meorum.LAST WORDS of rapid narrative." . in per- in their works. Omnes per mortes animam sontein ipse dedissem. a man to be wondered at by and by his own friends apparently considered mad. laribusque paternis. superstes. conjunx. it con- on his vices and another on his virtues. Felix morte tua. 1.

The old man. too. Andrew. my kindred hate. from Of envy born. and his body was deposited in the church of St. From home and hearth Hurts from thrust out. most happy in the gain. to the JEROME CARDAN. Mark's There he again 1 slept with Fazio his father. shall his tale rehearse." Such were the desolate old age. of freedom from this weight of pain! son. Thuanus. survive. of September.314 book. from the edge of the tomb looked back to the wife who had shared his earlier and lesser sorrows : " By hallowed wife. latest his thoughts of Jerome Cardan in Beyond them there was in this world nothing but the grave. For Ind and Bactria son. 1576. . whose name is stained by 1 too neglected suffer through my own sin. He died at Rome on the 20th when he was seventy-five years old. I conquer fate. Afterwards. was removed be buried at St. probably by his grandson in fulfilment of his to Milan. loc. and yet I But through all ages shalt thou. live. it 1 . memory of Giahbatista. my kin. death. Who quitted me to fill the universe. cit. kill me. to own desire. my country.

1. 156.!. 280. 68 Anger. i. Affidati. bodily. 73. 302. Anointing portions of the body. Cardan 57. cardinal. 200 his a practice of the art. 119. at 2 Gianbatista. ii. 4*4 in.275. i. Pavia. 19. jurist.274. 89 Arcana of Eternity. of Cardan. i. 5456. 142 practice of. ii. 260 Andrea. 120 to Scaliger. Cardan on the uses of. i. i. ii. 64. at Paris. Rector Accuser. i. 68 i. Cardan's. i. sells astrological opinions. 134 i. ii. 168 i. 72 Sylvius. 19 Arms of Cardan's family. 126 Aix-la-Chapelle. writes a tract on. 64. 276 i. a book on. 83. Alciat's opinion of it.his son. 249250 Apuleius. See Arithmetic. i. Pope's belief in it. ii. battle of the. 131. ii. 164 ii. 19 . i. 39. Bologna. 135. 96 and application to physiognomy. 5 . between Cardan and Archbishop Hamilton. personal. the. i. 227. Algebrists betting. 81. 125.262. 137. Cardan's. See Great Art i. 300 Aldo. ii. Cardan's supplement to the. 128.. 66. 25 Cardinal Sfondrato. ii. 132. Affidati. i. :14i King Edward 136 Sir VI. 50 Almanac. i. 79. 203204 Alciat.81. 140. J. 102 191. 281 i. ii. ii. Asthma. ii. C. 80. ii. Cardan's discoveries in. Cardan's youngest son. ii. 279. 120. at Paris. i. Arabian physicians. ii. A. ii. Cardan's first instruction in. 124. 125. 269. 164. 118 instruments described. ii. 151 Albuzio. 188 Astronomy. 154. 129. Tartalea's new science of. 247 state of. i. i. 64 Angels. 239 invention of.ii. ii.80. 17. 299. 238. 284. 142. degli. 201 Architecture. 118 Ailments. 222. 17. i. 35.255. 157 Bandarini Algebra. 113. a banker in Rome. i. 44. 161 Archinto. i. Gianpietro. i. ii. 293. 10 310312 Alciati. 40. Francisco. ii. 6. Appearance. a grandee ignorant of the. Cardan's father-in-law. 223. ii. ii. Cardan's love ii. accademia ii. 23. 171174 Agreement. Cardan Aldobello. ii. Antwerp. Cardan's lectures on. 151 ii. 141. Almanacs. written. Arsenic. 61 Asses' milk. i. connexion of with physic. ii. . 51 See Padua. Fazio. his early death predicted by. 58. 186. Ainati. 263. Agen. 194 ii. 163. 176. 119. 100 Fernel. John Cheke. ii. ii. 39 Argument. ii. the jurist. Tartalea's book on. the mysterious seller of an. of Cardan. lectures upon. Cardan's. a book on it. ii. evidences of poisoning by. in Cardan's tune. 208 222 Magna. of father. Animals. 215219 Allowance to servants. 22 . year. Answer ii. 128 . 2025 Argent onius. 113128 Astrology. ii. 209. 302 Ars Curandi Parva. 19 Adversity.244. a book on. 41 . its connexion with palmistry. in pound doses. ii. See Plat See book upon. 131. i. i. Scaliger at. of. 177180. Appearance. 65 Apprenticeship. 151 35.i. healer of bruises. ii. personal. 189 Adda. ii. ii. i. 160. 245. Filippo. 160. 233 his defence of the study. 147. 278 ii. ii. 295 293 . 125 . 200 Alphabet. ii. ii. Cardan's first lessons in. 257259 Agates. Carolus. not poisonous when cooked. Cardan a maker of. 8.18 See also Horoscopes Astronomical opinions. 221. . i.INDEX. 270. ii. ii. Cardan's. ii. Giuseppe. Cardan's study and treatment of a case of. 99 Agrippa. i. 208 275. Cardan's lectures on. 163. Aftaidatus. Padua. 194. 29. 208. i. his ACADEMIC Academy. 281 .257. the book of the. i. See Great Art Algebrist. 259. i. ii. 262 Altovito. 200. 311 Amber. 73. 234 Artillery. at Pavia.

