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Melika Husić-Mehmedović Slavo Kukić Muris Čičić


Sarajevo 2012.

Publication: Authors:

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Doc. dr. Melika Husić-Mehmedović Prof. dr. Slavo Kukić Prof. dr. Muris Čičić Indira Randall Prof. dr. Srebren Dizdar (chapter 13) Dena Đumrukčić (chapter 2) Indira Randall Barry Jones School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo Dean, Prof. dr. Veljko Trivun Prof. dr. Boris Tihi Prof. dr. Marcel Meler Adis Duhović 2012


Proofreading: Publisher: For publisher: Reviewers: Design&DTP Year of publication:

CIP - Katalogizacija u publikaciji Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo 366.1(075.8) HUSIĆ-Mehmedović, Melika Consumer behaviour / Melika Husić-Mehmedović, Slavo Kukić, Muris Čičić ; [translation Indira Randall, Srebren Dizdar, Dena Đumrukčić]. Sarajevo : School of Economics and Business = Ekonomski fakultet, 2012. - XV, 382 str. : ilustr. ; 25 cm Authors’ biographies: str. V-VII. - Bibliografija uz svako poglavlje. ISBN 978-9958-25-068-2 1. Kukić, Slavo 2. Čičić, Muris COBISS.BH-ID 19468806


Dear readers, This is the revised and expanded version of the first edition, this time in English. The reason for the English edition lies in the fact that more and more institutions, especially for university education, are introducing lectures in English with the aim of internationalisation and integration into the European flow and principles of mobility and international exchange of students and professors. Therefore, this is our attempt to partly contribute to these processes, as well as to bring our book closer to more readers. Nevertheless, the main goal of this book is still to provide an insight into the contemporary concept of consumer behaviour. Today, marketing studies must include analysis and understanding of consumers, which is the precondition of successful marketing. Understanding consumers is not simple, as can be shown by numerous examples of failures on the market. Servicing consumers in the spirit of marketing primarily involves being familiar with the theoretical principles of human behaviour, in both a social and individual context. On the other hand, the practical component of behaviour, as well as experiences and results from the past are also important elements in determining the problem. Therefore, this book is a cross-section between theoretical and practical components which aim to introduce readers and students to the wealth of existing knowledge. Contemporary marketing studies pay closer attention specifically to consumer behaviour. The reason lies in the fact that basic quantitative and demographic research has reached its peak, whereas individual qualitative research provides deeper insight into the psyche and into individual


Consumer Behaviour

influences on consumers. Psychological categories such as motivation, attitudes, perceptions, personality and the learning process are focused on the individual consumer and considerably help in understanding consumers. On the other hand, social influences incarnated in culture, family, reference groups and method of communication paint a complete picture of the impact on consumer decisions. Although the discipline of consumer behaviour is already well developed in the marketing literature of Western countries, there is still insufficient literature on this topic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This textbook is one of the first complete works aimed at students, the academic society and businessmen in the country and beyond. Given the scope of research and applications of marketing today, this textbook needs to fill in the gaps in available literature. Also, the authors have attempted to approach the topic from a specific angle of a developing economy, without losing a general approach. We hope that after examining this book, as well as other similar books, students and businessmen will be able to create a marketing strategy in order to approach consumers and target markets. Our intention was certainly not to cover all possible aspects of the various issues, since this would need a much bigger space. Our aim was to provide the basic principles and fundamentals of this scientific discipline, in order to assist students, businessmen and marketing researchers in their further efforts and research. Finally, authors express great gratitude to Indira Randall, who volunteered her free time to contribute with the translation of 14 chapters in this book.

Sarajevo, April 2012 Authors

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić


Melika Husić-Mehmedović is an assistant professor at the Department of Marketing of the School of Economics and Business Sarajevo at the University of Sarajevo. She received her graduate degree in Business Management (MBA – Master of Business Administration) at the Faculty of Economics, University of Zagreb, and her PhD in 2009 at the School of Economics and Business Sarajevo in “Lifestyle and luxury consumption”. She is a third generation graduate of the London School of Public Relations (LSPR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina and she was a guest lecturer at the George Washington University in 2009 as a scholar of the U.S. State Department. Dr. Husić-Mehmedović was the Head of Department of Marketing in the Independent News Agency ONASA Sarajevo (2002-2005) and Head of Department of Public Relations at the School of Economics and Business Sarajevo (2005-2008). She published a number of articles in recognized journals, such as the Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Market, African Journal of Business Management and Social Indicators Research. Dr. HusićMehmedović published chapters in the following international books: The Changing Nature of Doing Business in Transition Economies and International Consumer Behaviour: A Mosaic of Eclective Perspectives Handbook on International Consumer Behaviour in 2011, as well as in Public Relations and Communication Management in Europe: A Nationby-Nation Introduction Into Public Relations Theory and Practice, and Medium-Sized Firms and Economic Growth in 2005. She also published papers on nineteen international academic conferences, where the most significant ones were EMAC, ACR and Macro-marketing.


Consumer Behaviour

Slavo Kukić is a professor at the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Mostar, and he holds lectures for the undergraduate and graduate programmes at the Universities of Sarajevo, Split and Dubrovnik. He is the author of eight university and high school textbooks: Introduction to sociology, 1st part (1993), Sociology (1995), Methodology of social sciences research papers (2003), Sociology, textbook for secondary schools (2003), Logics, textbook for secondary schools (2004), Sociology, theory of social structure (2004), Methodology of social sciences – methods, techniques, procedures and instruments of research papers (2006), and Marketing (2007). As an author or co-author, he signed eight more studies and researches: Status of citizens and nations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1998), Country and nation: Bosnia and Herzegovina – the last stage of consolidation of Europe (1999), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Human development Report (1999), Human Security in South-East Europe, New York (1999), Status of gypsies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999), Demographic changes and status of minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Maribor (2000), Civil society and local democracy (2001), Local and regional self-government in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002). Finally, Dr. Kukić is the author of three column books, published in different daily and weekly journals: Witness of time (2001), Balkan inn, a new round of nationalists (2005), as well as Ashdown’s Bosnian and Herzegovinian phase, the last year of marriage out of interest (2005), and more than one hundred other scientific and academic papers published in several world languages. He participated in more than forty domestic and international academic conferences.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Authors’ biographies


Muris Čičić is a professor at the School of Economics and Business at the University of Sarajevo and an associate at the Academy of Science and Art in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Professor Čičić lectured in the area of marketing at the University of Wollongong in Australia for six years. Additionally, he held lectures at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, John Carroll University, Michigan State University, Czech Management School, University of Ljubljana, Podgorica, Shkoder, Zagreb and other universities around the world. Professor Čičić published articles in the Journal of International Marketing, Journal of Advertising, Journal of Global Marketing, Journal of Business Ethics, European Journal of Marketing, Social Indicators Research, Behaviour and Information Technology and many other recognized journals. He also participated with contributions to numerous international academic conferences, for instance, at the American Marketing Association Conference, European Academy of Marketing Conference, World Marketing Congress and dozens of others.


Consumer Behaviour


Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

...............................................................................................................2 Qualitative research techniques ................................................................... 14 Ethical aspects of consumer behaviour ..........5 1.... 28 Data collection techniques .. 32 2..................................................................6 Data collection instruments .............1 1......................................................................... 9 Final and organisational consumption ............ 19 II chapter CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH 2........ v I chapter CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND MARKETING 1....................... 32 2..................... 24 Types of consumer behaviour research ............3 1.....8 Negative aspects of consumer behaviour research ................................................................................................4 2...........................................................................................................................................................1 Quantitative research techniques .........................................................7 Consumer Behaviour ..............................................................7 Sampling .......................................................................................................... 3 Definition and application of consumer behaviour .......... 11 Consumer behaviour determinants ....................................................................................... 46 ......................................................................................... 26 Research process ...........................................................5 Why research consumer behaviour? .......................................................... 23 Approaches to consumer behaviour research .......................................................................................................................................2 1.............. 5 Consumer behaviour and other scientific disciplines ........ix CONTENT FOREWORD ...........................5.......................................................... 41 2..........................2 2..................... 39 2......................................................................4 1............................................................1 2........ 44 2.................................................................................................................................................................................................6 1...........3 2....... 10 Consumer behaviour model ..........................................................................................5............................... iii AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES .........................................

...................................3.......3 Motives ...... 89 4................................................................................................................................................4 Personality concept ............ 77 4..................... 104 5....1 Definition of perception ..............................................................................4.......4................................................1 Needs ....... 100 Theories of personality traits . 66 IV chapter PERCEPTION 4......................................1 5................................ 101 5............... 53 3............................................................................................................2 Elements that influence perception ................2 Cognitive personality factors ......................................... 75 4.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Exploring motives ................................... 88 4................ 79 4...........3....................................................................................................x Consumer Behaviour III chapter MOTIVES AND MOTIVATION 3.............................4 Perceptual semiotics ..... 79 4............................................................................................................ 101 5........................................4........................................5................................3 Perception process stages ....................................5....4 Types of motivation ....2 Attention stage ..........3 5....................................................................... 98 Personality traits ........................................................................................................... 106 5......................4 Personality trait theory .................................................................................. 93 V chapter PERSONALITY 5.... 57 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................4........................................................... 103 5.................................1 Maslow’s hierarchy of motives ...................................................3............2 Other classifications of motives ................................. 105 5.................. 54 3............................................................................................................................................................................................... Muris Čičić ....................................................................................3 Organisation and interpretation stage ....................................2 Behavioural theory of personality ............. Slavo Kukić .... 60 3................................................. 108 Melika Husić-Mehmedović ......... 61 3..5 The most significant personality traits regarding their influence on consumer behaviour ......................................1 Consumer innovativeness ..................................................................................... 97 Determinants of personality .........................................................................................3 Neo-Freudian theory of personality .........2 5.............................3...............1 Exposure/selective perception stage ...........1 Psychoanalytic theory of personality ............................. 106 5.....................................................................2 Goals ................................... 56 3...3.........................

.......2 Model learning ..............2 Socialisation and family influence .......................... 130 6.. 109 5.............................................................. 130 6..................................................................1 Conditional learning ................................................. 116 5...........................3................................................................4 Attitude formation .3.......................... 119 VI chapter LEARNING AS A FACTOR OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 6....................3 Consumers’ ethnocentrism ...............................................................................................8 Application of personality traits or features in marketing ............................................... 153 7................................. 140 6.....................................................................................................3....... 161 7.............................................................................................................4................ 149 7....5.............................2 Elements of the learning process ............................................................................................................................................3 Influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour ................2 Attribution theory .... 156 7...............4.......................................................1 Behavioural learning theories ............6 The self-image ..........................3 Forms of social learning ..............5....... 111 5...............................2 Complexity of attitudes ......................................... 142 VII chapter ATTITUDES 7...................................2 Cognitive learning theories ....... 125 6................... 160 7..................... 175 8........................................................ 176 ...............................................................1............ 151 7................................................. 165 VIII chapter FAMILY 8.........................1 Factors that influence attitude formation ............................................................................................................................................... 163 7...............................3....................3..........................................3 Vicarious or observational learning ........... 126 6.. 158 7........................5 The influence of mass media on the attitude formation and change ..........................................1 Cognitive dissonance theory .......................................................................... 113 5....7 Brand personality ..........................................................................................................................................................1........................................1 Definition of learning ........................ 137 6........................................3...............3......................................................................1 Definition of family and its basic functions .. 131 6..............4 Consumerism and possession ...............................................................2 Attitude change ..........1.....................................................1 Definition of attitudes .....................................................Content xi 5........................................................

6....... 200 9.................2...................2............. 185 8..................5............................3 Men’s role change ..........................................................................................................5........4 Income as a social class factor ......................................................... 204 9.............. 209 9........3 Parenthood ........................................................................................................................................ 206 9.............................5...............................................................................................1 Definition of culture .................................................... 189 8................................................................. 190 8...........................................................................5..... 199 9......................................................1.3 Family as a social class factor ........1.......... 206 9................................................................................................... Slavo Kukić ................1 Traditional family life cycle ........................................................................ 183 8..................5..........................1 Moving along the hierarchical scale .....4 Determining/measuring a social class ....................1 Profile/description of members of different social classes ...................................................................................3....................... 185 8..... 207 9...............................................1....................................................................1 Bachelorhood .................................3..............2 Education as a social class factor ..................................... 219 10................3............................................................... 217 10..3..................................................................................................................................... 201 9...............................5 Family life cycle ..... 209 9..........................................5.......................................4 Husband-wife dominance in purchase decision-making ........................................5........................6 Consumption in a social class .....................................................5............................5.............. 221 Melika Husić-Mehmedović .................2 The singles segment ........................1 Profession as a social class factor .....5.......................................................................................................................................2 Cultural characteristics ............ 186 8............5............2................. 202 9......5 Dissolution ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 9............................. 184 8..............xii Consumer Behaviour 8........... Muris Čičić ......................... 188 8......... 190 IX chapter SOCIAL CLASSES 9.............................3 Social class determinants .....................2 Differences within social classes .................................1.......2 Honeymooners ................. 185 8.................................3 Making purchase decisions within a family ..................................2 Definition of social class . 211 X chapter CULTURE 10.6........................... 178 8............... 186 8......................................................... 180 8...............1 How is culture learned? ............................2 Status groups ..1.............1 Development of the thought of social classes ...................................5 Classification of social classes .........2.................................................2 Non-traditional family life cycle ......................................................................... 202 9..5............................1 Women’s role change .......................................................................... 201 9.........................................4 Post parenthood ..........

..................2........3 Cultural changes ....3 Y generation ....3..................................................................... 269 ............. 223 Colours and numbers ..... 258 12............................................................3.. 262 12.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Lifestyle ...........................................................................................................................................................................................3..................................................................................................................................................6 10......2.............................. 253 12...............7...2...................................................................1 RVS methodology ...................................................................... 258 12..2 Psychographic segmentation ..5 10...........................................3 AIO methodology ........................................................3.... 264 12.....................................................................................................2 Lifestyle Segmentation ................4 Lifestyle Analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina ....................... 237 Racial subcultures . 238 Gender as subculture .................................................Content xiii 10.....2 LOV methodology ...........................................5 11..............5 Z generation ................ 268 12.........................7.................. 226 XI chapter SUBCULTURE 11............... 223 Language and symbols ..4 11........................................................................2............................................................3....................................................................3.......................................................................... 247 XII chapter LIFESTYLE 12............................................. 265 12................2 Shared culture .............................................................................................................................................................................4 10...............1 Definition of lifestyle .... 266 12....................................7........................................................................................... 244 11..................................... 236 Geographic subcultures .2 Generation X ........................................................................................................ 240 Age subcultures ....................................................................................................6 11....................................................................................... 225 Rituals as a part of culture ................. 225 Cultural influence in a business environment ............................1 Baby-boom generation .... 246 11............................ 222 10.................................2............................................................................... 247 11...2 11............................ 242 11........................... 257 12............................................... 240 11...................................................................................... 235 Religious subcultures ......................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Definition of subculture .....7.......................2............................................. 265 12.............................1 11...............1 Market segmentation .......................4 XY generation ...............................................3............................................5 VALS methodology .... 237 National subcultures ..2.................................................................................3 11..3 10.........................................4 PRIZM methodology .7.............

.........................................................5 Basic influences on the organizational purchase process .......................................4 Participants and organizational buying process stages ....5...................................... 292 13.............. 303 13.......................................... Institutional customers ...1 Types of organizational markets ...................... 280 13................1..................... 309 13...1 Commercial buyers .... 308 13............................... Muris Čičić .........................................5........................................... Governmental organizations as customers ...1 External influences on the organizational buyer’s decisions ............................................................................................2 14...1 Behaviouristic models ....................... 301 13.................................................. Slavo Kukić .........................2 Internal influences on the organizational buyer’s decisions ...........................................................4 14.................................................................................................................................................................... 309 13.....................................................................................1............................ 278 13......................................................1 Buying centre concept ..3........... 325 Keeping consumers .....................5........6.....................................4 Relational influences ..................................xiv Consumer Behaviour XIII chapter ORGANIZATIONAL BUYER BEHAVIOUR 13..... 290 13................................................................... 300 13......................3 Types of organizational buying ..........................1 14.................................................................. 292 13... 307 13.................................. 281 13...................4.1 Simple behaviouristic models .................................................................................................2 Complex behaviouristic models ........................ 282 13.2...........................................................5 14..................................2 The stages in the organizational purchase process ................................5.1................................ 319 Purchase planning ......................................................................................................... 305 13.............................................................................2..............................6... 322 Post-purchase evaluation ..........................1.... 321 Direct marketing .... 327 Melika Husić-Mehmedović .............................................3 14............................... 311 XIV chapter PURCHASE AND POST-PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR 14............. 296 13..... 320 Purchase frequency ................................................. Specificities of organizational buying as compared to consumer buying market .......6 Behaviour during purchase ................6 Organizational buyer models of behaviour ...........6... 278 13.........................................1..............................................................................................................3 Individual influences ...4.........................

..............................................................................................................3......................2............... 354 16.......... 337 Communication barriers .................................1 Input data as an element of the model ..................................................................1 Need recognition ............................ 359 16....................................................................... 353 16..................................... 362 16...1 Economic approach .1 Theoretical meaning of decision ................. 365 16.. 355 16.........Content xv XV chapter COMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 15........................... 377 ................................................4......................... 357 16................ 362 16.................................. 352 16..............................3 15....... 336 Spokesperson .................................2 Passive approach .................................................................................................................2 Levels of decision-making .............3.....1 15....... 370 SUBJECT INDEX .....................................5 15................................................... 343 XVI chapter PURCHASE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS 16.................3 Cognitive approach ...................................................6 Communication model ...................... 339 Forms of marketing communication ......2 15...................... 350 16.........................................2 Pre-purchase search for information .......................2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 15..... 352 16.......................3......................4 Schiffman-Kanuk model of decision-making ......................... 333 Message source credibility .......................................................4............4....................2..................................................................................................2 Process as an element of the model .......3 Evaluation of alternatives ......................................................................................................... 341 Message creation ......................4...........................................................................3.............................................................................................................4 Emotional approach .............................................. 349 16.....................................................................................3 Theoretical approach to consumer’s decision-making .............................................................................................4...


I chapter CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND MARKETING Chapter objectives • • • • • Understand trends and changes in marketing The importance of consumer behaviour research and analysis Define purchase process and behaviour during this purchase Review causes and principles of consumer behaviour Identify the relations between consumer behaviour and other scientific disciplines • Differences between final and organisational consumption • Understand the model and determinants of consumer behaviour • Ethics in consumer behaviour .


International and Global Marketing. regardless of many years of the study and application of the concept. marketing research. as well as in marketing of nonprofit and public sector. such as Marketing Management. The first is a very low level of marketing implementation in practice. It may be surprising that this is true about the developed I chapter . Partial progress has been made with the process of segmentation and target market selection. However. An intense study of Consumer Behaviour started in the second half of the 20th century. in terms of innovation and product launch. Despite the belief that marketing implementation philosophy dominates the thinking of managers and corporate and public decision-makers. Business to Business Marketing and Non-profit Marketing. it is noticeable that the practice of marketing is still far behind the optimal implementation. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND MARKETING 1.3 1. The discipline appeared along with the other extensions of marketing theory. There are several fundamental reasons for this study and the emergence of a separate discipline. and in particular marketing services and building customer and consumer relations.1 Consumer Behaviour Consumer Behaviour is a relatively young scientific discipline that is researched within the general context of marketing theory. Service Marketing. the truth is that the actual use of the concept is partial and limited. distribution. A significant development in marketing has been achieved in marketing communications as well as brand development and maintenance. pricing. the extended concepts of Marketing Mix elements.

an interactive and very often instant exchange. a better selection. fun. The so-called digital revolution1 grants consumers more power. monopolism or oligopoly. Slavo Kukić . customisation of products and services. games and information. Along with its increasing application for commercial purposes. such as the USA and the Western European markets. Namely. distribution. greater amount of available information. etc. Muris Čičić . collection and use of information. Secondly. the state of marketing implementation would be even poorer It is a fact that competition as a key mechanism of any economy is greatly neglected and repressed in the present stage of capitalistic development. the availability of extensive and good quality data bases (about consumers). were it not for the competition mechanism.4 Consumer Behaviour world economies. the areas where the previous favourite was television as a fixed system. The most relevant factor in this section is certainly the development of the Internet. Competition that operates in such an environment requires a marketing approach and the development of disciplines such as consumer behaviour. the increasingly successful application of communication and other technologies requires orientation towards a closer and more thorough understanding of consumers in the short term. in which the level of service and consumer relations is far from acceptable. as well as strong and often meaningless resistance to the positive aspects of globalisation. delays and ever-increasing barriers to international trade. Mobile telephony is particularly important in this context. and the use of the increasing range of platforms and tools in the process. development of relations with partners. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . market competition increasingly accentuates the need to implement disciplines such as marketing in order to achieve competitive advantage. Thirdly. This is inevitable in a world dominated by protectionism. The statement within the previous paragraph is clarified in this context. which revolutionised the research process. it is also a candidate for the integrated system of communication.

Further. There are also some more complex definitions such as the one of the American Marketing Association (AMA)2.Consumer behaviour and marketing 5 1. and symbolically implied the inability to anticipate the course or content of those processes. we also want to know about the subsequent disposal and destiny of a product or service. It is evident that consumption largely influences the human environment. By applying scientific approach and understanding other disciplines that study general human reactions (behavioural science). It is important to point out that each definition of consumer behaviour encompasses both individual and group consumers. use and dispose of products and services. along with the interest for the purchase and use. The influence of consumption on social processes is also significant and interesting. and the environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives”. experiences or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumers and society”. secure. Having reviewed many definitions. groups or organisations and the processes they use to select. the study of consumer behaviour follows a marketing stage that marked the consumer awareness as the black box3. behaviour. should transform the black box into the missing component in the model of understanding consumers. for it is obvious that there are specifics and differences in the context of individual consumption and the consumption of group members.2 Definition and application of consumer behaviour There are numerous definitions of consumer behaviour and the majority of them are similar in its content and scope. institutional consumption is significantly different from final consumption. which makes this section interesting to natural science. we can say that “consumer behaviour is a marketing discipline that studies the behaviour of individuals. The inclusion of the discoveries of other scientific disciplines and the development of a separate discipline within marketing that focuses on consumers. the black box marked the processes in consumers’ awareness. I chapter . which defines consumer behaviour as “the dynamic interaction of cognition. Likewise. whether individual or that of a group. In the consumer behaviour model.

information collection. Muris Čičić . creates a much better strategy in terms of the approach. and a number of other consumer awareness processes. the discoveries about consumer behaviour can facilitate the design of best solutions.e. This is obvious with food products. within the area of government policy-making. from a social marketing point of view (marketing that requires the promotion and protection of social interests within all individual marketing transactions). An important element of the research and understanding of consumers is related to the stages that are relevant for the discipline overall. Further. Finally. there are three key stages of consumer behaviour: Melika Husić-Mehmedović . it is very important to understand. There are other reasons to enhance the discipline of consumer behaviour. First of all. civil associations etc. market strategy creation requires a detailed and sophisticated understanding of consumers. Along with the obvious need to protect consumers from harmful products. public institutions. In all these cases the insight into the behaviour of individual and group commercial consumption helps anticipate and manage the processes of specific non-commercial consumption. the study of consumer behaviour can help consumers discover and understand some elements of their own behaviour. For instance. understanding how to segment and approach different groups of consumers regarding their reaction to new products. The creation and design of any marketing program necessitate an insight into preferences. not only to stimulate but also to protect consumers. Slavo Kukić . expectations. Thirdly. medications. time and expectations of the provider. beliefs. i. cultural events and repetitive consumption. which can lead to a more efficient consumption and a better fulfilment of needs in a more rational way and with a higher level of consumer control. such as its use in non-profit organisations. anticipate and to some extent control consumer behaviour in order to protect society’s interests. government. the role of regulators in the creation of market competition conditions that would utilise the best commodities available for consumers and citizens. there are a range of situations where individual consumption can harm the long-term interests of both individuals and group consumers. Namely.6 Consumer Behaviour The main reason for developing a separate marketing discipline in the attempt to understand consumers better is the need to apply new discoveries in practise at the corporate and regulatory level.

Consumer behaviour and marketing 7 • purchase stage. it is necessary to consider five basic principles regarding consumers4: 1. 2. However. as well as environmental protection and consumption control within the context of potentially harmful consequences. This stage has 5 phases: • • • • • problem/need recognition. Consumer behaviour is a dynamic process. All consumer influence should be socially acceptable. Purchase stage is the foundation of the consumer behaviour model. purchase and post-purchase behaviour. information search. Consumer sovereignty is an important principle for understanding contemporary consumers. Consumers are sovereign. • consumption stage. In consumer analysis nowadays. It implies that they are free and independent in their decision-making and that their decisions are based on personal reasons and goals. Purchase stage is very important for the discipline and it encompasses complex structures and elements that must be explored in order to understand consumers better. and • divestment or disposal stage. Consumer behaviour can be influenced. 5. the concepts of value and benefits. This stage generates the elements that influence current components of marketing success. Disposal stage is also generating more interest. in terms of future consumption and consumer behaviour. evaluation of alternatives. 3. manipulated I chapter . creating loyal consumers and long-term relations. Consumer motivation can be understood through research. Consumers must not be underestimated. building trust and dedication. 4. researchers are also increasingly interested in the consumption stage. such as consumer satisfaction.

a higher educational level. Behaviour is studied in order to use the acquired information to improve the program of marketing actions. Likewise. However. for a more successful marketing and better competitive supply. Namely. Every purchase is a complex process. the uneducated) is disputable. and is in fact the purpose of developing a separate scientific discipline. within the frame of acceptable regulations.8 Consumer Behaviour or seen as someone who does not understand the consumption process. This principle is increasingly important due to better and more complex consumer awareness. even when there are not any visible rational reasons for purchase or other stages. which is unacceptable from both the regulatory and Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Identification of consumers’ motivation is a primary goal of marketing and consumer behaviour as a discipline.e. Socially acceptable influences are a requirement consistent with the above principle. consumers meet their own needs and accomplish their goals through their own actions. higher level of purchasing power and purchase along with increasingly demanding consumers. A potential capacity to abuse consumers’ weaknesses or to misuse the knowledge about disadvantaged consumers (children. The development of consumer behaviour as a discipline is stimulated by the need to explore and identify motives to buy. sophisticated methods can enable businesses to manipulate consumers. it is important to recognise that a single product can have several elements of importance for consumers and can satisfy several needs and motives simultaneously. Such needs and goals must be respected. humanistic and physiological research. Slavo Kukić . and adapt the supply to consumers’ motives and goals. coordinate the elements of marketing mix. Muris Čičić . These areas are regulated. The complexity of contemporary consumers points to the multiplication of elements that influence each decision. Marketing operates in marketplaces with regulated conditions i. regarding the purchase stages as well as factors. and to conduct a refined analysis using contemporary methods of social. variables and actions in each stage. The aim is to achieve a positive supply of products and services that improve the quality of consumers’ lives and enhance the environment. The influence on consumer behaviour implies marketing actions.

as fields of psychological research. taking their interests into consideration. jurisprudence. developmental and child psychology. Close to psychology are experimental. No conscious manipulation should be a part of marketing.and microeconomics. Psychology has provided the foundations for the development of consumer behaviour as a separate discipline. consumers are autonomously changing through education and different conditions in growth and social interaction. its closest discipline is psychology. clinical. It all indicates fast dynamics both in demand and in supply. consumer behaviour both stems from and relies on many other disciplines.Consumer behaviour and marketing 9 marketing view. Along with all this. and consumers are constantly experiencing new notions and processes that inevitably change them. Other relevant sciences are macro. is practically impossible without exhausting the methods. which requires marketing strategies to be constantly adapted. Innovation and branding processes are faster. demographic I chapter . perceptions. Market activities should be motivated by sincere attempts to satisfy consumers’ needs. Nowadays the closest relation is that to marketing. enabling the scientific approach to consumer behaviour through a series of areas that stem from it. 1. redesigned and changed.3 Consumer behaviour and other scientific disciplines As a relatively young discipline. Sciences relevant for the study of group consumers are social psychology. history. attitudes and beliefs. whether those related to psychology or those from other scientific groups. Further research has necessitated the need to use other fields as well. personality traits. approaches and concepts from the field of psychology. which is considered to be its parent area. All these fields focus on an individual. However. in terms of scientific instruments and procedures. life cycle of almost all products is shorter. The dynamics of the consumer behaviour process stems from continuous and rapid changes in the environment. sociology and anthropology. The study of numerous categories in the thorough research of individual consumers. circumstances in technological supply and demand are constantly changing. such as motivation.

Nowadays it has become accepted that it is not sufficient to understand a single area among many listed above. Several disciplines must be researched and understood. consumers can be individual. structure or outcome of the purchase. In essence. Today’s processes and behaviour can often only be explained by the knowledge and application of scientific methods of several disciplines. Slavo Kukić . The motives to begin the consumption process significantly determine its structure and elements. etc. This is emphasised by the complexity of the consumption decision-making and changes in consumers’ preferences.4 Final and organisational consumption As emphasised above. pedagogy. acquaintance etc.10 Consumer Behaviour research. without prejudicing the quality. which means that they participate in a purchase in order to finalise the process of reproduction and consumption of products or services that they are buying. It is generally recognised that organisational purchase is different in several elements. organisational or institutional consumers buy products or services in order to use them in the production process and/or adaptation and further processing. 1. Muris Čičić . Unlike them. whether the decision is made by an individual consumer personally or a family member. the interdisciplinarity of consumer behaviour implies the use of concepts and instruments of other disciplines in order to understand consumers better. the purchase motives and goals are significantly different than those in organisational consumption. which requires the formation of interdisciplinary teams that research consumer behaviour. ecology. Individual and group consumers are usually analysed in terms of final consumption. language science (linguistics and semiotics). political science. or institutional/ organisational. In final consumption. We can conclude that all social and humanistic sciences affect the study of consumer behaviour. information technology. a friend. group. The characteristics of organisational purchase5 are listed below: Melika Husić-Mehmedović .

Consumer behaviour and marketing 11 1. Purchases are less frequent but volume and value are higher. 1. 2. whether internal or statutory (public procurement). The simplified model6 presents a process of a consumer’s decision-making in three different but interrelated stages or steps: I chapter . a closer contact. as well as a necessity to adapt to specific buyers. The fact that the decisions are primarily made by teams whose members have specific skills and tasks eliminates the possibility of instant or impulsive purchase. There are fewer buyers. Organisational purchase is professional. present essential logical cycles of understanding consumption. 5. 4. to a smaller or greater extent. Behaviour of organisational consumers is increasingly researched within the frame of a set marketing discipline called Industrial Marketing or Business-to-Business Marketing (B2B). There are clear formal procedures and processes. This means that only professionals with specific skills and qualifications participate in the process of decision-making and purchase. a series of models was developed that. Professional purchase means that there are fewer psychological but more economic and demographic motives in the processes of behaviour. determines the steps and chronological sequence of purchase stages. A fewer number of buyers implies specialisation. The above basic differences imply different purchase behaviour. differentiation between routine and special situations. The existence of procedures and formal processes. Purchase is primarily done by a team.5 Consumer behaviour model In order to better understand the processes and elements of consumer behaviour. 3. Larger but less frequent purchases imply special organisational and financial procedures. purchase and consumption.

