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Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library Washington, D.C.

Mecanoo / Martinez+Johnson Architecture Concept plan TEC submittal
Delft / Washington, February 7, 2014

Cover letter

Delft / Washington, 7 February 2014 Dear Mr. Abdullah and colleagues: Mecanoo with Martinez+Johnson Architecture presents a unique paring primed to deliver a Next Generation Library project that celebrates MLK’s renowned Miesian architecture while embracing Washington DC’s contemporary culture and changing needs. Our team’s collective resources provide for a full range of Architectural design and related services for the renovation of the library and for entitlements for a possible addition to the building. Within the scope of these services, we will create a new vision for the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library that presents innovative opportunities for educational engagement, delivers a comprehensive arrangement that unifies both commercial and library directives, and is an attractive catalyst for community activity. In response to these challenges, we present a robust architectural design team with a broad range of relevant experience together with world-class relevant design abilities, highly experienced preservation sensitivities, strongly developed process skills, and the technical expertise necessary to craft and realize the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library’s vision for this facility. Ours is a carefully balanced collaboration of leading voices in architectural design, innovation in public libraries, and experience working in the District of Columbia. We thoroughly understand the vision of developing a 21st century library within the 20th century facility, transforming it in the process, and maintaining its historical significance. We have experience in international collaborations with our respective partners and sub-consultants and are skilled and experienced within the DC entitlement process, having undertaken decades of work involving historic resources. We utilize a proven process of information sharing and consensus building while adhering to our clients’ goals and requirements to surpass expectations. Both firms have a high level of experience working with Building Information Modelling (BIM) to control costs, to expedite planning, to maintain high quality throughout the design and construction process, and to provide an efficient maintenance model for long term building operation. Leading our design effort will be Netherlands-based Mecanoo. Their work often intervenes within existing building fabric - including modernist landmarks - creating new and exciting interpretations. The practice designs beautiful public buildings that are embraced by their users, respect the social and natural environment, and consciously contribute to the quality of life in urban centers. Led by founder and creative director Francine Houben FAIA, their award-winning international work takes a critical approach that continually examines new problems instead of familiar architectural mannerisms. For nearly 30 years, Mecanoo’s compact, multidisciplinary team has amassed an extraordinary capacity for the critical exploration of contemporary architecture from a viewpoint unconstrained by set stylistic features. Through frequent collaborations with international partners and sub-consultants, unrealized opportunities are unearthed by seeking unexpected solutions for the specifics of programme and context. Each design is considered in terms of its cultural setting, place and time. With the successful delivery of library projects such as the recently completed Library of Birmingham integrated with te REP Theatre (UK), the Delft University of Technology Library, and other large scale public buildings around the globe, Mecanoo has designed buildings that are seamlessly integrated with their contexts and that engage the communities that surround them. In order to guarantee project success, Mecanoo commits to having people on site throughout the design and construction phases. As such, Mecanoo will commit to a DC presence for the duration of the project, ensuring true collaboration with Washington DC-based Martinez+Johnson Architecture. The firm will share responsibilities with Mecanoo throughout the project, initially supporting them in the programming, planning, and design phases, sharing the documentation effort, and then leading Construction Administration. In projects across the US and beyond, M+J has regularly teamed with other architectural companies in a seamless manner, in a variety of roles and relationships. M+J is a designoriented practice that consistently leads the documentation/delivery process. The 20 year old firm has been recognized for design excellence on virtually every one of their projects, most of which have extensively involved historic buildings including several mid-20th century structures. Principal Thomas E Johnson AIA will lead M+J’s efforts as he has done for other DCPL projects, serving as the primary interface with both DCPL and Mecanoo. Fellow founding Principal Gary Martinez FAIA will lend his expertise in leading the entitlements process an public engagement. As most of M+J’s work involves existing structures or work within historic districts, the firm has developed particular expertise in navigating the city’s review and approval processes. The firm had numerous successfull presentations to the Historic Preservation Review Board, to the US Commission on Fine Arts, to the National Capital Planning Commission, and to others. M+J is well known in the preservation community for open and collegial discussions with staff to HPRB and with the groups who advise them such as Advisory Neighborhood Commissions. Working with DCPL, M+J can point to two successful examples of positive community engagement while leading challenging renovation efforts at the Takoma Library and the Georgetown Neighborhood Library, the latter a virtual rebuilding of a 1935 regional library after a major fire. Through these efforts, M+J became familiar with the goals of DCPL in general and on specific projects. Mecanoo with Martinez+Johnson Architecture collaborates under the notion that the work we do as architects “uplifts humanity [and] has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence“. (Martin Luther King Jr.) In many ways, the library project epitomizes the evolution of libraries’ need to embrace innovation in learning and the changing needs of users, while respecting the past. To understand these challenges, we have spent time exploring the MLK library in varying conditions, visiting other libraries in DC, and chatting informally with visitors, and staff. As a team, we have already undertaken considerable discussion regarding the special merits and opportunities for updating the Mies building, and recent visits to the MLK Library reinforce and affirm our enthusiasm for the project. Sincerely,