i. 54. i. Cardan's opinion of the. i. 117. Business 303 hours. 208. complete list of the books necessary to be read.104. Cardan's fragments 288. 68 Basle. i. i. 298. 273. 71 . Autobiography. 12-19. ii. 150 Brussels. 309 215. Broth. . 127 159. See Sylvius Bologna. Burden. 149. Louis. 65 Bega-ared. ii. 303 . 188. 30. i. ii. 159. Fazio. 202. i. 152. C. i. ii. 3. ii. 164 Brain and lungs.316 INDEX. 196. . Lodovico. 143147 Bags. ii. 57. 159. Luca di. 91 191 . i. ii. i. 191. ii. ii. ii. 24th. A. ii. i. 176 Berne. 265. ton's. 26. i. lawyers'. Jerome's dialogue with his ghost. ii. 151 dispute with a printer of. 211 Bonvalutus. 129 of. 196 Calcagnirius. 286. 104111. 71. 258 Brandonia. Cardan's. his of writing them. ii. of vinegar. 312. 1501. 263. 158. 113. 40 Caluscho. 311 Banks. 157. ii. 22. 114 Branda. Pierre. 30 Capitaneo. 48 232. Cardan on the. Bela-a. 269 books stopped at the press. 32. Ottonc. 801. i. ii. i.313 B. 285286 VOL. i.. 218. Cardan in his. 284 number of books written by Cardan. 29. 305 CARDAN. 1 6. Sept. Cardan in a. ii. Cardan on. ii. ii. 39 Candles. ii. 145. J. 527 Books/ Cardan's temper in writing. Bees from oxen. 175. Bonacci. Leonard. 211 Calamity. Seroni. ii. 190. Bad method of practice cians. Biflb. . 154 Cardan. 254. Tonso da. Count Camillo. 72 170. 123 ii. 111. ii.!. 152 Archbishop HamilC. 6. 289 " Bedingfeld's Cardanus Comforte. ii. ii. a poisoned. i. ii. a fattening. the Counts.255." 191 198 Bedroom. Ate barefooted. ii. 288 ii. 6. 15. Cardan's fatherin-law. i. ii. 284. 91 Bizozoro. 254. See Seroni Brasavolus. 264. 219 Binaschi. ii. 265. 118. 111. Bernard. Cardan. ii. ii. i. 151 ii. i. 158. i. 288. 258 Boccaccio. Francisco. Cardan's wife. 16. Cardan's mother-in-law. 158 Bleeding. i. 293. p. 219 Brissac. . 56. Bruges. studious of geometry. 31. Richard de. ii. ii. Franciscus. ii. 177 Canal. ii. ii. Leading Events of his Life. 218 Bandarini. ii. 216. 170 ii. 262 Bellon. 125. Barbiani. Cardan physician to the. ii. Bolognese. i. method . 304. 302ii. 244 Bassano. 51. ii. 82. 232. i. 39 Cardan's extravagance in buying. ii. ii. Jaques. 304. Bets between algebrists. 40 Boe. Aldobello. 304 Booksellers. Joannes. 263. ii. i. 152 Berretta. 266 Cantone. 122 150 Buonafede. liger. Caelius. ii. 293 his submission of them to the Holy Council. ii. 70 binding. 39. 209. 285 Borgo. 258 Birague. 31. 290 among physi- Balbisonio. the doctor's. i. shower-bath. ii. 26. 267. 214. i. ii. loathing of them. de la. 78 Cancer. ii. 152 Book. 117. His father an old lawyer. 183. 55. 196 Brescia. ii. 278. 41. 299 Boscano. 49 Bozio. See Scai. Born at Pavia. 265 Caravaggio. 186. ii. his mother a young \vidow. i. P. 115 Boating. Gian Stefano. 104. 142. 26 Lucia. 266 Archbishop Hamilton in his. ii. 303 his hope that Gianbatista would revise them after his death. 301. 80. Barette. 222227. . 276-292 ii. tax-gatherer. 144. 100 Breakfast. 81. 119. 195 Augustin Friars. i. i. 153. 24. Cardan at. 148. the doctor's. ii. JEROME. 115. 79 . 10. 132 Blanche. 120. i. ii. See Paccioli Borromeo. i. i. ii. Barking of dogs hindered. 66 Bobbio. ii. i. 114 Thaddsea. Fabrizio. i. Uses of Adversity published there. ii. . Jerome's father. Adrian. Cake. i. 126 i. i. 172. ii. 294. i. Ambrose. Bath Bed. 282 income from his books. I. Porro. 50. i. 151. . 156. 126. 201. i. 96. 304. 195. Cardan's early dread of. Bear's-grcase. 39 Belluine men. 66 Bergius. 25 Boys as servants. 253.258 Besan9on. 127. Cardan on his own books. open and shut. 8386. Gianbatista. 272. 153 Cardinal Carlo. Burning of manuscripts. . 210. 24 Bail. 123. Cardan's daughterin-law. 154 of wine. Cardan at. ii.

lishes The Bad Practice in Use among the Doctors. and shares his studies in mathematics. his father dies. at Sacco. 1533. young patron. 32. 47. Jerome. a neglected 15041508. 63. 5863. 28. 153. to his mother's loss. eldest son born. taught music secretly at his mother's charge. 55. 25. 151 153. 1509. becomes a printer. . 46. 155. Among nurses. Fortune still frowntrea- instruction. house. and begins another tise. writes mathematical commentaries. pub" Padua. 116. The book its fails. and by pupil and associate. and has a but acquires to daughter Clara. 12 17 . goes with his wife to Milan. as is a servant. also a geometrical tract. 77. 9599. Begins a Life of Christ. 48. born named 1532. 8 12. . Writes books on Wisdom 159. 152122. 8386. whom he journeys centia). 75. goes to the University of The begins five books. Is cried down as an astrologer. 115. 42. Dallies with the . 35. Graduates as M. 18. 266. His college friend. 116. 317 of Physicians. His youth. 142. 112. 265. they remove to Gallarate. 49. 11. ing. Scoto.D. 91. Writes treatises. but returns defeated and very ill. Early 1534. 80. 50 51 1323. and determines to study medicine. . 188 and Consolation. tise Jerome writes a upon fate. is invited to teach medicine at Pavia. His mode of study there. 150. 70. abjures law. After a severe illness dedicated to St. With his parents in Milan. 73. infant. 126. writes on the Earning of Immortality. 1537. 120. in the year towards the end of April. 81. obtains for him a small appointment as lecturer on five subjects under the endowment of one Thomas Plat. . Towards the end of 1531 marries at Sacco Lucia Bandarini. Archinto. Believing that they see an opening. quits Sacco for a rejections. gambles. 45. and they go into the poor- and. remains at home. and damages 147. 125. 71 SO. 198. 129 cures their prior. May 14th. 25. but declines to do so without certain stipend. 31. to 152632. 1524 schools being closed by war. He tries iu vain to please the Pope. 56. Is excluded from the College some other strong friends. 142. Admonished by the death of a young man. Writes on the Bad Practice in Use among the Doctors. 130. 45. 24th. 123. and named Gianbatista. author. 114 fails to establish himself. made a 1526.I!s 7 DEX. 101 113. 78. 1509-1519. after two advice of a kindly professor begins practice.131. makes a strong enemy. being already a gambler. 9295. 79. Forms a friendship with a student named Ottaviano Scoto. 28. 113. 161. 149. 156. Ho 1520 is sent to the University of Pavia. 145 In the same year Lodovico Ferrari comes to Cardan 148. 2432. 47. 78. . 43. Sept. 73. goes there on his birthday. 1535. He teaches Euclid. a Treatise upon Games of Is Chance. 91. 26. 1536. 117. 143. 3537. His sense of impotence. 154. Physician to Augustin Friars. 151. Claims proper education. about inheritance. in 1528 has tertian fever. his wife miscarries twice. illustrative of his Nativity. in 1529. 44." and Cardan appears for the first there are disputes time in print. (toPla- few months and attempts establish himself in Milan. 150. 71. Having only earned forty crowns in nineteen months. 61. In February. 46. returns with his wife beggared to Milan. Assumes the costly office of Rector Gymnasii. At Sacco. 27. and other works among them begins an Arithmetic. 78 . 63. a tormented child. a and earns money by giving lessons upon dialectics. Cardan. 139. trea- 152223. 15011504. his first patient of note.