12 Consumer Behaviour Figure 1: Simplified decision-making model Source: Schiffman and Kanuk. p. Muris Čičić . 2004. 7 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić .

output. However. there are two types of inputs in this stage: those undertaken by companies or businesses. post-purchase review implies the evaluation of purchase and the expression of content or discontent with it. environmental influence implies revision of all cultural and social ones. place and promotion) as well as reactions to them. depending on the type of it. Finally. complex and difficult to measure. Psychological factors have the key role here (motivation. and personality traits). The third stage. depending on whether consumers are testing new or unknown products. These influences are very complex and specific and as such are not easy to quantify. which is a state of insecurity and reassessment I chapter . A company’s marketing influences are generally clear and quantifiable.Consumer behaviour and marketing 13 Input stage represents processes that lead to a consumer’s ability to recognise the product or service. experiences and ideas are cumulated through information collection and evaluation of alternatives. repeat purchase and complex purchase. However. and environmental inputs that affect consumers. conducting a routine repeat purchase. price. There are different interpretations of the importance of understanding and managing each purchase type. attitudes. environmental influences are numerous. The basis for decision-making is formed in this stage. which all determines consumers’ future decisions. Generally we distinguish three types of purchase7: trial purchase. The second stage of the model represents the processing of information and influences. However. perception. as well as the purchase process phases from this stage: problem and need recognition. information search and evaluation of alternatives. Marketing influence entails revision of marketing actions and programs (product. Purchase at this stage implies the result of activities and processes from the previous stages. encompasses the purchase stage and post-purchase behaviour. It is a basis for understanding decision-making. or a purchase based on value and function of each product or service. there are significant differences in the act of purchase. So-called cognitive dissonance is often present at this stage. Basically. as well as the primary influence of a family on the formation of individuals and their consumption behaviour.

Cultural determinants are basic components of human behaviour in general. education. the culture they belong to. is in fact the result of cultural influences. Group determinants belong to the influences that cultural and social environment have on an individual. the entire process of purchase decision-making. They stem from a group yet they significantly determine the behaviour of individuals. their views. communication. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . many of them are willing to sacrifice large material and vital resources in order to maintain and defend these values. including consumption. i. rituals. As such it emits values.6 Consumer behaviour determinants Key determinants that influence consumer behaviour can be divided into two basic groups: those influencing a consumer as a group member. and is learned. forming family relations. accepted norms. symbols. Slavo Kukić . the way of dressing. as well as psychological characteristics. It is believed that all that humans know and understand as personal norms and beliefs. This stage significantly determines future purchases. It dictates what is acceptable and what is not in a given situation. Individual determinants are personal and demographic characteristics of an individual. Understanding all these determinants significantly reduces uncertainty in reviewing processes in consumer awareness (the “black box”) and contributes to a proactive attitude of businesses. As a result. beliefs. attitudes and actions. learn and adopt prevailing values from their surroundings and social groups i. etc. eating. Culture can be said to represent the comprehensive spiritual and material values of a community or a society. Culture is a dynamic category: it changes with time and various events. These cultural values in time become an inseparable part of one’s personality and very valuable to individuals. key values. and those influencing an individual. beliefs.14 Consumer Behaviour of decisions.e. 1. Group determinants are cultural and social influences. Muris Čičić .e. People grow. the ways of behaviour in given situations. They reflect on individuals after their birth and during their childhood and daily life. etc. It determines the way and rhythm of life.

which implies separation of each society into social classes. time relation towards nutrition. schooling. natural disasters. diet rituals. There are numerous reviews of the number and structure of classes in different countries and societies. socialising. status consumption etc. nationality. Phenomena such as wars. methods and location. as the most numerous class that generates the largest consumption of mass products and trademarks. of dressing. etc. accommodation. with the tendency of pervading culture and contemporary influences. education. middle and lower. lead to strong turbulences in economic and market processes. West-European and others. such as Indian. For instance. Mobility amongst classes is low in formal class systems and higher in informal class societies. interests. with some variations and movements. as well as societies that are less formal but have a class system nevertheless. The distortion of middle class can happen in large social turbulences of education. higher class – 5% and lower – 15%. social and family relations. roles and status that individuals have in a I chapter . Social determinants of consumer behaviour mainly refer to the influence of a family. These components are religion. values. Each class is then divided into subclasses. thinking. when and where. etc? Regarding food consumption. One of the elements of cultural influences is class organisation of a society. heritage. What is important for a class system from the aspect of marketing is the fact that the members of a group have similar consumption that stems from similar values. how diet is changed. wealth. an important question is raised: How much does religion determine the way of life. behaviour towards others. profession and other criteria. Marketing has to be culturally sensitive and proactive. revolutions etc. social system.Consumer behaviour and marketing 15 Culture consists of sub-cultures or individual components. the way of preparing food and beverages. causing crisis in the market structure and necessitating long periods of stabilisation. Middle class constitutes about 80% of the population. holidays. There are societies with a formal class system. ancestry. Regarding religion. reference groups. American society is usually said to have three classes: higher. race and geography. traditions. Classes are identified according to an affiliation to a family. religion determines what is eaten. Middle class is a mainstream of consumption in contemporary societies. such as American. Japanese and British.

Family influence is evident and prevailing in almost all societies worldwide.16 Consumer Behaviour society. formal and informal ones. Belonging or aspiring to belong to certain groups sometimes conclusively determines consumer behaviour. Many aspects of family are interesting for marketing. Family is certainly the most important cell of a society that shapes individuals and affects their behaviour permanently. toys and similar products. Regarding social influences. including the relation regarding consumption. For instance. cars. An increasing level of employment and a higher level of education contribute to the change of a woman’s role in a family and household. They are usually classified into primary and secondary. as well as the dynamics of family development evident nowadays. holiday destination. tools. that wives are more interested in household appliances. the stereotype of larger influence of husbands on the purchase of cars does not match the real situation. roles in a family. such as relations between a husband and wife. The fact that someone is a student or a member of a chess club. The relation between husband and wife. Research shows that deep-rooted apprehensions often do not match the changes of status and family dynamics. aspires to become a writer etc. It is a wide-spread conviction that husbands influence the selection of technical items. a flat or a house. A role and its dynamic changes explain how children can have the largest influence on a computer purchase. clothes and shoes. in all situations. education. Reference groups refer to various types of clubs or societies in which people socialise. Slavo Kukić . is very interesting for marketing. it is important to mention reference groups and the role of an individual within a society or a group.. sports activities. that he sings in a choir or supports a sports club. without contributing to the family income or payment towards the bills. Roles within a family are also important for a better understanding of processes and decision-making in consumption. and that both are equally involved in the selection of products and services regarding vacations. Muris Čičić . family cycle stages. including consumption. family structure. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . food. helps to understand behaviour and anticipate consumption. child products.

young consumers’ interest for clothes or musical products and services can be anticipated with considerable certainty. I chapter . while in similar economic. By careful analysis and application i Principal VALS groups are: achievers. especially for standard and routine products and services in countries with substantial and reliable statistical analysis and data publication. This means that lifestyle is a result of the combination of group and individual factors. family status.Consumer behaviour and marketing 17 Personal or demographic determinants are one of the most powerful researchers’ tools in the process of understanding and predicting consumer behaviour in various situations including consumption. each one of which has its place within population. What is important for marketing is that a certain lifestyle means certain consumption. Several classifications of lifestyle have been developed in practise. etc. believers. actualizers. education. Accordingly. Demographic factors are used to a great extent for the analysis and anticipation of consumption. it enables an analysis and anticipation of consumption of certain groups with a higher degree of certainty.). People can have different lifestyles (healthy life. This. makers. group role etc. Determining the average age of a specific market segment reveals that segment’s interest for certain products. This data is not sufficient. VALS (VAlues and LifeStyle) classification recognises different lifestyles among population depending on the consumption of time and money. snobbish. but if combined with gender. social. The next group of personal character determinants refers to an individual’s lifestyle and personality. Lifestyle can be characterized as a certain trend of behaviour that individuals choose under the influence of a series of cultural. devoted to the nature. status and action. Some of the factors such as age. personal and psychological factors. unfortunately. is still not the case with Bosnia and Herzegovina. The outstanding ones are VALS 2 and AIO typology. strugglers. art or career. gender and other circumstances.. gender. age. experiencers. Eight groups are formedi by mixing these elements. strivers. fulfillers. education and wealth are often self-explanatory and can be examined by solid statistical demographic data. further classification encompasses orientation towards principles. wealth. and all consistent consumption requires a corresponding marketing mix. For instance.

perception.18 Consumer Behaviour of VALS classification. which together form the basis of human activity. entities. attitudes and learning. it is necessary to go through a learning process. Muris Čičić . place. at this point we will just briefly mention what each one of them means. which depends on numerous elements and characteristics of processing and acquiring knowledge from the environment. Considering that each of these factors are discussed in great detail in specific chapters of this book. Attitudes express the relation of individuals toward their surroundings. AIO (Action–Interest–Opinion) typology evaluates the lifestyle of examinees through activities. there would be no survival of humanity. it is possible to classify several different groups with different lifestyles and consumption. Motivation is the driving force of an individual. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . phenomena. Based on universal human needs. Purposefulness of marketing actions. circumstances. Within personal determinants there is also an aspect of personality and self-comprehension or understanding of one’s own image. as well as identification of one’s image with the concept of consumption. On the other hand. Without motivation and corresponding actions. Psychological determinants mainly encompass four basic types: motivation. it leads to desires and setting up of goals. or anticipation of consumption regarding specific needs and desires. supply and need satisfaction. By conducting surveys and questionnaires about these three basic dimensions. and based on that the corresponding understanding. In this context identification of personality and certain products or brands is common. it is possible to understand the basic values and lifestyle of each group. Perception is how we view the world around us. Slavo Kukić . interests and opinions. communication with consumers and the success of marketing overall depends largely on the way we perceive reality. or the way individuals react to the stimuli from the environment. in order to have an attitude. ideas etc.

4. research. as well as a series of established relations and interdependences. I chapter .Consumer behaviour and marketing 19 1. establishment of relationships and actions. Whilst ethical review of marketing and other similar disciplines is much more complex. post-sale relations. In the context of ethical behaviour. such as the protection of the rights of citizens. Ask yourself whether you could explain your behaviour to a large TV audience. Only take actions that can be classified as universal ones in such circumstances. their classification. individuals and consumers from any kind of manipulative and unethical behaviour. we take the responsibility to prevent all discoveries and understanding from being used in a way contrary to the interests and rights of consumers. at this point we can state that researchers have reached some basic principles that marketers and consumers should follow in order to avoid ethical conflicts8: 1. an intense research of consumerism has been conducted. In other words. as well as of consumer protection movement which plays a significant role in the development of marketing institutions nowadays. 3. Do only what the majority of your colleagues would approve of. sale and consumption. 2. Treat others the way you want to be treated. by developing a scientific discipline such as consumer behaviour. understanding of internal and external elements of behaviour. inevitably raise questions about the moral components of these relations.7 Ethical aspects of consumer behaviour Actions relating to a large number of people.

aspx 3. How does AMA define consumer behaviour? 4. Gutic. and G.. Pearson/Prentice Hall. and M. Opinio. L. Kotler. L. D. 8. edition. What are personal determinants of consumer behaviour and what is the nature of their influence? 9. 8. Kanuk.G. (2001): Principles of Marketing. Muris Čičić . Kanuk. T. Schiffman.L. L..J. Explain the model of consumer behaviour. Kesic. How can marketers avoid ethical conflicts? References 1. List and explain the differences and similarities between final and organisational consumption. (2004): ibid 8. Why consumer behaviour is intensely studied in the 20th century? 2. Prentice Hall Melika Husić-Mehmedović . 9. edition 2. (2004): Consumer Behavior. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. Hercegtisak 4. Mowen. What are three basic stages of consumer behaviour? 5. and L. Schiffman. http://www. 7.marketingpower. (1998): Consumer Behavior.G. 5th edition. Slavo Kukić . Zagreb Consumer Behaviour Questions for revision 1. Schiffman. C. Kanuk. (2004): ibid 7. Minor. P. What is consumer sovereignty and what is its influence on behaviour? 6. Armstrong. How do communication and other technologies influence consumer behaviour? 3. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. and L. American Marketing Association. Prentice Hall 6. and L.L.L.

II chapter CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH Chapter objectives • • • • The importance of understanding consumer behaviour Define various types of consumer behaviour Understand stages of consumer behaviour research Differences between quantitative and qualitative research of consumers • Types of quantitative and qualitative data collection • The importance and methods of determining adequate samples .


Consumers differ. and their preferences change through time.1 Why research consumer behaviour? The purpose of a company’s existence is to meet consumers’ needs. The result of all company activities then is in the research of consumer behaviour. to understand the methods of consumer purchase and use of products and services. effort – regarding consumption-related points. The aim of research is. The research includes data collection concerning the factors that affect consumers. some authors identify three basic groups of this research2: II chapter . This indicates that the need for this research occurs with different participants and for different reasons.23 2. Consumer behaviour research is aimed at looking at the ways individual decision-makers use their available resources – time. as well as how often they use the product or service they have bought1. after all. the needs will be met only if companies know consumers well enough. This means that companies rely on market segmentation and the adaptation of a marketing mix to the demands of each segment. This includes the questions of what these consumers buy. when and how often they buy it. Understanding the real importance of consumption for a contemporary society affected the increasing interest for consumer behaviour research. However. Regarding their intention. why. Therefore the challenge for contemporary companies is great. money. it is becoming increasingly difficult to predict their behaviour. their decisions and behaviour overall. of course. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH 2.

All this opened the door to the research of hidden motives of consumers.24 Consumer Behaviour • Research for practical application purposes. The relations with psychology. anthropology. Slavo Kukić . it showed that consumer behaviour is a much more complex construct than its reduction to the level of rational. • Research for consumer protection purposes done by governments (governmental institutions) and organisations for consumer protection. Muris Čičić . however. sociology. Later research. consumer behaviour research is extremely important for the very consumers in order for them to be able to review their behaviour and purchase decisions and become familiar with all the influential factors in this process. the research of consumer behaviour has shown its multidisciplinarity from the very beginning. Early researchers of consumer behaviour started with an economic theory according to which consumers act rationally. and • Research for the purposes of general understanding of consumers.2 Approaches to consumer behaviour research The expansion of consumer behaviour research occurred in the fifties and sixties of the 20th century when the interest for the wider context of consumption increased. in other words there are hidden motives that stimulate them to such behaviour. More precisely.e. done by various researchers from the academic community. economy and other sciences resulted in the use of their discoveries and instruments to reach the goal of understanding consumers better. objectively assess what products and services offer greatest pleasure with the lowest cost. a Melika Husić-Mehmedović . where companies are marked as users. showed that the problem is much more complex than it seemed in the beginning. 2. Finally. As this discipline relies greatly on a number of other disciplines. i. and that consumers are not aware of the reason for their purchase behaviour. The interest for this type of study was stimulated by Ernest Dichter.

is founded on the assumption that unconscious needs. II chapter . Consumer behaviour research relies on two very different methodologies.Consumer behaviour research 25 psychoanalyst from Vienna. using the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud3. based on the analysis of experiences and dreams of his patients. A few of the main disadvantages of this type of research are: it is impossible to generalise results of the research due to few examples. comprise the core of motivation. control and predict consumer behaviour5. On the other hand. in-depth interviews. motivational research began to display its disadvantages in time. Accordingly. Despite numerous critics. certainly. It is. analysis is often biased. His approach was accepted by other researchers quickly and he became known for the term motivational research. Positivism. observation and survey). It implies the use of an appropriate rigorous systematic procedure in order to explain. for example. interpretivism. The use of either type of research is in literature usually associated with concrete approaches to consumer research. he used indirect techniques of qualitative research. as an alternative research approach is focused solely on the act of consumption and on understanding consumers from a wider social perspective6. projective tests cannot be adapted to consumer behaviour research and claims of Freud’s theory are not applicable to the area of consumer behaviour4. it is possible to differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research. an approach which initially appeared unusual and interesting since hidden erotic desires interpreted consumer behaviour. projective techniques and metaphor analysis. However. Researching consumer experiences is done by quantitative techniques such as focus groups. motivational research is still widely used today. especially biological and sexual. Since Dichter wanted to get into the area of sub consciousness and determine the reasons why people are purchasing. Researchers who use it rely on quantitative techniques derived from natural sciences (experiment. Freud’s theory. started to dominate in the 1960s. as an approach to consumer behaviour research.

They usually take place when diagnosing a situation. two types of classifications are specified. we can classify research into exploratory and conclusive. G. Mate. L. For instance.26 Consumer Behaviour Table 1: Comparison between positivism and interpretivism POSITIVISM GOAL METHODOLOGY • • • ASSUMPTIONS • • • Predicting consumers' actions Quantitative Rationality: consumers make decisions after evaluating alternatives Causes and consequences of behaviour can be recognized and isolated Individuals are problem-solvers engaged in data processing There is one reality Events can be objectively measured Causes of behaviour can be identified. Regarding the goal of result application. Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić .L. the first step is to research the benefits consumers are expecting from the new product or service since there is no previous Melika Husić-Mehmedović . when marketers want to make a decision about the appeals they will use in advertising.. seventh edition. For the purposes of this analysis which is focused on consumer behaviour research.e. manipulating causes by causes (i. input by input) a provider can affect behaviour (i. the outcome) Results can be generalised onto wide population • • • • • INTERPRETIVISM Understanding consumer practice Qualitative There is not only one objective truth Reality is subjective Causes and consequences cannot be isolated Each consumption experience is unique Interaction between examiners / examinees affect study results Results are often not generalized onto wide population • • Source: Schiffman. Kanuk. (2004) Ponasanje potrosaca.e. selecting different possibilities of action or when discovering new ideas7. Exploratory research is used as a general inquiry into a problem we know very little about.3 Types of consumer behaviour research Many different classifications can be found in literature when it comes to types of research. L. Zagreb 2.

. The cause and effect relationship is very significant in consumer behaviour. descriptive and causal research.. However. Descriptive research is used most frequently. Even though it is focused on describing a particular situation. their behaviours. this type of research starts from the set hypotheses and it is related to a narrow field of research8. Figure 2: The combination of exploratory and conclusive research Source: Aaker. data is collected by different qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews and projective techniques. it is often the case in practice that two or even all three types are combined within one research. In that case.Consumer behaviour research 27 knowledge about it. especially for marketers who want to determine whether different marketing activities will influence consumers and to what extent. while the use of descriptive and causal research narrows them down to probable causes of the observed problem (Figure 2). D. 2007 II chapter . 9th edition. G. This type of research therefore relies on experiments by collecting data on causal relationships. Day. There are differences between exploratory.S. V. Causal research also starts with hypotheses and is focused on discovering the cause of a certain event.: Marketing research. whereas in consumer behaviour research it is used when researching characteristics of potential and existing consumers. Within conclusive research. attitudes and so on. Therefore. John Wiley & Sons.A. exploratory research generates all possible causes of a particular problem. Kumar. it is possible to distinguish between descriptive and causal research.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Even though this approach is exceptionally represented in modern research. which can more often be found in consumer behaviour literature. Collecting and evaluating secondary data. as well as the analysis of data is in the hands of highly skilled researches. Slavo Kukić . ii Tanja Kesic (2006). Quantitative research is descriptive in nature9 and relies on using different techniques derived from natural sciences. identify six elementary phases of the consumer behaviour research process: 1. Numerous authors. since the consumer behaviour research process is equal to the market research process. In this paper. it is possible to distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research. 2. qualitative research leads to new ideas which are then tested empirically and become the basis for creating quantitative studies10. it is impossible to bypass several disadvantages – conclusions are prone to subjectivity. accordingly. Since it is carried out using the method of large probability sampling. Since qualitative research displays particular disadvantages. the results obtained by using statistical methods can be applied to a wider population. This is how. Quantitative research is usually used as a base for strategic decision-making. Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) identify the first phase of consumer behaviour research as defining the research goals. If we were to observe them as criteria.4 Research process The consumer behaviour research process includes the same phases as the traditional market research. qualitative research is undertaken on smaller samples and by using different qualitative techniques. not including the problem and hypotheses of the research. Muris Čičić . 2. researchers frequently use it combined with quantitative research. the title and structure of the first phase are set according to Marusic and Vranesevic (1997). On the other hand. Defining the problem and research goalsii. The implementation of this type of research.28 Consumer Behaviour The classification of research. begins with the nature of the data collected through research. it is impossible to generalise results etc. for example.

a theoretic answer to the research problem. Therefore. The first research phase. Specifying research goals is significant because it affects the entire subsequent flow of this process. II chapter . refer to the segmentation of a certain market. as indicated. Since by researching it is necessary to find an answer to the question or defined problem. The researcher needs to set hypotheses. briefly. A hypothesis is. Primary research design. Hence.Consumer behaviour research 29 3. the goals can be extremely diverse. Thereby. In all cases the goals must be well created and precisely stated. And what can be a research problem? Most simply. variables are characteristics of the observed phenomenon. where one (or more than one) variable represents the cause (independent variable) and another (or more than one) represents the effect (dependent variable) in their relations. is defining the problem and research goals. Primary data collection. for example. They can. a more or less likely assumption that there is a phenomenon which causes or affects another phenomenon11. On the other hand. Processing and analysis of collected data. 6. as well as identify variables. it is essential to determine the research goals. to determining attitudes of consumers towards a particular product or service etc. This also includes focusing on either qualitative or quantitative research approaches. 4. 5. Preparing a research report. it can be any phenomenon or process which is not familiar enough and needs further research or clarification. defining the problem is the starting point of the whole research. it is not needless to recall what these terms mean.

Muris Čičić . Authors often divide12 external sources of secondary data into three main groups: Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . this is data which has been collected by a specific company for another reason. Secondary data includes data which has already been collected through previous research for other purposes. In other words. as well as data from different sources outside the company itself.30 Consumer Behaviour Figure 3. unrelated to the specified research. The consumer behaviour research process Collecting and evaluating secondary data is the second phase of consumer behaviour research.

where they distinguish data published in the country from that published abroad. The main researcher supervises their work. data is collected by trained field staff. including the internet. Primary research can be qualitative or quantitative. • Commercial sources. it is far more often used as a basis for creating primary research. As this type of research is conducted on larger samples. which includes ensuring actual implementation. form a sample on which the research will be conducted and create a research instrument.Consumer behaviour research 31 • Standard data sources (printed publications). In quantitative research. Qualitative II chapter . The third phase of consumer behaviour research is primary research design. which is how secondary data is gathered. If the goals indicate the need to carry out quantitative research. • Databases. allows faster data collection with considerably lower costs in relation to primary research. Hence. smaller research studies are usually carried out before its implementation in order to identify critical points which should be included in the data collection instrument14. Even though in some cases. and the research instrument needs to be chosen. On the other hand. secondary data can provide a complete insight into a specific problem. Secondary research. the primary research design will differ when applying either qualitative or quantitative research. Quantitative and qualitative research includes numerous techniques which are elaborated upon later in this chapter along with research instruments and sampling. The approach to primary data collection depends on the type of research. it is necessary to select an appropriate technique of data collection. the researcher needs to consider which type of data is needed to achieve the set goal. Although the decision about the specific research approach is connected primarily to what it is that we are researching. Primary data collection is considered a separate. a decision needs to be made about the specific technique of data collection. fourth phase of the consumer behaviour research process. the cost is frequently a limiting factor when it comes to selecting a research type13. for example. Nevertheless. when using qualitative research.

Processing collected data refers to applying suitable statistical techniques. the processing of data itself is preceded by three phases – data categorisation. data categorisation involves grouping data according to goals and questions. Listed below are the most significant techniques according to the type of research – quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Slavo Kukić . However.32 Consumer Behaviour research has a different approach to data collection. The first phase. experiment. Here. and finally processed and analysed by sophisticated statistical programmes. with an accent on final results.5 Data collection techniques When it comes to data collection techniques for either qualitative or quantitative research. Processing and analysing collected data is the fifth phase of the research process. What are the specifics of each? A survey is a quantitative technique used to collect written data on attitudes and opinions. Data is then entered into a certain database. It therefore covers all the activities related to the basic principles and methodology. Muris Čičić . pre-logical control and coding.1 Quantitative research techniques Quantitative research includes five main techniques – survey. In the pre-logical control phase. observation. It can also contain recommendations for particular marketing activities. by using a questionnaire on a representative Melika Husić-Mehmedović . A research report includes information about all the previous phases. Preparing a research report is the last phase of consumer behaviour research. 2. many different approaches can be found in consumer behaviour literature. research is conducted by highly educated and skilled researchers. data is checked for possible errors before it is coded. 2. The reason lies in the fact that qualitative research accentuates the use of open-ended questions. and data entry and post-logical control15. panel and content analysis.5.

II chapter . this type of survey has an advantage in terms of data reliability due to the physical presence of the researcher who can provide additional explanations. A postal survey allows the use of a larger sample on a wider geographic area and is conducted by delivering questionnaires to respondents. however. in order to be returned to the researcher after being filled in. Another problem occurs when deciding the time (of the day or week) when it is possible to converse with a respondent. Questionnaires as instruments for data collection and sampling will be addressed in another chapter. are usually conducted on smaller samples due to a high cost and longer implementation periods. it is quite expensive.Consumer behaviour research 33 sample16. a fair number of respondents have an answering machine. Even though this type of survey is the fastest. Individual contact with the examinee or personal surveys (a common term). organise consumer panels whose participants periodically fill out questionnaires for a symbolic price17. for example. shopping centres or elsewhere. Whether dialling phone numbers is random or planned. postal survey. however it has certain disadvantages. Whether it is conducted in examinees’ homes. This analysis. Researchers develop different approaches with the aim of increasing this rate. while others hang up the phone. Several companies have attempted to improve this type of survey by introducing computer technologies in telephone surveying. is focused on possible forms of surveys which are used in consumer behaviour research – individual contact with the examinee. For example. which undermines the representativeness of the sample. telephone and online surveys. Computer – Assisted Telephone Interviewing is an approach where the computer assists during survey conduction by preventing possible errors made by the researcher such as questioning the wrong member of the household or skipping one or more questions18. especially when there are many respondents. Several specialized research companies. we also need to point out that the rate of return is low. Along with the main disadvantage of undermining the anonymity of respondents using this type of survey. A telephone survey is the fastest form of surveying. which are delivered in self-addressed envelopes with postage paid. CATI.

On the other hand.34 Consumer Behaviour An on-line survey is becoming a very popular way of data collection. and the effect on sales is measured20. different types of experiments are generated22. tests and different scales are used as data collection instruments. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Given the number of respondent groups included. market conditions is mostly used in new product development. Muris Čičić . is not guaranteed. Laboratory experiments are carried out in an artificial environment. In the first case. In the second case. By combining the two mentioned criteria. where survey questionnaires. measuring is only done at one point. Finally. measuring is done before or after the independent variable has an effect. which is why representative sampling cannot be achieved. where the respondents are aware of their involvement in the research21. it is important to point out that the anonymity of online surveys. Fast implementation and lower costs are only a few in a long list of its advantages. An experiment is a data collection technique used to measure how an independent variable affects a dependant variable. since on-line questionnaires can also be sent by personal e-mail addresses as well as posted on web sites. in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its surroundings. Natural experiments are carried out in a completely natural environment. design or advertisement. the researcher needs to take into account the fact that these results do not reflect realistic market conditions. it is possible to distinguish between two different types– natural and laboratory experiments. packaging and promotion are the variables. This experiment is conducted by measuring reactions of respondents to a certain product. This type of experiment in uncontrolled. it is necessary to distinguish between one-group experiments and parallel-groups experiments. Slavo Kukić . we still cannot be satisfied with the level of internet use. where respondents are usually not aware that a research is being conducted. after the independent variable has an effect. so they act in a natural way. although it is identified as a positive characteristic. As the obtained data is a result of artificially created situations. while controlling all other effects19. The classification can be done based on how many times the results are measured. where price. Due to the conditions of experimenting. packaging.

