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Lens Design

Emanuel Istrate

Contents
•! •! •! •! •! •! •! •! Thin vs. thick lenses Optical design process Aberrations and their corrections Optical materials and coatings Optical fabrication Apertures and pupils Diffraction and resolution Using ready-made lenses

Rays in Thin Lens

Lens Imaging 1 1 1 + = s1 s2 f s1 –! Need to focus s2 •! Happens only for certain distances ! •! Real image can be captured on a screen .

m =m 2 ! s" m= s .Thin Lenses 1 1 1 = + s" f s #1 1& 1 = ( n " 1)% " ( f $ R1 R2 ' ! ! Lateral magnification Longitudinal magn.

Thick Lens & Cardinal Points Effective focal length = f f1 f2 Front focal length P1 P2 Back focal length Principal planes .

Thick Lenses •! Can have one or multiple elements •! efl =f. bfl. ffl are computed using ray tracing •! For single element (t = thickness) #1 n " 1) & 1 1 ( = ( n " 1)% " +t ( f nR1R2 ' $ R1 R2 ! ft ( n " 1) bfl = f " nR1 .

correct for any lens •! Paraxial approximation –! Rays close to axis and almost parallel –! Assume sin u = u –! Aberrations are ignored .Ray Tracing •! Calculate ray path through lens •! Apply Snell’s law at each surface •! Exact –! Can find all aberrations.

Optical Design Process •! Lay out system assuming thin lenses •! Design each lens (multiple elements replacing each thin lens) –!Thin lens pre-design –!Add real thicknesses .

Example Focusing Laser Beam •! Only worry about spherical •! Glass plate introduces aberrations •! Use Gaussian wave calculations for beam diameters .

Example: Telescope .

Zoom Lens .

Optical Aberrations Vs. .

5 1.Spherical Aberration R1 R2 t n Sph -3 -2.523 5 .02 0.

23 0.523 Sph 0.7 .5 1.Reducing Spherical R1 R2 t n Inf -5.

R1 R2 t n 10.4 0.4 -10.523 Sph 0.5 1.2 .

R1 R2 t n 5.16 .5 1.523 Sph 0.23 Inf. 0.

R1 R2 t n 2.5 1.02 3 0.523 Sph 2 .

etc.16 “Best Form” Lens – available from Thorlabs.3 0.Lowest Singlet Spherical R1 R2 t n 5.5 1.523 Sph 0.94 -42. .

523 0.Two Lenses R1 R2 R3 R4 t1 d t2 n Sph 12.2 0.5 0.1 -79. .03 To minimize spherical: all surfaces should bend the rays by the same amount.4 16.2 1.1 0.5 6.

17 -4.Compensating Spherical R1 R2 R3 t1 t2 n1 n2 Sph 6.4 0.523 1.005 (residual aberration) .00 -15.1 1.73 0.617 ~0 Marginal spherical eliminated Zonal spherical of ~0.

67 -9.56 Zonal spherical ~ 0.73 8.0005 .51 n 1.517 Air 1.517 Air 1.717 Air -98.35 7.01 5.Reduce Zonal Spherical R 5.15 t 0.45 0.12 0.45 0.34 0.01 -17.

522 1.520 1.529 .5 1.48 K5 glass nC nD nF 656 nm 588 nm 486 nm 1.522 59.23 R2 Inf. t n V 0.Chromatic Aberration R1 5.

Optical Materials •! All glasses have dispersion n "1 V= •! Abbe V-number: n "n •! Crown glass: low dispersion •! Flint glass: high dispersion ! •! Wavelengths for visible work: d F C –!Helium d line: 588 nm (yellow) –!Hydrogen C line: 656 nm (red) –!Hydrogen F line: 486 nm (blue) .

Dispersion .

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5 1.R1 5. t n V 0.529 .522 1.48 K5 glass: nC nD nF 656 nm 588 nm 486 nm 1.520 1.23 R2 Inf.522 59.

537 1.9) nC nD nF 656 nm 588 nm 486 nm 1.642 1.Correcting Chromatic •! Two glasses with differing dispersions •! Use low dispersion for positive element •! Use high dispersion for neg.546 nC nD nF 656 nm 588 nm 486 nm 1.648 1. element BaK2: (V=59.7) SF2: (V=33.661 .540 1.