through Petreius of Nu- remberg. is born The Uni(vol. 166. next year is published. 185. since it will The 246253. and there ensues a correspondence. at which Tartalea 179. 168. 1821 84. who is at Florence. By 1540. 1545. 205. driven by war to teach at Milan. 174. by the continued application of geometry to algebraical investigations. having developed since 1539. 26). 172 the 1539. Greek. x. In the year at the end of August. This work following upon a series of other publications. 202 other means of livelihood fall into abeyance. On the 26th of July his is the beginning of his fame. calling attention to the author's many unprinted works. in which the whole doctrine of cubic equations is first made known. university returning to own town. he revokes his determination. The information obtained and other Sfondrato. fears that his secret will be divulged. and he wins for a warm friend. 227. Accepting the omen. and is uneasy until he receives from Cardan a published copy of the Practice of sent from Arithmetic. in this year Cardan publishes. and goes to Pavia as Professor of Medicine. 1539. College of Physicians. 201. from Tartalea. which results in an interview on the 25th of March. 269276. 203. and Jerome is left in sudden penury. 161. is asked to retain his chair.. and many great improvements are made in the science. Milan on the 12th of May. On the I-. which Arithmetic. Antonio Vimercati. 184. Appended to the Practice of Arithmetic is a manifes to. his Algebra. Tartalea. . and on the way home visits Sfondrato. On the night its before giving in his refusal his house tumbles down. 258 264. 204. 1541. 274. the friends. and offers the chair of medicine to Cardan. 1538. In this year. and gambles. vignette). whose sick child . gambling with Cardan. 171. versity of Pavia. 163165. a printer. communicates to 1544. 227. ii. with his portrait on title page (title to Vol. 1543. his Practice of 1542. 246. 253258. when he is rector of the College of Physicians. and losing to him about a gold piece daily. force an entrance for Cardan into the body of the Milanese College of Physicians. He accepts it. 206. At work on sumption. but intends to decline. second of January in this year. but studies which mother dies. Vimercati forswears dice. 173. a scholar of Nuremberg. 200 writes little. with a salary of 240 gold crowns. Aldo. offer respectively to edit and publish anything he will send. including Marquis d'Avalos. Tartalea's dis- not take him from home. Cardan. Milanese patrician. In consequence of this. cannot maintain professors. 222. and by the succeeding January becomes permanent. and Petreius. however. Cardan the rules known to him under a vow of secrecy. He goes then to his friend the Marquis d'Avalos. Tartalea at Venice is applied to on the part of Cardan for certain mathematical rules known to him. content grows during the remainder of the year. 202.318 INDEX. which it would be advisable to publish in the Practice of Arithmetic. Osiander. At this time he believes and writes that he has cured cases of con he whom cures. 272. 162. On the 25th of May his second son. 277284. who is now governor of Sienna. an original work. through Sfondrato's influence. 275. establishes . 205.Tartalea replies uncivilly. during this year and the next. A the friendship of a druggist he is introduced as a physician to the Senator Sfondrato.

and practises In the same year law-suits. . own Gaspar Cardan. taking with quainted with the English 1553. hears from Archat the Hamilton bishop . to whom the Proceeds then to Edinburgh. writes books. with five followers. Hamilton being un- 25 . 125. He remains in Edinburgh till the 12th of September. They become extremely popular. 42 49. and are reprinted in many places. 71. 70.1549. 90. and of the statement that he had cured Phthisis. at the end of November. 142. He declines also 800 crowns a year. Lucia. boy of good family. 24. 9 educate his at Pavia is raised where he is heartily welcomed. and becomes 138 ac- 1551. 147153. 2841. writing books. where. His salary to 400 98. him 309.94. stopping by the way at mark 14. 1548. then leaves him much relieved. the height of his fame. 'prospering greatly. At the end of this year Sfondrato being dead. 1546. visits a pa- tient at Genoa. 129. Mary Queen of Scots. 137. culates his nativity. an English 1554. there being no public funds at Pavia. 15. 9. Andrew's. writes books. 141. which had in great fame. archbishop. but writes at Milan for six months. At him William. and travels home by way of the Netherlands. his wife. Cardan does not lecture there. for his services. 89. body physician to the Archbishop court. where he finds no 90. 319 (John Hamilton) of St. 167. 25. of 1547. and on behalf Paris. 304. Prospers Pavia. where he converses with King Edward 140. Cardan remains in Milan. He observes the English people. and Pavia hemmed in with wars and troubles. 28 and on way home writes a Book of Precepts for his children. 56 69. 125 128. this he declines. 168.. cal- 1550. Cassanate arrives at Lyons with a letter from him to Cardan. 52 health. and neglects the English boy. and he is offered a handsome pension if he will enter the service of Pope Paul III. and arrives there on the 29th of June. The lectures resumed. dies at the close of this year. VI. and educates his and a young a code of rules concerning medicine and regimen. There being again no money in the hands of the authorities. asthma. he practises among the magnates of the town. 91. 1. 92. and Cardan. on the 12th of February. He the jurist. are ended prosperously. He reaches Milan again in on the 3rd of January. eldest son relative. the Rhine. 111125. 96106. 284 Iri the succeeding year. offered on the part of the King of Den- among the French nobles for thirty-eight days. and in possession of he is much at attached. by obedience to which he may continue to improve in for his 54. he receives a letter from "Wil Ham Cassanate. Cardan sets out. 58. almost without intermission. with maintenance for a household of five. desiring to children. 99. and Cardan's XXI Books on Subtilty appear at Paris. ingly. and Cardan goes to Milan. 143 145. in 7484. 1546. 302. 159. II. that have lasted since his father's death. 1552. 136. becomes the friend and colleague of Alciat.INDEX. still Cardan. He goes then to London. profession. been met with in one of his books. 57. 303. gold crowns. Accord- VOL.. studying the archbishop's disease. and Switzerland. 54. and receives offers from King Henry II. he is requested to meet the archbishop professionally at Paris or Lyons. In consequence of his fame.. and three horses. for Lyons. able to leave Scotland. the professorship there is resigned.

In July. 208. he is suddenly banished by a decree of the senate. 254. 251. 249. . 252. and there remains only his infant. 1557. which. Cardan adopts into his household as his grandson Fazio. 284. tista is condemned andexe- cuted on the 7th of April. after the payment of 1556. but Jerome relents. Jerome 272. he submits his books to the authority of the Church. and his mind filled 1564. 198. Gianba. He betakes himself to bo9k-writing. obtains his degree of doctor. but the offer from Bologna comes to him fet- tered with dishonourable it. therefore. where Gianbatista's wife is dead of poison. and acquires with it some return of his old fame. authorities at Rome. and the senate of Bologna haying removed its most objectionable conditions. 253. Cardan's eldest son. after two rejections. He mind. 'Gianbatista Cardan marries secretly a worthless girl. 207. Early in this year Cardan returns to his professorship at Pavia. though for a small salary. "Within the same week his eldest child dies. 219236. conditions. 250. putation 238. William. 203 and it as probably in this year that Cardan's daughter Clara marries Bartolomeo Sacco. Julius Caesar Scaliger having written a book for the purpose of confuting Cardan's celebrated work on Subtilty. 166. with sick imaginations. without tenance of his new household. Cardan endeavours. through Cardinal Alciat's help. and his small income from rents withheld from him. is. being named. 213219. to teach at the University of Bologna. 213. 1559 1560. to dice-playing and night-watching. and gives him an allowance for the main- the premium. patrician. is replied to without remains unwillingly at Pavia. 163. Jerome is deeply afflicted. and tortures his body to relieve the torture of his 1561. Being questioned on the subject. this year to him printed. 275. finally he dies of fever in the poor-house. 1562.320 INDEX. 234. ne re- 1558 signs his chair at Pavia. 176185. After this stroke Cardan droops and grows mistrustful. swered favourably. 160162. 21. and struggles with difficulty. receives during seventeen months. the printing of his books stopped. It is proposed that he shall take a professorship in Milan. 207212. that his health has been constantly improving. In this year. is destroyed. In one of his rivals quits Bologna. 213. Brandonia Seroni. through the influence of Cardinal Borromeo. 248. the English youth. 238. a young Milanese . Gianbatista. 188 198. apprenticed to a tailor in Milan. Dec. end of this year. to effect an exchange to BoBeing anlogna. 239241.255260. 270. rents reach in August books him . come 244246. 271. he is left to himself. Gian- which he batista owns his guilt. employment. overworked and misused.265. 269. Fearing accusations. goes. Having been partly set right by the intervention of the Church . 274. 270 while his fortunes are thus mending. At Bologna surrounded by discomfort and disputes. 255.204206. 216 his father sacrifices all to save him. 187. 273. without success. and he refuses is. although born in adultery. a Dialogue on Death. and both his sons have been arrested for the murder. he discovers by experience a new remedy. 242. he declines to fix 1555.264. pleads for him in person. His re1563. himself in Edinburgh. Being ill in Milan. 271. 269. but is recalled in a few weeks to Milan. and begins to erect to him a literary monument. Shrinking from the faces that he knows at Pavia.