However. a bottle or other packaging in bins). depending on whether the researcher joins the object of observation or not. depending on the number of cases observed. for example. depending on whether it is necessary to apply the technique in a certain moment or if the changes are monitored in a longer time period. • Observation with participation and without participation. that is not all. where the researcher is monitoring an individual. Scientific observation can. Wright24.Consumer behaviour research 35 Observation is often used as a data collection technique in consumer behaviour research. this classification includes many different possibilities. it is possible to distinguish between direct and indirect observation.g. Besides observing the consumer. • Individual and mass observation. According to the way it is realised. and is relevant to consumer behaviour research. during the whole day including shopping trips. II chapter . Indirect observation is characterised by the fact that we assess a certain phenomenon based on observing other phenomena which are related to it. The goal of this technique is for the researcher to notice and record facts related to the actual situation by observing consumers while they purchase and use products. Most consumer behaviour research relies on direct observation. as well as every other scientific research. identifies tracking consumers as a type of observation with participation. the researcher asks additional questions about the products selected in the store and at home. be classified in different ways23. for example. furthermore. The goal of direct observation is to observe a phenomenon at the moment when it is happening. Of course. and scientific observation which is carried out according to a previously determined plan. but it is possible to reach certain conclusions by indirect observation of purchasing evidence (e. there are classifications based on other criteria. as follows: • Single and multiple observation. It is important to mention another detail – a distinction needs to be made between ordinary observation which is random and unsystematic. with his permission. Within scientific observation.

observation. such as: • Psycho-galvanometer. It is not. Muris Čičić . objectivity as well as their experience and abilities). where further analysis would show whether a certain product attracted the attention of the examinee or not26. If the phenomenon cannot be observed personally. The same authors point out the difference between personal observation and observation using technical apparatus. technical apparatus is then used where some of it is applied when the examinees are not aware they are being observed.g. memory. which shows the emotional reaction (including lying) to a certain marketing stimulus27. is that dampness doesn’t necessary indicate a positive reaction of the examinee. possible to determine whether the reaction is positive or negative. which monitors horizontal and vertical eye movements while walking through a shop.36 Consumer Behaviour Some authors25 go a step further – as with experiments. • Eye tracking camera. Slavo Kukić . they specify the skills of the researcher himself (sensory skills. • Measuring voice range. where the dilation occurs when the examinee becomes more interested. shopping in a store) and observation in an artificially created situation for phenomena which cannot be monitored in a natural situation due to the nature of the phenomenon or due to the need of using technical apparatus. since it can be the result of different emotions. • Pupil-metre. however. The problem. The important thing is that it can measure the consumer’s attention and the extent to which the Melika Husić-Mehmedović . which follows pupil dilation due to certain stimuli. We should mention at least a few of them. The technology which combines neurological discoveries with knowledge from clinical psychology is relatively recent. i. the dampness of the skin which occurs as a reaction to a certain stimulus. For personal observation. • EEG or device for electroencephalography was a result of electro marketing research and is based on monitoring brain activity to discover how consumers react to brands. There are various types of technical equipment used in observation.e. they make a distinction between observation in a natural (e. which measures the resistance of skin on hand palms. products or advertising messages. using senses. however.

using a constant research instrument30. which is when the panel is refilled from a previously prepared reserve panel. which occurs in two forms: home control (regular panel) and individual panel (keeping a record). A regular panel is when the researcher comes to the examinee’s home. but it cannot predict what the consumer will buy28. For certain observational situations. A panel is another quantitative research technique. stocks and purchased quantities II chapter .Consumer behaviour research 37 consumer is attracted or repelled by the observed object. It is agreed that a panel is a constant representative sample of units on which continuous research is conducted at regular intervals. and the main ones are: • Consumer panel. and records packaging of used products. in agreed time intervals. For some. The main disadvantage is the representativeness of the sample because the research is conducted on the same sample for a longer period of time. it is a separate technique for quantitative research. Observation also has its disadvantages. However. who are incidentally more common in resources. it can be defined by identifying differences in theoretical approaches. it is not possible to discover the motives. it enables the monitoring of behavioural changes. Finally. There are no disputes about a panel being focused on collecting more detailed information about consumer behaviour. Another problem is that a certain number of examinees give up on participating or a death occurs. as well as reactions of consumers to different marketing stimulants. Since it is carried out over a longer time period. attitudes or intentions because it is limited to what is visible from the outside. there are various forms of panels. it is rather expensive and requires a longer implementation time. it is necessary to seek permission from the individual who is being observed. By using this technique. a panel also has its disadvantages. In practice. However. it is a type of observation29. based on which it is possible to form certain segments. For others.

advocates of the qualitative approach mostly do not negate quantification as a characteristic of this technique. etc. for example. An individual panel is when the examinee is keeping a record of purchasing which he sends to the researcher by mail or otherwise in an agreed time period. where a packaging of the used products may be enclosed depending on the agreement31. this is based on using scanner technology. and it is connected to the television of the examinee. which ensures quality data collected from interested and motivated volunteers33. This type of panel enables the identification of significant advantages in relation to other forms of their appearance. • Bar code panel. for example. Another form of monitoring is the use of technical apparatus. Slavo Kukić . newspaper articles. depending on the approach. shows content analysis as a quantitative technique. They include. The data on purchasing is stored in a computer and is easily accessible for analysis. An audiometer. • Panel of TV viewers follows the exposure to different channels. in order to get a clear picture of purchasing and consumption in a defined period. Content analysis can be viewed. electronic monitoring of examinees through analysis of their diaries. as well as how satisfied they are with it. Owning a database of the most important consumers is combined with bar code data which makes it possible to do further analysis. is a device used to monitor which television programmes are watched and when. However. but also to advertising messages. Since content analysis is focused on content and on the message form in the communication process. Analysis primarily refers to advertising messages. it is certainly significant for consumer behaviour. radio and television programmes. while Aaker and others35 state that it also includes observation and analysis. for example. in which examinees indicate what they are watching and when. more precisely. They rather point out both aspects more strongly. as a qualitative or quantitative technique of data collection. Wright34. the possibility of conducting an international research from one place and finally. Muris Čičić . recorded when a product passes over a laser scanner which automatically reads the bar code found on every product32. It can be monitored using a diary. Purchasing is.38 Consumer Behaviour of products. • Online panel. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . covering a wider audience.

2 Qualitative research techniques There are many types of data collection techniques for qualitative research. but also to understand their behaviour in different situations. Focus group is a technique where a trained moderator discusses a certain issue with a group of 8 to 12 examinees using a reminder. This technique is used to research the needs and attitudes of consumers. telephone in-depth interviews are increasingly employed since the telephone has become a standard communication medium. hidden issue questioning and symbolic analysis36. Hidden issue questioning is focused on researching values by indirectly discovering what the examinee finds important. The researcher uses transcripts. In a relaxed atmosphere. where the examinees are asked to describe in detail. through a conversation about the examinee’s experience with a certain product. projective techniques. This analysis focuses on five main techniques – in-depth interview. in their own words. symbolic analysis can be conducted by personal interviewing.5. the three main types are – laddering. metaphor analysis and case studies. There are various types of in-depth interviews. An in-depth interview is an unstructured. but also on a larger sample using a mail survey. II chapter . Their role is to stimulate and guide the conversation towards a certain goal. This type of research is also far cheaper.Consumer behaviour research 39 2. data interpretation is complex because a larger number of examinees are included. faster and can include respondents in remote areas39. the examinees are encouraged to participate in a discussion that usually lasts for about two hours. however. focus groups. Even though the whole process is recorded for later analysis. Finally. but also the body language of the examinee. as well as audio and video recordings in order to later analyse not only answers. their best and worst experiences with products or services38. However. Today. Laddering is a technique used to focus questioning from listing characteristics of the observed product to revealing characteristics of the consumer himself37. longer interview (lasting over 30 minutes) which is carried out by well educated researchers.

• Completion test. this technique has its limitations as well. a conversation (balloon test) or an event presented in pictures (construction test). but it can also influence the occurrence of socially acceptable answers for some examinees which do not necessarily need to be true. • Role-playing. Today. They are as follows: • Association technique. Nevertheless. When it comes to word association tests. attitudes and beliefs through seemingly unrelated things. This technique includes different types of tests depending on whether the examinee needs to complete a sentence (sentence completion test). Examinees cannot hear others. Slavo Kukić . Ever since its application in motivational research. which requires the examinees to put themselves in the shoes of another person. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . This technique also has certain limitations. the examinees respond about what they associate with certain words. Muris Čičić . Owning a computer is simply a basic precondition to participate in this type of focus group. Projective techniques come from psychology and their purpose is to encourage examinees to project their hidden motives. this indirect method of data collection has acquired popularity. The use of online focus groups usually results in more honest and spontaneous answers due to the different environment in which the examinees are (in front of their computers)41. but they can read what the others are writing.40 Consumer Behaviour Focus groups are gathered for different purposes including the search for new ideas. there are five forms of projective techniques in consumer behaviour research42. Online focus groups are used today as an alternative to traditional focus groups. If the examinee is shown different pictures with a previously determined meaning. and to show how that person would behave in a certain situation. feelings. Group interaction can be encouraging for examinees. This technique has two forms. new product development or evaluating promotional campaigns40. Group interaction results in new findings which show the depth of the observed problem. A problem also arises when an examinee is sensitive and when he or she hesitates to speak openly in front of other people. this is called a picture association test.

Metaphor analysis occurs as a result of the fact that most communication is nonverbal.Consumer behaviour research 41 • Personalisation. A case study is focused on a specific individual case. This is why music. a colour or form with a familiar meaning. the three main instruments are a questionnaire.6 Data collection instruments In the primary data collection process. The use of one type of expression in order to reveal feelings about another type is called a metaphor44. a case study provides a comprehensive description and analysis of a certain situation45. II chapter . attention must be paid to the instruments which will be used. The aim is for the examinees to cut out pictures from magazines which show their feelings about a product and place these pictures in a collage which is interpreted with the help of a researcher. which involves assigning characteristics of living beings to particular products. it is logical that the results obtained by a case study cannot be generalised. In consumer behaviour research. for example. It is used to research the level of similarities between products. the tracking of a certain product purchase. This being the case. and the fact that the majority of people think visually which is why it is hard for them to express their attitudes. along with the selection of an appropriate technique (or techniques) of the research. However. In consumer behaviour research. pictures and drawings are used for the purpose of nonverbal expression. One form of metaphor analysis is collage research. a case study means direct observation of activities and documenting data during. opinions or feelings about the research subject in words43. test and scales. A case study is therefore used to gain insight into a situation. but also as pilot test before the main research takes place. • Symbol technique. which is based on the examinee assigning a symbol to a product. This is how a quality foundation for investigating is built. 2.

number and form of the questions is important. Slavo Kukić . for example. Closed-ended questions are answered by multiplechoice. objective and short47. unambiguous. which is connected to establishing contact with the examinee but also to the implementation of the entire course of the study with a special accent on the possible reactions of the examinees to the content of certain questions. or if this is done indirectly. Since this is probably the most frequently used instrument in quantitative research.42 Consumer Behaviour A questionnaire. indicate the approach to asking questions. The second one is a logical strategy which should ensure the researcher probes into what he is interested in. Closed-ended questions which result in answers that are simpler to analyse are more acceptable to examinees. as well as their order. The questions in the questionnaire need to be clear. questions can be open-ended or closed-ended. point out two basic strategies or two orders on which each questionnaire should be based. more precisely. and the processing of the answers is demanding. the verbal formulation. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Some authors. the order of the questions in the questionnaire should also be considered. consists of a sequence of questions related to the research problem46. Depending on their form. It is also important to consider what the questionnaire will provide. Direct and indirect questions. which can also appear in questionnaires. interesting. by using either a funnel technique (from general towards specific) or a reverse funnel technique (from specific towards general). The difference. is whether the examinee is directly asked what one wants to know. it is possible to distinguish between a questionnaire (for gathering facts) and opinionary (for investigating attitudes and opinions). Open-ended questions are used in the preparation phases of the research as a base for formulating closed-ended questions. However. Open-ended questions offer the examinee the possibility to formulate an answer independently. Accordingly. Kukic and Markic48. as a primary data collection instrument. the creation of a questionnaire requires serious alertness of the researcher. Besides their appearance. The first one is a psychological strategy. Muris Čičić .

g. Among the existing types of tests for consumer behaviour research. temperament. product characteristics according to importance or new product concepts according to future purchasing intentions54. Due to unreliability. are examined by these tests49. • Semantic differential scale. expensive/cheap) which are situated on opposite sides of an odd number of five or seven items. there are various forms and classifications of attitude scales (see Figure 4). The selected group of examinees is submitted to the same test.Consumer behaviour research 43 A test is often used as a research instrument and it consists of a sequence of connected tasks. the obtained qualitative data needs to be completed by more reliable data obtained in a differentway. The scale is used when comparing consumers’ perceptions of competitive products and for identifying the product characteristics which need to be improved53. for example. good/bad. In resources. Personality inventory is a personality test for researching nature and temperament. interests. The examinees are expected to evaluate a certain characteristic on this scale. Even though it can have different uses. In this analysis. but also of interpreting. which became very popular due to the simplicity of answering. This descriptive type of scale requires the examinee to express their level of agreement with the statements by choosing one of the five possible intensities51. Projective tests are used to investigate the subconscious field or to discover what the examinees are consciously hiding. which is formed based on bipolar adjectives (e. II chapter . etc. more precisely. which requires the examinees to rank objects according to certain criteria. More complex characteristics such as attitudes. where solving the tasks and evaluating the results is carried out according to a previously determined procedure. white/black. personality traits. and it consists of a list of statements which distinguishes it from a questionnaire that offers a series of questions50. nature. a feeling or belief in this characteristic52. it is mostly used to examine attitudes. • Rank scale. the ones which fall into the personality tests group are particularly important. Scale is an important instrument in consumer behaviour research. the emphasis is on the following three: • Likert scale. emotional characteristics. ranking advertisements according to interest.

2007 2..7 Sampling Consumer behaviour research can be. in theory. Day. In other words. 9th edition.A. This is why sampling is used.. In real life. The reason lies in the fact that conducting research on an entire population is expensive and requires a lot of time. Muris Čičić . Melika Husić-Mehmedović . i.e. this means that actual research is always conducted on a smaller or larger part of the whole population. while the final results aren’t necessary reliable.: Marketing research. the first approach is objectively inapplicable. John Wiley & Sons. certain samples are used in the research.S. V. D. G.44 Consumer Behaviour Figure 4: Classification of attitude scales Source: Aaker. Kumar. Slavo Kukić . conducted on an entire population or just a part of it.

Consumer behaviour research 45 a part of the total population on which the research will be conducted. The selection is based on a table of random numbers which is usually generated by a computer or by lottery choice. There are three different types of samples – probability. There are three groups of this type – convenience. Firstly. deliberate and quota sampling. a stratified probability sample is formed in two stages. It is important for the sample to be representative. quota sampling begins with a certain II chapter . A sample is representative only if it has all the characteristics of the group it is representing. and then sample units are obtained by random selection from each group. this can depend on the sampling method. On the other hand. and the sample size will depend on the needed level of data reliability. Convenience sampling refers to a sample which is the most accessible to the researcher at a certain moment. Finally. Within each of these categories. A non-probability sample is used if there is no need for the research results to be projected onto the entire population. Another important issue is the design of the sample. the population is divided into groups according to a specific characteristic. The basic set refers to all units which have a specific characteristic and are the subject of the research. Depending on whether the proportions that each group has in the population want to be kept. samples can be proportional or unproportional. there are various types of samples and some of them are listed in the following analysis. Designing a sample means answering three questions: who will be included in the sample. a deliberate sample is formed based on the researcher’s evaluation of the most typical representatives of the population in terms of a specific characteristic. but if it is enough for them to represent the population56. A simple probability sample is a form where each member of the basic set is equally likely to be selected as a sample. simple and stratified. There are two types of probability samples. previously known. In probability sampling. non-probability and combined samples. On the other hand. Sample units are determined by defining the market which needs to be researched. what will be the size of the sample and how the sample will be formed55. Even though a larger sample is considered to give more reliable data. probability of being selected as a sample. all units of the basic set have the same.

2. marketers often conduct series of large and expensive researches. After that. Even though ethics should be a component of every type of consumer behaviour research. Combined samples are selected through several phases where combinations of different previously mentioned approaches can be used. where only a few zones are chosen by random selection. but there is still the fear that this information will be “ceded” to another company. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . This sample is created by defining zones according to a specific characteristic. therefore consumers are at a loss. has a great significance not only for profit organisations. Through different promotional activities. unfortunately things such as violation of intimacy or consumer fraud exist in contemporary practice of consumer research. or even worse. in a way that they correspond with the portion of each group in the population. A typical example of a combined sample is a zone sample. When searching for information on wants and needs of consumers. Internet technology has considerably contributed to the fact that marketers have more and more useful information. Since only the number of examinees within a quota is defined. Increasing costs of marketing lead to higher product prices.46 Consumer Behaviour characteristic by which a portion of the population with this characteristic is defined. These zones are again divided into new zones and the process is repeated until we finally get a sample. Consumers believe they are the ones paying for these researches57. but in a much wider context. Slavo Kukić . consumers often agree on giving personal information to a certain company. researchers use different approaches to obtain more data on consumers. it is also necessary to point out some disadvantages. used for different purposes without the knowledge and permission of the consumer. Muris Čičić . However. as stated at the beginning of this paper. Thanks to the developed IT infrastructure and global networking processes. the researcher has the freedom of choice.8 Negative aspects of consumer behaviour research Consumer behaviour research. quotas or number of units with the characteristics who are going into the sample are defined.

4. What are the methods of data collection for quantitative analysis? 5.10. Define primary and secondary data. ibid 11.. 1997 8.: Ponasanje potrosaca. G.L. Schiffman.. 7th edition.2011. M. How is an adequate sample determined? References 1. L.L. S. 2006 4. Schiffman.L. Schiffman.) 6. Zagreb.Consumer behaviour research 47 Questions for revision 1. Kanuk. L.) 3. 2006 >>> II chapter . G. L. postupci i instrumenti znanstvenoistrazivackog rada. 4th edition. F.. 2004 2. Kanuk. 5th edition. Opinio. tehnike.: Ponasanje potrosaca.: Ponasanje potrosaca.: Istrazivanje trzista. W.: Metodologija drustvenih znanosti – metode.2011.. Mate. Mate. W. Cline. Zagreb. Mate. 7th edition. xRYtY0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=hoyer. 2nd edition. When is it appropriate to use quantitative or qualitative research? 7. Zagreb. L. available on: http://books. M.. What are the methods of data collection for qualitative analysis? 6. Kukic. J. 2009. Kesic. ibid 7.. D.: Consumer behavior.: Consumer behavior. T. available on: http://books. 2004 10. ibid 9. Kardes. Zagreb. Markic.R. L. L. L.: Ponasanje potrosaca. Macinnis. Kanuk. G.10. 7th edition. Vranesevic. 7nJ6000C&printsec=frontcover&hl=hr#v=onepage&q&f=false (23. Which types of consumer behaviour research do you recall and what are the main differences between them? 2. T.. Hoyer.+macinnis&hl=hr#v=onepage&q&f =false (22. 2004 5. 2010. Marusic. T. B. Describe the six main phases of the consumer behaviour research process. D. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. South-Western Cengage Learning. South-Western Cengage Learning.

Zagreb. 33. T. Zagreb. G.) Kesic.A. 2006. 20. 28.2011. Adeco. 2006. S. Mate. Vranesevic. 2007 >>> Melika Husić-Mehmedović . 7th edition.. 32. 2nd edition. B. M. L. M. Vranesevic. Markic. V.. T. 1997 Kukic. postupci i instrumenti znanstvenoistrazivackog rada.10. 30. 22. Day.2006. S. Opinio. 1997 Kesic. available on: http:// books. Adeco. Zagreb. Kumar. G. 2006 Schiffman. 27. 2006 Schiffman. R..+consumer+behavior&hl=hr#v=onepage&q=wright%2C%20consumer%20 behavior&f=false (22.: Marketing research. Zagreb.. V. Opinio. Thomson Learning. 14. 26.10. Opinio. 4th edition. 25. T.. 18.L. ht. 35.: Consumer Zagreb. S. 17. Zagreb... Slavo Kukić . 7th edition.: Metodologija drustvenih znanosti – metode.S.aspx?sid=1033&to=Printable. V.: Ponasanje potrosaca. Opinio. 2006 Kukic. 2007 Kesic. 9th edition. Zagreb. G. D. 2004 Aaker. 13. 2nd edition. Marusic. Mate. L. R. T.liderpress. Day. 18. 9th edition.: Izravan pogled u sive celije potrosaca.1. G. D. 4th edition.: Istrazivanje trzista. 34.) ibid Babic. D. 16.: Istrazivanje trzista. 24. 2006 Marusic. John Wiley & Sons.A. available on: http:// www. John Wiley & Sons. T.+consumer+behavior&hl=hr#v=onepage&q=wright%2C%20consumer%20 behavior&f=false (22.10. M.S. tehnike. Adeco. Day. 31. Marusic. Kumar.2011.: Ponasanje potrosaca. 2007 Marusic.S. 19.2011.: Metodologija drustvenih znanosti – metode. 23. L..: Istrazivanje trzista.2011. John Wiley & Sons.A.: Ponasanje potrosaca. Vranesevic.+consumer+behavior&hl=hr#v=onepage&q=wright%2C%20consumer%20 behavior&f=false (22.ascx (25.: Consumer behavior.10. ht. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. B. R.: Istrazivanje trzista.: Ponasanje potrosaca.. 4th edition.) ht.: Marketing research.. Zagreb.: Ponasanje potrosaca. 15. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. L.: Marketing research. 2004 Kesic. 2006 Wright. Kanuk. T. D. M. 9th edition. 2006. V. Zagreb. tehnike. Kumar. 1997 Wright. 2nd edition. 9th edition. Vranesevic. available on: http:// books. 21. 2nd edition. available on: http:// books.L. 4th edition. 2006 ibid Aaker. Thomson Learning. Muris Čičić .48 Consumer Behaviour 12. G. Thomson Learning.A. Markic. postupci i instrumenti znanstvenoistrazivackog rada. 2007 ibid Wright.: Ponasanje potrosaca. John Wiley & Sons.: Marketing research. 1997 ibid Aaker.: Consumer behavior.. T. Adeco.S.. Kumar. 29.

. D. G. D... S. D. 2007 38. 2006 49. M. B. Mate. 2004 56. tehnike. D.: Consumer behavior. Schiffman. Kumar.: Ponasanje potrosaca. 2007 42. G. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. Kesic. 9th edition. L. postupci i instrumenti znanstvenoistrazivackog rada. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. G. Kesic.. 7th edition. G. South-Western Cengage Learning. 2007 40. Cronley. G. V. 2009 43.: Marketing research. Kumar.. Aaker. B.: Ponasanje potrosaca. Zagreb. Cline.+macinnis&hl=hr#v=onepage&q&f =false (22. Kanuk.: Metodologija drustvenih znanosti – metode.: Consumer behavior. G. D. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru.R. xRYtY0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=hoyer.: Metodologija drustvenih znanosti – metode.: Marketing research. Schiffman..: Ponasanje potrosaca.: Marketing research. Zagreb. 2006 47. John Wiley & Sons. Opinio... 2009 39. Aaker.) II chapter . Aaker. Day.: Marketing research..2011. Cicic. 2nd edition..10... M. Zagreb. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. 2010. Kardes. 2004 45. S. John Wiley & Sons.A. Mate. 7th edition.L. T.. 9th edition. Macinnis. B. 2007 46. M. L. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. Kukic. 7th edition. Cicic. Zagreb.: Ponasanje potrosaca. V.10. Kumar. South-Western Cengage Learning.. Kukic. Markic. 2006 48. ibid 57. Kukic. 2004 51. available on: http://books. D.S. postupci i instrumenti znanstvenoistrazivackog rada. ibid 50.2011.S. 2006 53. Zagreb.S... L.: Ponasanje potrosaca.S. 7th edition. available on: http://books. G. Day. D. V. Day.A. Aaker.. T. 2007 55. Kanuk. Hoyer. T. L. John Wiley & Sons. 2004 54.: Marketing research.: Ponasanje potrosaca. 2006 52. John Wiley & Sons. L. L. 2009 37. V. Opinio. S. S. tehnike. postupci i instrumenti znanstvenoistrazivackog rada. W. Kanuk. Day.: Ponasanje potrosaca. 5th edition. Kukic. Husic. T.: Ponasanje potrosaca. Markic.Consumer behaviour research 49 36.A. tehnike. G. 2nd edition. M.: Metodologija drustvenih znanosti – metode. 9th edition. M.L. Aaker.. Mate. Kumar.. 7nJ6000C&printsec=frontcover&hl=hr#v=onepage&q&f=false (23.. Zagreb. M.. Kukic. S. Husic. Schiffman. F. V. Schiffman. L. 2nd edition. 9th edition. Day. Husic. L.. Mate. G. S. Opinio..: Ponasanje potrosaca.S. 2009. John Wiley & Sons. 9th edition...A. Kesic.) 41.: Ponasanje potrosaca.L. Cicic. Kumar. Zagreb. J. 2006 44.L. Ekonomski fakultet Sveucilista u Mostaru. L. Kukic.


III chapter MOTIVES AND MOTIVATION Chapter objectives • • • • Understand relations among needs. goals and motives Types of needs. goals and motives Analysis of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Differences between positive and negative. rational and emotional motives • Methods of exploring motives • Types of depth interviews and focus groups .


In other words. it is possible to differentiate between several types of needs. 3. Acquired needs do not have this property though. This is not a reason to disregard their uniqueness or ignore their differences though. the problem of confusing or even identifying needs. and goals. Accordingly. Unlike primary needs III chapter . theoretical attention. Therefore. such as the need for food. It is true that these concepts are closely related and intertwined.1 Needs Need is the first element of the motivational chain and therefore a precondition for the rest of them. clothes. MOTIVES AND MOTIVATION Motivation certainly plays an important role as a variable that determines consumer behaviour. water. without it there are no motives or motivation to accomplish goals. motives. motivation and goal achievement as concepts without which motivation overall cannot be understood. shelter etc. in order to analyse the meaning of motivation for consumer behaviour. This lack has a number of characteristics. and acquired needs. This proves a certain lack of understanding of the subject. The most common classification is into two large groups of needs: inborn or biological needs. Inborn needs. we can say that a need always implies a certain lack in a person. Satisfying these needs is therefore essential and this is why they are also called primary needs. even if only at the level of elementary differences. To define the concept. motivation.53 3. and goals appears. In life and often in theory too. It is also true that motivation represents a valid link in the chain of needs. has to be paid in the explanation of similarities and differences among needs. motives. are a precondition of a man’s biological existence.

A generic goal.. Slavo Kukić . 3. Therefore this type of need is of no interest for marketing purposes.  People often have needs that do not motivate them to act i. it is a result of motivated behaviour. If. is not a precondition of a man’s biological existence. Classification of goals is based on it. you have a need to see the surface of the moon. however. These needs are the product of the culture a person lives in and satisfying them is not a requirement for a person’s survival. and in accordance with that they will do all they can to motivate consumers to select and buy their product. it makes a difference whose fruit juice consumers choose. is for the final choice to be their juice. to satisfy them.  Goal is actually a specific external stimulant that acts as a landmark in a person’s attempts to satisfy their needs. On the other hand. Their goal. for the producers of fruit juice. at least two types of classification have importance. it is possible to notice certain uniqueness from one to another. a goal is seen as a marketing category. status etc. consumers are stimulated to use fruit juice. With a goal set like this. satisfying acquired needs: the need for prestige.54 Consumer Behaviour that are present in a man since his birth. Muris Čičić . More precisely.e. the last element is undoubtedly goal.2 Goals Regarding the order of the elements in the so-called motivational chain. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . power. For instance. From a marketing perspective. is the consumption of fruit juice. such need does not motivate you to act in order to satisfy it. for instance. a productspecific goal. The first one is the classification into generic and product-specific goals. achievement. which is why they are often called secondary needs. As its realisation is within the sphere of unreal. reputation.

is a negative goal. The name itself tells us about their nature: they are avoided. it is certainly one of the positive goals. For example they will offer products for keeping healthy: low-fat food. organise s healthy diet. fitness equipment etc. Gaining weight. humans act in order not to achieve them. Positive goals are always the desired goals toward which a person’s behaviour is directed. Businesses adapt to individual goals structured and adjusted to fit dominant cultural norms and values as well as self-perception. There are different ways of achieving these goals though. for instance. One of them is joining a fitness club in order to work out regularly and get fit.Motives and motivation 55 Figure 5 Another classification of goals is into positive and negative ones. III chapter . If you set the goal to get fit. a person creates a daily routine: joins a jogging club. etc. To avoid it. Negative goals are different.

and needs make no sense unless there is a desire to satisfy them and reach a desired goal. However. and answer Melika Husić-Mehmedović . in accordance with the above. in order to understand consumer behaviour. and that direct and manage that activity. If.56 Consumer Behaviour Figure 6 3. Not differentiating them is one of the signs of not understanding either though. a totality of internal factors that stimulate one to activity. the space between needs and goals is not vacant. Therefore. Muris Čičić . we could say that it is a result of interaction between psychological and physiological processes within a person. needs and goals are interdependent. It is occupied with two more elements: motives and motivation. we want to define a motive. Observed this way. there is a need to clarify both so that they are realised fully. There are no goals without needs. It is not uncommon for these two to be considered one and the same. motives are important for consumer behaviour because they enable the external results of these internal processes to be discovered. Slavo Kukić .3 Motives As marketing variables.

Fulgosi. stability. fear. affection). sex). Maslow’s hierarchy of motives or needsiii is often exploited. price. social motives and personality motives (needs and motives of ego or self-actualization). A fundamental determinant of rational motives is that they rely on the logic that consumer behaviour is rational. They are all sorted in accordance with their importance. air. reputation. health. higher-level needs are actualised only after the old ones are fulfilled1. If we observe motives as one of the marketing variables that determine consumer behaviour though. individual and group behaviour in the markets is the way it is. shelter. to the most complex. consumers. More precisely. status etc.Motives and motivation 57 the question why human. emotional motives rely on the logic that consumers choose goals using personal or subjective criteria such as pride. social (belonging.3. 62. 3. We are going to use the latter approach for our analysis.. warranty. familiarity. 1972. the behaviour that they find most rational may appear irrational to others. Because of this. iii Schiffman and Kanuk use the term „hierarchy of needs“. water. Unlike them. attraction. weight. choose those that bring most benefit to them. For this they use different criteria for the assessment of available products: size. uses the term „hierarchy of motives or needs“ (1990.) tend to classify the five above levels of motives and needs into three groups: natural motives or needs (physiological motives or needs for safety and security). p. in the process of making a decision about buying products and services. Abraham Maslow founded it and based it on the identification of five levels of motives or needs: starting with the lowest. motives or needs of ego or selfesteem (self-respect. self-realisation or self-fulfilment (Figure 7)iv. etc. safety and security (order. The most common classification is into rational and emotional motives. Motives or needs were therefore classified into: physiological (food.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of motives Some theoreticians of motivation believe that there is a hierarchy of needs and that new. it is possible to identify several types. iv III chapter . Some authors (see Bennet and Katsarijan. routine. In theory. love. 254-255). independence after a successful performance etc). availability etc).. psychological ones. on the other hand. and motives or needs of self-actualisation. p. social and professional status and prestige. friendship. clothes. biological ones.

Namely. this represents the basic problem of Maslow’s hierarchy. it is impossible to empirically reach reliable indicators that would show to what extent a need has to be satisfied before the next one is actualised. Hunger is increased by a billboard with a picture of a juicy hamburger. However.the lower one. and as a result our need for food will have to be satisfied or it will cause frustration. Slavo Kukić . For instance. but will focus on providing food instead.58 Consumer Behaviour It is not our intention to explain each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of motives or needs in great detail. if we are hungry. Muris Čičić . Marketers often use this information in the advertising industry. it cannot be tested empirically. In other words. is the hypothesis that the precondition of satisfying every next level of motives or needs is a previous satisfaction of the one before it . appealing primarily to unsatisfied physiological needs. Figure 7: Maslow’s hierarchy of motives or needs Melika Husić-Mehmedović . What must be mentioned though. we will not think a lot about whether the society respects us.

an advertisement can put the emphasis on various levels of motives or needs. On the other hand.Motives and motivation 59 Regardless of this problem. depending on its design. motives or needs of ego are emphasised. mass consumption products often satisfy a number of levels of needs. Finally. if low calories of juice are in the foreground. Failure to achieve a goal often results in frustration4. for instance. Figure 8 When people cannot achieve specific goals that would fulfil certain needs. satisfy physiological needs. food and clothes. can emphasise different motives or needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of motives is often exploited in marketing. If. Marketing promotion of juice or ice-cream for example. if next to a particular ice-cream a group of friends having fun is shown. III chapter . however. Two sets of facts support this. their behaviour can divert to an alternative goal. On the one hand. it is a promotion of social motives or needs. Shelter. As far as teenagers are concerned. Personal care products satisfy human social needs though. ice-cream’s characteristics of flavour or refreshment are emphasised. it is about a physiological motive.

