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Annals of Biological Research, 2013, 4 (8):201-204 ( ISSN 0976-1233 CODEN (USA): ABRNBW

Study of yield and yield components Cultivars Promising Grain Sorghum using cluster analysis and Factor analysis Ahad Jahangiri Ajirlou1, Shahrooz Aghaei1, and Shamsali Darvishi1*

Department of Agriculture, Parsabad, Moghan, Islamic Azad University, Parsabad Branch, Iran

____________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT 20 varieties of sorghum were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications in 2007 in the region of the Moghan. Analysis of variance of traits showed that there is a significant difference among the varieties except for stamen leaf area. Using cluster analysis of Ward's method based on standardized data and all traits the Iranian varieties and BISC-11 from India were ranked superior clusters. This grouping was confirmed by the detection function. In factor analysis, five factors were determined which explained 86.24% of the total variation. The first main factor explained 33.890 % of the total variation was introduced as a performance factor. Keywords: Promising Varieties, Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Sorghum, Yield ____________________________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops in arid and semi-arid. The plant in the world after wheat, rice, maize and barley is in the fifth place [1]. This plant is used for providing protein for many people in Asia and Africa [2], malt production of non-alcoholic drinks, flour production and animal feed [3]. Cultivation of sorghum in the world in 2007 was nearly 47 million hectares of which 90% of the cultivated area is dedicated for Grain sorghum varieties. Therefore, sorghum is considered as the world's primary cereal. India, with about 9 million hectares under cultivation in first place and the USA with 3 million hectares under cultivation have the greatest production in the world [4]. The success of the breeders depends on the choice of appropriate materials and diversity. Breeding those traits which have high heritability is more important. It is notable that the evaluation and application of the results have a significant role in Agricultural Sciences [5]. The purpose of principal component analysis is to reduce the volume of data. In this method examining the correlation between variable we are able to realize the relationship between the traits. In component analysis, the correlation between lots of dependent variables is expressed by a few independent components. The role of each trait is determined in variation of each trait. In addition, the principal component analysis is used for genotype classification [6]. Several reports of increasing genetic distance between genotypes of a species increases the likelihood of heterosis in cross-linkage programs. The genotype classification based on genetic distance, is effective in corrective programs when such traits simultaneously are examined. Therefore, in order to determine genetic variation standard, genotype classifications and genetic distance among them the Cluster analysis is done [7]. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study examined 20 varieties of sorghum, of which the first 17 variety were Iranian, two Indian and one Thai. The land under the test immediately plowed after wheat harvest in May 2007. The amount and type of fertilizer according to soil samples were added to the land. Other operations for Seedbed preparation were performed. Stacks were constructed within 60 cm of each other and planting was done. Each cultivar in each plot was planted in four

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respectively.145 Probability 0. KGS-25. Based on the results of the discriminant function analysis on various sections of the cut. After emergence. Variety classification of the experiments showed the good nature of the classification in geographical distribution due to exposure of foreign varieties groups in similar groups. KGS-3. number of branches per panicle. The irrigation period determined once every 7-10 days. 4 (8):201-204 _____________________________________________________________________________ rows of seven meters in length. the maximum difference amongst the group was observed in two clusters (Table 1 and Figure 1). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Cluster Analysis Cluster analysis of all varieties of seeding sorghum based on all traits was performed using Ward's method with standardized data. KGS-11. KGS-32. KGS-31.995 0.925 Wilkes Lambda 0.Shamsali Darvishi et al Annals of Biological Research. KGS-27 and KGS-36 and the second cluster included genotypes ICSV-274 and UT-378B. KGS-5. number of tillers. seed weight. BICS-11. KGS-19. To obtain more information on the relationship between various characteristics and profound understanding of data structures. plant biomass. and the average deviation from total mean and total mean were calculated for each of the traits (Table 2).4 Canonical Correlation 0.6 5. Therefore. To demonstrate the effectiveness of each trait in distinction of each cluster. In the second cluster. The dendrogram of sorghum cultivars resulting from cluster analysis using Ward Method based on standardized data of all traits TABLE 1.910 Percent of variance 94. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software. The first cluster includes varieties KGS-29. discriminant function analysis was used. 2013. KGS-23.05 202 Scholars Research Library . Then permeable irrigation was done. In order to classify varieties based on the entire traits and standardized data of Ward's method cluster analysis using squared Euclidean distance based on the mean standardized data were carried out. plant height and stamen leaf area had a value greater than the mean of the entire group. KGS-15. KGS-9. harvest index. Figure 1. KGS-33. Plants at a height of about 40 cm were given 150 kg of Serk nitrogen fertilizer on the banks of the stacks in the form of ribbon. panicle length and stem diameter was greater than the mean of the whole group. the distance between they were narrowed to six centimeter apart in the phase of 6-4 leaves. KGS-24. Discriminant function analysis to determine the cut-off point of dendrogram resulting from cluster analysis based on all standardized traits Number of groups 2 3 Eigenvalues 140. the value of yield. the mean of each cluster. KGS-17. In the first cluster.001 0. To determine the appropriate location for cutting the dendrogram.220 5. on each seven meters line remained 118 plants. KGS-12. factor analysis was used.000 0. number of grains per panicle.