ii. 47. i. 25. 300 Charles V. 103 75. 242. ii. ii. 9. Cardan's Treatise on. 55 Cataneo. Jerome's great-uncle. 120 note Alessandro. Cheke. 304. ii. i. 219. 158. 298. 256. 165. ii. 222. ii. hope in. Cardan made. i. care of servants in. 5. 301. 26. Montagnano. 84-86. 282. presumed connexion of the Cardans with the. 137 78. 287. 168. 188. 287 Aldo. 43. 296 Carriage. 168. Cardinal. of appointing 5863 of installing doctors. Ill ii. 187. 186. King Edward VI. 215. 50 Cards and card-playing. Benedetto. ii. 78. 293 297. 246253. 75. 236. 624 Children. i. 238. 15. 121 Combing the hair. 294 Coblentz. the friendship of. Cardan's relations with the. i. 270. ii. i. College of Jurisconsults. ii. ii. 1S9 208. i. 216. 2S2. but prohibited from lecturing or printing prosperons has the free- Cavenega. 271.173. assumed cures 168. Jerome's great-grandfather. 263-267 i. 165. 137 VOL. Thomas. 49. 314 her ghost appears. 24. 42 46. i. Jerome's daughter. Jerome's grandson. 12S Clothes. Pietro Donate. 171 Citizen of Bologna. 295. i. a dispute about a. ii. 192 Consultation of physicians. Consumption. ii. 68. 217. Due de. 291. 110. ii. 204206. 203. 162 Castillione family. Borromeo. 293299. 92. 285. 293. 25 Giacomo. Ambrose. Jerome's other son. Zuanne da. 236. i. ii. 27 . ii. 151 Coi. 310-312 Cassanate. 171. Cardan on. 279. there writing books. 202. 7 Gaspar.174. Micheria. 95 Carp. 27.47 Conserve of peaches. Cardan's mother. i. 238. on the 20th of September. 118 Consolation. 68. 210. Tartalea and Cardan. 299. i. Cardan reads through. i. 266 Cheiromancy. 45. 290. 93. 285 Clara. 290. 1015. 230. 207. 292. 197. ii. 164 Jerome. i. 1576. 70. i. i. 205. 123. ii. 162. 136. Jerome's uncle. writes books and lectures to a full class. 186. 2S3. 235. 98 Choul. ii. Cardan. 181. ii. II. 288 Charms. Alessandro. 167. i. 77. Clocks. 24 Nicolo. i. 2841 palmistry in the case of. forms of a. i. Cats. ii. 91 Church. 221. 277. Aldo. 187. ii. and living as a private person till his death. Diaregina Jerome's gran ddaughter. i. 220 Comets. 292. . 241. 77. i. another physician. 47. notes of.200. 56. books. i. 114. Gianbatista. 304.Cardan at Bologna not unCavallo. counsel to his. 157 of Pavia. 131 Clara. 91. 121 . i. On the 13th of October. i. 191. 7 Giovanni. . Cefalo. 71 Cesio. 233. 276. 260. is thrown into prison. 251. towards 300. ii. 297. 193. 204 . 304 . i. William. 297. ii. 78 asses' milk in. 258 ii. 301 Circumvention justified. 237. i. 73. 1570. ii. ii. 213. 321 163 164. ii. 225. i. Cardan on. ii. i. 70 Conversations. 192 Cicero. 232. 9599 15711576. 299 appears in a dream. ii. Sir John. 94. Emperor. 208. his admiration of. Cardan. ii. 149. ii. Commentaries. over dinner. 166. 116. . ii. i. 295. 9. Cardan refuses offers from him. for his. 136. ii.293314. 243 Catherine of Medicis and Fernel. 176 dom of the city. i. Morone houses. Scaliger's battle for. 240. 42 six joys of parents in. Jerome's grandfather. Cardan's love . 222227 . removes to his own house on bail. 26 Cardinals. i. 117 i. 161. 7 Gottardo. i. 112. 26. and 163165 a. 280 131. Cell. Cardan's mathematical. 49 Class-room. ii. ii. 78. 285. 7 Fazio. 79. Guillaume. i. 175 Cipher-writing. 238 Fazio. See also Religion ii. 132134 Childhood of Cardan. 242 Cologne. 48. Jerome's eldest ii. 183 Ceremony Padua. 48. 314 son. 188198. 221. ii. 116 of Physicians of Milan. 167. Is liberated by the intervention of the friendly cardinals. ii. 159. ii. and remains . 1. and Cardan. 133 rectors at Censorship. 137. ii. 208. His lost income supplied by a pension from the Pope he enters Borne in March of this year. . i. 104 of. i. Cardan's. ii. 15651570. 4. Alciat.INDEX. 185. 151 Coltsfoot leaves. ii. i. ii. ii. 146 Chair-beds. See also Sfondrato. 76. 159. 6. on a charge of impiety. 210-212.. 313. 217236. 295. 245 Circles. ii. 31. ii. ii. i. i.283. 124. 175. between a bookseller and Tartalea. ii. 120. and Luther Churchyarde.

effect of a. 122 Dinaldo. Marquis. i. i. ii. Copyright. 281 172. Cardan and the. 295. 112. ii. 91 Distilled pig's blood and coltsfoot leaves. ii. i. ii. ii. 293. Corti.9295. 248. 238 Dice-playing. 121 Divers questions and inventions. behaviour towards. 31. 236 of Earning immortality. ii. 143 145 Dew. i. ii. Country practices. 214 Curtius. ii. 264. Credulity. ii. Cardan's treatise on.148 Dowry. . 1. Cardan's. 137. 57. 173. 80. i. 62 Earth. i. 275 Erasmus assailed by Scaliger. 43 Emperor Charles V. the. 76. 124. Cardan on the. 116 Elements. i. 294. sheep fed upon. Cardan subject to. 290 Croce. ii. 179184 Defence of his son. Clara D'Avalos. 147. recommended to Gianbatista Cardan. 28. . 244246. ii. 170 Daldo. ii. i. 152. ii. 196 of Cardan's life at Rome. 7 Day of food and sleep.50 Dominicans. Tarta221 28-41 Counterpoint. 83 hindered from barking. i. i. 258 Council. 276 Dress. i. Cardan's literary. ii. Cardan's. ii. Cardan's. 146 Empiricism. ii. ii. ii. ii. 97. ii. his conversation with Cardan. 35 Envy. his political position. 298. ii. 47. Cardan refuses an offer from. 42 18 . Jerome's. afterwards none. Fazio Scaliger's. 32 Edward Cardan's opinions on. 256258 Cardan's. 195. ii. 162. 122. 66 Enterocele. Doctor. 63. 223-275 biquadratic. inherited by Cardan. Cardan on the. 25. 214 Dinner. i.. 58. 268 Disputant. ii. 265. Cardan's. Girolamo. Demons. Ear. ii. 41 Cardan on the. 214 cubic. Matthew. Luca 34. Barnabo della. i. See Cardan. 136. 71 53 ii. i. 99103. 139 Courtesy. Cardan's character of him. Correspondence. i. 35 ii. ii. 135-137. 177 Cubic equations. 84. 164. Dogs. 225 Emendation of the celestial movements. i. the English. 81. Cardan's. 209. 65. 219. i. Governor of Milan. Cardan in. i. i. Cardan on the. Cardan's granddaughter. i. at Padua. on Cardan. 26^28. 269 Counsel to his children. 51 Equations. snails. ii. 208. Jerome's. 235. 145 wool. i. 142 Emerald. 172. 217 i. i. 156159. 64. 11 I language. 141. i. ii. See Letters 181184 Distances of objects. 219233. his horoscope. i. 17 Cardan's treatise on an. i. 143 arid by the Scotch Highlanders. 282 Epitaph. King of. 142. ii. 138. ii. ii. 113-115 Dialectics. 49. i. 67 Epidemic. 70. 139. 95 Denmark. 111. his offer to refused. 83. i. 25 9 57. ii. ii. 18 Eruptions. King of England. 81. ii. lea's. ii. 68 Domestics. Cardan installed. 61 title of Elaterium. i. Edinburgh. 296 E. Vincenzio. i.250 Daughter. and sea level. 110148 English people. 140 Cardan's view of . 220. Alphonso. ii. della. 87. howling of. Cardan as a. 88 Enemies. Cardan on the true. 142. 175 Ermenulfo. Cardan 1315 England. Cardan's. Antonino. INDEX. 131. 165. 225. 163. i. 308 247. ii. i. Cardan's submission to. 203. ii. ii. 38 Delfino. ii. 25 disregard of by the English. ii. ii. 167. 310 312 Death. i.322 Convivium. C. ii. 129. his Defender of the Faith. cut off. ii. 57. 214. Aide's. 35 . 146 Egg and string. Cardan's. ii. 122128. ii. Cardan's. 174. 281 Dissection. Cardan's tailor. revision of the same. of Cardan. ii. 307. ii. ii. 45. ii. ii. 17 . Dreams. 75 Epigrams and poems. 128. i. visited by Cardan. i. 154 Courtiers. 163 Duns Scotus. i. i. 18. 69 in a pitcher. ii. ii. 146 . Cardan in. 61 of medicine. ii. Demon. Cardan on the.. 143. i. ii. 138 Differings of Doctors. 160 Diaregina. 63 routine of a. 197 Disputations in the schools. 58 . Copybooks. 61 Elephantiasis. 239-241. J. i. quadratic. 158 Dover. i. ii. 144 supposed. the degree of. ii. on his father. ii. 181185 Cowardice. i. Cardan's light. 299 Annibale della. i.47.196 Druggists. 4347 VI. i. prescribed to Archbishop Hamilton. i. 144. 237 Defender of the Faith. ii. Cardan's treatise on the. ii. 110128 Education of Cardan. 27. i. 188. 66 Diagnosis. 36. the Holy.