Finally. According to McClelland. Slavo Kukić . and negative.60 Consumer Behaviour Figure 9 3. Muris Čičić . which is characteristic for people who want to be successful and to take responsibility in problem-solving. people with this need are more prone to socialising than to success. Research showed that more than four fifths of the people with this type of need show a tendency towards risk-taking in decision-making.2 Other classifications of motives In the attempt to explain consumer behaviour. It is McClelland’s theory of acquired needs.3. contemporary theories have appeared on the scene lately. Two approaches are worth mentioning. • Need for power. which results in the desire to dominate and subjugate others. another theory is often used. It can be expressed in two forms: positive. whose result is a convincing and inspirational power. all motives Melika Husić-Mehmedović . or for gaining and establishing control over others. and that they are successful managers. • Need for affiliation. which is based on the hypothesis that three types of acquired needs are relevant for human motivation: • Need for achievement. According to the first one.

belonging. primarily the purchase and use of certain products and services. The motives to play. but the fact that these types of motives influence purchase and consumption of certain products and services. III chapter . status etc. for example. The source of this force is in a state of tension because a certain need is not fulfilled. implies that the products or services have in a certain way been approved by the group. motives of self-esteem. clothes for adults. are based on the search for products that can make a person or a household function.4 Types of motivation It has been mentioned earlier that in the chain made of needs. more precisely. In order to satisfy them it is necessary to fulfil certain preconditions. this fact is not the most relevant one. learn or rest. Such approval. finally. motives. 3. the choice of beverages or restaurants etc. the motive to acquire a washing machine is related to the desire to save time. are a classic example of such needs. From a marketing aspect though. functional motives. motivation and goal. a driving force that stimulates an individual to action. This fact alone speaks about the level of importance of motivation as a variable that determines consumer behaviour. The needs to sleep. Fulfilling them. In the context of symbolic motives. How to define motivation as a separate term though? It is a state of being in which a person’s energy is mobilised and directed toward an external goal. in isolation. for instance. etc. hear news etc. The motive to buy a larger car is in the need for a larger boot.Motives and motivation 61 can be classified into two groups: social and non-social. symbolic and hedonistic. motivation takes the role of a link among other elements of the chain. are marked by this feeling. is characteristic for fashion and sports products for the young. The latter.. are determined by the feeling of satisfaction at the moment of need fulfilment. The second approach to the classification of motives differentiates among three fundamental groups of motives: functional. Social motives are characterized by the orientation toward other people. is always the need for achievement. and the way to reduce tension is to act and fulfil the need. non-social motives. The first of them. relate to needs that are fulfilled independently from any external influences.. Hedonistic motives.

Figure 10 “IF A MAN WOULD MOVE THE WORLD. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . creates the feeling of pleasure and success that you achieve in the process. HE MUST FIRST MOVE HIMSELF. One has a function of a wink. and the other has a function of stimulating specific behaviour in order to achieve a goal by fulfilling a need. because it enables you to meet friends. but also because shopping is a sort of amusement.Socrates If motivation that stimulates a consumer is put under the microscope. Muris Čičić .” . etc. You are motivated to shop because it takes you out of the house and interrupts the routine. but of a number of motives: a specific motivational combination.62 Consumer Behaviour If motivation is defined this way. we can reach the conclusion that the state of motivation can have two possible outcomes. there is no doubt that as a rule it is not under the influence of only one. the function that precedes behaviour. Slavo Kukić .

It is the situation when a consumer has to choose between two equally unpleasant alternatives. longing) that drives a person to a certain object or circumstance. that pulls a consumer away from a certain object or a circumstance. is often free of pure motivational situations. by the type of driving force that is built into motivation. On the contrary. This conflict can appear in a number of forms. For instance. Positive motivation is determined by the feeling of driving force (need. for example to have the choice of quitting smoking because it harms health or of continuing smoking because it gives pleasure. • Emotional: involvement at the very act of purchase of products such as gifts etc. III chapter . another conclusion can be reached: that motivation results in the sense of a person’s involvement as his or her specific psychological state. when a consumer has to choose one of the two options: pay for the dishwasher to be fixed.Motives and motivation 63 Motivation does not always take the same shape. in the essence of negative motivation is the feeling of a driving force such as fear. they can be faced with the positive and negative aspects of the purchase and use of a specific product. The third type of the so-called motivational conflict is quite common as well. Three manifested forms are relevant for consumer behaviour. in case of getting some unplanned money. a person can choose between travelling to an attractive destination and buying an expensive car. For instance. or buy a new one. a differentiation between two types of motivation is rather common: positive and negative. Unlike it. First of all. a consumer can be given a choice of two equally attractive alternatives. Real life. Further. involvement can be manifested in at least two forms: Rational: involvement that is manifested in the form of thinking about a product’s attributes and comparing them to the attributes of similar products. This is a classic example of this sort of conflict. the most common state in real life is that of a parallel existence and a conflict of positive and negative motivational forces. Regarding consumer behaviour. How to recognise each one of them? Simply said. • If motivation is defined as described above: a state of being in which a person’s energy is mobilised and directed toward an external goal. aversion etc. desire. truth be told. More precisely.

if a consumer is interested in motorbikes. The first. buying a pen involves insignificant amount of thinking to process information. Finally. is the case with routine shopping. or involvement in the process of shopping. after which the product loses the capacity to motivate certain behaviour. affective involvement. Regarding the situational. This. while buying a car involves a detailed research of all information available before the purchase. On the contrary. It does not have a characteristic of durability. The so-called situational involvement. as well as to the very act of purchase. the involvement of emotions. warranty. all alternatives are carefully Melika Husić-Mehmedović . etc.e. Muris Čičić . this will lead to his interest for magazines about motorbikes. as a rule. This type of involvement is directly related to the price of a product. motorbike cross-country races. it is closely related to a concrete situation such as a purchase of a concrete product: to the information search regarding the product. implies little readiness to spend significant time and money on the process of making a decision about a purchase. post-purchase services and such. it is possible to differentiate between two basic levels of involvement in the purchase decision-making: low and high level of involvement. the excitement or disappointment caused by it. This type of involvement cannot be excluded during a purchase of holiday gifts. price. etc. this means: the more expensive the product. at least four types of involvement are relevant for consumer behaviour. purchase of products for daily use. for motorbike exhibitions. must not be forgotten. Permanent involvement is a longterm interest of an individual for a certain product or group of products. Cognitive involvement is the involvement manifested as contemplation during the processing of purchase-related information. a theatre play. or the involvement during the purchase of a certain product. Slavo Kukić . the higher level of involvement. For instance. i. is entirely different. low level of involvement.64 Consumer Behaviour Regardless of the manifested form though. So-called high-level involvement implies the opposite situation: a consumer is ready to spend more time and money on the process of decision-making. Simply said. For instance.

Due to the impossibility of achieving certain goals. and brand confidence has a significant role. Regardless of the form. type or level of involvement. etc. the increase of self-confidence results in higher aspirations and goals. physiological initiation is only one cause of need activation. A significant number of the above causes rely. stimulate this sort of activation? There are different options of course. The need for food is permanent. undoubtedly. it is possible to point out those that. From a marketing perspective therefore. after all. A part of the cause is the fact that the satisfaction of some needs means the actualisation of others. permanent characteristic of a person’s/consumer’s personality. lies in the fact that most needs are never completely or permanently satisfied. from the perspective of consumer behaviour. Let us remember Maslow’s hierarchy of motives that relies on this very premise. join an association for amateur actors and attend acting classes. socialising. However. Success in accomplishing some goals can also be a cause of a person’s permanent motivation. are more common than others. If this is true. Such daydreaming can be a reason for a certain purchase though – a person may buy a pair of skis and attend a ski school. A wish to buy a computer III chapter . certain relevance belongs to the so-called environmental need activation – stimuli that come from a person’s environment. Emotional activation of needs must not be ignored either. actor. Activating them implies a source of new motivation. Therefore there is a lower possibility of making a mistake during purchase. And finally. For instance. ad hoc state. Namely. It is almost impossible to list all the causes in a review such as this one. but so are the needs for fashion trends. an individual can often daydream. on the existence of specific latent needs. is beyond doubt. hunger as a physiological need can be induced by a certain TV program that can then introduce an advertisement of a certain food product. the conclusion that motivation is not a temporary. for example imagine himself as a top sportsman.Motives and motivation 65 evaluated. an interesting question is: how to induce. etc. but an imminent. One of the causes of a person’s motivation. appraisal etc. musician. However. it is difficult to avoid another question: Where to look for the causes for such motivation? The answer is not easy at all. High level of involvement is therefore emphasised when product price is higher.

These are mostly the techniques commonly used in psychology and sociology. searching for the answers to above questions. or hunger by the smell from a bakery.66 Consumer Behaviour can be activated by a simple walk by a computer shop window. The first one is a depth interview. It is also recommended if the research subject is highly confidential and private or implies certain strong. Finally. There are situations in which this method is especially efficient and therefore recommended. The interview starts with a request for the client to define all attributes that he or she finds useful for describing and differentiating various brands of products or services that are the research subject. uses various data collection methods and techniques. 3. it should be used if the subject of examination is a step-by-step understanding of complex behaviour. The fundamental objective of such research is to answer the questions such as: why do people do something like buy one brand and not another. commonly known as motivational research or research of motivation.5 Exploring motives In order to identify subconscious or hidden motivation of consumers. Four of them deserve special attention. It is an individual interview consisting of long conversations that have not been structured in advance. depth interview primarily uses two techniques: laddering technique and technique grand tour. such as banking services of specific banks. Laddering technique is based on the definition of the final state that clients have in their relation with products and services. etc. Motivational research of a person’s behaviour as a consumer. Slavo Kukić . including their behaviour as consumers. attitudes and needs is necessary. Muris Čičić . why are they ready to shop more and spend more when in a certain psychological state. If values are the research subject. These Melika Husić-Mehmedović . various kinds of research are conducted. socially acceptable norms of behaviour. it is any situation where a detailed examination of personal behaviour. etc. First of all. A theoretical foundation for this is the thesis that a non-conscious mind has a significant role in people’s behaviour overall.

using questionnaires as a means. In order to ensure it. as the leader of the survey. and what is not relevant for them. The guiding principle of the technique is for the examinees to reveal their worst and best experiences with a product or service. Along with the two above. which increases the value of the received answers. Therefore the entire conversation flow starts with attributes and moves across consequences to the final state. whether in personal contact or through mail. The objective is to take the clients through their typical experience with a product or service and by doing this uncover what is. during it. detailed examination. is conducted with a small group of people (focus group) that usually consists of 8 to 12 people. It is important to provide a relaxed atmosphere because it stimulates an open discussion. which a moderator has with the examinees. Defining attributes is a basis for further. The examiner may need to ask additional questions about certain details and their importance. however. the dimensions of value.Motives and motivation 67 initial questions are at the level of attributes. Group interview or focus group interview is often conducted.g. The drawback of the technique is the method of collecting such detailed data. The moderator. certain dimensions need to be understood indirectly – through research of details regarding clients’ experiences with certain products or services.e. describing in detail what happens in each situation. a depth interview technique – although it is also adequate for focus groups – is a critical incident technique. a group interview (Table 2). unlike the above two. Unlike the depth interview. by a mail survey). casual conversation about the subject of interest. and during the use of a product. as the name suggests. the advantage of the technique is that it is possible to conduct it on a large number of clients (e. The interview starts with a request for the clients to imagine themselves in a typical situation – before a purchase. The method of conducting the interview is an unstructured. and to describe them in great detail. By the technique grand tour. s/he must give everyone an opportunity to speak and encourage them to express their opinion. This technique. for examinees often provide answers that are unstructured and it takes a lot of effort to process and analyse them. but further examination leads to higher levels of consideration i. is in charge of providing such setting. The primary task must not be forgotten III chapter . can be carried out without an examiner. However.

which is why the moderator uses a reminder during the interview. Slavo Kukić . The only difference between them was that one Melika Husić-Mehmedović . depth interview DEPTH INTERVIEW Interviewing technique is easy to learn Higher cost and more time-consuming Interpretation of individual responses is easy Appropriate for revealing the “depth” of the problem No influence of the dynamics of the group. Blackwell. Gardial. even the conflicting ones Source: Woodru. “Know Your Customer”. to help him/her direct the flow of discussion. (1996). examinee’s self-confidence cannot be increased Only one attitude can be explored in the interview FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW Requires more skill Data collection costs less and is faster Data interpretation is more difficult because of the simultaneous examination of a large number of people Appropriate for generating the “width” of the researched problem The dynamics of the group can encourage or discourage the examinees Possibility to compare different attitudes. convictions or motivation through an imaginary person. and that when he is given a mask he will tell the truth. Haire showed two lists of groceries to the examinees. Therefore. F. S. situation or object. Table 2: Focus group vs. pp. 178-180 Finally. R. projective techniques are often used in order to explore motivation: the techniques that rely on Oscar Wilde’s principle that a man is least himself when he talks in his own person. Muris Čičić .68 Consumer Behaviour in the process. A famous successful application of projective techniques for marketing research purposes is Maison Haire’s from 1950.. B. This principle actually means that people are often not aware of the motives that drive them to specific behaviour and this is why straightforward questions cannot reveal them. projective techniques represent a set of examination procedures in which examinees express their feelings.

e. Situations presented by an image. an incentive. One person says something. finalisation techniques are useful for revealing hidden attitudes or motivations that examinees would not reveal if they were asked directly. where examinees have to finalise a conversation or resolve the situation. personalisation and psycho drawing. Every image has its beforehand evaluated or examined meaning – lifestyle. verbs) they can associate with. In the sentence/ story finalisation test examinees are expected to finish the sentence/story in their own words. finalisation technique. Projective techniques are mainly used as motivational research support. finalising the situations presented by a comic). personal attitude. Word association demands the examinees to say what certain words (nouns. Association technique involves showing items .words or images . and the other needs to reply (finish the conversation) – by entering the words into the balloon.Motives and motivation 69 had instant and the other had regular coffee. This way many barriers III chapter . Regardless of what form of appearance is used. balloon test (finalising the situation presented by an image). and comic finalisation test (i. Finally. items or situations as a stimulant for getting the examinees’ answers. In accordance with this. Image association uses images of people. role-play technique. are called a “balloon test”. there are two types of tests within the technique: word association and image association. The technique appears in three basic forms: as a test of finishing sentences or stories. comic finalisation test presents an imaginary event that examinees are supposed to resolve. This method enables measuring how much certain brands or products are in agreement with the situation. lifestyle or expectations of the target market. In role-play technique examinees become imaginary persons and are asked to behave the way they would in a given situation. Each examinee was asked to describe women according to these lists. animals. Finalisation technique is based on presenting an unresolved situation to the examinees that they are supposed to resolve. This test is appropriate for determining and evaluating the image of a new or existing product based on the name. Five techniques are used for the research of consumer behaviour: association technique.

In personalisation technique examinees give features and appearances of living things to objects that normally do not possess such characteristics. even though they reveal their own attitudes.g. along with the description of products using human characteristics. Finally. This introduces an entirely new view on observing different brands of the same product or of different products. it is relatively easy to find out how salespeople should behave toward clients. draw a user and non-user of the product the way they imagine them. Using this technique.70 Consumer Behaviour are removed and honest answers are provided. or how in fact they do behave. Additional data for such research can be collected if examinees are asked to. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . shape or symbol whose meaning is familiar. and that the examinee or examinees are asked why that particular colour was given to that product. five brands) are given one of the colours of spectrum each. Muris Čičić . that various product brands (e. psycho drawing as a technique requests examinees to relate an object to a certain colour. by giving the examinees the role of salespeople. For instance they can be given the task to describe an imaginary product/ service using human characteristics. for the examinees do not speak on their own behalf. opinions and anticipated behaviour. Using this method makes it possible to measure the similarity or differences between products or services. for example. Let us imagine. Slavo Kukić .

izdanje. A. pp. Van Nostrand Reinhold. A. Describe two techniques of depth interviews. L. Harper&Row. Zagreb. How and why do consumers transfer from one level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to the next? 6. P. New York. Englewood Cliffs. Zagreb 3. 5. 7. List some examples of the use of positive and negative motivation. 189-215 2. Katsarijan (1972): Consumer Behavior. Maslow. A. Benett. References 1. How are needs manifested? 2.H. Psychologica Review. and H. 72 III chapter .. 50. Inc. (1954): Motivation and Personality. What types of goals are there and how can they be used in marketing? 3. p. What are the relations among needs. (1968): Toward a Psychology of Being. New Jersey 4. teorije i istrazivanja. New York. izdanje. 8. pp. goals and motives? 4. Fulgosi.Motives and motivation 71 Questions for revision 1. and L. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. Schiffman. Skolska knjiga. Prentice Hall.H. How would you use emotional motivation and for what type of products? 9. 5. Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.D. What are the characteristics of McClelland’s theory of acquired needs? 7. (1943): A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow.G. MATE. 370-96. A. (1990) Psihologija licnosti.H.L. Maslow.H.


IV chapter PERCEPTION Chapter objectives • • • • • • • Define perception Analyse senses and their importance for consumers Review perception stages Understand selective perception Explain characteristics of perception Analyse attention and its phases The Gestalt Theory .


purchase decisions and other types of decisions. in fact determines a company’s value in the market. The relevance of perception for understanding consumer behaviour is exceptional. Consumer awareness of the value of a brand. company or an advertisement can be found in the field of perception. which is in direct relation to perception. organise s and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. the stimuli and incentives around them. The majority of them are consistent regarding the basic explanation. knowledge of perception implies understanding events during the exposure of consumers to stimuli. company. for it determines the level of possibility to create and master communication by creating a company’s image. The most common definition of perception is the one that describes it as the process by which an individual selects. The answer to the question of how consumers become aware of a product. evaluations.e. products and other elements of vital importance for marketing in general. brand. Perception of the world around us determines individual attitudes. For marketing and marketers.1 Definition of perception There are many definitions of perception. The way people experience the environment. brand. name of a service etc. There are some differences in the stress on certain aspects of the concept though. PERCEPTION Perception is a very interesting and important physiological category. i.1 IV chapter . decisions and reactions.75 4. directly influences their reactions. 4. beliefs. as well as an acceptance and appreciation of environmental incentives.

presentations. In other words. result in a number of interpretations and explanations. but need to adapt to different market segments or target markets. so-called illusions and fantasies. marketing stimuli cannot be homogenous. picture. People are different. advertisement. belief and approach. change of temperature etc. they have different views and prejudices about various things. In essence. which are often called wishes and beliefs. In order to better understand and encompass all the elements that influence perception. An individual’s active approach toward stimulus perception is now beyond any doubt. the process itself is much more complex. it is important to include both emotional and irrational elements.76 Consumer Behaviour Mowen and Minor’s2 definition is used to a similar extent and according to it perception is (also) a process in which individuals are exposed to information that arouses their attention and consideration. Very often the interpretations of completely identical stimuli are entirely different. which means that humans see reality both through objective incentives and through their own view of experiences. which leads to their understanding of it. Objectivist measure and interpretation of stimuli does not necessarily give us an insight into their perception. It is easy to prove that this does not happen in reality. Therefore their perceptions vary in accordance with these differences. the researched ways of emotional perception. The objectivist approach would be correct if every individual interpreted stimuli and incentives from the environment in an identical way. interpretation. expectations. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . can be used in the process of stimuli creation. Within this context. hear and feel what they expect or want to see. because there isn’t an objectivised measure of human behaviour or perception. Moreover. people see. hear or feel. It is important to emphasise that from the marketing aspect this presents a perfectly legitimate way of behaviour. package. Slavo Kukić . billboards. Muris Čičić . knowledge. which casts doubt on the objectivist approach and opens up an entire area of consideration and explanation of the way humans perceive. Even though the rational approach explains that using perception we in fact see or hear what actually happens around us. film. by means of perception people create or interpret the picture of the world and the environment they live in. In numerous situations completely identical stimuli such as sound.

taste and touch. On the other hand. which causes numerous situations in which the process of perception happens differently. An adapted illustration of senses is presented in Figure 113. ears. Humans have five senses: sight. rough and damp. for hearing: tempo and volume. senses are often combined and they influence each other.e. someone’s hearing is not as good. The receptors for these senses are: eyes. salty and bitter. Figure 11 Receptors react to stimuli. IV chapter . the intensity and type of stimulation also varies greatly. Regardless of the understanding of sense function and combination. and how their combination influences reality perception. for taste: sweet. involvement.Perception 77 4. psychological and social factors. smell. research shows that we are still far from completely understanding how senses are signalled in action. Likewise. Someone sees better than another. hearing. the nature of senses determines their involvement. for smell: pleasant and unpleasant scent.2 Elements that influence perception The following elements have a crucial influence on the perception of reality: sensory or sensorial factors. mouth and skin. The most common elements of perception for sight are colour. Sensory or sensorial factors relate to senses that all people have. and real i. depending on people’s individual state of receptors. In practice. shape and size. for touch: soft. nose. which with further variations leads to an unlimited number of combinations and situations regarding perception. People’s level of sense development varies greatly.

Slavo Kukić .78 Consumer Behaviour When examinees were shown a flash located in between two short sounds. as well as the intensity of the interest and selection. This also influences the involvement and a different approach to the environmental stimuli. because an immediate need or need activation leads to a higher probability of stimuli selection and reaction. Personal traits of individuals5. the greater the probability of perceiving the stimuli related to that situation. Situational factors also increase the level of stimuli sensitivity. personality and individual traits affect people’s interest in information. consumers are highly involved in the process of buying a house or a flat. lifestyle. communication with consumers regarding highly valuable products is almost always different from that regarding daily consumables. the greater the consumer’s involvement and interest. many of them registered two flashes4. The greater the interest of an individual for a product or situation that leads to the satisfaction of a certain need. Considering the risk that a purchase carries. furniture and such goods. materialism and other characteristics determine consumers’ interest and relation toward information and stimuli. Research into what caused this can reveal how different stimuli are combined and how they create an integrated picture in a human brain. Further. Innovation. The nature of communication with an individual. cognitive elements of personality. Generally it is considered that the greater the value or durability of a product or service. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Finally. which is almost always related to high value products. Situational factors. ethnocentrism. a car. Muris Čičić . Involvement is an interest or relevance that an individual gives to a certain purchase. They are: • • • • Type of product or need. There are several factors that determine the level of interest of consumers or individuals.

3 Perception process stages There are two basic approaches to perception process stages or to the dynamics of perception6.3. These approaches differ partly but they can be classified in a single way. Figure 12 4. Starting with uncontrolled ones such as the ones coming from nature and physical surroundings. Stimuli launched in the form of messages via media and directly by companies and their agents are becoming more numerous and fairly IV chapter .Perception 79 4. attention and understanding7. and interpretation8.1 Exposure/selective perception stage Every individual in the contemporary world is theoretically exposed to a potential influence of thousands of stimuli. The first one presents the stages of exposure. which is what we are going to do. to the determined ones that are launched with the intention of reaching an individual and achieving some sort of communication and influence. organisation of terms. and the second one is about perceptual selection.

This leads to the impossibility of individuals to perceive most stimuli they are exposed to due to the physical impossibility to accept and consider such a huge number. A large number of selected stimuli that are noticeable when exposed to an individual happen automatically in a given situation. These experiences in some manner refer to an automatic selection mentioned in the previous paragraph. so-called filtering. frequency.e. as well as on the characteristics and intensity of stimuli. What intrigues researchers. Slavo Kukić . Along with perception. therefore when a perception occurs along with certain environmental situations and conditions. A stimulus is a “raw material” that during selection creates attention in an individual’s consciousness and lead to perception. acceptance. smell. consumers. Therefore. taste etc) and that which is projected Melika Husić-Mehmedović . This interpretation claims that a majority of individuals already have formed criteria of elimination of unwanted stimuli. shape. Muris Čičić . rejection or complete refusal of any unrequested communication. Using filtering to eliminate unwanted stimuli is related to motives and goals of individuals i. exposure is the stage of accepting information through senses. belief or value discrepancy. or for any other reason. an individual’s previous experiences play an important role in the process of stimuli selection. as well as due to the lack of interest or understanding. The process of selection of a small number of stimuli depends on individual expectations and willingness to open up to the possibility of perception. colour. the nature of stimuli plays the most important role in the first stage of selection process. There is no doubt that people are in a position to act upon stimuli in the context of understanding. position.80 Consumer Behaviour dominant. Still. in other words. It is a fact that the increasing number of stimuli that people are potentially exposed to in a modern society “pollutes” and overcrowds the space and atmosphere we live in. psychologists and others more than anything is the objective nature of stimuli and the reflection in an individual’s awareness. whether there is an absolute compatibility between what a stimulus contains (sound. marketing experts. meaning.

Note how far from the book you were when the yellow spot disappeared. that perception is most frequently not an objectivised reality but a reflection of what an individual thinks it is.e. Figure 13: “Blind Spot” (optical disc) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Close your right eye and look at number 3. following and identifying the characteristics of environmental stimuli. As perception is. All findings show that the perception of reality is individual. At some point the yellow spot is going to disappear. the creation of a coherent picture of the world. see. among other things. i. human senses and the possibility of “measuring” environmental stimuli are limited: what people hear. There are many similar examples that confirm the limits of human senses in noticing. This claim implies the fact that people are different both individually and as groups. IV chapter . Pay attention to the difference in distance at the moment of the yellow spot’s disappearance. Further. individuals often think that they have perceived something that in the objective world has in fact never happened. or it has happened in a different way. Can you see the yellow spot in the periphery? Now slowly move toward the book or away from it. taste. There are numerous distinct illustrations of the previous discussion9. Repeat the experiment looking at a larger and then smaller number. The following figure presents one such example. feel or smell is in fact only a small segment of what happens in nature.Perception 81 on the recipient’s side.

Therefore every communication has to be above this threshold. The differential threshold of perception is the next important component of understanding the general concept of perception.82 Consumer Behaviour Considering the above. The above thresholds are not valid for all humans. and that 30 Hertz is the minimal physical limit for a human. Muris Čičić . This means that the change in stimulus that causes the detection of the difference between the two is called differential threshold of perception. humans cannot hear sounds with frequency over 10. Some animals such as whales can hear sounds below that frequency. sensory adaptation). The absolute threshold of perception is a very relevant concept in marketing for it presents a logical limit of the effort to make an impression. Slavo Kukić . In a physical sense it is known that sound threshold for humans is 1000 kHz. experiments show that it takes about 9 photons of light (waves) for sight to select the existence of stimuli. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Nothing that comes below the absolute threshold of perception makes sense in the context of investment and message creation. Very often it is effectively said that it is the line between something and nothing. but humans can’t. it is necessary to explain several key categories important for the phase of exposure or selective perception. subliminal perception and selective perception. the intensity of colour etc. Also. and one that does. The absolute threshold of perception presents the level of stimuli intensity below which people do not know of a stimulus’s existence. These categories are the absolute threshold of perception. Examples for this are the size of characters or images on billboards. Any serious marketing action must take the absolute threshold concept into consideration. butterfly curve.000Hertz. the volume of sound in a video message or on the radio. as individual quality of senses varies greatly from person to person. Further. It refers to two levels of a stimulus: one that does not stimulate any perception. and above which they become aware of it. the differential threshold of perception (Weber’s Law and the concept of Just Noticeable Difference – JND. while dogs can.

the stronger the additional one has to be in order to notice i. Therefore.Perception 83 This phenomenon is often called Just Noticeable Difference (JND) in written resources.e. Weber’s Lawv* is in its logic an extension of JND. the common logo was created by gradually reducing the IBM icon and increasing the Lexmark one in order to give the consumers enough time to adjust to the change. i is a minimal change of intensity of a stimulus necessary to cause JND. the difference in stimuli caused by individual perceptions. v Ernest Weber is a German psychologist from the 19th century IV chapter . package. during the merger of IBM and Lexmark. which actually denotes a differential threshold. On the other hand. Weber’s fraction is presented below: K= ∆i Ι K is perception of JND. Otherwise it is pointless to add useful characteristics to a product or reduce the price if consumers are not going to notice it. In marketing JND means that any change in product. Any increase in the price or reduction of supply is acceptable if it occurs below the differential threshold. and refers to the fact that the relation between two stimuli is not an absolute objectivised category. the stronger and more distinct the primary stimulus is. advertising etc. For instance.e. but depends on the intensity of the primary stimulus. must be visible and distinct enough to cause consumers to detect it. Also. changes have to be subtle enough for consumers to adjust to them. perceive the difference between them. the smaller are the chances that the additional. the law can be interpreted as an assumption that if the intensity of the first stimulus is increased. unchanged stimulus is going to be noticed. and I is the intensity of the initial stimulus. i.

there are differences among individuals and their particular capacity to perceive. surprise. marketing application of JND and Weber’s Law is in the area of prices. pleasure and enjoyment in the process. contrast. It is important to mention that in this instance. colours etc. Likewise. dimensions. product features. People exposed to intensive stimuli adjust to them with time and stop noticing them regardless of their intensity or attraction. announcements. and prominence of stimuli.. similarly to the absolute threshold of perception. Sensitivity of senses decreases as the exposure to stimuli increases. People exposed to loud sound daily adjust to it and stop noticing it. size. repetition of stimuli. placards and billboards in time stops producing any effect because receivers become insensitive to these types of stimuli. advertising and elements used in it. as well as in sales promotion and other marketing elements.84 Consumer Behaviour Figure 14 As mentioned above. the abundance of messages. Muris Čičić . Slavo Kukić . Each of these criteria signifies particular situations within which stimuli perception occurs in accordance with a given situation of individual or group consumers. packaging: shape. The phenomenon called sensory adaptation is related to Weber’s Law and JND. Adaptation Melika Husić-Mehmedović . JND-related elements that influence perceptivity are: the relevance of the product and purchase for the consumer.

the preference i.e. As the picture below shows. when a new or modified stimulus occurs. which makes the fight for differentiation and information sharing more difficult. . combining colours. The Butterfly curve phenomenon is based on the idea of sensory adaptation and possible changes10. using contrasts. i. as all additional stimuli go un-noticed and are mentally categorized as already seen. From the marketing view.. completely white or black billboards. acceptance and attraction to a specific stimulus lasts for a certain amount of time until the adaptation of senses occurs... This pressures marketers to be as creative as possible in their fight for the attention of message recipients.. modify the supply etc. which makes it difficult to direct their attention toward modified or entirely new products. sensory adaptation imposes additional tasks and obligations on marketers who want to launch a new based on the idea that something discretely different can be perceived in a more positive way than the original image High Attraction Low Level of adaptation Intensity of stimulus IV chapter . which involves louder sounds. Basically.e. the cycle is repeated: the acceptance and attraction to the new stimulus increases again. these thresholds are raised. which is when the relation turns into indifference or insensitivity for further stimuli of that type. The increase of sensory input is rather common nowadays. consumers have already adapted to the many offers available.Perception 85 can be interpreted as a change of both the absolute threshold and the level at which JND is measured. various surprises and unusual combinations etc. Figure 15 Butterfly curve. up to the next point of adaptation and saturation. However.