Francine M. J. Houben FAIA Principal / Creative Director, Mecanoo Delft, The Netherlands

Thomas E. Johnson AIA Principal, Martinez+Johnson Architecture PC Washington DC

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Content

Cover letter 1 Concept narrative
Understanding the challenges of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library Concept for the layout of the next generation library How to combine public and private? An ensemble of a library and residences? Renovation of a Modernist Monument into a LEED Gold building Design and entitlements challenges

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Library concept plan Library mixed use concept plan Signed amendments

mecanoo architecten
Oude Delft 203, 2611 HD Delft The Netherlands phone +31 (0)15 279 81 00 www.mecanoo.nl contact hanneke.hollander@mecanoo.nl

MARTINEZ+JOHNSON ARCHITECTURE
1412 Eye Street, NW Washington, DC 20005 phone (202) 333-4480 www.mjarchitecture.com contact tjerdman@mjarchitecture.com

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Concept narrative Understanding the challenges of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library
Visit October 2013 To understand the challenges of the MLK Library, I visit the building at different moments of the day, on different days of the week in October 2013. How is it used, what are the problems and opportunities? What is the atmosphere like? What is the lighting like in the morning, at lunchtime, in the evening just before closing time, or even at night? It looks like nobody knows how to switch of the lights of the building. I chat with visitors and staff of the library. I always feel a need to experience the people, the place and the purpose at first hand to obtain a further understanding of the documents that we received about the facts, figures and challenges. Visit June 1976 1976 was my first visit (of many) to Washington. Now in 2013, biking through the city, I experience how the city center has changed towards a more mixed use district. One important issue that is under consideration is adding residential apartments to attract more people to live in this area of the city. A better public realm, but also a new concept for the MLK Library will play an important role in that mixed use strategy. I chat with young professionals in the restaurant facing the library. Apparently they have never even been to the library, so I ask them what is needed to make that happen. I also chat with empty-nesters who decide to return to the city center, and ask them: what could the role of a modern library be for you? As a team, we want to understand the philosophy and ambitions of the DCPL so with Tom Johnson of M+J we visit several recent libraries in the city. We notice that each neighborhood has its own library that fits into the atmosphere of its own community. I believe that the MLK Library should fit into the atmosphere of change in the city center. I realize that part of the assignment is familiar terrain for us. We understand what it is to create an outstanding, internationally renowned library. We are familiar with Washington and working in the USA, as Mecanoo has been working in Boston since 2010. In the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, we are currently integrating three historical buildings into a new Boston School Department - the Dudley Municipal Center - in the midst of a proactive Afro-American community. We also have considerable experience restoring and renovating listed monuments and modernist buildings in the Netherlands and abroad. Visit January 2014 During the second visit in January 2014 we receive more information. We now also visit the three underground non-public floors of the MLK Library. It makes us aware of the logistics of the central library and her importance to the branch libraries. We check the potential of floor A to receive daylight and fresh air through patios along the building. Yes, this is possible! We visit floor 4 and are again amazed that such a potentially transparent building is so un-transparent and disorientating. We experience how, because of the four closed cores, the library does not feel like a public building: the cores are dark, disorientating, unsafe, illogical, illegible, and massive. We visit the southeast corner of the 3rd and 4th floors. Here you experience the amazing urban and pleasant position of the MLK Library due to the grid shift of G Street NW that creates a beautiful open view to the 9th Street NW and the National Portrait Gallery. We are most excited when we go up on the roof of the library. It is a very cold and clear day, but we imagine having a great public terrace with flowers and plants here on this sunny southeast corner with a perfect view! At the same moment, we start to think about the idea of making apartments on top of this library. We would love to live here ourselves ... but how to combine a public building