7 0.05 0.Achromatic Doublet R1 R2 R3 t1 t2 n1 V1 n2 V2 6.09 -13.540 59.93 -4.648 33.9 3 degrees of freedom (3 surface curvatures) Compensates both spherical and chromatic aberration .25 1.7 1.

04 0.Apochromatic Lenses •! For one zone.23 0.487 Air 1. 3 wavelengths come to a common focus R 5.2 .6 t 0.25 -2.57 -2.5 54.57 -16.69 n 1.15 9.558 Air V 84.

Aberrations Checkpoint •! Axial –! Spherical –! Chromatic •! Off-axis (oblique) –! Field curvature –! Astigmatism –! Coma –! Distortion –! Lateral Colour .

Field Curvature .

Petzval Field Curvature ! Curvature = " n ! = lens power = 1/f n = lens index .

Astigmatism Meridional (tangential) and Sagittal rays do not focus at the same position .

Side View (tangential rays) Axial Rays Top View (Sagittal rays) .

Reducing Curvature & Astigmatism •! Thick meniscus •! Separated thin elements •! Field flattener •! New achromat (high-index crown + lowindex flint) .

Coma •! Magnification varies with position in lens .

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Moving the Stop

Optimal stop position: no coma, minimum curvature Moving stop affects all oblique aberrations

Thick Meniscus

Distortion

Lateral Colour •! Variation of magnification with coulour .

All Aberrations .

astigmatism. Petzval. lateral colour. coma.Cooke Triplet •! 8 degrees of freedom: –! 3 powers –! 3 bendings –! 2 spacings •! 8 primary aberrations –! Focal length. spherical. axial chromatic. distortion .

Cooke Data .

the 3 aberrations still almost eliminated .Symmetry Around Stop •! Fully symmetric lens eliminates: –! Coma –! Distortion –! Lateral colour •! Object and image distances must also be equal –! Magnification 1:1 –! If not equal.

Dagor Back Half .

Dagor .

.Lens Symmetry Vs.

g. solved iteratively –! Sometimes can solve sequentially •! E.Designing Lenses •! Surface Contribution Formulas –! Equations for each aberration –! Set up a system of n equations in n unknowns •! n is the number of aberrations and of degrees of freedom –! Equations are non-linear. Achromatic Doublet •! By computer: partial derivatives matrix –! Will only find local optimum –! Starting design and prior knowledge essential .

n=1.Plane Glass Plates (windows) •! Overcorrected spherical –!L-l: longitudinal spherical –!t: thickness of glass –!n: index of glass ! –!U: angle of ray (from axis) –!Example: t=3 mm.05 mm (longitudinal) t# n cos U & L " l = %1 " ( 2 2 n$ n " sin U ' •! Chromatic •! If tilted: astigmatism. U=30o •! Spherical = 0.5. coma .

Lens Fabrication .

Optical coatings •! AR coatings: reduce reflections –!Higher transmittance –!Fewer ghost images .

Apertures.Stops. Pupils Aperture stop Field stop .

Lens Speed •! Amount of light entering lens depends on area of lens aperture •! F-number = efl/(diameter of input pupil) •! Numerical aperture = NA = n sin U U .

61" resolution = = n # sin U # NA When all aberrations are corrected .61" 0.Lens Resolution •! Limited aperture leads to diffraction 0.

Modulation Transfer Function Modulation max" min = max+ min ! MTF = Mod image Mod object ! .

8 MTF (%) 10 line pairs/mm F/8 30 line pairs/mm F/8 10 line pairs/mm F/1.8 Solid: sagittal Dashed: meridional Position (mm) .Example MTF Canon EF 50mm F/1.8 30 line pairs/mm F/1.

non-infinity .45) –!Need specific working distance (conjugate distances) –!Careful infinity corrected vs.Commercial Lenses •! Microscope objectives –!Corrected for spherical. unless metallurgical (important if NA > 0. diffraction-limited focusing –!Designed for cover slip. chromatic. but OK –!High NA. off-axis aberrations •! Usually we don’t need all this.

Achromatic Doublets •! Usually designed to compensate –!Spherical (marginal spherical) –!Chromatic (for blue and red) •! Usually designed for infinite object distance •! More curved side towards distant object .

Camera Lenses •! Correct most aberrations –!If object distance > 10 x focal length •! Good choice if need –!Wide / flat field –!Back focal length of ~ cm –!Range of focal lengths (magnifications) .