Finally. Likewise. in this section we are going to explain the process of selective perception. Likewise. which is where the name came from. In the context of subliminal perception. which all subconsciously relates a product or a company to erotic notions without it being obvious. we often mention the attempts to use very fast and short sequences in visual advertising that the human eye does not register but that stay in the sub consciousness. through allusion of either shapes or moves. we talk about sound messages recorded in the background of a basic message or with a slightly different rhythm. However. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . it can be applied for explaining a spontaneous change of a brand by certain categories of consumers with low loyalty to products of low relevance and consumer value. Muris Čičić . Basically it is selfexplanatory. Finally. which the human ear does not record. Slavo Kukić . the popularity of the idea outlived the lack of evidence about its effectiveness.86 Consumer Behaviour The curve that presents this phenomenon is shaped as butterfly’s wings. it relates to the possibility or assumption that people perceive stimuli without conscious understanding or under the level of awareness. Regardless of the existence of some subconscious perception elements. the practical component of this phenomenon in marketing is questionable. The butterfly curve phenomenon explains the reasons for frequent changes in fashion and fashion trends. even though it is intensely covered in written material. but which are registered in the sub consciousness and as such they enable communication and influence. A very interesting and intriguing area within consumer behaviour discipline is subliminal or unconscious perception. as a key component of understanding the exposure stage. This is a controversial idea as there is no evidence that such a way of communication works at all. and for 50 years now large companies have been aiming at affecting consumers without their realisation of it. Generally. it is hard to control them in advertising: the effects are difficult to measure and only indirect long-term recognisability can be expected. we often refer to hidden sexual symbols or a message within a message.

events. all information regarding this subject has a much bigger chance of being noticed. If they are exposed to the images that distort this picture or to facts that do not fit into their understanding of events or situations. or to be noticed by one group of individuals and go unnoticed by another. Selective attention goes one step further and takes people specifically to those stimuli that match the current needs and interests. only those that they admit through their perceptual defence. This mechanism is in fact a defensive dam for all unpleasant truths or facts that disturb an individual’s coherent picture of the world. It explains how it is possible for completely identical stimuli to be interpreted differently. selective perception is a defence mechanism that selects stimuli in accordance with the motives. selective defence and perceptual blockage. they actively search for the information regarding this subject within the purchase process and they are open toward all stimuli of this type. if a person is considering buying a car or a computer. inscriptions IV chapter . etc.Perception 87 and people’s protection from too many communication relations that they cannot physically establish. Selective exposure is a sort of behaviour that exhibits openness toward the stimuli that lead to pleasant and satisfying reactions i. attractive visual arrangements. situations or concepts often differs diametrically. It is important to explain four basic concepts11 regarding selective perception: selective exposure. Perceptual defence is an extremely important mechanism of consumer perception. People instinctively tend to expose themselves to good music. pleasant odours. expectations and interests of individuals. that indulge individuals. In commercial sense. When consumers start thinking about the need to buy a product. because people use different facts i. people simply defend themselves by not receiving or by rejecting these images.e. Within the marketing context.e. but that also depends on the nature and intensity of stimuli. In other words. whilst in any other situation this very information will be un-noticed by the same person. The interpretation of history. this implies a conscious search for and exposure to those messages and content that match the current interests. when they reach the stage of information search and evaluation of alternatives.e. Therefore. selective attention. i.

) is perceptual blocking as well. and the procedure of stimuli selection is subject to experience. orientation reflex is used to catch consumers’ attention.e. Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić . Pre-attention is a type of selection process.e. i. as is ignoring placards. interests and characteristics of consumers. billboards etc. catches their attention regardless of their previous inattentiveness. It occurs when the selective filter chooses a stimulus. As it is very difficult to select consumers that have the need or interest for a specific stimulus at a given time. Perceptual blocking is a common mechanical method of defence from the vast amount of stimuli in the contemporary world. announcements. with strong impulses. switching off or avoiding various media (radio. Involuntary attention is mainly caused by exposing a person to extreme or dramatic stimuli. TV. that surprises. and the target market is systematized and Melika Husić-Mehmedović .3. motives. changing TV channels using a remote controller is a good example. Attention can be activated consciously or unconsciously/involuntarily. most commonly below the level of awareness or at the border of it. 4. A person is exposed to numerous influences at this stage. Attention is actually a natural continuation of selective perception.88 Consumer Behaviour about harmful effects of smoking on cigarette boxes are an excellent example. Everyone daily blocks thousands of pieces of information in order to defend the body and consciousness from unnecessary and unrequested stimuli. Something that is new. magazines etc. Zapping. unexpected. catches or startles people. voluntary and involuntary attention.2 Attention stage Attention is in essence a cognitive process of recognising a stimulus that is processed in consciousness. There are several types of attention12: pre-attention. It is a transitional stage between stimuli exposure and the realisation of stimuli recognition. This attention is in theory called orientation reflex13 and serves as a reference framework for all marketing actions. The choice. i. which smokers simply ignore by the system of perceptual defence. as well as to the intensity of stimuli.

From the marketing view. Voluntary attention. which are then given a visual form.e. by which people actively search for relevant data. In accordance with this.3.Perception 89 brought into focus by a further perception process. Catching consumers’ attention is an extremely important activity for marketers. Gestalt means shape. shapes. Therefore.3 Organisation and interpretation stage This stage is also called the understanding stage and it consists of two substages: organisation and interpretation of stimuli. Basically. which facilitates the understanding and verification of a coherent picture of the world around us. is a reflection of an individual’s interest in information. the findings of Gestalt psychologists are related to the way people take individual stimuli from the surroundings and place them into a meaningful image. on the other hand. IV chapter . In German. The organisation of visual and other kinds of stimuli is usually presented as the way people perceive lines. configuration or rule. each stimulus is a part of a larger unit. i. Organisation of stimuli is a process in which people do not observe each stimulus individually but organise them into various principles. a contact or relation. The most famous research in the field of stimuli organisation was conducted by a group of German psychologists at the close of the 19th and onset of the 20th century. This applies for non-visual stimuli as well. unless they were able to place them in a context. groups and processes. Their concept of research and findings is called the Gestalt Psychology or Gestalt School14. select from a multitude of environmental stimuli. Within this context the creators of messages and actions choose elements that refer to the pre-attention stage as well as voluntary and involuntary attention and to orientation reflex in particular. Therefore. we can say that a lot of stimuli would be incomprehensible for the majority of people. understanding the stages of attention and orientation reflex is a precondition for a company’s success. This attention stems from perceptual selection. figures and various forms. 4.

and ignore the background. such as reading a book or a magazine. there are many controversial examples of the application and understanding of this concept. i. with anything else we may focus our attention on as a figure.e. Muris Čičić . Three basic principles of perceptual organisation. differentiates from a dull background. then each of these objects will be a figure with the table as a background. grouping and closure. the table. the same music in a concert would be a figure because our attention and stimulus understanding are focused on it. If we put an object such as a pen. are figure and background. A good example is background music on the radio.e. However. Figure 16 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the pen or the book. Understanding this principle helps the design of an image through the identification and recognition of what is a figure and what is background. i. Figure and background is the first principle for explaining organisation of stimuli.90 Consumer Behaviour no logo or a product or a company symbol would mean anything on its own unless there was a Gestaltian connection to a wider context. Slavo Kukić . according to the Gestalt research. It claims that people group visual images into contrasts so that there is always a figure that stands out. The figure and background principle can be applied to non-visual stimuli as well. phone or a book on a table. i. simply because the human brain does not always function in an identical manner. People will primarily perceive the figure. However.e.

Contemporary marketing practise goes one step further from a classical understanding of the figure and background principle. landscapes to ages. and it is relevant immediately. in order to crystallise and focus consumers’ attention. Most people memorize important numbers by grouping them into twos or threes and creating a meaningful connection among them. shapes to mood etc. applying the method of contrasting. and another the next. what is a figure. The human brain often fluctuates. Or. a consumer is drawn into noticing the differences and becomes even more intrigued by the figure. How people identify these examples. in order to catch consumers’ attention and curiosity regarding the figure. seeing one image one moment. every image from the environment is placed into a context where it is then given a specific meaning. It is important to mention that the identification of a figure and a background often depends on the experience. knowledge and interests of an individual. Grouping is the next principle of the Gestalt psychology and it is based on an understanding of human perception similar to the previous case. and they give them meaning. what is a background. are the questions that intrigue the Gestalt psychologists. Therefore. IV chapter . Sometimes the entire newspaper page with a completely white or black background shows only a small point or a line in the same colour.Perception 91 In the first picture. whilst all the faces in group pictures are unfamiliar and therefore a background for anybody else. This principle is also about placing individual elements of stimuli into a wider context by associating and grouping concepts and creating an understandable picture of the world. expectations. for the answers would explain the dilemma of the human brain in the perception of figure and background. colours to atmosphere. People relate numbers to faces. we can see either two faces looking at each other or a vase. people can quickly find a familiar face in a group picture if they are looking for it. In the second one we see either a young or an old woman. various combinations of numbers. In one instance the faces are the figure. so that sometimes a confusion between what is a figure and what is a background is purposefully created. They also relate names to physiognomies. For instance.

previous experience.e. not understandable. Slavo Kukić . However. how to explain that people with similar cultural and demographic characteristics understand a single piece of music or art differently? Expectations. is the final part of the perception process. coming after the stages of exposure and attention. people associate favourable impressions or attitudes they have about models or presenters. or if it is purposefully partial in content and form. the state of suspense related to the need for a complete understanding of the stimulus or situation. Muris Čičić . not related to the situation or recipients’ experience. This is understandable. which benefits marketing campaigns or messages. or they look for a solution in the form of an interpretation or finalisation of the unfinished meaning. In both cases the interest of an individual for the stimulus is increased. and then group them into an impressive image of a company or an advertisement. These distortions are contributing factors that cause different understandings or variations in the way stimuli Melika Husić-Mehmedović . then the recipients either feel a certain psychological pressure i. Interpretation is the final action of attaching significance or meaning to stimuli. i. situational factors and differences in people’s personalities are the best explanation of such a phenomenon. Considering the entire process. Closure. Interpretation follows stimuli organisation. or they create an understanding themselves. The so-called perceptual distortions15 are a very important aspect for the consideration of stimuli interpretation. If a stimulus is insufficiently logical. because individuals often actively search for the meaning of an incomplete message or image. a part of the third stage. along with organisation. the inevitable conclusion is reached: that interpretation is an individual process and that very often the interpretations of a single stimulus vary or differ greatly from one person to another.e. Closure is important in marketing. explains the findings that in case of an incomplete or unfinished perception individuals tend to find an understandable and comprehensive meaning.92 Consumer Behaviour In a marketing context. Interpretation of stimuli. considering cultural and demographic differences. the final principle of the Gestalt theory.

there is a dichotomy between the process of learning and the semantic meaning. People interpret information both through the literal (semantic) and psychological meaning of words. Semiotics is very important for the study of perception because it represents the foundation of a correct understanding between the sender and recipient of a stimulus or a meaning. Considering potential misunderstandings. The most common distortions are: physical appearances of presenters. the so-called halo effect. This means that consumers interpret symbols and characteristics of products based on their experience and cultural values. jumping to conclusion before the first word or hint.4 Perceptual semiotics Related to the above discussion are consumers’ interests and needs within the context of attention and readiness of stimuli to reflect on human consciousness. and evaluation of a phenomenon based on one dimension. There are numerous misunderstandings and different interpretations of specific symbols in various cultures or languages. a semiotic approach to the stimulus creation can be extremely relevant. prejudices people have. 4.Perception 93 are interpreted. IV chapter . It is important for marketing experts to take all these distortions into consideration in order to avoid misunderstanding. This phenomenon is studied by semiotics. Therefore. the first impression effect.

Schiffman. L. Zagreb 15.L. References 1. and M. and L. Mowen. and M. L.L. 2. 2007 http://www. 5th ed. M. New Jersy 3.L. Kanuk (2004): ibid 9.G. Slavo Kukić . L. Kanuk (2004): ibid 7. L. and L. Explain the “figure and background” of the Gestalt Theory. (2008): The Joy of Visual Perception. T. and L. izdanje.o.htm 5.G. Consumer Behaviour Questions for revision 1. Kesic. 7.. Minor (1997): Consumer Behavior.G. Schiffman. Kanuk (2004): ibid 12. Mowen. J. Muris Čičić . and M.L.L. and L. K. Schiffman. Explain the differences between the definitions of perception List an example of the use of senses in marketing What is selective perception and how is it manifested? Name a negative example of using or not using JND. Minor (1997): ibid 11. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. and M.. (2008): Consumer Behavior. J. Schiffman. April 13. Minor (1997): ibid 14. Kanuk (2004): ibid Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Ripley. J. L. Science Daily: Wired For Sound: How The Brain Senses Visual Illusions. Minor (1997): ibid 8. 2. 6. Schiffman.sciencedaily. 5. and M. Mowen. and L. Minor (1997): ibid 13. 4. Mowen. J. Opinio d.P.G.G. and M. York University 10. J. How does sensory adaptation influence JND? Is it easy to stimulate subliminal perception in advertising? How would you do it? 7. Mowen. Mowen. Minor (1997): ibid 6. izdanje.. MATE. Kaiser. Zagreb 2. J. Prentice Hall. York University 4.

V chapter PERSONALITY Chapter objectives • • • • Understand the concept and features of personality Analyse basic personality theories Characteristics of innovative consumers Ethnocentrism concept in BH. neighbouring countries and the world • Definition of materialism and compulsive consumer behaviour • Creating a self-image • The use of brand personality in marketing .


Cattell). and secondly. personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. What consumers buy. which products and brands they prefer etc. several more definitions are mentioned along with this one. on personality traits. when and how the purchased product is used etc. PERSONALITY Knowing someone’s personality has a significant importance for the explanation of a person’s behaviour as a consumer of products and services.97 5.S. for the communication strategy which needs to answer the question of how adjusted the message is to the personality traits dominant in the market segment that it addresses. For Sullivan (H. Gordon Allport coined the most frequently used definition. However. Eysenck) defines personality as a more or less stable and enduring V chapter . The reasons for that are diverse. according to which personality denotes ‘the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment”. There are other elements of consumer behaviour that depend on the personality features as well: what they buy.J.1 Personality concept Numerous definitions of personality can be found in theory. More than sixty-five years ago. for market segmentation. Thus. personality implies a relatively permanent pattern of repetitive interpersonal situations that mark the human life. depends. Sullivan). Eysenck (H. Firstly. 5. however.M. According to Catell’s one (J. and it is concerned with all behaviour of the individual both overt and “under the skin”. understanding a consumer’s personality as well as personality types is of exceptional importance for two reasons at least. first of all.

facial attraction. in other words. temper. finally. refers to the factors defined by birth: physical appearance. therefore conditioning behaviour that is more or less consistent even in very different situations. Muris Čičić . the way they react to promotional activities of a company. a third personality factor . features. for example. physiological. According to Hilgard (E. Hilgard). which determines his personal adjustment to the environment. along with these two. and aspects of an organisational entity that are permanent. one of the basic questions seeking the answer might be: is personality a genetic category. in which every trait takes a particular place predetermined by the overall structure. the situation a person encounters – is increasingly recognised. black-and-white answer to that question. Nowadays. and psychological structures. In the attempt to simplify all the presented definitions. Slavo Kukić . For Zvonarevic (Mladen Zvonarevic). the term personality implies a set of behavioural and emotional characteristics of a person that by their structure and pattern determine his unique adjustment to his environment. Heredity. 5. i. The answer closest to the optimal one would be that personality is a result of both influences. Contemporary studies. have supported the theory of the Melika Husić-Mehmedović . i. mainly define personality as a set of characteristics.e. the result of heredity. etc. All these characteristics are considered to be either completely or predominantly affected by who one’s parents are. one of the personality determinants.R.98 Consumer Behaviour interaction of an individual’s character. Recent studies on young children. relatively stable. muscle structure and reflexes. influence people’s product selection. intelligence and physical constitution. personality could be said to represent the totality of characteristics that determine behaviour. sex. personality is a specific. These characteristics. temperament.e.2 Determinants of personality If personality is defined as above. their biological. unique set of a human’s psychological traits. or a result of a person’s interaction with the environment? Apparently there is not a simple. when and where they consume specific products.circumstance. thoughts and emotions of every person.

Namely. attitudes and values which are transferred from one generation to another.Personality 99 power of heredity. What is important is that the situations seem to significantly differ by the limitations they impose on behaviour. it is undisputable that an individual’s personality. as previously mentioned. The researchers have discovered that genetics are accountable for around 50% differences in personality and more than 30% variations in professional interests and hobbies. As a result. North Americans have continuously been emphasizing the values of hard work. a factor that influences the effects of the heredity and environment on personality. personality traits are not entirely dictated by heredity. establishes norms. independence and protestant work ethics via their books. For example. the others such as a picnic in a park impose very few limitations. For example. Among the factors playing an important role in the shaping of our personalities are those of the environment we live in: the culture we were brought up in. V chapter . cooperation and prioritising family over work and career. success. although generally consistent and congruent. Culture. Situation is the third determinant of personality. An ideology that is cherished in one culture may only have a modest influence in another. and other influences that we experience. for example. competition. Some situations such as being in a church or a job interview limit many kinds of behaviour. is environment. In other words. they are more inclined to be relatively ambitious and aggressive in comparison to the people raised in cultures that have emphasised living in accord with others. a pair of twins who were separated for 39 years and who grew up 45 miles away from each other drove the same make and colour of cars. Different demands of specific situations cause the creation of numerous aspects of one’s personality. their dogs had the same names. tends to change in various situations. Results of research conducted on monozygotic twins living separately are a sufficient proof of how powerful heredity is. education systems. the norms in our families. friends and social groups.500 miles away from their homes. gradually creating consistency. family and friends. One of the determinants of personality. and they regularly went on a holiday within three blocks from each other to a tourist community 1. smoked the same cigarette brands.

The possibility of altering personality is therefore the third outstanding characteristic. Finally. However. Despite this. the approach has to be just the opposite: it is the product that needs to change. This is what businesses have to base their communication with potential consumers upon. i. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Tanja Kesic¹. making it more complex and stable. they believe. Personality. authors have displayed certain discrepancies regarding the explanation of how relevant personality traits are for consumer behaviour. one of the most significant characteristics is integrity of personality: the fact that various personality aspects and traits are organised into a single unit. It goes without saying that the human development accompanies a continuous rise of the integration ability to higher levels. based on which it is possible to classify consumer behaviour into certain segments. Another significant characteristic is adaptability and flexibility of personality. A large number of characteristics can be clearly identified within the personality structure. Slavo Kukić .3 Personality traits Personality traits imply a set of elements which enable one’s personality to function as a single structure. Adaptability and flexibility imply that people experience certain modifications in the course of their life and learn how to harmonise their personality traits with them. identified three basic characteristics. their approach to the issue of characteristics is slightly different. without which frequent changes would lead to behavioural confusion.e. however. Muris Čičić . are never the same. the consumers’ regular behaviour when they encounter familiar situations. Namely. some of their personality traits are identical.100 Consumer Behaviour 5. In an effort to identify basic personality traits. One of them is consistency of personality. Schiffman and Kanuk2 also identified three characteristics significant for consumer behaviour and the nature of personality. in other words. reflects individual differences among people. Two individuals. which in a way disables a complete consistency. Yet. for example. The approach that consumers should change their behaviour in order to adapt to our products is plain wrong. durability and consistency do not imply an inability to alter personality. Individual personality then becomes permanent and consistent.

humanistic theory founded by A. Sheldon’s (W. 5.4 Theories of personality traits A number of personality theories have been developed in personality psychology: analytical theory developed by K. 5. Jung. factor analysis independently developed by R.Personality 101 Admittedly. Eysenk.1 Psychoanalytic theory of personality The founder of the psychoanalytic theory of personality was Sigmund Freud. Rogers) phenomenological theory. death of a loved one etc. personality traits are related to the situational variables. they are specific and enable the differentiation of one person from another. socioeconomic and other variables must be taken into consideration. The fundamental postulate of the theory is the thesis that in the focus V chapter . The following chapter covers the analysis of these theories. a considerable change in life is needed such as an advance in career. the existence of certain preconditions is necessary for that change. H. four personality traits theories such as psychoanalytic.G. Cattell and H. to make this possibility real. For example. and personality trait theory are mentioned. Sheldon) constitutional theory. Murray) theory of motivation.J. On the contrary. Rogers’ (C. they are not independent of the situation a person is in. Lewin) topological theory etc. Finally. Maslow. There is also an agreement in the opinion that personality traits. However. it is undisputable that personality traits are not homogenous for all consumers. traits are just one of the variables necessary for such a prediction. In the consumer behaviour research. at least when it comes to a certain span of time.B. Truth is told.H. when it comes to personality traits it is possible to identify some common elements that do not reveal any discrepancies or disagreements. neo-Freudian or socio-psychological. Murray’s (H. this does not mean that they are sufficient for determining consumer behaviour.4. Regardless of the differences in the approach of some authors. In addition.A. On the contrary. authors agree that personality traits can be used to predict consumer behaviour. behavioural. are relatively consistent. For example. Lewin’s (K. R. In other words.

and therefore an unorganised impulse. To prove the above. In other words. Its purpose. Muris Čičić . however. following the Id and the Ego. Freud uses the premise that human personality is composed of three interrelated systems: the Id. to direct individuals to satisfy their needs in a socially acceptable way. is also characterised by the Superego. the Ego is a part of personality that is developed after the Id. Slavo Kukić . sex etc. as the definition suggests. is to harmonise individual behaviour with social norms and ethical values.102 Consumer Behaviour of human personality and motivation are people’s unconscious needs or urges such as sexual and other biological ones. The Superego was in fact the last to be developed as a part of personality. animalistic. drink. more precisely. and. and Superego According to Freud. the human’s internal expression of moral and ethic behavioural codes. the Id is a specific storage of basic physiological needs: food. Figure 17: The interrelation of the Id. Ego and Superego. unconscious. Ego. These are the needs that an individual wants to satisfy momentarily. due to a person’s need to have a direct contact Melika Husić-Mehmedović . without thinking if or how it is possible. The unconscious impulse. Although mentioned last in this analysis. the Id characterises an instinctive.

personality. do not behave rationally towards their automobiles. instinctive demands of the Id. Skinner. Thus. Namely. we can define the Ego as a specific controlling instrument that tries to set the balance among the impulsive. and developed by B.Personality 103 and relations with the external world in order to exist. On the contrary. and that determinism is one of its underlying principles. Ego and Superego are presented as above. logical is the opinion that the basic principle of the human behaviour is the principle of legality. If the Id. if the human urges that the human behaviour comprises of are largely unconscious. i.4. the consequences are just products of the deterministic legality. This dimension of consumer behaviour was highlighted by Ernest Dichter in the 1930s. reactions of the body. Watson.2 Behavioural theory of personality Behavioural theory of personality was founded by John B. and react to them by certain actions or body behaviours. Men. If we want to present it as one of the systems within Freud’s triangle.e. and the moral limitations of the Superego.F. Its fundamental assumption is that the human behaviour can entirely be explained by the environment in which one is and the effects it has on a person. they see their cars as their lovers and they behave accordingly. 5. which the Id with its primary process of meeting the urges cannot provide. Human beings are exposed to the effects of objective occurrences from their environment. is said to represent a result of the interaction between the Id and the Superego as the unconscious impulses. However. Based on the above premises. V chapter . then a large part of consumer behaviour is also unconscious. and the Ego as an individual’s conscious control. as a structure consisting of these three systems. Dichter points out. in this interrelation with the human body. if the causes exist. the processes and influences of the environment are manifested as causes and a person’s behaviour as a consequence. The task of science is to investigate and find out which environmental causes and events lead to certain consequences.

the strength lies in a continuous marketing activity that creates a cause-effect ambient in which individuals i. the only relevant influences are those from the environment they live in. gifted with the free will or some other internal forces. regarding their significance for the explanation of consumer behaviour. i. apparently. but the result of learning and environmental influence. Finally. its message is very clear. Accordingly. instead of these variables. accordingly. But not even the system of values is untouchable by external influences. the creator) classifies people into three types of personality. Its task is to interpret the resulting behaviour.104 Consumer Behaviour The science is not content with merely describing the human behaviour based on the cause-consequence principle.e. The essence of the behavioural theory of personality. Within this cluster of theories. Muris Čičić . 5. consumers function. Slavo Kukić . Horney’s socio-psychological theory (by Karen Horney. if this theory is applied to consumer behaviour. As Melika Husić-Mehmedović . it is the social relations that are the foundation for the creation and development of personality. to predict behaviour. The first consists of the socalled submissive or accommodating. the persons who are turned towards the others and. And more than that. no internal features are relevant for an individual’s behaviour because human behaviour is determined by external factors and defined by universal behavioural laws that are valid for all people. Hence. its task is also to predict future events based on the current ones. For the behaviour of individuals and social groups that act as consumers of products and services.3 Neo-Freudian theory of personality The basic starting point of all neo-Freudian/socio-psychological theories of personality relies on the premise that personality is not primarily instinctive or sexual and that. expect love and devotion from them.e. The system of values that is built within a human’s environment and that transfers onto the individual is extremely important.4. its goal is to manage both the current and the future behaviour. two are particularly interesting: Horney’s and Reisman’s. Finally. is that the human being is not an autonomous creature.

The third group are the independent. They rely on the values of those they are connected with in the group and who. Finally. Therefore they are directed against others. express their personal individuality through contact with others.4 Personality trait theory The theory of the character. The first are the tradition-oriented. inner control etc. As consumers their behaviour is pervaded by other people’s propositions. and this is also what their consumer behaviour is based upon.4. Some of these traits are common to a large number of consumers and consequently of interest V chapter . regardless of the level of its exploitation. the third category consists of the so-called other-oriented. In the second group are the aggressive. traits or features is based on the premise that a consumer’s personality consists of a certain number of traits or features such as sociability. Horney’s sociopsychological theory is not applied to a great extent in the theory and practise of consumer behaviour. 5. Generally. i. accordingly. They depend on personal values and standards. The self-oriented are in the second category. people who are distinguished by the independence and self-confidence as typical features of their personality. people characterised by their wish for success and an admiration of others. As consumers they are usually less aware of the brand choice and varieties in the market.Personality 105 consumers they prefer to buy famous brands in order to gain affection of the people within their surroundings. relaxation. Reisman’s social theory also classifies all people into three categories. whose behaviour is based on the traditional values of the society they live in. it is a behaviour that is not a product of personal decisions but the suggestions of others. which is a logical outcome of the fact that they do not want to see others above themselves. and who are therefore characterised by a low level of mobility and a slow acceptance of changes.e.

Finally. is in the measurement of consumer behaviour. based on the common features that can be identified for some of them.1 Consumer innovativeness The traits related to innovativeness of a person refer to whether a consumer can be identified as an innovator. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Muris Čičić .106 Consumer Behaviour for consumer behaviour as a discipline. and the social character of a consumer’s personality. dogmatism. This is relevant because understanding them implies that researchers can be certain they can create their marketing strategy establishing it on the conducted research. the first to buy and try a product or a service. the traits of this kind are stable for a certain period of time.5 The most significant personality traits regarding their influence on consumer behaviour A majority of personality traits affect a consumer’s behaviour to a lesser or greater extent. ethnocentrism. The most common classification is the one where all personality traits relevant for consumer behaviour belong to one of four groups: traits related to personality innovativeness.5. It would be irrational to treat each one of them theoretically. Thus. if the two above details regarding traits are considered (that some of them are common to a large number of people. 5. Personality tests are one such tool. another question arises: how to reach these common features or personality traits that are relevant for consumer behaviour? The route to them. cognitive personality factors. in general. and consumption & possession. and that common traits are generally stable). On the other hand. Below is the further analysis of these traits. 5. theory tends to classify personality traits into groups. the one who is. Slavo Kukić . This type of readiness is commonly tested observing three types of features: innovativeness. and regarding certain traits they can identify the level of individual differences or the traits that are common for a large number of people. due to his/her personality structure.

Various assortments of products can be a subject of research. Consumer dogmatism.Personality 107 Figure 18: Adoption of innovation Consumer innovativeness i. Such an insight can be reached by the use of tools for studying innovativeness. The reduction logic in studying innovativeness can go on further. a subcategory of products within an assortment can also be a subject of research. in principle. laptops that weigh less than 500g. the relation toward computers in general can be researched. Regarding the attitude towards products and services.e. Unlike them. denotes rigidity for the unknown and the information opposed to personal beliefs. it can be the relation toward portable computers. Dogmatism. e.g. on the other hand. If you wish to succeed in promoting a new product or service to this type of consumers. However. highly dogmatic persons rather commit to familiar products than experiment with new ones. the level of innovativeness implies an insight into the nature and the levels of a consumer’s readiness for innovation. refers to entirely different traits. celebrities or relevant experts. For instance. the V chapter . This way. innovativeness can be tested on a large number of products. The study can be concluded on specific product types. In our example. an inevitable prerequisite is a message that includes authorities. Depending on the level of the rigidity manifestation. we can identify highly and lowly dogmatic individuals.

when addressing this type of personality. it is possible to differentiate between two fundamental types of consumer personality. Unlike this type. The first type comprises personalities who are self-directed. differences supported by facts etc. Consumers can also be classified into one of the two groups: visual and verbal type. they accept them more readily. are far more important than the authorities employed. reaching out for resources such as authorities is redundant. Promotional messages should take this into consideration i. With the lowly dogmatic individuals. Due to the structure of their personality. but a message that uses visual effects. in constructing a promotional message. should focus on the messages aimed at the social environment’s approval. the biggest effect may be obtained by a message loaded with information and product descriptions. A special attention should be paid to the need for cognition here. Namely. If this type of consumer personality is taken into consideration. The visual type of consumers prefers an image.5. Muris Čičić . The first are the persons with a high level of cognition.e. there are personalities with a low level of cognition. they are much more inclined to seek advice from others than rely on their own criteria of evaluation. information about advantages of a product. Regarding the social character. Accordingly. In a product evaluation they rely on their personal criteria rather than on other people’s suggestions. the form of the recommended message is entirely different. It is not a message loaded with a bulk of information. Slavo Kukić .2 Cognitive personality factors The second group of traits is related to the cognitive personality factors. the creators of promotional messages. Accordingly. a message given by an attractive person or a prominent expert for instance. while the verbal Melika Husić-Mehmedović . regarding which it is possible to identify two types of personality. Other-directed personalities have an entirely different approach. 5.108 Consumer Behaviour lowly dogmatic individuals are significantly more liberal regarding new products. The third innovativeness-related trait is the social character of personality. focus on emphasizing the product’s features and their benefits for the consumer.

Messages such as ‘buy domestic’ and ’Buy BH goods’ could be classified as this type. What sort of traits are they? To explain it as simply as possible.e. the ones who do not care much about ethnocentrism. as in the case with Whirlpool. But this message type cannot be successful with V chapter .3 Consumers’ ethnocentrism A separate group of personality traits are the ethnocentrism-related ones. i. or. it is possible to identify two large groups of consumers: highly ethnocentric and lowly ethnocentric ones.Personality 109 one is more inclined toward written information. the consumers’ ethnocentrism implies their reaction to foreign products. Figure 19: Example of an ad intended for both visual and verbal types of personality 5.5. Marketers regularly use this knowledge to create advertisements aimed at one of the two types. The former are characterised by the attitude that buying foreign products is maleficent. consolidating the message to appeal to both verbal and visual types. a message to nourish such a belief is recommended. Depending on the intensity of that reaction. If this type of consumers is targeted.