with a private building? Especially on top of a Mies van der Rohe building? Miesian principles and library evolution We receive the Design Guidelines of the MLK Library made to provide a set of formal guidelines to assist with design and renovation issues of the MLK Library. It explains the Miesian principles and theories upon which the design is based, the holistic approach, the recti linearity, symmetry, horizontality, transparency, and open floor plans. A basic, rational module of 30 feet x 30 feet, governs the design. The guidelines show the original materials, colors, furnishings and describe Mies’ specific opinions on flexibility and his use of modern industrial technology. Of course, after 40 years, that is often outdated. To put the book stacks (and not people) along the façade is symbolic of the big evolution of libraries in the last 40 years from monofunctional purpose to multifunctional use. Today, the library is a facility where people not only consume but also produce knowledge. Today, a modern library is first about people, and then, of course, about books. The new MLK Library should reflect this evolution and be a public space where people meet and exchange knowledge and ideas. In the Washingtonia Room, we see the original model for the MLK Library. We notice some remarkable changes shown in the original design. The main entrance on G Street NW was meant to be flanked by two marble walls in the same line as the façade with the doors. They were changed to yellowish brick walls that peep out underneath the canopy, creating an entrance hidden from the public domain, especially from 9th Street. We also found the ramp and the loading and unloading dock to be different. Maybe we can improve these parts of the buildings that are not very well working in the public realm of Washington … This recent visit to the building, reading the guidelines, and seeing the old model makes it more clear what strategy we would like to suggest as a working title: the Ten MMMM Principals (MLK, Mies, Mecanoo, M+J). The Ten MMMM principals Martin Luther King Jr. was one of America’s most influential civil rights activists who challenged injustice. His passionate but nonviolent protests helped to raise awareness of social inequalities in America, leading to significant political change. Martin Luther King ignited passion for social change. To embody this spirit, our ten principals are: 1. Make a Library Concept Plan for the MLK Library that can be developed either with or without private developments on top of the building, without influencing the Library Concept Plan itself. 2. Make a clear distinction between public and private. 3. Keep Mies: Mies. Or even better: improve Mies in a contemporary Miesian way. Retain and adhere to the horizontality (and symmetry) of the Miesian principles. 4. Change the two cores next to the main entrance on G Street, radically: take the brick walls away and replace them by glass with a marble (Miesian) pattern. Make these two cores very public and transparent, with glass elevators and easy to walk stairs with interesting sight lines. Utilizing escalators in these cores is also an option, depending on the daily flow of visitors. In this way, the main entrance becomes not only more welcoming but a focal point as well. 5. Return the façade to the original condition with one uniform plane. Insert new glazing, so the entrance will also become visible from 9th Street. By creating two patios on this side of the building, the new Center of Innovation and Prototyping on the lower ground floor can function as an extended ground floor on -1 that will be visible when entering the building. 6. Change the other two cores as well, with an entrance at G Place. Retain the brick walls, but remove everything from inside. Transform them into cores exclusively for staff and back of house operations with improved elevators, goods elevators and stairs, and reserve one core for the potential access to and operations for the apartments. 7. Bring the loading and unloading to the lower ground floor by adjusting the ramps. Make a staff entrance lobby and the optional apartment entrance lobby with mailboxes on street level with their entrances on G Place NW. 8. Provide patios (areaways) on the east, north and west sides of the building to provide daylight and natural ventilation to the lower ground floor where staff is working with the archive and the logistics. 9. Remove the brick walls in the public realm around the building and make them transparent so the activities of the library become more visible. 10. Clean up all the floors in the building by taking away all the solid walls. And keep the original glass partitions on the D and K column lines. These are our ideas we want to share with you. They are no dogmatic but starting points for a mutual collaboration. We would love to continue to work with you to help you realize your dream. Francine Houben