i. 238 Executioners in Egypt. i. dialect. 234. 53. ii. 70. ii. 1820. life of. Cardan with a military. 7584. i. 2S4 289. Cardan first taught. 1. i. ii. 269 Fine. i. 149. ii. See Fior Foetid foods. 58 Fortitude. 256. ii. 152. Cardan's mentaries on. potable. 131 on education in. 68 . Angelo. Mario. 270 Alciat's. Cardan's grandson. 166. 230. . i. a youth. Cardan on Preservation of. books upon which he relied for its assurance. 100104 Ferrara. 281 . 237 Fire. 199. i. 69. 64 . Fish. i. 65. Ferrante. 38 Games Gascon 27 of Chance. ii. on Cardan. n. 50 Euclid. 128 ii. lake of. ii. Hamilton. lost. 122 Fate. 32. 231. ii. 44. 277. 226. n. 97. 46. 49. 210. i. Andrew's. ii. Cardan on. 121. Cardan's fondness for. 208. 126. 244. 80-81. 267 . 162 Health. Cardan on. Cardan in. Cardan's early study of. Fernel. 165. ii.47 Flint and steel. See King of France Hippocrates. ii. i. 100. 129131. ii. 200. 280. 149. 121 . governor of Milan. ii. ii. 126 books on. . i. 252. 7. 90108 Franciscans. 98 Geography. 115123 28.INDEX. 246 302 . 72 Farnese. 73. ii. 160 162. Cardan's Treatise on. 201 Father beds. 100. i. ii. 208. 281 France. 174 triangles. Cardan's F. 274 Fioravanti. i. 47. 35 i. ii. 117 . 237 i. 149. English. 33 Fracantiano. 169 Guerrini. See Cardan Families. 159. 66 Gratalaro. 128 Gold. 243. 24. i. 131. 150 Gravitation. 179 184 G. 99. Ghosts. Cardan has an attack of. Cardan's. ii. 248 Eufomia. i. 17. Cardan's lectures on. Erysipelas. Cardan's study 201 68. 67 Gonzaga. John. the. 64 Geneva. Duke of. 238 ii. 295. 117. Gaspardo. 150 Feasts. theory of his asthma. 41. Jerome's father. Ofler from him refused. 92-95 study of. Lodovico. i- 149. 283 Guarda. Gianbatista Cardan on. i. 238 Great Art. 277 Grass. beginning of. 219. 32 ii. 125. . ii. i. 232. ii. 65 Eyes of a black dog. 9294. 18 Goat's milk. Cardan's love of. 247. 323 i. Famine. 78. 110. 269 Escort. His horoscope. 9295. 78. teaches it at Pavia. 28. 58 Genoa. 219. 301. i. i. the. 29. 157 Horoscope of Cardan. . 272276 of. 27.. 90 25. at its height. 8. ii. ii. ii. 123. 138. lines on. ii. Gianpaolo. i. ii. ii. ii. 46 his book on. Gout. 118 Gira. Cardan. ati. 64 Gambler. ii. 251. 97. how to become. ii. 302 Funeral oration. 28 Geographers. his physician states his case to Cardan. 308 Euphorbiuin. 18. ii. 164 Gallearato. Gifts. i. 111128. Tartalea's translation of. 27. His letter to Cardan in Milan. 102. 8690. ii. ii. ii. Henry II. 203 Florido. Monsieur (Orontius). ii. 65. Conrad. 131. Gemma. Fazio. a jeweller. 4446 Gaddi. 200. ii. 225 Execution of Gianbatista Cardan. 220 ii. ii. threatens to join the. i. Jean. ii. 106. Fables. 264. 896 Fishing. Fat. 41. 109 Espial. Gessio. 107 Ferrari. 43 Gesner. Cardan's father. 213 ii. 30 . 126. 154. ii. i. 187. Foreheads. i. Cardan at. Scipio. 65. Cardan's. comment Gallarate. 200203. 63. ii. ii. ii. 130. 174 ii. i. Galen. Cardan's Book of the. i. writing for the. tainment of. 215. Sebastian. His letter to Cardan at Under Cardan at Lyons. Antonio Maria. ii. ii. 274 ii. 278. 220. 56. 70 Fazio. n. ii. ii. 1. 39. 66. 177 . 52 Heirs. 24 Scaliger's. 278 Ferreus. i. a. ii. 156 Fame. 126 books on. ii. a diet suitable for Britons. 151 Gravelines. 98 Fior. His position in Scotland. i. 281 management of by servants. 206. ii. See Cardan ii. Cardan's 32 i. 192. i. 153 . ii. 244 Gryphius. 78. 148. 44 lectures on. premature. 37 Frisius. 31 Friends. ii. i. Scaliger's. 146.187. 84. 274 Fever. i. 279 2. Cardan 77. ii. Fires. 214. 52 Com- Home discipline. Albuzio at. 278 Ghent. i. ii. 219272. a legend of. H. 39. Cardan's desire for. Archbishop of St. . 150 299 . Edinburgh. ii. i. 150 Frogs. Geberon Gems. 19. i. 233. i. Prior Francisco. Geometry. 266 Florence. ii. ii. i. 152.111 Greek. ii. 223. ii. ii. 265269. Cardan's treatise on. Gramigna. 131 Geometrie's Verdicte. . 214. i. Guglielmo. on. 27. i.