Muris Čičić . and Croats4. Slavo Kukić . and finally Croats. those who are completely unburdened with ethnocentrism. price. Serbs. then Serbs. Instead of being emotionally charged. Figure 20: The level of ethnocentrism in Bosnia and Herzegovina Melika Husić-Mehmedović .e. Thus. The most famous scale for measuring ethnocentrism is CETSCALE3. the creator of a promotional message aimed at this type will benefit more from a message loaded with information about quality. they tend to evaluate both domestic and foreign products objectively. The most intensive ethnocentrism was shown with Bosniaks.110 Consumer Behaviour lowly ethnocentric persons i. service etc. that portray the product favourably. Research conducted in 2005 in BH shows different levels of ethnocentricity with Bosniaks.

dedication to the personal edification etc. Basic traits of fixed consumers are derived from such structural determinants. and those who find possession irrelevant. The second type of traits associated with consumerism and possession can be colloquially designated as fixed consumer behaviour. etc. they desire a lifestyle fulfilled with possession. Special attention should be paid to three of them: consumer materialism. fixed consumer behaviour. the consumer does not try to hide his interest in a product and in buying it. these values are entirely irrelevant and replaced by other. Moreover. V chapter . The concept of materialism suggests that the possession of objects and money is the path to the personal pleasure and happiness5. it is also possible to identify several types of consumer traits. Regarding the consumer materialism as one of consumer personality traits. property gives them personal pleasure.5. Collectors are a really vivid example of such behaviour. he often shows and shares this interest with others. At least two determinants are crucial for this behaviour. two basic types of consumer personality can be identified: those who find possession important for their personal identity and life. As for the latter.4 Consumerism and possession The last type of consumer personality traits we are going to mention are traits associated with consumerism and possession. spiritual values such as dignity. and readiness to travel a long distance to get such a product. The former are characterised by the traits that sustain such values: they like to acquire and show off their property. Two of them deserve to be specifically mentioned: a pronounced interest in a particular product or a group of them.Personality 111 5. On the one hand. Regarding the highlighted features. they are seen as outstandingly egocentric and selfish. and compulsive consumer behaviour.

the question arises: how to escape such addiction? Truth be told. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . from the individual and social perspectives. Therefore. alcoholism. What sort of behaviour is this? It is a behaviour characterised by addiction.112 Consumer Behaviour Figure 21 Finally. loss of control. Are they not characterised by the aforementioned traits? Such types of behaviour are harmful for both the society and the individual who practices them. they are limited to only one in most cases– the necessity of therapy and clinical treatment. possibilities are scarce. Let us imagine some realistic life situations in a consumer’s behaviour: uncontrolled gambling. drug addiction etc. More precisely. Muris Čičić . and the possibility of a negative influence on the environment. compulsive consumer behaviour belongs to this group of consumer personality traits.

This means that the role of marketing experts is to obtain an insight into what sort of self-image this is. variables can be reached by research. This means that each of us impersonates several different ‘’selves’’. In other words. The very act of a purchase and possession changes negative behaviour into positive6. This approach is definitely suppressed now. Concretely. It depends on this perception what he will buy and what he will not. and entirely differently at work. In reality. children. the so-called single-dimension concept of the self-image dominated. a spouse. having been replaced by the socalled multi-dimensional concept of the self-image. Consumers affect their mood and manage it. it is possible to talk about a significant evolution. and all the work regarding this type of consumers will be complete. they are interested always and only in those products that suit their self-image. when it comes to personality traits. This is why. If you wish to associate your self-image with the personality traits. they behave one way at home. Why is this fact so relevant to the providers of goods and services? The reason is very V chapter . Regarding the understanding of the self-image. Its fundamental premise is that human beings behave differently in various situations. with friends.Personality 113 All types of materialistic behaviour have something in common.6 The self-image Personality traits or features are something that exists independently from a person’s will. two incompatible variables can be considered. perceives himself. however. the most common situation is that there is a more or less distinct difference between the self-image and the personality traits obtained through exploration. For example. in our case a consumer. It is quite natural for consumers to buy what pleases their self-image and avoid what does not fit in it. or in some other situations. they do not have to be compatible in the least. For a long time. the self-perception that is constant and therefore their relation towards products and services is constant. associated with a concerning person. The self-image is. 5. It implies a mode in which a person. It is an approach based on the thesis that consumers have only one self-image. with their parents.

If self-image is defined as a way people perceive themselves. Some say. Slavo Kukić . several theoretical approaches can be identified.114 Consumer Behaviour simple: because of the fact that they must aim their products and services at the consumers within the context of their particular ‘’self’’. Della Bitta (1993) ‘’Consumer Behaviour-Concept and Applications’’. several answers may be given. To reply to a question formulated this way. it is logical to wonder how it is created and developed. 313 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . L. In other words.. 4th ed. Muris Čičić . for example. self-image is formed by individuals based on their personal opinion of what is socially acceptable and what is not.A. therefore offering different products and services for different situations. Inc. McGraw Hill.D. p. Figure 22: Multidimensional concept of the self-image Source: London. Accordingly. & J. that self-image is a product of the so-called self-evaluation.

if they perceive themselves as members of a high social class. the group they belong to etc. consumers’ ideal ‘self’. The behaviour of reference groups partially determines individual behaviour as well. It refers to what people think about how others perceive them. a person’s real ‘’self’’. a person’s social ‘self’. the formation of self-image based on how the self is perceived compared with the others. those keen on becoming good managers select the information that supports this argument and reject the rest. A consumer’s social ‘self’ can stimulate changes in consumption. or if an entirely new one is reached for. the way consumers actually perceive themselves.e. Self-image can be manifested as a social self-image. The ideal ‘self’ can therefore stimulate consumers to the consumption that will bring them closer to this goal. self-image can occur in the form of the ideal social self-image. where they would like to perceive themselves. which describes what kind of person they would like to be. it is undisputable that there are different types of self-image. How is it done? There are different methods. However. One of the image types is the ideal self-image. Regardless of which of the mentioned theoretical approaches is accepted. buys and consumes. i. In the end. there is no doubt that the image will affect their consumer behaviour. Finally. more often than not. This form of self-image manifestation can also stimulate people to action. For instance.Personality 115 For the others. the ideal social ‘self’. This evaluation can stimulate people to adapt to the image in which they satisfy ‘the tastes’ of their surroundings. they would like to be seen in a different way V chapter . the selection of products and services he prefers. It refers to how consumers as individuals would like to be seen by others. For instance. At least four of them deserve to be mentioned. That means that they perform a perceptual scanning – they perceive themselves as what they want to be rather than what they actually are. The first one is the real self-image. What is it about? Simply. a theory of incorrect scanning is also mentioned. The gap between the real and ideal consumers’ ‘self’ may be so large that it does not provoke any desire or aim to develop towards the other. people’s ideal ‘self’ does motivate them to a lifestyle that brings them closer to it. the basis of self-image formation is social comparison.

5. How to achieve such a better ‘self’? There are different methods. by wearing different clothes in various occasions. To answer this Melika Husić-Mehmedović . by changing the perfume we use. Slavo Kukić . in fact.116 Consumer Behaviour than they actually are. It may be an intention to create a new selfimage. However. If there are changes that they have to make as consumers of goods and services in order to reach this goal. subject to changes just like anything else. special attention should be paid to how a brand personality expresses one’s self-image. to reach for ‘a better self’.e. This desire becomes a driving force to reach the goal. i. a new ‘self’. we could also make changes in an effort to prevent losing the existing “self”. Muris Čičić . how one expresses their self-image through a brand personality. such “sacrifice” will often be made. etc. Sometimes consumers wish to change their self-image. restaurants we go to. Self-image can be changed by modifications in consumption. By making these changes we attempt to lead to some other changes. And lastly our ambition could be to expand the ‘self’ by making adequate changes and modifications. their personal ‘self’.7 Brand personality From a consumer behaviour perspective. More precisely. Figure 23: Self-image Self-image is.

the ones who are perceived as such. i. Mercedes is a car that provides safety. i. Mercedes is a car make known for comfort and safety. Brand personality on its own does not mean a lot. Sarajevo beer of fun. the ability to convert the perception of a product or service so that it assumes human-like characteristics. Brand personality can also be associative. while BMW is known for good performance. Puma’s trainers on an athlete suggest that their footwear is made for athletes. Modern consumers. In the automobile industry for example. Figure 24 V chapter . it is necessary to define brand personality first. Likewise. Safety is therefore a functional feature of this brand. Brand personality can also be symbolic. classic consumers buy Borac’s garments. In the world of footwear producers. Simply stated. Nike is a symbol of athletes’ footwear. Its importance for consumer behaviour stems from the so-called brand personification. it implies attributing of features and characteristics of a ‘personality’ to different brands in a broad range of products.e. socialising etc. Philips appliances remind us of tradition. The above examples illustrate different types of brand personalities. This ability can be illustrated by many examples.Personality 117 question. buy Diesel products because they are perceived as being modern. One of them is the dominantly functional brand personality. consumers perceived as trendy go to specific clubs.e. etc.

Muscle is represented as a man even though it is a detergent. Coca-Cola decided to use the image of Santa Clause. In the 1931 Christmas campaign. Oetker with its personality. Then there is a well-known Dr. Oetker. wearing hunter’s clothing from raw leather and even heavy coats made of bear fur. for example. Another common way of identifying with a brand is through colours.118 Consumer Behaviour Apart from personality. subtle. Santa Clause was dressed in checked tweed clothes like Sherlock Holmes. gender is frequently given to products. unlike Dr. For instance. Figure 25 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . What did they do to him? They painted him red and white – their own colours. Muris Čičić . Santa Clause of the contemporary man is nothing but a mascot of a company that produces fizzy beverages. determined cook. CocaCola. dreamy and feminine. in our market Mr. In the beginning of the last century. Podravka has used this position in consumer awareness when they launched the brand Dolcela which. His beard was short and black. his nose red: not because of the cold in the North Pole but due to alcohol that symbolised hedonism. is gentle. is undoubtedly associated with red. Slavo Kukić . famous as an eager. This is what this company used when they created Santa Clause.

Four of them deserve to be mentioned. it is about how much and in which forms a consumer’s behaviour is related to various influences he is exposed to in his environment by other individuals. Practical possibilities of the application are certainly numerous. does not mean that personality traits or features can answer all the questions about consumer behaviour prediction. Marketing experts have paid theoretical attention to their application aiming for better acceptance of products and services that they offer in the market. packaging etc. to single out specific personality traits. More precisely. particularly the ones regarding personality traits should be applied. are not their own purpose. Several key determinants regarding personality traits are relevant here. The application of personality traits and features for the prediction of consumer behaviour is of considerable importance. The second area of prediction refers to the choice of a product and a brand: how important is the structure of personality traits for what products and brands. All this. All the studies conducted so far point that out. Firstly. etc. level of income and education. On the other hand. the instruments with specific values V chapter . of course. organisations and associations.Personality 119 5. The next area of the application of personality traits in marketing is market segmentation. which intended to relate personality traits with the buyers of Ford or Chevrolet8. It has become clear that the classic segmentation criteria are not sufficient for market segmentation and that some other variables. The first may be identified as sensitivity to social influences. Therefore the safest route to specific market segments is via the strata that include these and some other demographic variables. Prediction usually refers to one of the two areas. including Evans’. as far as their function regarding consumer behaviour is concerned. a consumer will choose.8 Application of personality traits or features in marketing There is no doubt that personality traits or features. individuals characterised by the same or similar personality traits usually originate from the same demographic strata of age. Two areas of the application of personality traits or features in marketing deserve specific attention: predicting consumer behaviour and market segmentation. groups.

such investments are only justified if the targeted segment. by its size.120 Consumer Behaviour and reliability level must be used. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . they will be proportionally manifested through the differences in the consumers’ behaviour and preferences. Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić . If the differences in personality traits exist. has its cost effectiveness threshold secured. Finally. On the contrary. not any segment with the same or similar personality traits is sufficient. in order to economically justify an investment into the adaptation of the marketing mix to a target segment.

282 4. Vol. yet still subject to changes? 3. Cicic. pp. What does fixed consumer behaviour mean? 8. Brkic. 23. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. American Marketing Association. (2003): Parental Influence on the Purchase of Luxury Brands of Infant Apparel: An Exploratory Study in Hong Kong. MATE. Evans. May 24-27. Sharma (1987): Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE. Novi Sad 8. Journal of Consumer Marketing. M. Chevrolet. Kesic. Journal of Marketing Research. (1971): Psychological Objective Factorism – The Prediction of Brand Choice: Ford vs.L. u: 1995 Winter Educator’s Conference. V chapter . How do the situation. pp. M. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. and G. Zagreb. How can consumer innovativeness be applied in marketing? 6. Prendergast. Agic (2005): The Role of Nationalism in Consumer Ethnocentrism and Animosity in the Post-War Country. p. Wong. David W. Italy. Vilcassin. pp. vol. p. and C. Milan. 24. Will ethnocentrism in BH change and how? 7. What do the Id. Hammer Creative & Prometej.G. 6.Personality 121 Questions for revision 1. L. 193 2. Shimp. F. A. 2. heredity and environment affect a consumer’s personality? 2. How can personality be constant and permanent. 157-169 6. In which marketing areas can personality traits or features be applied? References 1. 34th EMAC European Marketing Academy Conference 2005. (1995): Can You Buy Happiness?: A Comparison of the Antecedent and Concurrent Moods Associated with the Shopping of Compulsive and Non-Compulsive Buyers. G. Vol. the Ego and the Superego represent? 4. R. Journal of Business. Christenson.J. Opinio. 86 5. Stewart and Naufel J. Ed. 340-369.J. 20 No. Chicago. L. and S. Proceedings. (2000): Advertising Page. and L. 378-370 7. N. pp. T. Explain the types of personality according to Horney’s sociopsychological theory? 5. 2005. Schiffman. 95 3.A. Dzamic. Zagreb. University of Bocconi. Husic and E. Faber.


and substantiation affect learning • Analysis of behavioural learning theory • Types of behavioural learning theory • Characteristics of cognitive learning theory . reaction. visual clues.VI chapter LEARNING AS A FACTOR OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Chapter objectives • Define the concept and basic elements of the learning process • Understand how motivation.


125 6. For some. Regardless of numerous definitions of learning. More precisely. For Lingrin. experience or interaction with the environment. None of them. the greater is the width and strength of a reaction to certain stimulation.1 Definition of learning A large number of the definitions of learning can be found in theory. The distinction from similar processes can also be seen from the changes that occur in reaction speed. As the time of its duration increases. learning represents every change of behaviour as a result of practice. the learning process decreases the time of a correct reaction. Learning can also be differentiated from other processes by the increase of width and strength of reaction. it can be separated from the similar processes by changes in the probability for repeated occurrence. it may imply an activity that causes behavioural changes. by expanding the learning process. On the other hand. the probability to acquire a correct answer increases. First of all. In other words. question the stance that learning is a continuous change originating from practice. LEARNING AS A FACTOR OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 6. for example. Some theoreticians define learning as a process where an experience or an exercise produces changes in activity performance1. learning is an individual activity which results in adopting knowledge. the longer the learning process. VI chapter . all of them are characterised by an understanding that the learning process is different from other similar processes by a few variables. skills and habits. For others. all have at least several common characteristic features.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . If such a definition is adopted. unintentional. what is learnt well is much more difficult to forget than the superficial or bad knowledge of something. a part of learning that is obtained without a plan. at least two details must be noted. and forgetfulness3. we decide on the Schiffman-Kanuk theory. identifies five components of the learning process: urge. discrimination.2 Elements of the learning process As for the learning process elements. However. memory. generalisation. 6. Simply said. and reinforcement4. it keeps evolving and changing by newly acquired knowledge or experience. accidentally. Motivation is by its meaning a central element of the learning process. which identifies four elements of the consumer behaviour-related learning process: motivation. On the contrary. insusceptible to change. It means that the new knowledge and experience are the basis for the future behaviour in similar situations. response. the one that creates a need for learning and stimulates the learning process. one does not even think about learning a product brand. Kesic. On the other hand. Muris Čičić . different approaches can be found in the theory of consumer behaviour. if this definition is accepted. for example. it is possible to define consumer learning as a theoretical term. learning differs from other processes by the protective strength against withering. it implies a process in which individuals acquire the knowledge and experience related to purchase and consumption. In the context of this analysis. learning is not something static. Precisely. The first part of learning is intentional. Slavo Kukić .126 Consumer Behaviour Finally. cues. Knowing the above. The second one is quite the opposite. such learning accidently and unintentionally occurs when the person comes in contact with an advertisement of that product. it is a process. two components can be identified in learning. For example. Firstly. a result of a careful information search. which they then apply in similar future behaviours2.

the providers should undertake a series of additional activities: make a good case of how they have changed their selling philosophy. make sure their product features are compatible with the ones they present in their ads. a distinction between the low and high level of the consumer inclusion can be made. i. as a punishment for the provider of the product or service because the consumer will be stimulated to avoid the same behaviour.Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour 127 For example. results in a pleasant feeling of shopping and the consumers’ satisfaction. The former. Based on such values. The second motivating factor is reinforcement. positive reinforcement or a reward. encourage a potential consumer to try the product and check that its features comply with the given information and with his/her personal expectations. and other tennis-related activities will be ignored. Learning will be more successful if the consumer is more VI chapter . follow-up others’ achievements etc. on the other hand. The first one is the meaning. To convinced the deluded consumer to purchase their products again. That situation. i. it will motivate them to collect basic information on tennis. results in an entirely adverse effect: avoidance of the same behaviour in the future. i. The third motivating factor is repetition which intensifies the strength and speed of learning. negative reinforcement or a punishment. Let us imagine that because of an advert with false information you have bought an item. if someone wishes to become a good tennis player. accessories used in that sport. the values that the consumers give to the information they learn. etc. several important motivation defining factors can be identified. If such a desire does not exist. is also a warning for the product or service provider. all that intensifies the probability of the same reaction in the future. The conviction about the falsehood of the information during the use of the product will act as a negative reinforcement with the consumers. a tennis school and an intensive training. On the other hand. a new purchase of not only the used but also all other products by the same provider.e. The latter. training.e. it is logical that all the mentioned information.e. This can be further classified into two types: positive and negative.

this will be a clue where you as a consumer can satisfy your needs for a certain product. who may not be able to buy the product now. Slavo Kukić . Reinforcement can manifest in two forms: negative and positive. the probability that. does not mean that each urge or clue will automatically have a response. Response is the third element of the learning process. but also that they can improve their play. to the repetition of the information through various forms of media. i. Reinforcement is the last element of learning. and vice versa. It implies the way individuals react to an urge or a clue. Muris Čičić .e. if you come across an attractive shop window with prominent affordable prices and an unusual product assortment. However. a good selection of music etc. the way they behave. can experience similar pain and recalling his past positive experiences choose to buy the same medication in the future. but may certainly think about buying it in the future. It implies every increase of the probability that a response will happen in the future as a reaction to clues or stimuli.128 Consumer Behaviour frequently exposed to information on a certain product or service. who used a certain painkiller that enabled his participation in tournaments. Let us imagine an advert for a sports centre. Finally.e. i. pictures can be used. Therefore. On the contrary. A sportsman. Clues are the second element of the learning process. advertisements or clues for spacecrafts will not cause any response with the majority of consumers. how to achieve messages with a high level of imagination? To reinforce imagination. The reason is the awareness that such an urge cannot be met. etc. By its meaning it is a clue to the sport fans that they can exercise in the centre. The previous experience can certainly be quite the opposite . a brand or a slogan will initiate the images that the provider expects. In Melika Husić-Mehmedović . for instance. of course.negative. motivation is closely determined by imagination. How to achieve it? It is very simple. They are actually stimuli which direct the motives to learn. spend their holidays.e. Or. emotionally charged slogans. in the consumer’s mind. the providers can be said to be successful if they have managed to create the desired image of their product with the targeted consumers. That. The messages loaded with a greater level of imagination are learnt fast. i.

VI chapter . its appearance. consumers recognise products through slogans and selling appeals rather than through mere information. As for forgetfulness from the consumer behaviour point of view. a few causes of forgetfulness are worth mentioning. Thus. the task of the marketing experts is to find ways to stop consumers from forgetting the brand. it is indisputable that forgetfulness follows learning and that each learning process indicates it as one of its consequences. for instance. Some authors treat forgetfulness as one of the elements of the learning process overall5. One of them is biological age that increases forgetfulness. the loss or disappearance of the facts acquired during the learning process. Due to the excessiveness of information. when your attention is split between reading a newspaper and listening to the radio. and the place of purchase. but forget the product brand. This is the reason why the best advertisements are those based on effective slogans. Taking into account such situations. Finally. a consumer. i. Forgetfulness becomes. To avoid these occurrences. the most intensive right after learning. attention should be paid to several postulates.Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour 129 that case. the opposite response would be logical: a negative response to the possibility of a repeated purchase. generally. in the creation of advertisements. Inattention or insufficient attention occurs. However. may manage to memorise a product. for instance. consumers forget the information they find irrelevant faster. Forgetfulness may also emerge as a consequence of various types of mental blockages in an individual. Accordingly. Another cause is the excessiveness of stored information that leads to some information being forgotten. Different causes can lead to such blockages. terms. the aim of advertising is to focus on the issue of how to make a consumer pay full attention to a specific advert.e. the use of words. Another element relevant for consumer behaviour and closely related to the learning process is forgetfulness. and information comprehensive to a wide segment of potential consumers is recommended. In this analysis it is not treated as such. On the other hand.

Skinner’s. This need is a detail that the designers of marketing messages consider while elaborating on the time structure strategy for addressing potential consumers.130 Consumer Behaviour Due to the above forgetfulness-related facts. For some. theory of reinforcement learning (among which is Hull’s hypothetic-deductive theory). prices and services. Estes’. as well as contemporary theories such as Guthrie’s. 1878-1958) in the Melika Husić-Mehmedović . and observational or vicarious conditioning). And finally. instrumental.1 Behavioural learning theories Behaviourism is one of the most influential trends in psychology. Within this study. Slavo Kukić . Others identify as many as five theories of learning: classical theories of learning: Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning and Thorndike’s trialand-error theory which is also called theory of habit formation. Both the product providers who address the consumers and their competition take that into account. Forgetfulness enables an easy adoption of new facts. it is possible to define a few recommendations important from the consumer behaviour perspective. two-stage learning theory and cognitive learning theories7. Due to forgetfulness. three basic types of learning can be identified: conditional learning (classical.3 Forms of social learning Theoreticians have also provided several different classifications of social learning forms. we are going to focus on two types of learning theories: behavioural and cognitive. which was founded by J. forgetfulness imposes a need for a continuous acquisition of knowledge about products. Muris Čičić . and learning by insight or cognition6. 6.B. Watson (John Broadus Watson. imitation and role playing).3. and with respect to their relevance for the consumer behaviour. the shopping process should be accelerated. for which a touch is a condition of connecting stimuli and behaviour. model learning (learning by identification. theories of touch (Watson’s one deserving special attention. 6.

originates from the English word behaviour. conditional learning and model learning deserve special attention. it is possible to talk about two conditional learning modes relevant in marketing: classical and instrumental conditioning or reinforcement. 6. In other words.Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour 131 beginning of the 20th century. such behaviour and behavioural effects that can be observed and measured objectively. StimulusReaction scheme. behaviourism is ‘an approach that supplies its discoveries from the close observation of how people. For Klaic. and based on these findings explains mental processes’8. so-called conditional response. On the other hand.1. Behaviour is just a response to a stimulus. i. One of the fundamental questions regarding conditional learning is: What are basic mechanisms of conditioning? There are adverse opinions in that respect. if a person responds to a familiar stimulus in a predictable way. we are dedicating a more detailed analysis to them within this study. there is no learning beyond conditional learning: all learning is necessarily conditional. Finally. The term is self-explanatory. Therefore.1 Conditional learning Conditional learning is based on a Stimulus-Response principle. This attitude can be shown in the S-R. a reaction that is in fact inevitable and that does not depend on the human will or cognitive features. a stimulus from the environment. Within the behavioural learning theories. especially children.3. behave in various circumstances. behaviourism only focuses on objective behaviour i. learning is readiness to behave and respond in a certain way in a specific situation and in the presence of a stimulus. namely. More precisely. As a subject of the study.e. The word behaviourism. Accordingly. What does this principle mean? Simply. VI chapter . this means that behaviour occurs as a result of an incentive. a conditional stimulus always causes the same. learning is a result of a great number of repetitions of conditional stimuli and automation of responses to them. it means that learning is achieved. In other words.e.

experimenting with dogs he identified a process of the formation of so-called conditional reflex. The dog was then exposed to a bell sound and immediately a meat paste was brought close to its tongue. the very bell causes the dog’s salivation without bringing the food closer. Figure 26: Pavlov’s model of classical conditioning vi Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 – 1936). which caused salivation.132 Consumer Behaviour Classical conditioning is based on a thesis that an organism is a passive entity and that it can be taught certain behaviour by multiple repetitive actions that produce such behaviour. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . after a few repetitions. Slavo Kukić . conditional learning was achieved (Figure 26). It was presumed that a hungry dog was highly-motivated to eat. At that moment. That activity is repeated several times. Pavlov did an experiment with a dog. a pioneer in behaviourism. Muris Čičić . a Russian philosopher. according to Pavlov’s theory. However. Its starting point is Pavlov’s theory of conditioning which claims whenever a stimulus causes a familiar reaction it is an example of conditional learning. This is what Pavlov’svi theory is based on.

Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour


Another three concepts are associated with classical conditioning: repetition, generalisation of stimuli, and discrimination of stimuli. What do they mean? Repetition, as mentioned above, is a precondition of automation of a response to a specific stimulus, converting the response to the stimulus into behaviour as a personality trait. Its essence, in other words, is to increase the force of association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. The increase of the force of association also means that the process of forgetfulness decreases by repetition. All this does not mean that the rule ‘the more repetitions, the more powerful the force of association, the slower the process of forgetfulness’ is applicable. In other words, the number of repetitions has its ceiling of toleration; it has to be limited. Too many repetitions may result in overlearning, or they may lead to the saturation of those whose learning is a result of conditioning. Regarding consumers for instance, in case of an inadequate number of repetitions, the consequence may be saturation with an advertisement that is manifested in various forms: attention deteriorates in respect with that advertisement, the process of retaining the learned information weakens, etc. Therefore, regarding repetition, there are two questions to be asked. First of all, how to avoid saturation? The methods are diverse. Two of them deserve to be highlighted. It is possible to do so by various types of cosmetic variations, i.e. by using different backgrounds, print-outs etc. Saturation can also be avoided using various content variations: modifying the advert content while keeping the same cosmetic features. Other approaches are also possible. The second question related to repetition is: How many repetitions are needed to transform a stimulus-response relation into behaviour? Different answers have been provided in theory. For some, three exposures of a person to an advertisement are sufficient. Each of these exposures has a specific function: firstly, consumers’ attention is drawn to the existence of

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the product; secondly, the importance of the product is pointed out, and thirdly, the product usefulness is enforced. The so-called three strike theory is common for the second group of approaches. What does it imply? A part of the approach is common with the previous understanding. In other words, the starting point is the identification of three types of consumer exposures to the advertisement. What makes it different from the previous understanding is that a single exposure is insufficient for the message content to be memorised. On the contrary, to memorise all three exposures, eleven or twelve repetitions are needed. Another term associated with the classical conditioning is generalisation of stimuli. The starting point is that learning does not only depend on repetition but also on the person’s ability to generalise. What does this ability imply? Generalisation is simply a phenomenon of stimuli similar to the conditioned ones causing a conditioned response of the same intensity, i.e. an equal response to somehow different stimuli. In Pavlov’s experiment with the dog salivation for instance, generalisation means that the salivation will not only happen due to the bell sound but also due to something similar such as keys jangling or something else that reminds of a bell. Concerning products offered to a consumer, generalisation enables the identification of some similar products with the associated ones. If generalisation is understood as such, another question is raised: Can generalisation be applied in marketing? The answer is, of course, affirmative. It is possible to talk about two areas of application for generalisation in marketing at least. One is associated with the consolidation of the entire family of products under the same brand. If consumers or consumer segments have accepted a certain brand, the consolidation of the entire product family implies that the product line of a brand familiar to loyal consumers is constantly supplemented by new products: the ones that they prefer regardless of not having any previous experience with them. The second area of generalisation application is licensing, i.e. allowing a brand to be used with other manufacturer’s products. In the modern

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour


world, it is quite common for the renowned manufacturers to lease their name to others for their products. This is how the products of anonymous manufacturers avoid the difficult challenge of breaking into the market and become momentarily recognisable. There are also other examples of renting out one’s own name. Most frequently, fashion designers and celebrities lease manufacturers their names to make their products instantly recognisable. Others can have this role too: a church, the local or state government etc, all aiming for their names to generate income. Massive licensing, however, is widely spread nowadays, and it may result in a number of negative consequences. One of the most common ones is license forgery, which has become very lucrative for the forgers. However, license forgery may harm the authentic brand too, creating unimaginable damage. Discrimination of stimuli is the third term related to the classical conditioning. What does discrimination imply? Simply put, it is a phenomenon that is, by its structure and meaning, just the opposite from that of generalisation. Therefore, unlike generalisation which implies identical responses to somewhat different stimuli; the result of discrimination is a selection of one among several similar stimuli. More precisely, discrimination enables learning differences among similar stimuli. Regarding consumers of products or services, various effects of discrimination are possible. One of them, for instance, is the ability to position a product, i.e. create a product image in a consumer’s awareness. This ability is the main resource of a product’s provider against his competitors, because the consumer, thanks to the ability to position the product, has the capability to tell the difference between the product he likes and other similar products. Another effect of discrimination present with consumers is the so-called differentiation of products, the effect that aims at the differentiation of a product or a brand from the competitor’s based on the product characteristic that is denotative and valuable to the consumer. Instrumental conditioning is another principle or a form of conditional learning. What is its essence? Classical conditioning bases learning on

VI chapter


Consumer Behaviour

the stimulus-response principle. Instrumental conditioning introduces the element of reinforcement into this equation. In other words, there is a possibility of choosing a response from among several alternatives, assuming that only one is rewarded. If only one response to a stimulus is rewarded and reinforced, it will be repeated, unlike others. For instance, if a child is rewarded from an early age for studying regularly, behaving appropriately etc., his reward will be an encouragement to repeat the rewarded behaviour. The fate of those which are not rewarded, such as socially unacceptable behaviour, will be just the opposite. The situation in fact can be somewhat different: several responses to a stimulus can be rewarded and reinforced. If we follow the logic of instrumental conditioning, the response that is reinforced and rewarded most will be learned. If we apply the logic of instrumental conditioning to consumer behaviour, at least two relevant assumptions follow. Firstly, some types of purchase behaviour result in rewards, others do not. This fact implies that the former will be repeated and the latter will not. On the other hand though, in the case of several types of behaviour being rewarded, the levels of reward can be different: some are lower, others are higher. In this case it is most likely that the behaviour rewarded most will be repeated. Reinforcement occurs in different forms. We often identify the primary (food, water, caressing, pain etc.), and secondary rein forcers such as money, praise, grades, etc. The role of primary rein forcers is clear. Secondary rein forcers, however, have a more significant role once they are combined with the primary ones. For instance, if caressing is combined with praise, soon the praise on its own would become a rein forcer. Generalised conditioned rein forcers are very efficient for shaping behaviour (linking secondary rein forcers to several primary ones), because they are associated with a series of events, not just one. For instance, attention can be associated with a pleasant physical touch, a smile, positive emotions, food etc. Regarding consumer behaviour though, the difference between positive and negative reinforcement is often emphasised. Firstly, positive reinforcement – reinforcement by food, caressing, comfort etc – increases the possibility for some reaction to take place. For instance, a shampoo

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour


that makes your hair silky and clean increases the possibility of a repeated purchase. Negative reinforcement, however, results in a negative outcome that stimulates an adequate behaviour: you wear a hat if it is cold; you take a painkiller if you have a headache, etc. Life insurance advertisements often show the consequences that the wife and children would suffer if the husband died. Why? The goal, clearly, is to stimulate the purchase of life insurance. What is important, therefore, is to be relieved of an unpleasant situation, whether by removing or avoiding it, and to bring comfort eventually. Regarding reinforcement, regardless of what type it is, another detail is relevant: reinforcement program. If we wonder, for instance, what makes many visit betting shops regularly and passionately, we will realise that what “keeps” them there is that they occasionally manage to predict the results and get reinforcement. The “recipe” for success lies in this simple example: due to occasional reinforcement they do not give up their passion because they hope that they will be lucky next time, i.e. that they will be reinforced. This is an example of occasional or intermittent reinforcement. Model learning
Model learning generally implies learning based on the experience of others. Simply put, it is a consequence of observing the behaviour of others. More precisely, model learning implies imitating responses of others and acting accordingly. Several types of learning can be identified within model learning: identification, imitation and role-playing. Learning by identification is the only one that, according to some authors9, cannot be identified as some sort of conditioning. Some other elements are relevant instead. First of all, it is the role of emotional and motivational factors, as well as the emotionally established relation with the model. Secondly, it is the adoption of global forms of behaviour as our own permanent ways of response. Thirdly, it is the adoption of complex forms of behaviour rather than specific responses. And finally, it is relevant that the adopted forms are permanent and that they manifest through a long period of time.