Bringing two strong identities together ...
Mies van der Rohe is widely acknowledged as one of the 20th century’s greatest architects. By emphasizing open space and using industrial materials in his buildings, he helped define modern architecture. His architecture is based on classic proportions and pure forms that generate uninterrupted spaces.
Mies van der Rohe: less is more

Martin Luther King Jr. was one of America’s most influential civil rights activists who challenged injustice. His passionate, but nonviolent protests, helped to raise awareness of social inequalities in America, leading to significant political change. Martin Luther King ignited passion for social change.
Martin Luther King Jr: I have a dream

... with a contemporary and human touch

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MMMM Principal 5: Return the façade to the original condition with one uniform plane. Insert new glazing, so the entrance will also become visible from 9th Street. By creating two patios on this side of the building, the new Center of Innovation and Prototyping on the lower ground floor can function as an extended ground floor on -1 that will be visible when entering the building

MMMM Principal 6: Change the other two cores as well, with an entrance at G Place. Retain the brick walls, but remove everything from inside. Transform them into cores exclusively for staff and back of house operations with improved elevators, goods elevators and stairs, and reserve one core for the potential access to and operations for the apartments

MMMM Principal 3: Keep Mies: Mies. Or even better: improve Mies in a contemporary Miesian way. Retain and adhere to the horizontality (and symmetry) of the Miesian principles MMMM Principal 4: Change the two cores next to the main entrance on G Street, radically: take the brick walls away and replace them by glass with a marble (Miesian) pattern. Make these two cores very public and transparent, with glass elevators and easy to walk stairs with interesting sight lines. Utilizing escalators in these cores is also an option, depending on the daily flow of visitors. In this way, the main entrance becomes not only more welcoming but a focal point as well MMMM Principal 8: Provide patios (areaways) on the east, north and west sides of the building to provide daylight and natural ventilation to the lower ground floor where staff is working with the archive and the logistics MMMM Principal 9: Remove the brick walls in the public realm around the building and make them transparent so the activities of the library become more visible MMMM Principal 10: Clean up all the floors in the building by taking away all the solid walls. And keep the original glass partitions on the D and K column lines

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Concept narrative Concept for the layout of the next generation library

Just like society, libraries change constantly. Richard Reyes-Gavilan: “When Mies designed this building in the 1960s, libraries were largely transactional in nature. You come in, you get a book, you leave. Almost half a century later, libraries aspire to be more than just transactional spaces, they aspire to be transformational. They have the ability to make profound differences in the lives of their users, especially the most vulnerable populations who have few other options for acquiring knowledge.” We should design, adjust, and improve the building in a way that the building will accommodate CHANGE, even unpredictable change. In Mies van der Rohe architecture, you experience all floors rather equally. The ground floor has a very generous height with impressive lighting for the perfect City Lobby. The second, third, and fourth floors all have the same height. There is a lot of potential for improving Floor A as a lower ground floor and to make use of the roof. These are our suggestions:

listening, and gaming. There are several small meeting rooms on this floor of various sizes, with glass walls, so the staff can monitor what is occurring in the rooms. In the middle there will be space for parents/adults as part of the Adult Services, so they are close to their children, even if they are within different areas. In the northeast corner will be the Center for Adaptive Services. Staffs of these departments have their office spaces on this floor. Meeting rooms, team rooms and project rooms with transparent walls are placed along the façade to be used by staff and/or visitors.

Introduce the Third Floor as the Reading Floor. This a more classical/traditional
library space with a lot of open book shelving and places to read, study, research. Behind a long wall totally filled with book shelving is the domain for the Executive Offices of the DCPL the Chief Librarian, direct support staff, and key senior administrators. On the east corner is the Board Room for meetings of the Library Trustees. The west side is for Library Business Operations and Library Service Administrative Offices. A staffed reception area provides access to the offices, and seating is provided for visitors. The multiple small meeting rooms are close to this desk. The Staff directly access the space through the staff elevator and stairs that lead to the lobby on the ground floor at G Place and the Staff Lounge and Staff Training Lab in the Roof pavilion and the Secret Garden.

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The lower ground floor as the Innovation Floor 1. Staff (collection management): 9,000 sf 2. Archive and loading dock: 20,600sf 3. Center for innovation and prototyping: 20,500sf

Introduce the lower ground floor as the Innovation Floor. With on the south
side classrooms and workshop spaces to build in, to rebuild in, to experiment in, and even to make a mess and a lot of noise in. With an industrial concrete floor, and flexible, acoustic walls so the staff can adjust the spaces as many times as needed as part of the innovation spirit. In the center, the stairs of the two cores transform in two tribunes or stages: for informal debates, lectures, or just to sit and to chat. This floor does not have to follow the strict regulations of the Mies Principles! The main part of this lower ground floor is archival with compact shelving and storage space. Around it, directly facing the patios are work spaces for the Collection Management: cataloging, processing, receiving, and shipping of materials to the branch libraries, bookbinding, archiving. They are in close proximity to the new loading dock on this floor. Also on this floor are the Facilities Support and Central Supplies.

Introduce the Fourth Floor as the History and Future Floor. At the west
side, we combine the Black Studies Center and the Washingtonia collection. Both have compact shelving close to their information desk. Exhibition space in the Lobby of this floor is as visible as possible. It is also the Conference and Exhibition Floor with many flexible meeting rooms in various sizes. With pre-function spaces, storage spaces, greenrooms and a kitchen and restrooms. With an oval 300-seat auditorium for debates and performances next to the Mies restaurant on the southeast corner. Well connected with a special stair to the Mies Café and roof garden. In this way the History and Future Floor becomes a destination floor for library visitors as well as for visitors of the conference center and the public Discovery Garden.