i. 147 . Cardan's. 100. 125. 155. and refused. 29. 32 Cardan's to Lyons. 75 84 : J. and Alciat Ranconet. ii. Cardan as a. 114 his grandchildren. 13. Saint. i. 225 51 i. i. 164 preservation of all. Thomas. i. 86. 113118 71 ii. ii. 49 ii. ii. of. 130 Sir John Cheke. ii. the marking his . one refused. ii. 200. Lipyria. 285 Henry II. 14. 146. after. why rejected by Cardan as a profession. 95 London. 1. offered by the King of France (refused). 104 Letters Cardan to Tartalea. Cardan in. 46. 39. 30 188197 Innkeeper. 123 Locks. Cardan's treatise on the earning of. INDEX. in the streets. Paris to Edinburgh. ii. 139142 as. a quarrel about. 265. ii. Journey. i. ii. 17. 51 Issues under the knee. 146 ii. 105107 Other fragments. Donato. 18 Legacy. 30 Legrand. 44. i. 15. 145 Lanizario. ii. ii. Cardan's at Sacco. 81. See Seroni. ii. joy in. 146 offered by Duke of Mantua (refused). Language. 108110. ii. 26. i. 43. 107 Abp. 118 Lecture-rooms. 85 Jurisconsult. 263 Inns. h. 129 148 Kiss of Installation. 136 ii. 91 of the soul. 205. i. ii. 4951. as Plat lecturer. T5. 188. Linen. Bags. 138 1315 France and Cardan. i. 144' See also Horoscope of Our Saviour . See William . 27. Claude. 51 Laval. 277. Gianbatista Cardan on. ii. i. and Impiety Cardan on his own. Agostino. 256 Cardan to Tartalea. 280 Lecturer. Edward VI. 312. Impotence. 229234 Tartalea to Cardan (in part. Milan. ii. Lyons to Paris. L. Jacinth. 238. Hamilton. ii. 257. ii. ii. 264. Lodgings 211. of Denmark and VI. ii. the physician's. 283 Humours of the body. . i. i. i. 183. 75. i.. 134 K. 34 Laundresses. Fazio Cardan. versity of Bologna. i. don home. ii. i. ii. 133. ii. Cardan Inheritance. ii. Gallarate. 290. 123. paid by Archbishop Hamilton. 16. ii. III. 19 51 Jewels. ii. See Law. . 219-235 Cardan on the. 313 ii. 18. ii. from salary at Pavia.214. King Christian Cardan. 26.324 Horoscope of our Saviour. 175 Laudatory verse. 367.of England and Cardan. 32 Cardan's prepared for press. ii. 88 Income. Hyacinth. 256 Hamilton to Cardan. 145 his comment on . ii. against Cardan. ii. Housekeeper. Nicolas. Cardan on the. Lataneus. and remarks on calculaii.261. and receipts in Edinburgh. to London. wife's. 129. ii. 45. 262 Cassanate to Cardan. why Cardan named Lightning. i. 283 Impiety. 41. i. 190192 subsequent salary at Pavia. ii. 241245 Tartalea to Cardan (in part). 236 240 Cardan to Tartalea. 163 ii. 155. 248 the town. ii. 237 offer of the UniArchbishop Hamilton to Cardan. i. i. Cardan's comment on. 188 Illegitimacy of Cardan. Laughter. King Edward Aldo Cardan. ii. Cardan 131. i. a. 112 at . 146 Law. 258. 294299 Leathern pillow-cases. 294-296 Cassanate. 10 to his son Gianbatista. 90. from Lon- ii. 68 i. Logic. ii. 111. ii. 43 160162 Infection. ii. 132 80. i. Cardan in. 18 . 209. Cardan gambling away i. 154 at . ii. lanello of Cremona. ii. Loire. caution in performing a. 105. 265 9294 Infamy. 183. ii. i. Latin. 258 Tartalea to Cardan (in part). ii. i. a refused. received from the King of England. 266 Jerome. 32. ii. 125. ii. 4. riding in the environs. i. i. 12 Brandonia Immortality. 123. 278 9496. . ii. errors in King Edward's. 78. i. Archbishop Infants. 110. 156 Iseus. 133. 48. ii. ii. ii. Cardan on the English. 147153 Jovial disposition.. 279. charge of. See Jacinth I. 122 Life of Christ. 5. 99. of tion of nativities. stipend offered by the King of Denmark. 25. Cardan's sense of. life of an. 6. 25. 106. ii. Italians imitated by the English. 108. 42 Lanza. 73. 98. ii.

ii. 157 Nobles. ii. studies ruled by. ii. See Portents Opisthotonos. his ghost appears. 313 Magnienus. i. ii. ii. i. Cardan on. 272. 148 Mahomet ben Musa. 177 Nero. 145 of. ii. 45. Cardinal. 165 Optics. 184-187. 66 ii. burning of his. Cardan's Treatise on. 287 Naudseus. i. 124-126 Noah's Ark. Northumberland. i. i. ii. letters through. 73-90. Lodovico. 291. 97 Names. 303 Netherlands. Naenia. 10. See Clara Method 258 82. influence of the planet. on the supposed death of Cardan.269272. i. 161 Mercury. 263. Cardan's. ii. Giacomo. Duke of. 63 Misanthropy. 161. 268 i. ii. ii. ii. 153. i. 30 152 Oil and the stars. 240.303 number of left by Cardan. i. i. ii. Cardan's wife. Duke opinion of the. 268 book against Cardan free ii. the rider. 11 Morone. flint and steel. 132. 281 ii. i. 302. i. ii. . 300 . Cardan in the. his offer to Cardan. i. ii. ii. i. 208276. i. Cardinal. of Bergamo. . 4. 267. 239. 256. i. 274 of Cardan 107110 Mirrors. Archbishop Hamilton's Chamberlain. Bishop. the giving of to children. 8790. 294. chattering of a. 66 . Srofession . ii. ii. 154 Manuscripts. 298 Ointment. 184. reputed. ii.l 45. 4. 34. 150 Luca. Cardan de. 68 Taddeo. Obin. Cardan's love 40. ii. 141 Nunez. Cardan's encomium of. 6264 Misprints in Cardan's books.. Cardan in. ii. 42. 299 Marking of linen. the practice. Dinner. 136 Is. 167 Mountains. details connected with. See Paccioli Lucia. 270 Mundinus. i. Cardan in. ii. 136 Messenger from Scotland. the Prince of. i. Chiara (Cardan's mother). 313. n. and Physicians Cardan's opinion of the at the end of his career. 164 Men.ii. 43 Mott.283 Mediuzio. i. 74. 13 Marinon Prosper. i. 162 Micheletto. Cardinal of. taught by his mother secretly. 53 of. i. 112 of his daughter Clara. Scaliger's. i. i. 64. 153. ii. 53 . Music. ii. ii. .INDEX. i. 5. 123 by the Scottish. ii. ii. See also Asthma. See Baudarini Lucille. 131 Angiolo. 153-199. Luther. ii. Fra. i. 64 Oration. 190 Scaliger's Malo Recentiorum Medicorum Medendi Usu. Cardan's. O. 297. ii. 196. ii. 1. 124300. 303 259 Margherita. i. children should be taught. Novara. N. Supper Meats. 145. Cardan on the. ii. 102 Cardan's early study of. Madio. i. Evangelista. 107 Lutetia. i. 138.76 Michael. 123 . 39. ii. i. i. 8386. a physician. Martha. ii. M. 11 tfeePetreius ii. studies ruled by. i. ii. ii. 12. ii. Madness questionable. 151 Meals. ii. 245. 161. ii. 56. ii. 179184 Orontius. i. Longevity of Cardan's family. ii. 138. ii. See Horoscope Nature. 1144. i. Cardan's aunt. Cardan's 140. 215 Micheria. Ferrari's sister. French. Cardan on the size of. Cardan's to Tartalea. 116 Omens. 127 Matches. origin of. ii. See Algebra. ii. 96. ii. 325 of Healing. Nurses. 43 love of. Maphio. See also Breakfast.Cristofero. 27:} Metanoscopy. ii. after son's death. ii. i. Andreas. 75. 300 i. ii. i. Hamilton. 120. 314 Nails. 108. ii. 273 258. 204200 Mars. 223. 280. 295. three kinds of. 7. 123. 10. ii. 7 Louvain. 139. 8. 4749 state of the science. i. i. Melchior. 113-115. 57. 3. 249. Tartalea. 296 Mechanics. 139147 Mantua. an. 246 . 96 Orpiment. n. i. 19. 104 Magpie. ii. why embraced by Cardan as a profession. 266 . 46. 118 Matulianq.159. ii. 241. i. spots on the. . magic. 35. and matrimony. ii. 36 Nativities. ii. i. 299 201. 225 Osiander. 47. 300 Merchants. i. i. 9095 i. 175 Moirago. 7 Milan. 95. Maddalena. reception of Cardan by the.63 ii. from. 264 Mayence. i. 68 Medicine. ii. Mathematics. 51 Marriage of Cardan. 78. Matelica. 62 Mules. Cardan on. Great Art Mattresses of silk. of his son Gianbatista. 102 from Bologna. i. his anatomy. 292 Lyons. . the care of. i. Oath. i. 269 Nuremberg. ii. i. Cardan on. 202. 187. Mothers. 269273 Militia.