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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the first one to point out the identification, i.e. the existence of a spontaneous imitation of a role-model. Identification, he points out, shapes the Ego of a person according to the form of someone who was accepted as a role-model. It is possible to identify several forms of appearance or types of identification. Generally two are emphasised though: the defensive and developmental or analytic. The former, the defensive identification, Freud relates to the resolution of the Oedipus Complex. Defensive identification is therefore manifested as the identification with the aggressor, and occurs as a result of fear that the role-model (generally the father) will display aggression. For some other authors though, the source of defensive identification should be looked for in the desire to take the position that the role-model has, i.e. to not be envious of such a status. Identification is, in fact, a consequence of imaging oneself in the role which enables satisfaction of desires. Finally, some authors base defensive identification on a person’s observation that the role-model has some characteristics or things that the person wants. Therefore the cause of identification should not be found in the fear or envy, but in the desire to accomplish some goals that the person wants to accomplish, to have the power and control over the things similar to those that the role-model has, etc. As an example of defensive identification, the behaviour of prisoners in Nazi concentration camps is often exploited. Namely, they often imitate their torturers and guards in the manner of dressing, behaviour, even their attitude toward other prisoners. The reasons can be found in the above theoretical explanations. Developmental or analytic identification is based on different premises. Freud starts the explanation of this type of identification by asking the question: How to explain the socialisation of female children? Trying to answer this question, Freud speaks about the identification based on the bond with another person: the bond based on offering support and help. More precisely, it refers to the fear of losing a mother’s love and ensuring help and support. Similar approaches can be seen with other authors. According to them, the developmental identification is based on love and respect for the role-model, and it denotes the need to adopt the rolemodel’s behaviour.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour


Another type of model learning is learning by imitation, a mechanism frequently used for explaining learning social behaviour. Behaviourists define imitation as a form of conditioning: a child will repeat all other people’s responses if those responses stimulate the child’s sensors at the moment of him doing the same action on his own, accidentally. However, this logic cannot explain the acquisition of new forms of behaviour. Some other theoreticians explain imitation by instrumental conditioning: a form of behaviour that is accidental at first will be adopted as permanent if it is reinforced repeatedly. Regardless of the differences in theoretical approaches, however, for consumer behaviour related to imitation it is sufficient to point out two elements. The first one is the observation of the behaviour of the people you admire due to their looks, success, social status etc. The second one is the imitation of their positively reinforced behaviour when you encounter similar situations. Regarding the possibilities of learning by imitation, several are worth mentioning: the adoption of new forms of behaviour, causing inhibitory and disinhibitory effects (refraining or not refraining from some forms of behaviour), and the manifestation of previously learned behaviour that has not been expressed in the meantime. Finally, the third type of model learning is learning by role-playing. What kind of learning is this? In order to answer this, it is necessary to define role. Role implies the expected behaviour related to a certain status. Such behaviour is important for both the society and the individual. For the society, roles harmonise the activities of the society members. For the individuals, role as the expected behaviour enables them to handle various situations easily, knowing what is expected of them. If such a definition of role is adopted, learning by role-playing can be defined as learning by imitating someone who has the position we have achieved or we want to achieve. Expectations regarding behaviour, according to social understanding, are related to having a certain position. A mother, for instance, is expected to look after the children, a doctor is expected to cure, a manager is expected to run a company, etc.

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Role-playing has its characteristics. At least two of them deserve attention. Role-playing does not imply learning individual responses but only the organised system of behaviour. On the other hand, roles always have an interactive character: they are complemented by some other role and learning them assumes learning those other roles as well. Finally, role-playing depends on a large number of factors that either facilitate or obstruct it. Several of them need to be pointed out: • Clarity about the expected behaviour that is linked to a certain position (clearly defined roles) • Conformity among the society members regarding what behaviour related to a certain position is expected. • A verified legitimacy of someone’s position, meaning that everyone agrees that a certain person really has a specific position and the right to it, and where everyone acts accordingly. In such circumstances roles are easier to learn. • Conformity regarding the expectations related to complementary positions and roles. Acquiring roles is easier if the understanding of the expected behaviour linked to a certain position matches the understanding of the behaviour linked to a complementary position. • The level of pervasiveness of roles: if a behaviour linked with a position is manifested in a large number of situations and relations, it is easier to learn. • Motivation of an individual to learn the behaviour linked to specific roles. Vicarious or observational learning
Vicarious learning, in a certain way, is a type of model learning. It differs from the above mentioned forms of modelling though. Analysing vicarious learning as a separate type of learning, Albert Bandura defines it as learning by observation10. New forms of behaviour, namely, are acquired, or the unwanted ones are modified, based on the observation of others, without trying to practise or learn such behaviour, without a direct reward or punishment, by a direct imitation of a role-model’s behaviour.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

• Retention: This involves verbalising the steps of behaviour or visualisation. If children are not certain what behaviour is most appropriate. high-ranking. when a student does not take his tasks seriously. VI chapter . The observed behaviour of someone else. a child who is learning to climb rope imitates a peer who is also learning climbing but is more successful than him. attractive and admired by others. The level of readiness to imitate the role model will be lower if the role model was unsuccessful in the past. they imitate their peers rather than the adults. Most attention goes to a model that is competent. This is also called the controlled exercise. Students. popular. For instance. • Reproduction: The teacher provides feedback in case of an incorrect answer or hints at what the correct answer might be. • Motivation: Motivation starts with vicarious reinforcement. On the contrary. research shows. The student who acts inappropriately will see that responsible work is rewarded. One of the relevant factors of effectiveness of a role model is also the perceived competence. One of the prominent ones is doubtlessly the perceived similarity. Various factors influence this level. are more prone to imitating the children of the same sex.Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour 141 For instance. so he starts doing the same. In such a situation the person who observes other people’s actions concludes that a certain reward can be achieved by the same behaviour. there are four stages of observational learning12: • Attention: Focusing one’s attention onto a model. the teacher can reinforce those who do. The more similar the role model is to us. and more role models are more effective than one11. Finally. the observed behaviour of the role model can become the motive to behave in the same manner only if it is rewarded or at least is not punished. even if he/she is very successful in the present. Different role models whose behaviour is observed have different levels of impact on the observer. does not automatically lead to the same or modified behaviour of the observer. the more effective it is. a role model.

learning implies a knowledge about relations among specific stimuli. three groups of questions are pointed out. we could say that it is learning based on mental activities. etc. In accordance with this. separated storages: sensory. Regarding information processing though. What is information processing however? Simply put. Within the context of this analysis. the greater the ability to use the product information efficiently. sensory storage is in the fact that every sense receives a fragmented Melika Husić-Mehmedović . On the contrary. the essence of cognitive theories is in the thesis that learning activates complex mental information processing. the brand. the association between a stimulus and a motor response. If information processing is defined as above. Firstly. such as the providers of various games of chance or many other products or services. Regarding consumer behaviour. the larger the cognitive abilities the greater the ability to gather more information about a product.142 Consumer Behaviour Students imitate a model’s behaviour because they believe this increases their chances of reinforcement. short-term or long-term. Secondly. Namely. before further processing. information is stored in one of the three. 6. Slavo Kukić . there is no doubt that many businesses take vicarious or observational learning into consideration.2 Cognitive learning theories In an attempt to provide a solid definition of cognitive learning. taking into consideration its features. The essence of the first. One of them is: How is information stored in memory? Theory has given the answer to that question a while ago. the greater the experience with the category of the product.3. it is important to answer a few more questions. it implies a consumer’s processing of the information about a product. comparison with other brands. The starting point is the assumption that learning cannot be all about the stimulus-response relation. and the greater the skill of integrating the information about several product features. at least two relevant assumptions can be made. Muris Čičić .

touch of a flower) and transfers it to the brain where a comprehensive image is created. shape. The example with a phone number is suitable as evidence. it is logical that consumers are more prone to remember the information about new products that belong to a familiar brand. One of the storages where the information is kept is long-term storage. It is realistic to expect it to be kept in your memory for a long time. If the information is not repeated. How long this retention is going to last depends on many factors. for instance. Due to these characteristics and the route of information. that you have read a phone number in a phone book and that you have not repeated it. they receive the message: for the sake of their own product or service it is necessary to create a way of further processing the received information in order to prevent losing the comprehensive image in a human’s brain and to retain it for as long as possible. it will be lost within thirty seconds. where it is kept for a longer period of time. it does not just wait to be recalled into the awareness. As the name suggests. it can last from several minutes up to many years. More precisely. This image only lasts for a moment and it is lost unless it gets processed. Normally it is transferred into the long-term memory storage. this is the storage where the information is kept for a longer period of time. What follows. logically. the stored information is not passive. It can have one of two fates in this storage. the stored information is continuously reorganise d. Imagine. The second group of questions regarding information processing is: How is information retained? The answer to this question is not at the level of a single operation. Imagine that you repeat the number several times for the next ten minutes. The information that is repeated after its first reception gets a different fate though. is briefly kept in the short-term storage or the so-called working memory. If the providers of products or services know this characteristic of sensory storage. however. On the contrary. The information. In general though. The reason for this is the fact that the memory of the information regarding VI chapter . is that it will be lost from your memory in a very short period of time.Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour 143 piece of information (smell. as a rule. updated and profiled as new insights arrive.

It conducts the parallel processing of the information relevant for recognising forms and special understanding. Women. Finally. The right hemisphere is intuitive. Within the cluster of cognitive theories it is possible to mark a large number of them: learning by insight. According to the theory. It gathers information from images rather than words. places and objects. relate the product’s features to the advantages expected from it. What is this theory based upon? Its theoretical foundation is the split-brain theory that is based on the thesis that the left and right hemisphere of the brain are specialised for processing specific types of information. personified by David Sousa. letters and numbers serially. it is considered. It is the theory of involvement as a separate cognitive theory. or how to remember the information that was stored at some point in one’s memory and that faded in the meantime? A person often finds himself in the situation of not being able to remember something that is normally familiar. learning by trial and error. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . It processes words. It is the analytical hemisphere that evaluates the fact materials in a rational manner and interprets words literally. involved in speech. It recognises faces. If we know this feature of the human personality. One of them. concludes Sousa. According to this theory. is logical. One of the core recommendations to the designers of advertisements stems from this characteristic: if you want to design an effective message. the method is actually rather simple. “the left hemisphere specialises in coding information verbally whilst the right hemisphere specialises in coding information visually”13. reading and writing.144 Consumer Behaviour such products is under less influence from competitors’ advertisements than would be the case of a product with a new brand name. etc. it is necessary to ask: what to do to eliminate these unpleasant situations or at least minimize them as much as possible? If we observe consumers. people whose left hemisphere dominates are more verbal. A consumer is prone to memorizing the advantages of a product rather than its features. creative. is particularly relevant for consumer behaviour. however. The left hemisphere. Slavo Kukić . analytical and better at solving problems. Muris Čičić . the last relevant question regarding information processing is: How is information recalled from memory.

to one hemisphere or the other. the message could focus around two assumptions. the visual component of advertising is extremely relevant. we can conclude that it is appropriate for the media with the highest level of involvement. On the other hand. considering they are short and frequent. If. maths and handle the world of images better than words. consider that any model of brain lateralisation that refers to the conglomeration of complex mental abilities such as special resonance. prominent researchers in the field of special resonance and visual imagery. Finally. the split-brain theory is seen as the point of alignment. the right. Research. for the people whose right hemisphere dominates. Therefore. repetition is a basic condition for creating a shopping mood. reading and writing. does not support the split-brain theory. VI chapter . Considering that the left hemisphere of the brain is specialised in speech. Theories like the split-brain theory cannot explain nor predict which parts of the brain will activate to solve a new problem14.Learning as a factor of consumer behaviour 145 are more oriented to their left hemisphere than men are. On the contrary. for the people whose right hemisphere is dominant. visual communication. For instance. In order to accomplish this. are good at painting and drawing. Christopher Chabris and Stephen Kosslyn. from the consumer behaviour perspective. TV advertisements are most effective. It shows that the left and right hemisphere do not act separately in information processing. they cooperate to shape the information. printed media first of all. mainly men. however. The reason is the fact that the extremely visual TV advertisements create familiarity with the brand and stimulate a shopping mood. intuitive hemisphere specialises in nonverbal. People whose right hemisphere dominates. is too rough to be scientifically or practically useful.

Englewood Cliffs.G. 172. Chabris. Klaic. Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva. A. (2003): ibidem 10. 158 9. Kosslyn (1998): How Do the Cerebral Hemispheres Contribute to Encoding Spatial Relations?. D. Va. (1986): ibidem 13. Slavo Kukić . Pecjak. Zagreb. 160-162 5. 7. and L. vol. S. T. What is the definition of learning? Do responses influence learning and how? How do repetition and imagination influence learning? What types of conditional learning are there and what are the differences between them? 5. 8-14 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Kesic. C. Kesic. pp. (2006): ibidem. Rot.: National Association of Secondary School Principals. (1981): Psihologija saznavanja. Jastrebarsko 2. Svjetlost. p. N. P. L. V. (1986): Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.M. (1987): Peer models and children’s behavioral change. 253-260 4. Muris Čičić .L. 3. N. Rot. Current Directions in Psychology. pp.H. MATE. L. Reston. NJ: Prentice-Hall 11. Zagreb. Nakladni zavod Matice Hrvatske. Schiffman. Kanuk (2004): ibidem. 4. Opinio. (1995): How the Brain Learns: A Classroom Teacher’s Guide. 99 14. and L.A.F. 7. 160 3. pp.G. Schunk. Schiffman. T. (2002): Psihologija pamcenja i ucenja. 149-174 12. What does S-R scheme represent? 6. Describe generalisation of stimuli in Pavlov’s experiment. Bandura. (2003): Osnovi socijalne psihologije. Sousa. D. Zarevski.. Slap. 57. Beograd.146 Consumer Behaviour Questions for revision 1. Bandura. p. p.L. What are the characteristics of the cognitive learning theory? References 1. Zagreb. 7. Review of Educational Research. pp. p. B. 2. 256-258 6. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. A.(1990): Rjecnik stranih rijeci. Sarajevo 8. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca.

VII chapter ATTITUDES Chapter objectives • • • • • • • Analysis of various definitions and opinions about attitudes Components of attitudes Attitudes in relation to consumer behaviour Understanding attitude theories Attitude formation and the use of attitudes in marketing The possibilities and methods of attitude change The influence of communications on attitude formation and change .


Finally. to a greater or lesser extent. emotional feelings and pro or con action tendencies with respect to a social object. According to them5. Another frequently exploited definition is the one by Krech. objects or situations1. He finds that attitudes imply a significant amount of commitment or the pro or con feeling with respect to a stimulating object such as a person. ATTITUDES 7. However. the majority of them. some other definitions may be more useful. In consumer behaviour. Newcomb’s definition dating from 1950 is a foundation for Shiffman-Kanuk’s one . a company or an idea2. whether positively or negatively. The first one is Newcomb’s. Cratchutield and Ballachey. a product. according to which attitudes are tendencies to react to certain people.which states that an attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object4.1 Definition of attitudes What are attitudes? In an effort to answer this question we can identify a variety of theoretical approaches. VII chapter .the one rather relevant for consumer behaviour . an attitude is an enduring system of positive or negative evaluations.Morgan’s definition. English and English define attitudes as enduring learned predispositions to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects6. defining attitudes as one of the variables in consumer behaviour.149 7. rely on one of the oldest . John Mowen based his definition of attitudes on Morgan’s one. according to which an attitude is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently positive or negative manner to a given object3.

Slavo Kukić . brand. 3. etc. there is also an easily recognisable list of mutual differences. Muris Čičić . • exposure to the influence of mass media. has a lot in common with it. in other words. Regarding consumer behaviour they are the result of: • experience with a product. A component of a conviction. type of product. to an “object”. regardless of all the existing discrepancies among them. The definitions of attitudes. An attitude always refers to something. For instance. is an emphasised intellectual operation.150 Consumer Behaviour If we compare all the above definitions to each other. Conviction implies a clearly determined attitude related to an understanding. refers to the fact that an attitude is often seen as being the same as conviction. Regarding consumer behaviour. this object can be a product. • information acquired from others. Attitudes generally portray the behaviour they reflect. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . This means that the coherence of attitudes is not inevitable. different intervening variables can produce behaviour that is not a reflection of one’s own attitudes. we notice that they have some elements in common: 1. the term that. recognise the need to clear up a few more obscurities. One of them. • family members. etc. We have a conviction about something because we consider that there is a logical justification for it. acquaintances. However. 2. Consistency as one of the important characteristics of attitudes. the conviction about the harmfulness of smoking stems from the information that lung cancer is much more common with smokers than non-smokers. A clearly defined attitude stems from this conviction: to reject cigarette consumption as a part of one’s lifestyle. • friends. price. for example. More precisely. Attitudes are not genetic but a result of learning. shop. truth be told.

An opinion is. based on the above definitions of attitudes. If we want to define opinions. we want to identify their most relevant characteristics. More precisely. and that they influence behaviour and its consistency. 7. VII chapter . it also means that a consumer is convinced that the attitude object has certain characteristics matching this attitude. etc.2 Complexity of attitudes If. a verbal expression of an attitude. A specific behaviour stems from such a conviction. The complexity of attitudes. along with the three listed ones: their dispositional character. the intellectual component is less emphasised than in convictions. in other people’s behaviour being affected. comprises three attitude components: cognition. as one of their most relevant characteristics. The reason is the same as in the previous case: attitudes and opinions are related terms. then we must not fail to mention another characteristic of attitudes: their complexity. Regarding consumer behaviour. in positive information being spread about them. and the emotional element is less stressed than in attitudes. in fact. affect and conation. without necessarily being its real reflection. How do they manifest? Cognitive component implies that there is certain knowledge and assumptions about the attitude objects.Attitudes 151 Another ambiguity is the fact that attitudes and opinions are seen as being one and the same. the fact that they are not genetic but acquired. which results in these products being bought. Such knowledge. assumptions and perceptions usually take the form of convictions. we could say that they imply a specific transition between attitudes and convictions.

152 Consumer Behaviour Figure 27: Tricomponent attitude model Affective component refers to the fact that attitudes always include emotions toward the attitude object. we want or do not want to have it. to take certain action. we like or dislike a certain item. the Melika Husić-Mehmedović . For instance. refers to the assumption that attitudes are not homogenous. Complexity. Muris Čičić . Slavo Kukić . as well as other characteristics of attitudes. connotative component implies a tendency to do something about the attitude object. Finally. we love it or do not love it. conation could imply a consumer’s expression of the intention to buy something. On the contrary. etc. Regarding consumer behaviour.

for instance. an attitude toward marriage. To the question To what extent can an attitude be used to predict consumer behaviour? the answer will not be complete unless at least some of the variables this depends on are pointed out. Two of them must be mentioned in this analysis. if the logical foundation of an attitude is the applied criterion. One of them classifies attitudes into personal and social ones. difficult to change and as a rule accompanied with strong emotions. Unlike them. a trade company or a shop. and more the result of their desire to fit in by a socially adequate and rewarding behaviour. we can speak about different types of attitudes. how intense it is. as the name indicates. The need for a socially adequate and rewarding behaviour “forces” consumers towards purchases they do not prefer: they will choose them in order not to cause the contempt of the group despite the fact that the purchase does not personally please them. The possibility of different criteria in attitude classification is also doubtless. how much the character of the attitude structure can be used to predict consumer behaviour. VII chapter . Such and similar questions can only be answered at a fundamental level. social attitudes are common to many people and in accordance with these attitudes such people can be compared. We can also classify attitudes using criteria different from the above. attitudes can be classified into the ones that rely on logic and prejudices: attitudes that are logically unsubstantial. Personal attitudes. a product brand. The answer primarily depends on the social adequacy of the attitude. This means that some types of behaviour are less the result of a personal judgement of individuals that could result in the contempt of the group. etc.Attitudes 153 differences between them can be rather significant. refer to people’s attitudes toward something: their mother. etc. particularly consumers. 7. What has to be thoroughly analysed though is what sort of influence this is. Accordingly. a friend. For instance.3 Influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour Both personal and social attitudes have a strong influence on the behaviour of humans. Such is. etc. brand. company.

the very abundance of information is not going to produce a greater trust in one’s attitudes. Muris Čičić . what do its existence and scope depends on? There are a number of variables influencing this. which is always the case with a purchase of valuable. The level of the trust depends. the lesser is the influence of the attitude on consumer behaviour.154 Consumer Behaviour On the other hand. The greater the trust.. in other words. is the level of consumer involvement in every specific case. on the level of available information. then the attitude structure can be used effectively to predict consumer behaviour. One of them. Some of them are worth pointing out. Generally we can say that stronger attitudes enable a more reliable consumer behaviour prediction regarding the planning of a purchase. than with the latter. If. and vice versa. the more general an attitude is and the more ambiguous and abstract the attitude object is. promotion with other consumers. etc. Another detail is important to know: that the rigour of an attitude is more relevant for permanent and more valuable products than for mass consumption products. For instance. regardless of this general level of analysis. The influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour is also related to the specificity of attitudes. another issue must be analysed here: What is the trust in one’s own attitudes related to. expensive products such as a car. there is no doubt that it is possible to mark the situations in which the influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour is certain. among other factors. It influences the specific behaviour of consumers more with the former. the consumer attitude structure is less useful for predicting behaviour. However. it is a situation with the higher level of consumer involvement. Slavo Kukić . The trust in attitudes also depends on the trust in available information. In the case of mass consumption goods. More information results in a greater trust and vice versa. What does this mean? Simply stated. for instance. the use. if there is a lack of trust in the information source. the extent to which an attitude can be use to predict consumer behaviour also depends on how strong the attitude is with respect to the product. the greater the influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour. where purchase decisions are mainly a routine. However. home appliances etc. whether negatively or affirmatively. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . The influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour is also directly related to the trust in one’s own attitudes.

One of the possible ones. for instance. we must mention personality traits as a variable that influences consumer behaviour. no doubt. In consumer behaviour. is much stronger than a general attitude toward the computer technology. Consumer behaviour can be related to the influence of group attitudes. Variables can have the opposite character though: one may not have a positive attitude toward a product and yet be stimulated to its purchase and consumption by certain situational factors. However. One of the situations in which the influence of attitudes on consumer behaviour is also certain is related to the situational factors. The influence of an attitude regarding a portable computer of a specific brand. for instance. in profiling the behaviour it can outweigh the need to behave in accordance with one’s own attitudes. The rest of them. Finally. What exactly is this about? Certain types of personality are. attitudes are. It is not uncommon for consumers to have one type of attitude with regard to a product or a service. on the other hand. as the above analysis implies. and to behave entirely differently in reality. this influence is greater the more specific the attitude object is. important for their influence on a specific behaviour. are easy to become subject to the influence and attitudes of a group. is the disapproval of a specific behaviour by the group within which the consumer functions as an individual. such behaviour can be caused by behavioural factors that stimulate or discourage certain behaviour. Specifically. Reasons for this vary.Attitudes 155 Accordingly. for instance. Such attitude. an attitude itself does not always have to produce behaviour. does not have to produce the adequate behaviour: the purchase of a Mercedes car. Namely. If we compare an VII chapter . For instance. someone can have an extremely positive attitude toward the car brand Mercedes. simply. however. more appropriate for the influence of various intervening variables on their behaviour. are less susceptible to such external influences and are more likely to adjust their own attitudes and behaviour. Some personality types. lack of money for it is a situational factor that discourages such a purchase. If the disapproval by the group has certain intensity. Why? The reasons vary.

Regarding this situation. i.1 Cognitive dissonance theory Cognitive dissonance theory is based on the thesis that dissonance always occurs when a consumer has contradicting thoughts about the object of an attitude or conviction. Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić . Cognitive dissonance theory and 2.156 Consumer Behaviour attitude and behaviour.3.e. Regarding this. the processes in the relations between attitudes and behaviour can be significantly different. The opposite from the above is not uncommon: for behaviour to precede attitudes. At least two assumptions can be derived from this basic principle: that attitudes precede behaviour and that behaviour follows attitude formation. However. it is possible to identify two theoretical approaches: 1. the principle that an attitude is a precondition of certain behaviour is valid as a rule. Attribution theory. two situations are possible: one that refers to the time before the purchase and the other one about Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the opposing thoughts in regard with the attitude or conviction object. Figure 28: Attitude formation 7.

in order to minimize the possibility of post-purchase dissonance. The latter. Namely. Manufacturers are aware that some consumers will not read the manuals though. missed some of the qualities of the brand (or brands) he has not chosen. This change would not be relevant on its own. Its function is to motivate the consumer to acquire the detailed information about the use of the purchased product before its very use.. One of the more efficient methods of achieving this is doubtlessly by offering larger warranties to consumers. In accordance with this it is possible to talk about two cognitive dissonances: the cognitive dissonance before the purchase and post-purchase dissonance. under the influence of experience. Finally. however. stems from the fact that the attitude change “forces” the consumer to change behaviour during the next purchase and its adjustment to the change.e. sent the order. However. a significant number of them will study the manual with a greater or lesser attention to detail. a doubt can occur regarding the choice and the product. Various approaches are possible. possibly. if consumers have a one-year or several-year warranty. after it. cognitive dissonance before the purchase is possible to be expected after the consumer has decided on a product. At that moment it is not uncommon for him to start thinking about whether he has made the best possible decision. it will be fixed in time and free of charge or in extreme cases replaced entirely. also creates a manual with the instructions on how to use the product. etc. The manufacturer. after he had made the advance payment. For instance. which all results in the change of attitude. The occurrence of the former. Therefore they take certain actions in order to disable or minimize it. Its significance. The logic behind this is very simple: if the product breaks or malfunctions. their potential doubts will be significantly smaller than they could objectively be. i. or has he. as a rule. a large number of companies decide to develop a consumer loyalty program.Attitudes 157 the time after the purchase. whether they could have advantages when compared to the chosen brand. post-purchase dissonance. The most common is the VII chapter . new information etc. occurs after a purchase. A popular advert for De Beers diamonds is trying to influence the decrease in the cognitive dissonance with consumers by its slogan: How can two months’ salary last a lifetime? Post-purchase dissonance with consumers does not suit the businesses. etc.

the question can be formulated slightly differently. The central topic of the theory is the understanding of what people identify as a cause or reason for their own behaviour and the behaviour of others. for instance: “Why has she tried to make me change the brand?” This theory claims that people. on jumbo posters. there is no reason for them to doubt it. if we give a donation to the Red Cross because it helps people who need it. Slavo Kukić . The essence is therefore in the search for the causes of such an action. consumers use various tactics. but pervading the causes as to why we have decided to make the donation. Finally. or by some internal ones such as motives. there is no reason not to believe them. For instance. their goal is to avoid or to minimize this unpleasant feeling caused by conflicting thoughts. For if others are pleased with the product. the search for an answer to the question: Why have I done this? In the consumer behaviour context. It is also common for consumers to look for advertisements that will support their choice. For Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the central question of the attribution theory is not the donation as a fact. to disable or minimize the post-purchase dissonance. Therefore. Post-purchase dissonance however does not suit the consumers either. while discovering what the causes of someone’s behaviour are. 7. The reason for this is that it develops loyalty and satisfaction of valuable and dedicated consumers. Muris Čičić . More precisely.3. people try to convince themselves that they have made a wise decision. are trying to establish whether this behaviour was induced by some extreme causes from the individual’s environment. In order to achieve this. The logic behind it is: if such a choice is supported by adverts in printed media. attitudes or capabilities.158 Consumer Behaviour philosophy of rewarding valuable consumers. in TV or radio adverts. consumers often resort to the tactic of finding other satisfied consumers in order to eliminate their own doubts.2 Attribution theory The attribution theory focuses on an individual’s continuous efforts to discover and interpret the causes of the events he witnesses. Justifying the decision as wise by rationalising is quite common.