108 0.46 27.111 -0. respectively.95 25.111 -0.65 4. This factor had high positive correlation with stamen leaf area.109 1.120% of total variance having a high positive correlation with grain weight and biomass.237 0. harvest index. Group Average Group 1 Performance Harvest index Plant biomass Seed weight Number of grains per panicle Branches per panicle Panicle Length Days to emergence Number of tillers Stem diameter Plant height Stamen leaf area 5.900 -0.241 124. The second factor accounted for 16.9 146. In this analysis.847 0.15 51.61 -0.85 2. the first main factor which explained 33.6 -0. It is noteworthy that this factor had a high negative correlation with Plant height and Number of tillers.019 -0.2 0.51 7.064 -0.031 0.26 7.899 0.32 25. The fifth and the first four factors explained 8. And other traits in selection of cultivars through this factor were less important factors.0 -1.0 0.187 0.85 27. Therefore the first factor can be introduced as a performance factor.053 -0.46 0.708 -0. biomass.97 65.78 -4.196 0.885 0.3 5.021 -0. And other traits in selection of cultivars through this factor were less important factors.138 -0.112 -0.244% of the total variance.026 0.06 -49.249 0.115 -0. Eigenvalues and Cumulative Changes Principal Factors with Varimax Rotation. In this study.512% and 86. factors with eigenvalues greater than one were selected.605 185 158. number of tillers.0 2.612 percent variation (along with the first three. five factors which accounted for a total of 86. The fourth factor with 13.25 66. 2013.85 84.030 0.033 -0.94 5.065 -0.109 -0.65 0.8 346.790 4. Therefore the second factor can be introduced as an effective factor for growth. 4 (8):201-204 _____________________________________________________________________________ Table 2.906 77.155 0.87 65.44 77.868 48.036 -0.026 0. Table 3 .192 88.233 -0.2 -73.076 -0.960 64.732 Factor 5 0.53 443.903 0.427 -0.43 8.0 -8.111 0. had a high positive correlation with stem diameter and number of days to panicle emergence.185 0. The third factor explained 13.034 1.244% of the total variation were selected (Table 3).0 41.12 -44.327 1.85 -4.17 0.61 0.046 -0.120 Factor 4 0.244 203 Scholars Research Library .360 -0.122 Eigenvalues Vectors Factor 3 0.9 3.272 50.19 1431 84.135 0.619 0. and number of grains per panicle.99 29.15 -9.35 Deviation of total mean Group Average 2 -53.177 130.56 4.732 percent variation) accounted for which had a high positive correlation with panicle length and panicle branches.749 0.100 0.132 0.216 -0.933 0. Validity of the factor selection was confirmed by Scree graph (Figure 1).064 0.75 80.957 0.102 0.9 147.232% variation.158 -0.235 -0.15 1322.62 29.058 -0. Traits Stamen leaf area Plant height Stem diameter Number of tillers Days to panicle emergence Panicle Length Branches per panicle Number of grains per panicle Seed weight Biomass Harvest index Performance Eigenvalues Cumulative variation Factor 1 -0.Factor Coefficients.112 -0. Groups average and their deviation percentage based on all traits of 20 cultivars of sorghum.923 0.305 37541 28.890 Factor 2 -0.77 6.745 33.47 050.890% of the variation had high correlation with traits such as yield. plant height.505 Deviation of total mean total mean FACTOR ANALYSIS In factor analysis.009 2. Other traits were less important factor in selecting varieties.096 -0.765 24.049 -0.027 0.999% along with the second and first factor with 64. 77.729 73.Shamsali Darvishi et al Annals of Biological Research.819 0.

15: 94-98. 204 Scholars Research Library . In cluster analysis using Ward's method with standardized data varieties classified in two clusters. L. H. 2008. O. [5] Borojevic. Daneshgahi Press First Edition. J. from http: //www. 2013. crop Sci. 17:145-152. Tagh Bostan. J.. Trends in Food Science and Technology. Quarterly Journal of genetics and plant breeding for forestry Iran (11): 63-103. Variety classification of the experiments showed the good nature of the classification in geographical distribution due to exposure of foreign varieties groups in similar groups. S. REFERENCES [1] Almodares. Journal of Animal Science. R. Food and Agricultural Organization. Varieties of cluster one were superior in terms of yield. [4] Anonymous. Retrieved November. breeding and introduction of high yielding cultivars in different regions. M. Nosrati Nygjh. A. 15. Galgean.Shamsali Darvishi et al Annals of Biological Research. 2004. 1990. AS.fao. D. publications. S. [6] Jafari. A.. 2007. Razi University.. N. R. 2001. 1998. and Safavi.. and Taylor. published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands.. [7] Farshadfar. production.890% of the total variation. R. Sorghum. Isfahan Jahad. M. D.. 263pp.Scree graph obtained from the Factor analysis CONCLUSION There was a significant difference between experimented cultivars for most of studied traits indicating the difference between seeding sorghum varieties. Crops production. 2003. 2009.. and Jones. In factor analysis the first factor was introduced as the performance factor with 33. sorghum harvesting area. So this provides selection.. 79: 19-25. [3] Defoor. Heidari Sharif Abad. Cole.. [ 2] Belton. 4 (8):201-204 _____________________________________________________________________________ Scree Plot 6 5 4 Eigenvalue 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Component Number Figure 1 . Taheri. N.. Tehran. Application of Quantitative Genetics in Plant Breeding (Volume I). V.