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The ground floor as the City Market Floor 1. Main public entrance: 1,700 sf 2. Marketplace: 13,700 sf 3. Café/coffee bar: 4,700 sf 4. Bookshop retail: 4,700 sf 5. adult services: 12,700 sf 6. staff entrance: 1,100 sf 7. Optional residential entrance: 1,100 sf The Second Floor as the Educational Floor 1. Adult services: 18,050 sf 2. Children’s Hub: 16,000 sf 3. Center for adaptive services: 6,000 sf 4. Teen area: 10,000 sf 5. staff:7,200 sf

Introduce the ground floor as the City Market Floor. With a Welcome and
Security Desk next to the security line, before entering the Market Place, the grand welcoming area of the MLK Library will have clear sightlines to the two transparent cores, with two big media screens, that contain the public elevators and stairs. It is here where you can find the self-charge machines, the self-pick shelves, the displays with the Library’s newest resources such as the latest titles, media and available e-downloads. In the middle, between the two closed cores, we open up the Market Place to the North. Entering the MLK Library, you can clearly see this informal auditorium space for music, poetry and literature performances with a grand piano and northern daylight. On the east and the west side are Adult Services, maybe the Popular Library with the newest materials. Two retail spaces have terraces on the sunny side of G Street, using the protection of the large canopy. One is a bookstore / café like the local Kramerbooks and Afterwords Cafe in Washington and one is a coffee / bar /restaurant like Theatre Café Floor in Rotterdam that is flexible and interacts with the foyer space and activities in the main Lobby.

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Introduce a new Roof and Garden Floor. An organic shaped horizontal volume
gives shape to the use of the roof. There is a public Discovery Terrace in the southeast corner with seating elements, performing space, plants and flowers, all well connected to the public elevators and stairs. Here is the Mies café, well connected with a special stair directly to the Mies restaurant below. There is also a Secret Garden in the northwest corner: a garden with herbs, flowers and berries. There will be an excellent terrace in front of the Staff Lounge that can be used during breaks or meal-time, all directly accessible by the staff elevators (and cargo elevator) and stairs. Wouldn’t it be nice to have also the Staff Training Lab on this inspiring floor? The roof pavilion includes a lot of installations, but also the extra vertical space that is necessary for the height of the Oval Auditorium.

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The Third Floor as the Reading Floor 1. Staff: 18,000 sf 2. Adult services : 38,900 sf

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The Fourth Floor as the History and Future Floor 1. Meeting and events spaces: 24,970 sf 2. Washingtoniana & black studies: 19,660 sf 3. Café / restaurant Mies: 5,200 sf 4. Staff: 7,000 sf

Introduce the Second Floor as the Educational Floor. The east side is for the
Children’s Hub. It provides space for collections, technology and other educational and recreation resources, programs and technology for children from infancy to the age of 12. The shelving is low so the staff has a good overview. And with iconic furniture elements in the space, sometimes soft and colorful, resonating the age of the children it is meant for. The Children’s Hub has an Early Literacy Space with their own computers. And a more serious School Age Area and an enclosed Story Telling Room that is flexible enough to be also used for other activities. The Children’s Hub has its own toilets. On the west side, with a view on the dynamics of the city, is the Teen Area for young adults ages 13-19 with a digital media center and a homework center. There is space for video viewing, audio

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A new Roof and Garden Floor 1. Café / restaurant Mies: 4,760 sf 2. Staff: 5,850 sf 3. Mechanical rooms: 13,200 sf 4. Roof garden: 20,300 sf

natural mode mechanical mode exhaust of air

Flood building with daylight and mixed-mode ventilation
natural mode mechanical mode exhaust of air

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Concept narrative How to combine public and private? An ensemble of a library and residences?

The urban change in the grid of G Street makes the south-east corner of the building special and offers a view towards the city

We studied many options for the composition of a “grand ensemble”: an oval volume, a cross volume, a rectangular volume, a diagonal floating beam option. Five considerations are important for us: a. To keep the proportions of the horizontal Mies building, and not extend the building vertically. b. The urban change in the grid of G Street makes the southeast corner of the building special. c. Making a part of the roof public accessible, preferably the southeast corner. d. The awareness that apartments will have another expression in the façade than the MLK Library: like lower ceiling heights, (individual) curtains and open windows. e. Just as the library, we would like to make these apartments in a sustainable way. Looking at all these options, for now the diagonal floating beam looks promising to us for many reasons. It is a modest solution; you almost do not experience it on street level, so it almost doesn’t influence the horizontal Mies composition. The diagonal creates space on the sunny southeast Public Roof Terrace and to a sunny Secret Garden on the northwest side for staff. And even part of this Secret Garden could be used for residential, in front of the residential sky lobby. The design of the residences A separate residential core off of G Place NW brings residents to three levels of apartments housed within an atrium space resplendent with natural light. Transparent bridges and walkways connect the units within the atrium. The units are mixed as studio apartments and one and two bedroom units per the suggested matrix. European-based Mecanoo working in conjunction with American Martinez+Johnson has developed a unit concept combining their respective cultures and experiences. Perhaps most notably, the units receive light from two aspects, fronting onto the atrium as well as the street. Composed of both open and discrete spaces, they all have a strong sense of arrival. Areas requiring mechanical or plumbing are grouped in an internal zone. The living spaces and bedrooms explore ideas of community and privacy as they can be separated or combined by sliding partitions. The dining areas and kitchens have a European idea of separation, but are scaled to American tastes with full sized appliances and standards. All units meet Fair Housing requirements. For the apartment – as well as for the library – the goal is a LEED Gold rating. This can be achieved by: sustainable, natural and cross ventilation by introducing a half open atrium space in the central zone of the apartments, sun protection by sliding louvers, moss sedum roof, solar panels on top of the atrium, good insulation and acoustics.