83 Recorde Robert. 4247. 34 Ptolemy's geography. 214. Cardan's. 67. 291 Property. ii. ii. Ill 215 declines. Cardan on. William in the. 192. 283. i. Cardan studying at. 159. 75 Office of prefect of. Gianbatista Cardan in. 99107 Pavia. 158. 95 Pius V. Placentia. 126 Pension. Cardan fails with. from the Pope. 83. ii. 282 Phthoe. 118 Personalities in literature. 282. Their salaries in villages. 111. Pitio. i. generation from. 209. 276. demons in a. i. i. 30. 301 ii. Paccioli. 293 299 Perfume and perfume balls. 5. i. 105107 Ranuzzi. 219233 Poems and epigrams. 131. 138-141. 126. ed. 208. 217. 205. 214. Medical. 183. ii. 4. 131 . 5863. Aimar de. 222273 Gianbatista Cardan and his wife. Palavicini. 67. 278 spirits. ii. ii. 274 Pitcher. 222225 213. 234. 49 rector Gymnasii. 215. ii. 95-99 Pandolfo. Giulio.. 278 Practica Arithmeticse. 61. effect of. i. 276 . 47. Cardan's opinion of the profession as a trade. 288 at. 15. ii. ii. 69 Palmistry. i. 285 Proverbs by Cardan. 204. i. ii. 104. i. 118 of roses. 56 Pillows. ii. 267. 69. ii. 48 Petreius. 301 and Cardan. See Verses Poisoning by arsenic. 177-182 . i. 200. i. i 283 ii. 186. i. 196 Precepts to his children. i. 290. ii. R. ii. Milan. ii. 50. 253 Pope Paul III. 237. 67. ii. Fazio Cardan. 8. case of. 83. 277. printer. in small Italian towns. 307 Prudence. 242273. 287. Cardan born at. hatred of. published ii. i. Cardan. ii. i. ii. n. ii. ii. 187. 195. 155. ii. ii.!. 36. 27. 308. Physician's opinion on a case. Colleges of. fessors . Cardan's. 306. Cardan's. 125 lecturer. 158. 215. 219. Investigating a case of poisoning. ii. 214 Jerome Cardan in. 6. 5863. 142. ii. 284. 276 Pawnbroking. Paolo. Conferring of degree there. 31 Tarfcaglia ii. 208 ii. Purgation by nose and skull. ii. 114 Ravens. ii. Cardan's alienated. ii. deference to. 72. i. Professor in the University of. 4. 212 Cardan's. 208210 Rapping Pleading for his son's life. and Physiognomy. 258 Portents. . i. ii. 156. 46 Paralipomenon. i. 100. See also Doctor and Medicine astrological judgments. 274 Padua. 2 93 299 Porro. Pozzo. i. ii. Henricus. 67 i. 173. 125. 282 210. 155 of Cardan and son. 290 Problems. ii. 207 70. 185 Cardan's Perspectiva Communis. 2841 of Fazio to J erome. ii. 215 Potable gold. 117. ii. 10. . 60. which he . 215. See Doctor Paladino. ii. 68. Physician and patient. 46. Cardan as. ii.191. 155 Cardan's treatise on. belief concerning the. 260. ii. 199. Cardan on the. 10. and the names of the several pro. i. Pens. i. Quarrelling in the streets. 8. .ii. 155 Plat. ii. 180.288291. Cardan in the pal azzo. Cardan's Book of. 289. 77 Physicians. 81. 52. ii. ii. 123. 198213. Phantoms. 151 Plague. ii. 266. Paris. croaking of. vestigation. 104. Books on Subtilty. Cardan. Poisoning by arsenic. ii. 194 Predictions. 171. 53. ii. 298 ii. i. Peckham's. di Borgo. 212. Progress. Fra Luca. 309 Preservation of Health. 65 of the College of Physicians. 262. 224. 212. i. 30 41. the.272. 52 Princes. 151. i. medico-legal ini. 54 ii. 200 Regimen. 126-328. i. 35. See Fernel Philology. State of the university. 150.308-310 Postman. 58 Petrus. pensions Cardan. Practice. i. 116 Putridity. Student there. 184187. 33. 5161. 14. Cardan in the. 80. 148 Pisanus. Stating a case. 161 112122. 31 Prison.326 P. Polesino de Rovigo. 37 Pharnelius. INDEX. 122. 184. Cardan. i. 5. 96. 64 Ranconet. ii. Cardan on. SecPavia and Bologna. On their rounds. i. 154. 163-165. 204 Rainbow. ii. a. . Thomas. 65 Quarrel between Fazio Cardan Clara. 217. ii. Ottavio. 162 Rarefaction. 224 Professorships. 154. 211. 70. i. 300. 159 i. Cardan there. 99. 118 Pirates. 196 Religion of Cardan. ii. 150 receives an offer from. 284. ii. i. i. i. 148. 293296 . printer. Pius V. 196. his endowment. ii. 1.the. i. ii. 265. Joannes. i. and note Rector at Padua. i. ii. See College consultations of. 107 Poor-house. Branda. the..