East corner 9th Street. A diagonal volume almost doesn’t influence the horizontal Mies composition

West corner on G Street

Study models mix used concept

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Concept narrative Renovation of a Modernist Monument into a LEED Gold building
The design for the MLK Library embodies the philosophy of Mies van der Rohe: its rhythm, structure, recognizable use of steel profiles and large glass partitions and refined detailing. It is known that Mies expected “his” buildings to be well maintained to prevent deterioration. To maintain the aesthetic quality, legacy, and integrity of the design, adding material to the exterior façades needs to be prevented. Simply retaining the original elements and detailing will not be the solution to the intrinsic problems the building has been facing over the past 50 years. The façade is exposed to extreme weather conditions: very cold, very warm and high humidity. This has resulted in condensation and finally in corrosion of the historic fabric. Internal façade To solve the climate problems and pursue LEED Gold certification, we consider thermal insulation in the floors and adding an internal, glazed façade, placed app. 40 cm/15.7 inch on the inner side of the external envelope. In this way, the inner glass façade is part of the interior and not of the exterior. Double-glazed floor to ceiling panels create a new thermal line in the building. The void between the retained, monumental façade and the new glass panels creates an acoustic and insulating cavity that maintains a high standard of interior comfort (both thermal and acoustical). The cavity is not used as a ventilation shaft but is primarily an inner leaf of a larger cavity. In this way, the monumental detailing can be kept without adding extra details. In the Netherlands, we apply this principle in modernist monuments. This inner façade will be airtight or have vented air, preventing condensation on the inside of the existing façade (a similar solution we now use in a Theater in Lisse in the Netherlands). The inner facade has a high quality of insulation so a very high level of indoor comfort can be achieved. All additions are reversible: in the future the inner façade can be taken out again without damaging the historical façade. Sustainabilty To achieve a LEED Gold building the design has to be an integral design with engineering involvement from the start of the design process. In the Library of Birmingham, UK (BREEAM Excellent) and in the Dudley Municipal Center, Boston, (LEED Silver, aiming for Gold), we applied the following technical measurements: shading and solar control glazing that limits summer heat gain while maximizing daylight, energy efficient lighting, a hybrid ventilation system, a low volume ventilation system, high thermal insulation, a soil gas management system, grey water harvesting and water-saving plumbing, green roofs, waste recycling center, building management system that controls the climate system, waste management on site, use of regional materials with recycled content, materials of a sustainable source and low in maintenance. Natural ventilation The building needs an advanced ventilation strategy to improve the indoor climate and reduce energy use for mechanical cooling and fans. We suggest a hybrid ventilation system: natural if possible and mechanical when needed, similar to the one being used in the BREEAM Excellent Library of Birmingham. This can be realized by exploiting the outdoor temperature swing and the thermal mass of the building. Especially in spring and autumn the outdoor temperature is suitable for natural ventilation. During summer mechanical cooling and ventilation is needed. During winter mechanical preheating of air is necessary. In the natural mode air will be let in through the façade and will leave the building through the chimney effect occurring within the corridors and the new cores in the Library Concept Plan and through the atrium of the apartments in the Library mixed use concept plan. In the mechanical mode the air will enter the building via the mechanical installation in the ceilings and will be drained in the same way as the natural ventilation.
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Building structure We had a brainstorm with an engineer colleague who has renovated several modernist Rietveld buildings in the Netherlands. The existing building structure is based on a clear grid of 30 X 30 feet and 30 X 60 feet. The four cores take care of the stability. The columns are in steel. The floor is a combination of a steel beam structure and a cast concrete floor. For all the adjustments it is necessary to check the existing construction. But we can predict what the consequences of the proposed structural adjustments are. The existing cores have an overcapacity for the stability of this building. They can be made more open and still have a capacity for stability. The idea is to make use of X type of steel diagonals for stability. To make the building well insulated, we consider making a cut in the floor parallel to the facade that creates a new insulation line on the inside of the building. This is possible if the bearing line in the façade still takes care of the vertical forces and that there is a connection for the stability of the facade columns. (See detail façade) Construction of the apartments For the new apartments on top of the Martin Luther King Jr. Library, we propose to make a “table” construction. It will be necessary to divide the forces as much as possible. This can be done by making some extra diagonals in the basements. In the chapter “Building structure analysis” in the provided report information of the extra bearing capacity is presented as “load capacity ration”. Two new layers are possible, but the construction must be checked in detail. There are demands on the new construction: use the old foundation as much as possible, make a light new construction with light-weight floors of steel and light-weight separation walls, and enlarge the capacity for the stability. Although the new building will have a higher wind load, we think the existing building has an overcapacity and will be capable to deal with these loads.

There are varying opinions regarding the MLK Library, and we will listen carefully to these ideas. We envision a robust public dialogue, working with individuals and groups to share ideas to build consensus and support within the entitlements process. Working with such groups is a critical part of both firm’s design process. Here in DC, M+J enjoys long and productive relationships with approval agencies such as HPRB and CFA and with advisory groups such as ANCs. For over thirty years, M+J has successfully developed preservation projects within this process.

Free grid Table Free grid Cross section residential volume Supporting column

Structure “table construction”

Design and entitlements challenges
The renovation of and possible addition to MLK Library presents numerous design and entitlements challenges. These challenges are magnified by the size, location, and significance of this historic resource and by the potential impact of internal modifications needed to create a 21st century central library. Our design will be informed at all levels by a continuing exploration of the existing structure to fully understand the original architect’s design intent, utilizing the previously generated analysis as well as our own significant expertise in preservation that includes mid-century modern buildings. In transforming the facility, we will celebrate its strong characteristics of space, organization, appearance, and order while addressing those issues related to the functional aspects of a contemporary library. We will address building systems and materials, but this initiative is really about transformation toward successfully engaging all users with their library in a new and exciting way. Restoration and intervention involving buildings of the recent past must be approached in the same manner as work involving older resources – through understanding, respect, and careful consideration of improvements. The differences between 20th century buildings and older ones mostly involve materials and systems and very different concepts of space and scale. Adding to an historic resource presents its own challenges. The MLK Library has a structural and proportional system that could probably be extended vertically. An addition must not compromise the understanding of the landmark in any way - it should be a separate component with a different scale and “density” with a relationship to the resource where the original form is clear.
Original window Double glazing

Thermal insulation

Sunscreens

Detail facade

G place

10th street

G street

MMMM Principal 7: Bring the loading and unloading to the lower ground floor by adjusting the ramps. Make a staff entrance lobby and the optional apartment entrance lobby with mailboxes on street level with their entrances on G Plaza NW.

MMMM Principal 1: Make a Library Concept Plan for the MLK Library that can be developed either with or without private developments on top of the building, without influencing the Library Concept Plan itself MMMM Principal 2: Make a clear distinction between public and private Section library concept plan Section library mixed use concept plan

9th street

Library concept plan | Site plan (scale 1/128’’ = 1’)
6 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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50

100

200ft

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patio

patio

facilities support and central supply

loading bay

collection management

storage

storage

storage

back of house corridor

Staff offices

ARCHIVES (compact shelving) lab

Informal lextures

class room meeting room digital learning patio

informal lectures

informal lectures co-working patio

lab

C E N T E R F O R I N N O V A T I O N & P R OTO T Y P I N G
Tribunes as seating for informal lectures and events

Library concept plan | The innovation floor - lower ground floor (level A) (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
7 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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north-south section G PLACE

patio below optional residential

patio below Informal auditorium

staff lobby

informal auditorium

storage patio below

storage patio below ADULT SERVICES Two large digital screens mobile display welcome mobile display west-east section west-east section MLK library café terrace

book return

digital screens

digital screens

reserved books

ADULT SERVICES

self-service info MARKETPLACE

self-service info

west-east section bookstore café

public core waiting waiting security

public core

patio below terrace

book drop off

patio below main entrance

Terrace

bike parking

bike parking

G STREET

north-south section 0 10 20 50ft

N

Library concept plan | The city market floor - level 1 (scale 1/32’’ = 1)
8 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

early childhood literacy space

craft programe

children/teenage/adaptive services staff

ADAPTIVE SERVICES C H I L D R E N’S HUB school age area

service point digital media

Early childhood literacy space

service point story time area

exhibition

exhibition

TEEN AREA service point homework center

Individual study / facade bench

study/reading/meeting

spaces

individual study

lounge

Lounging

Library concept plan | The educational floor - level 2 (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
9 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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20

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library system operations

staff meeting rooms

executive offices

boardroom l library trustees

staff desk

chief librarian bookwall shelving bookwall

bookwall

shelving

bookwall

Study places

ADULT SERVICES service point individual study group spaces service point exhibition