i. i. Ship-travelling. 3. 215221. prohibited. Cardan's economy of. 71. 254-263. 270 Telchinnes. 104111. 131 Spirit-knocking. i. ii. 242. 58.272. source of their happiness. Rosso. : 249252 263-265 Senses. growth of. I Ruined house ii. 176 Silk. Smell and wit. Isidore dei. 246 Thaddsea.. 173. 168175 his attack 011 Cardan. 83. 59 Snails. 65. 49. ii. 221 Stanno. 202 Skin.297 Tears. 57. Simon. 290. 187. i. Bartolomeo. 212. Flavio. offers to Cardan. 245 Seine. Cardan's. ii. i. Sienna. 45 Cardan's. ii. Jerome. origin of. 185 Scar on Cardan's forehead. 2. influence of the planet. Cardan on. the doctor's. 203. 52 apprenticeship. 218. Robbers. coronal. 16. 45 Scoto Ottaviano. ii. 121 68 Soaped cards. 108 Senate of Milan. 56. ii. C. 82 Torre. Gian Ambrosio. Michael. ii.206. 148 Shower-bath. 44. 217. ii. 217 ii. 166. 44. Cardan at. 256 Salvatico. detection of. Cardan on the. Galeazzo. i. 245 . Jerome's answer. 164 Sacco. 271. in Cardan's crest. 5969.246 Rincio. 119. ii. 47. 249251 Tranquillity. i. 1 Tortoises as food. ii. wife Sforza. ii. i. ii. M. ii. ii. i. 192. ii. See Bandarini Theonoston. 284. Duke of. ii. distilled. ii. 186 Spaniards. 302 Sylvius. Francisco. 1GS Resta. 269275. 195 . ii. i. ii. 64 .122 Sleep. i. 124. ii. ii. ii. 46 Sortes Virgilianae. i. 33 ! 327 ii. ii. Cardan's. 63 Stifelius. 142144. 263 Speciario. Cardan's. 173 Spheres. ii. ii. ii. 32. 156 Suiseth. 67 Seroni. ii. Cardan on. the. President of Senate at Milan. i. Reply to Scaliger. 293314 ii. Gianangelo. ways of promoting. 219-237 banished by. 162 Stabbing and poisoning. Cristofero. 2ir> Thieves. 207 Silvester. ii. applications to the. 62 Strangers. 66 Shell-fish. 82 disease of Prior Gaddi. ii. Cardan leaves. effect of their perfume. 64. ii. 175179 his funeral oration . i. 260 Sfondrato. 45. i. ii. 175. 117. I I ! over Cardan. banker. 128. to Gianbatista Cardan. 163167. 208212 Serveta. . 123. i. Cardan's college friend. 15. Francisco. ii.191 Tax-gatherer's will. the method of. Cesare. 77. NLjBtf 230 ii. Cardan's. 163 Stars. 8 Rhodiginus Coelius. ii. 239. ii. 100. deliberations of the. 206. Lazzaro. gifts of. 2. 217. i. in a household. healthiness of particular. 117 Swallow. ii. Cardan before the. ii. Cardan's desire for. ii. i. Aurelio. marries Cardan's daughter. i.215. 46 Service. 229 1 \(\. 222227. 71 Rivers. 3 Smoky chimneys. 40 Boniface. 135 Subtilty. 144 Suture. the. . 126 72 Targio. ii. 72 Sheep in England. 186. i. 267 Taxation. 68 Telegraphing. 188. 136 Scaliger. i. de. 121 Trades. 45. ii. 72 ii. i. Tailor. P. ii. an ingenious. 278. 17 Schoolmasters.53. ii. ii. i. 187. i. See also 196 Stutter. 30 Teaching. ii. ii. 216253. S. 50 Thou. and first printer. 63 Saturn. 61 Roads.99 Sea-weed in pillows. ii. ii. i. 168 Time. Cardan on the. Rodolf. odour of sulphur in. ii. 203 ii. story of a. 118 Secrets. ii. 233236. 118 i. 2y-j ii. ii. 96. 149. 270272 of Bologna. ii. 72 Sosia. 200. 68 Tetim. governor of Milan. 67. in Pavia.i 130. 108 at Bologna. Cardan on. ii.65 necessity of good supply. 3 Sardanapalan life. 95 Roses. . 80 why hurtful to children. 116. 33 Study. Evangelista. ii. 105. Cardan on the. 9-i Resti.161 Scots. ii. joy in. ii. ii. j Sacco. 276 Stones. i. Soncino. career of his father-in-law there. Ranconet's method of.INDEX. Cardan's tract on. 247. i. 67 Rouen. Domeiiico delle. 32. ii. 67 Smith. a. 246. 294 Tibbold. ii.283: ii. at. 101 T. Singers and singing. 188. 7186. 155 Ring. 50 Sessa. Cardan on. 201. 237. 17. 300 Simples. ii. 106. 36. 293 ii. 230 Brandonia. ii. 220. 213. . domestic.. ii. ii. 23. 46 Tartalea. ii. n. 113 Sacco. Fra Romolo. story of a. ii. 29. 179184. 112. ii. 167. Gianbatista. 15 Sons. ii. Richard. i. 84. 195 Rome. ii. 32. 262. i. J. Cardan Rope-dancing. ii. ii. 163 Rigone. ii. 184. 45 Teeth. Mary Queen of. i.

9-11. 58. 156. 314 240. 296. 74 noble. See Coi Zurich. on. 243 Zuanne da Coi. 187 ii. i. the English boy. ii. 161 Truthfulness. 195 99 Warts. a bookseller. 232. 70. ii. Cardan's extravagance i. 201 203 Francisco. 77. 45 a. ii. ii. THE END. Youth of Cardan. 110. Cardan's. i. fattening. V. 269 Versatility. 40. 216. 243 i. 2432 Z. 80 of children. Vacation. 246.328 Treasures of the King of France. i. BEAUFORT HOUSE. Vesalius.138 Ferrari's comments upon. Wife. 44. ii. 65 generation of. 10 Vipers. Truce with the College of Physicians. ii. applies to Tartalea on the part of Cardan. ii. 258. ii. . 252 in dies the. See D'Avalos Veal. English. 246 Victuals. Richard. Wasps. U. i. Turtle diet. i. Wedding ring. ii. i. 107. 59. 19.ii. Tartalea. 16. 78. teacher at Pavia. a bath of. Cardan. 197 . i. 243. 196 cellars. i. Cardan on the. Pavia. 295 Venetian friends. prefects from Cardan's salary. 168. the. . i. Writing. Cardan on the. 262 Whipping himself. i. 241. 101. ii. 313. 310 Vinegar. signification of. i. 127. used medicinally. 21. the. i. 159. a bath of. 198. 71. 123 character of a. ii. 248253 Wine. ii. 17. 219. 175. ii. 297 . 30 65. 66 7678 in. i. Mr. 183 Verses. 6 use of. 152 Zaffiro. 253 Vimercati ( Vicomercato). i. i. 47. 22 Woman. 121 INDEX. i. 157 Wentworth. Xenodochium. 160. ii. Ercole. ii. 191 ii. i. the source of happiness in. 115 i. 218. Cardan's visit to one. 282. WHITING. 117 Varadeus. 72. Bologna Unicorn's horn. 243 Vita PropriA. 39 ii. 227. 35 ii. 249. Andreas. William. Worship. ii. i. 225 Visconti. Cardan in . 58. ii. 222.i. 312. 147150. the long. 222227. ii. 244 Usurers. 278 Zase. Ambrose. 191. i. against plague. ii. 217 materials. 167. ii. i. W. War. on his son's death. i. i. ii. Marquis dal. 204. at Padua. University. ii. 64 Variety of things. 163 Vincenzio. Wool. 21 Zuan Antonio. Cardan's. 268 Zanolini. See Padua. 56 ii. ii. 67. 194. 297 Vigevano. on prudence with regard to William (Lataneus). 207 ii. ii. 108. of Bologna. Cardan de. ii. 61. 51 Vapours. 142. gambling quarrel with a. 125 ii. 51 Wisdom. Y. Antonio. Witches. 255 Galeazzo. 159 Vasto. Water. i. a schoolman upon. 813 Vitruvius. 197 ii. 22. Cardan's. Cardan 77. i. 13. X. ii. 31. 283. 168170 Wardship in Scotland. ii. STRAND. i. Cardan's lectures upon. Cardan on the uses of. 124 a deduction make of the. C. 115 Uses of adversity. Camillo. 83 how learnt by Venice. i.

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