ADULT SERVICES service point group spaces individual study

Service point

study and tutoring rooms quiet spaces quiet spaces Study and tutoring rooms

Library concept plan | The reading floor - level 3 (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
10 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

50ft

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reader area

stora ge

green room/ dressign rooms/ storage/ pre-function

WASHINGTONIA

MLK painting

cloakroom

MEET ING &EVENT

stair to roof

auditorium

exhibtion

SPACE FOYER

Auditorium

BLAC K STUDIES

Mies van der Rohe lounge Martin Luther King painting

meeting and event space

meeting and event space

reader area

Mies Restaurant

Restaurant with healthy food

Library concept plan | The history and future floor - level 4 (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
11 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

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secret garden bar secret garden staff lounge staff training lab back of house corridor

bar mechanical room auditorium (open to below) The Secret Garden for the staff

café mechanical room

public hall

discovery garden (public)

The Public Discovery Terrace

Library concept plan | The roof garden floor - level 5 (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
12 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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MMMM Principal 4: Change the two cores next to the main entrance on G Street, radically: take the brick walls away and replace them by glass with a marble (Miesian) pattern. Make these two cores very public and transparent, with glass elevators and easy to walk stairs with interesting sight lines. Utilizing escalators in these cores is also an option, depending on the daily flow of visitors. In this way, the main entrance becomes not only more welcoming but a focal point as well MMMM Principal 8: Provide patios (areaways) on the east, north and west sides of the building to provide daylight and natural ventilation to the lower ground floor where staff is working with the archive and the logistics MMMM Principal 9: Remove the brick walls in the public realm around the building and make them transparent so the activities of the library become more visible

Library concept plan | East-west section (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
13 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

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G place

G street

MMMM Principal 3: Keep Mies: Mies. Or even better: improve Mies in a contemporary Miesian way. Retain and adhere to the horizontality (and symmetry) of the Miesian principles library become more visible MMMM Principal 10: Clean up all the floors in the building by taking away all the solid walls. And keep the original glass partitions on the D and K column lines

Library concept plan | North-south section (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
14 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

50ft

bike parking

access staff

optional residential access

bike parking

1. Car and bycicle parking garage

Library concept plan | Parking floor (level B) (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
15 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

1

- library use: 47 parking places - residents: 79 parking places

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G place

10th street

G street

The urban change in the grid of G Street makes the southeast corner of the building special

MMMM Principal 1: Make a Library Concept Plan for the MLK Library that can be developed either with or without private developments on top of the building, without influencing the Library Concept Plan itself MMMM Principal 2: Make a clear distinction between public and private Section library concept plan Section library mixed use concept plan

9th street

Library mixed use concept plan | Site plan (scale 1/128’’ = 1’)
16 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

0

50

100

200ft

N

secret garden bar secret garden staff lounge staff training lab back of house corridor escape corridor residental

bar mechanical room Auditorium (open to below)

mechanical room mechanical room escape corridor residental

public hall

public discovery terrace

Library mixed use concept plan | The roof garden floor - level 5 (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
17 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

50ft

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secret garden

Level 8

m atriu

Level 7

Level 6

discovery garden
A. efficiency (studio appartment):18 units B. 1 bedroom appartment: 36 units C. 2 bedrooms appartment: 24 units

Library mixed use concept plan | Mixed use- level 7 (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
18 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

50ft

N

auditorium

adult

G place

G street

parking

MMMM Principal 2: Make a clear distinction between public and private MMMM Principal 10: Clean up all the floors in the building by taking away all the solid walls. And keep the original glass partitions on the D and K column lines

Library mixed use concept plan | North-south section - G place (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
19 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

50ft

9th Street

MMMM Principal 7: Bring the loading and unloading to the lower ground floor by adjusting the ramps. Make a staff entrance lobby and the optional apartment entrance lobby with mailboxes on street level with their entrances on G Place NW. MMMM Principal 8: Provide patios (areaways) on the east, north and west sides of the building to provide daylight and natural ventilation to the lower ground floor where staff is working with the archive and the logistics. MMMM Principal 9: Remove the brick walls in the public realm around the building and make them transparent so the activities of the library become more visible.

Library mixed use concept plan | East-west section - G place (scale 1/32’’ = 1’)
20 Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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10

20

50ft

Thomas E Johnson AIA 02.04.2014

21

Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

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Mecanoo Martinez+Johnson

mecanoo architecten
Oude Delft 203, 2611 HD Delft The Netherlands phone +31 (0)15 279 81 00 www.mecanoo.nl contact hanneke.hollander@mecanoo.nl

MARTINEZ+JOHNSON ARCHITECTURE
1412 Eye Street, NW Washington, DC 20005 phone (202) 333-4480 www.mjarchitecture.com contact tjerdman@mjarchitecture.com