It is always present when an individual asks the “why” question in relation to a statement or action of another person –a family member. The consumers will. the consumers will go to other salespeople. For example. try to decide whether the salesperson’s motives match their interests. attitudes (in regard with consumer behaviour) develop when consumers observe and evaluate their own behaviour. attribution theory can be viewed from different perspectives. One of the attribution forms is also attribution toward others. People often tend to relate the causes with either a person or institution. This particularly happens when there is no additional information or a thorough insight into a specific situation or social-interactive relations. toward products or services. etc. buy a certain product. etc. According to it. VII chapter . and they are likely to observe very complex processes and phenomena through a simplified cause-effect spectrum. why it meets or does not meet their expectations. by evaluating the words or actions of a salesperson. For instance. the question is asked: What factors make people say that their behaviour is caused by something from the environment or that it is the result of their own traits and capabilities. Attribution. One of the most significant ones is surely the theory of self-perception. i. a salesperson. his superior will first wonder whether this was caused by a traffic jam or the employee’s irresponsibility.e. consumers are interested in why a product functions or do not function in accordance with their expectations. In accordance with this. to a different shop. can be manifested in the form of attribution toward objects. In the case of a positive response the consumers will react positively to the action object. the logical conclusion would be this: It must be because I like this paper and I have a positive attitude toward it. a direct provider etc. if an employee is late for work. if you notice that on your way to work you buy the same newspaper (Oslobodjenje or some other). for instance. Namely. people are often prone to being biased and making mistakes in their perception of the causes of one’s behaviour or predication and representation of certain social and political attitudes.Attitudes 159 instance. Depending on the approach. or a situation. Otherwise the purchase will not be conducted. finally.

etc. 7. for instance. which results in attitude formation based on a gradual integration of individual experiences during a lifetime on a rational basis. or toward the brand of each of those types of outfit? What do they think about the shops where they buy these clothes? How much do family. these are individual experiences whose emotional involvement and intensity leads to attitudes. new ones are formed regarding the objects that the individual has not had enough experience with. through which attitudes are assumed based on social heritage. • Imitation mechanism. prejudices etc. about some events or people. Both can be attributed to different subjects. how do they form attitudes toward clothes that they wear in different occasions. A source of permanent attitudes. migrations. the existing attitudes are generalised onto other objects. dramatic events from childhood. • Trauma mechanism. which assumes that based on the formed attitudes. hyperinflation. Muris Čičić . most commonly extremely negative and difficult to change. Four most important mechanisms were identified in 1935 by Allport7: • Integration mechanism. fears. More precisely. celebrities and mass media influence their attitudes regarding this? Generally we could say that attitudes are the result of socialisation.4 Attitude formation Regarding attitudes. to one’s capabilities or the capabilities of others.160 Consumer Behaviour etc. The functioning or malfunctioning of a product can be attributed to the product itself. or to a combination of a larger number of factors. such as a war. one of the central questions is: How do people form primary attitudes toward certain objects? For instance. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . • Differentiation mechanism. can be the imitation of parents. It is important to be able to identify a number of mechanisms in the process of attitude formation. friends. etc. More precisely. through primary groups and other agents of socialisation. older brothers or sisters. which results in the formation of a permanent attitude due to a certain shock. Slavo Kukić .

the historical development in general. include the characteristic norms and values. The first. Their influence on the formation of some attitudes is.Attitudes 161 It is important to stress that in real life these mechanisms do not generally come in pure form but are rather interrelated and intertwined. friends etc. By this.1 Factors that influence attitude formation A large number of factors influence attitude formation. primary groups. 7. Their influence is first of all manifested by their effect on the VII chapter . a single group of factors is implied: the specific conditions an individual is in. identifies three basic types of these factors: general. general or universal factors are those that. noticeably. • Small. In the case of belonging to a political organisation though. • Reference groups.e. belonging to a certain community or a group. the awareness and knowledge that he has about the object. How do all these factors. the largest. attitudes and beliefs of the communities and groups that individuals belong to and identify with. influence the social scene in general. etc. albeit indirectly. it implies that some of the attitudes have been previously formed. regardless of what type they belong to. with which individuals identify and whose attitudes they accept. such as the development of production forces and production relations. attitudes and beliefs: • Large social groups such as a nation or a class that influence the attitudes of its members. influence attitude formation? There are various ways. such as family. Social factors. for instance. social and personal. Kesic. i. Personal factors are sometimes marked as specific conditions and mechanisms of attitude formation. Various groups and communities can be the emitters of these norms and values.4. • Political and church organisations whose influence on attitude formation is also indisputable. and the direct needs and motives that stimulate him at a given time. Relying on some social psychologists8.

good behaviour can be rewarded by sweets. one must not forget the formation of a positive attitude toward sweets as something that could mark today’s children and tomorrow’s adults. One of them is the personal experience of trying and evaluating products. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . As another source of the influence on attitude formation. Finally. If this is practiced a lot. Parents often reward their children in order to motivate them to certain behaviour. as well as the credibility of the communication and communicators of attitudes and beliefs. this influence is manifested through the social support that the group provides for maintaining the attitudes that comply with the group beliefs. identify several such sources. for instance. The basic goal. the purchase of the product is what is most probably going to follow. The influence of an individual’s personality on attitude formation is also indisputable. This implies companies aiming at the consumers of highly specialised products. For instance. Another factor that influences attitude formation is the emphasis on the values that the group advocates. Businesses often encourage consumers to try their new products. If this happens. if the trial leads to a positive impression. do not speak about factors but about the sources of influence on attitude formation. friends and respected individuals. In their selection of target consumers they consider various characteristics of this segment of the population such as their demographic features and many others. people characterized by a high level of the need for cognition are relatively more likely to form positive attitudes in response to advertisements that are rich in product-related information. The information that does not comply with the beliefs of the group is not shared in it. Schiffman and Kanuk list direct marketing.162 Consumer Behaviour selection and filtration of the information that reaches the group members. One of the sources of the influence on attitude formation is also the influence of family. For instance. Unlike them. people who are relatively low in need for cognition respond much more positively to visual advertisements such as those featuring attractive models or celebrities. however. Muris Čičić . Some authors. is to build a positive attitude. Schiffman and Kanuk10. Slavo Kukić .

2 Attitude change In the life cycle of existing attitudes. At least two types of situations lead to it: attitudes being acquired relatively recently. 7. Among them. consumers are exposed to new ideas. the media are an important source of information that influences attitude formation. The second. and advertisements. being attracted to it or not. electronic media and television in particular. Whether a change occurs or not depends on the attributes that an attitude has. this route is in fact rather common. as one of the sources of influence on attitude formation.4. Typical examples for this are the situations such as being pro or contra something. Research shows that it increases with age.Attitudes 163 Finally. products. Nowadays the influence of new media such as the Internet is emphasised. What causes attitude petrifaction? There is certainly more than one cause. two routes are possible. relatively more common route in the life cycle of attitudes is the change of acquired attitudes. at a theoretical level: their petrifaction and their change. They both have solid foundations and are resistant to any. magazines. VII chapter . which can be positive or negative. or not being deeply ingrained. liking or disliking it. Schiffman and Kanuk list the influence of mass media: daily and weekly newspapers. In an average man’s life. and strong attitudes. Thanks to the mass media. Four of them are worth emphasizing: Attitude direction. Petrifaction of attitudes implies their solidification. The causes are indeed rather diverse. The occurrence of some of the above situations does not automatically lead to the change of a certain attitude. On top of that. two are worth pointing out: attitudes acquired a long time ago. resistance to all efforts to modify or change them. even the smallest changes. petrifaction implies the preservation of old attitudes. etc. In other words. fossilisation. People are not immune to this type of affinity.

etc. There are other manifestations of change too.164 Consumer Behaviour • Attitude intensity or firmness: whether an attitude is strong or weak. but the intensity of its manifestation has. and try to adapt to them as much as possible. Marketing attention is therefore on the attitudes that are subject to modification and change. resolute or irresolute. Thanks to various external effects. an attitude can evolve from being weak to being intense and vice versa. deep or shallow. • Attitude universality: whether it is an attitude shared with a large number of people or one specific to an individual. Evolution can also follow the logic of the attitude development from shallow to deep or the other way round. Marketing experts recognise such attitudes and people who have them. it can evolve from a positive into a negative one. Theoreticians emphasise some of them11. For instance. • Attitude progressivity: whether it is progressive or reactionary. Consumer behaviour is not interested in petrified attitudes resistant to all attempts to modify or change them. an attitude can change the direction entirely. If it does. In other words. Changing the basic motivational function of consumers is mentioned as one of the most relevant strategies. Muris Čičić . The reason is simple: by influencing them they try to cause changes that would benefit the company. Attitude change is not something that happens overnight though. The goal of the majority of businesses is to win over the consumers. What does this actually mean? We have certain attitudes toward brands due to the fact that we have used a certain Melika Husić-Mehmedović . On the contrary. A goal defined like this leads to another logical assumption: that the consumer attitude change is a strategic interest of most companies. by causing the consumer’s identification with a certain product or service but also with the product providers themselves. it is important to know that it can happen in various forms. it generally happens very slowly. Different approaches can be used to achieve this strategic goal. However. Slavo Kukić . another situation is as common: that the direction of an attitude has not been changed.

VII chapter .Attitudes 165 product of that brand in the past. Changing the conviction about competitors’ brands or product categories is another strategy used for attitude change. radio and television. For instance. companies can cause their change by pointing out the values. it is not impossible that this will make him change his evaluation of the product or brand from negative to positive. lifestyle or views of these segments of consumers in their adverts. and new media such as teletext. A significant one is the media for mass communication or mass media. if you persuade a consumer that his negative attitude toward a product or a brand is not opposing some other attitude. One of the strategies used to change attitudes is doubtlessly relating a product with the target group. the only correct approach is to point out some qualities of the product that the consumers did not know of before. Ultimately inattention can lead to stressing out the competitors’ advantages even though the initial intention was just the opposite. Another strategy is the so-called conflict resolution. videotext. again. multimedia and the Internet whose influence is becoming more profound. such as the print. pointing out a relation of certain products or brands with respected groups or events serves the function of changing the attitude toward those products or brands.5 The influence of mass media on the attitude formation and change A number of variables influence attitude formation and change. imposes a very careful approach considering that a comparative presentation can act like a boomerang and end up being directly beneficial to the competitors. If we want to cause the attitude change in this case. There are two basic types of media: classical. The logic of the strategy. Knowing the target consumers’ attitudes. This strategy uses the logic of comparative presentation of yours and your competitors’ brand(s). event or cause. 7. hypertext. More precisely.

The existence of an increased interest in gaining the information about the product or brand via mass communication is logical. the influence of mass media on consumers’ attitudes in the conditions of high level of involvement. but does not have to. the increased interest of the consumers for the information. The increased interest however does not automatically imply the change of individuals or groups’ attitudes. Muris Čičić . and the social status of the message sender. Trust in the communication source as an assumption that influences what source of effect the increased interest of consumers for the information is going to have. the expertise of the message sender. Two groups of these reasons are impossible to ignore in any serious analysis: trust in the communication source and trust in the message content. it is logical to assume that this Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Three of these factors deserve attention: the credibility of the source.166 Consumer Behaviour Regardless of whether the classic or new media influence the attitude formation or change. For instance. How do these work? The basic logic that the credibility of the source as a factor of trust in the information source relies upon the assumption: the greater the credibility of the source. Slavo Kukić . is not something that exists beyond the objective reality. other times it is almost insignificant. Sometimes it is stressed. if you gain the information about a certain product or service from a reliable. If we want to continue this sequence. is not the same in all situations. What sort of influences are these in fact? The influence in the conditions of a high level of involvement is present if the mass media influence is realised in situations when the consumers are interested in buying a certain product or brand. we can speak about two types of situations regarding the influence of mass media: high level and low level of involvement. the greater the trust. Such a change can be caused. valid source that is recognisable in public and that someone refers to daily. the next element would be the greater influence on an attitude. In other words. it is created gradually and under the influence of various factors.e. The logic of the sequence is doubtless. What sort of impact the increased consumers’ interest for the information is going to make depends on a number of reasons. On the other hand. i.

even worse. Simply stated. The second assumption on which it largely depends what the impact of the increased interest of consumers for the information is going to be. it is certain that an average viewer will trust him more than if the message came from a person who is not recognised as a good cook or someone who is in a different food-related industry. Such social status is also the reason to trust them as the information source in general. Finally. or it can mention the defaults of the product that have been noticed and removed in the meantime. the fact that they have achieved success in their industry and that the public can recognise them. As another important factor. that has the opposite reputation. respect them etc. with solid theoretical and empirical foundations. the logical outcome is that the information you get shapes your attitude: whether by forming it for the first time or by influencing its change and new formation. If they are convincing. is related to the message content. The nature of argumentation also influences the content of a message: whether it is a one-way or two-way argumentation. finally. VII chapter . this means that a company can either base the entire message on the positive information regarding the product or service. including the information regarding the features of certain products or services. if you trust the information source.. What does this actually mean? If a reputable cook addresses the audience and talks about the features of a specific recipe. it is relevant what the quality of the arguments used in the message is. it is logical that they will positively influence the content of the message and therefore produce the increased interest of consumers for the information that the message contains. A number of details are important in this context.Attitudes 167 source will be trusted rather than some other one that does not have these references or. Why do appreciated and reputable people from public life often do the job of presenting products or services of certain companies? The reason is their social status. the way the food is prepared etc. First of all. The second factor of trust in the information source is the expertise of the message sender. social status of the information sender must be mentioned.

the influence of mass media on attitude formation and change via the source. 6. due to the popularity he achieved in his role of the character of Izet Fazlinovic in a popular TV series.83%) Appeal to self-confidence (25. Appeal to personal satisfaction (30. it is possible to identify two methods of this influence: the influence via the source. the influence of mass media on attitude formation and change is possible. Slavo Kukić .43%) Melika Husić-Mehmedović .34%) Appeal to constructiveness (23.79%) Appeal to imitation (3. it must be good”. The appeals used for target audience vary. A survey of the content of advertisements on FTV was done in 2004. In our socio-cultural background the role of an attractive communication source is often given to public figures: popular actors. What sort of conditions are we talking about? Simply stated.29%) Appeal to sex (11. 2. More precisely. sportsmen etc. focuses on the fact that the perceived attractiveness of the communication source influences the attitude. What does each assume? The former. Despite this however. Muris Čičić . Eronet from Mostar. Schiffman and Kanuk mention some experience from the USA as an example. They can all be classified into several basic groups though. in the conditions of a low level of consumer involvement. 3.64%) Appeal to property acquisition (4. a famous actor. for instance. 4. and the influence via the message. MasterCard and Toyota hired Jerry Seinfeld as a message sender hoping that his image will reinforce the content of the message and the logic: “If he is using the product. The following structure of appeals was determined: 1. 5. The other method of the influence of mass media on attitude formation and change is the influence via the message. gave its role of a communication source to Mustafa Nadarevic. it is about various situations in which the consumer is not interested in buying a certain product or a brand. This is about certain appeals that are contained within messages influencing their successful acceptance.168 Consumer Behaviour The second example of the influence of mass media is a low level of consumer involvement. It is logical to assume a lower interest for the information regarding this product or brand via the media for mass communications.

car manufacturers count on the logic of fear. research has shown that the medium level of the intensity of appeal to fear is the most desirable level if we want to cause the formation of an attitude or the change of an existing one. The second group of appeals are appeals to fear. What is each type characterized by? Emotional appeals are appeals to joy. Stimulating certain fear is the idea. which we use when we want to change or intensify a certain attitude of an individual or. More precisely. For example. what fear intensity has the greatest effects on attitude change or formation? Research has led to the conclusion that neither a low nor high level of fear intensity results in a high level of possibility of the formation or change of the existing attitude. Their goal is to present a situation that the consumer is going to get into unless he acts as the message appeal is asking him to. even more commonly.. The reason is to suggest buying specific insurance policies. fear and humour appeals. certain car brands. However. hope. the effects caused by a message structured this way are often additionally intensified by other. the producers of various products and the providers of various services use fear appeals. of a group of consumers. The purpose of fear stimulation is a higher level of involvement during the appeal presentation. scene or even more commonly.Attitudes 169 7. intervening variables such as music. Appeal to self-sustenance (0. shame etc. In accordance with the above. In other words. The message that contains such appeals serves the function of an instrument by which the desired effect is achieved. fear. If an appeal to fear is our choice. Humour appeals are relatively common as a method of the mass media influence on the attitude formation and change. an image. excitement. Research shows that they VII chapter . anger. 9. etc. an issue that cannot be avoided is the optimal intensity of fear. 8. 10. the combination of all of them.68%) Appeal to curiosity (0%) Appeal to altruism (0%) Appeal to destructivity (0%) Three types of appeals are worth emphasizing: emotional.

There is also no doubt that humour can increase the retention of a received message. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . For instance. some benefits are certain. And finally. humour can minimize contra arguments. Muris Čičić . there is no doubt that humour can attract an audience’s attention. It can also reinforce an attitude toward a certain message. Slavo Kukić .170 Consumer Behaviour are present in approximately 15% to 42% of TV and radio adverts. However. What are the real effects of humour though? There are contradictory opinions regarding this.

L. 3. (2006).G.G.G. Kesic. Ballachey (1962): Individual in society A textbook of social psycholog. Handbook of Social Psychology. In C. Schiffman.Attitudes 171 Questions for revision 1. and L.L. Schiffman.C.). T. Kanuk (2004): ibid 11. L. and L. 6.S. Krech. Murchison (ed.. Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva. Give an example of a company or campaign that changed the attitudes of its consumers. Explain the similarities among attitude definitions. Rot. J. Mowen. R. and L. Allport. Opinio. Explain the mechanisms that lead to attitude formation. L. L. Is the presence of appeals on all BH TV stations the same today as in 2005? References 1. 4. Schiffman. 7. Zvonarevic. 2. (1987): Consumer Behavior. (1950): Social psychology. Beograd 7. D. Macmillan Publishing Company. Newcomb. G. New York 3. (1972): ibid 9. MATE. Rot. M. Skolska knjiga. Ponasanje potrosaca. MA: Clark University Press 8. Are attitudes a complex category and why? How do attitudes influence attitude behaviour? How can cognitive dissonance theory be used for promotional purposes? 5.L. (1989): Socijalna psihologija. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company 6. Winchester. Zagreb 5. N. Crutchfield and L. N.M. M. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. Zagreb 10. New York: Dryden Press 4.E. Kanuk (2004): ibid VII chapter . T.W. (1972): Osnovi socijalne psihologije. Zagreb 2. (1935): Attitudes.


VIII chapter FAMILY Chapter objectives • • • • • • • The role of family in consumer behaviour Family functions Process of socialisation and different influences of the environment Deciding about purchase within a family Husband/wife dominance in a purchase Traditional life cycle of a family Non-traditional life cycle of a family .


175 8. values. For instance. • Biological function of a family refers to reproduction and the continuation of the human species. flatmates or tenants. a household can consist of members who are not related by blood. • Economic function refers to gaining and sharing work and income. Traditional rules about the husband as a provider of economic goods and the wife as a housewife and child-carer seem to have become outdated. Family as a reference group has many functions. Authors often list an appropriate lifestyle as the fourth basic function of a family. However. marriage or adoption. Households are sometimes said to be the same as families. Along VIII chapter . In a dynamic sense. However. households and families are observed as synonyms. persons composing a family can be described as members of a basic social group who live together and interact in order to satisfy their personal and common needs. in a modern family. economic and psychosocial function2. family friends. or adoption1.1 Definition of family and its basic functions Even though it is difficult to define family. not all households are families. it is considered to be a group of two or more people who live together and who are related by blood. FAMILY 8. • Psychosocial function of a family represents its influence on the formation of shared awareness. such as civil partners. For the purposes of consumer behaviour though. and the most important three are biological. marriage. because they represent a key unit of consumption. this component has become less and less relevant. beliefs and attitudes3.

is the simplest type of a family. Even though the influence among family members is undoubtedly reciprocal. cooperate. etc. achieve. and a selection of other amusing and recreational activities. experience. and the elderly couples who have already raised their children. the number of single-parent families is increasing. Three types of families dominate in most western societies: a married couple. Muris Čičić . such as7: Who are the most influential members of a family? Are they parents or children? At what age are they most influential? In what situations can this happen? Melika Husić-Mehmedović . A nuclear family living with a grandfather or a grandmother is called an extended family. Slavo Kukić . • Appropriate lifestyle4 refers to education. Along with the types listed above. 8. attitude and motives. Family has the role of mediator between large social systems and individuals.176 Consumer Behaviour with the influence on the formation of basic values and beliefs. creates the motives to acquire. due to a divorce or children born out of marriage. a married couple – a husband and a wife. values and culture are filtered through a family and it is only then that they reach an individual6. customs. a family offers love. culture. wife and children. Nuclear family consists of a husband. This type is usually represented by young married couples who do not have children yet. married couples’ decisions about children’s education or career choice. a number of questions are raised. learning to use a computer. Family interaction shapes the norms of behaviour. respect and friendship to its members. watching TV. frequency and quality of eating out. etc.2 Socialisation and family influence Family is a primary reference group within which communication is carried out on a daily basis and “face to face”. society’s traditions. The extent of each particular type depends on the environment. Norms. a nuclear family and an expanded family5. Regarding the number of members. reading. economic situation. which significantly influences the formation of a personality.

L. Prentice Hall 2000. Zagreb. L. and Kanuk. 7th edition. translation: Mate. (2004) Consumer Behaviour.Family 177 Figure 29: A simplified model of socialisation Source: Schiffman. 279 VIII chapter . p.

assuming that only one member makes a decision concerning a product purchase. Many preadolescents observe and imitate their parents or older siblings. 8. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Likewise. This is the case with purchase as well. adolescents and teenagers are prone to adopting the models of acceptable consumer behaviour from their peers8.178 Consumer Behaviour A number of studies were focused on how children develop consumption skills. For instance. each member has to have their own tasks and obligations. and they usually research attitudes and behaviour of only one family member. even though the son can influence the choice of a make and the wife and daughter on the choice of colour or additional equipment. Slavo Kukić . if the product is men’s underwear. In the case of a family as a basic reference group. the model of five purchase roles can be applied. The process by which children adopt skills. In order for a family to function as a cohesive unit. knowledge and attitudes necessary for their role of a consumer is called consumer socialisation.3 Making purchase decisions within a family Businesses recognise the family as a basic unit of decision-making. it is assumed that the husband is the one who decides about buying a car. disregarding the fact that it is the wives who usually buy underwear for their husbands or sons. manufacturers will analyse men’s attitudes. However. Muris Čičić .

It is the person who first has the idea to buy a product or a service. Buyer. VIII chapter . This person essentially realises the purchase decision. how to buy and where to buy.Family 179 Table 3: The roles that the members of target market can have in the process of purchase decision-making ROLE Intiator Influential person Decision maker Buyer User DESCRIPTION Suggests to buy or use a product or a service Recommends (or does not recommend) to buy a product or a service Makes the decision about what product or service to buy Buys a product or a service Uses a product or a service Source: Brkic. Marketers. p. what to buy. It is the person that uses the information about what a marketer has to offer in order to enable or prevent the decision to buy or use the brand. This person’s views and suggestions influence the purchase decision. Initiator. 4. want this person to suggest. University of Sarajevo. 3. A marketer wants this person to choose his brand. 2. School of Economics. Purchase decision-maker. The marketer. The person who starts the process of decision-making. wants this person to buy his product or service. recommend their brand or service. i. Influential person. Sarajevo. A buyer buys a product or a service. of course. 174 Purchase roles are the following9: 1.e. The decision usually consists of several elements: to buy or not to buy. Nenad (2003) Marketing communications management. naturally. The task of marketing communication here is to convince the person to initiate the purchase of the communicator’s brand or service. The person who makes a final decision regarding a purchase.

The majority of studies identify the following categories: • • • • husband’s dominance.4 Husband-wife dominance in purchase decision-making The purchase role that is expected from a family member depends on the way of life. Some decisions are made by a husband independently. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . women are the ultimate specialists for food products whilst men specialise in technical products. autonomous decisions11. Muris Čičić . etc. He is the decision-maker and buyer. For instance. personal life cycle of that member. joint decisions. one or more of these roles may not be present. with a lesser or greater extent of one spouse’s influence. His choice does not involve the direct influence of other family members. In other cases though. 8.180 Consumer Behaviour 5. The number and identity of family members who have the above roles vary from family to family. by a woman in other cases. a family can provide the role of a specialist for a certain category of products10. Along with the above. The marketer wants this person to use or consume his product or service. two or more members will share a single role. and from product to product. Sometimes. This is the person who actually uses or consumes a product or a service. In some cases a single member takes several roles. but does not have to be the only consumer. etc. and the communication with a user should facilitate the formation and shaping of future positive attitudes. For instance. or the decisions are made collectively. a son can be in a supermarket and notice new chocolate sweets. wife’s dominance. the family’s life cycle. User: This role is often neglected regardless of being a part of the purchase decision-making process.

. However. whilst the wife’s dominance was in the area of food products and money management. Della Bitta. Inc. For example. (1993): Consumer Behaviour – Concepts and Applications (fourth ed. such as the purchase of a second car or a car for a single or VIII chapter . J.Family 181 Figure 30: The roles in the process of purchase decision-making Source: Loudon. 238 The relative influence of a husband or wife on a particular decision regarding consumption partly depends on the category of a product or service. p.. Half a century later. in other situations. in the 1950s. in many households the husband still has dominance regarding the purchase of a family car.) McGraw-Hill.. the husband had distinct dominance. L.A.D.

This way. During the production of a car intended for women. Muris Čičić . Melika Husić-Mehmedović . General Motors made all their designers use artificial fingernails to test the prototype. the segment of female consumers is rapidly spreading in the automobile market: the segment that many car manufacturers pay special attention to12. hotel menus started to offer a large selection of salads and other light meals. With the increase of employed women and their business trips. filling the fuel tank etc. Figure 31 Husband-wife decision-making is also related to the cultural influence. Slavo Kukić .182 Consumer Behaviour employed woman. urbanization and traditions. In the past it was mainly men who went on business trips and therefore hotel facilities and food were mainly adapted to their needs. There is a similar situation in the hospitality industry. men were brought into the situation to think like women who face the problem of frequently breaking their nails whilst opening the door.

Researchers classify families into different stages of their life cycle in order to get segments with the same or similar consumption habits. The idea of a life cycle is still a useful marketing tool though. because the intensity and structure of consumption changes throughout specific eras of a family life. depending on the representation of families in specific life cycle stages.Family 183 8. This analysis enables companies to segment families according to a series of factors. market segmentation. considering that each of the stages is marked by specific product categories and the methods of purchase and consumption. predicting the demand for certain product categories. An example of such typical purchases is given in Table 4. and 2. However.5 Family life cycle For a long time researchers have paid special attention to the life cycle of a family. family members’ ages and the employment status of the head of the family. The stage of the family life cycle usually tells us about the age of parents and a relative amount of disposable income13. the size of a family. This sort of classification is used for: 1. and the traditional life cycle is less and less present in societies. VIII chapter . what used to be a rule is a rarity today. such as marital status. if one takes all the exceptions into consideration.

food. with no children Familly with small children Familly with older children Single parents Divorcees with children Elderly families with no children in the household Elderly retired families Singles (widows. cheap food. entertainment. singles. cars Cheap furniture. Zagreb. Muris Čičić . adults Unmarried couples Just merried. Parenthood: a married couple living with at least one child Post parenthood: an elderly married couple whose children no longer live at home.. equipment. they all describe the following five stages: Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V Bachelorhood: a young unmarried person living separately from parents Honeymooners: a young married couple. Slavo Kukić .5. small houses Insurance. entertainment. 2nd edition. clubs Traveling. with no children Married. (2006) Consumer Behaviour. fixing houses or flats Medical expenses. However. Opinio d. jewelry.184 Consumer Behaviour Table 4: Typical consumption in specific life cycle stages LIFE CYCLE STAGE Young people.1 Traditional family life cycle Throughout history various researchers have defined the family life cycle stages. expensive clothes. services. restaurants.o. large houses Cheap houses. sports cars. ready-made food. cheap clothes Apartmans. apartments Source: Kesic T. clothes. toys. large houses Personal electronics. cosmetics Medical expenses.o. medical expenses. p. widowers) TYPICAL PRODUCTS CONSUMED Clothes. holidays. 117 8. Dissolution: one living spouse Melika Husić-Mehmedović . hobbies. travelling Furniture. entertainment Style furniture.

experienced couples and home furnishing magazines.Family 185 8.5. save and invest the surplus income. Considering that many young husbands and wives are employed.5. VIII chapter . clothes and basic necessities. basic furniture.1. these couples have a common income that often enables them to lead a lifestyle full of possibilities to satisfy their whims. Young people at this stage are prone to spending their income on renting apartments.1. 8.5.1. This stage is also called a “full nest” and lasts the longest of all. Financial income of the family changes during this stage as parents’ careers progress. Important sources of information at this stage are the older.2 Honeymooners Honeymoon stage begins with marriage and continues until the couple have their first child. Even though many members of this group have permanent jobs. It is relatively easy to approach this segment because there are many specialised publications that aim at the singles. travelling and entertainment. buying and maintaining a car.3 Parenthood Parenthood is the next stage of the family life cycle. Members of this stage have large expenses during the furnishing of their new home. Therefore. This stage serves the purpose of becoming accustomed to a married life. but the expenditures increase as well. which starts when the couple have their first child. many are still students who left their parents’ home. about 20 years.1 Bachelorhood Bachelorhood represents a single man or woman who established a household separately from their parents. businesses target them with a wide range of products and services. 8. They often have enough income to be able to afford entertainment.

They possess larger disposable income thanks to savings. There are special publications for children. as businesses pay a lot of attention to it. working or with adequate savings. the refurnishing of a house or buying a new one. The living spouse often chooses to follow a more economical lifestyle. Melika Husić-Mehmedović .5. but the children’s marketing has significant legal restrictions that must be considered before the campaigns for the youngest are designed. Muris Čičić . Elderly consumers turn to television as the main source of information and entertainment. This is the time of travelling. the adaption is easier. 8. Many members of this stage retire while they are still in good health. entertainment.186 Consumer Behaviour Children’s market is extremely important and therefore developed.5 Dissolution This stage starts upon the dissolution of the foundational unit.5. This is the stage when the married couple has the best finances and most free time. due to the death of one of the spouses. 8. and has a family that give him/her support. expensive furniture and journeys to faraway places.1. such as the news and programmes of public interest. investments and lower expenses. new cars. If the living spouse is in good health. The retirement gives them the opportunity to follow new interests. Families then become an ideal market for luxury goods.1. They prefer the programmes that enable them to be informed. This stage is called an “empty nest” and in fact it represents a milestone for parents because it gives them the possibility to do all those things they could not do while the children were at home and while they had to worry about education expenses. to travel and satisfy any unfulfilled needs. Slavo Kukić .4 Post parenthood Post parenthood is a traumatic experience for some families for it starts when the children leave home.

Murphy I William A. 6 No. Staples (1979) A Modernised Family Life Cycle. 17 VIII chapter .Family 187 Figure 32: The expanded scheme of a family life cycle Source: Patrick E. Vol. Journal of Consumer Research.

2 Non-traditional family life cycle Non-traditional families include the households that are not families. There is a tendency of non-family households outnumbering married couples with children. the stereotypical family of the past times. there are about 30% of such households today. one or more individuals that are not related.5.e. for example.188 Consumer Behaviour 8. in which men or women live alone or with another person as a civil couple15. Figure 33 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . i. However. Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić . Non-family households used to be so rare that it was not important whether they were considered or not.

8. The studies that research traditionally-oriented women and feminists discovered that the feminists have a higher level of education. and that they are more financially optimistic17. and they are more self-confident. Likewise.1 Women’s role change The most significant changes happened in the area of understanding the traditional family role of a woman. that they are more liberal regarding life and work. they take risks.2. Figure 34 VIII chapter .5.Family 189 Authors identified three current trends in the family life cycle change. These are16: • women’s role change. and • men’s role change. and with this the change of men’s family roles occurred. they are interested in their own image in the society. This primarily regards employment. • the singles segment.

Then there are the specific needs of the children going through the parents’ divorce.190 Consumer Behaviour 8. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the users of holiday services.3 Men’s role change Considering that in the developed countries more than 50% of women are employed. Regarding their consumer behaviour. Their wives are also employed. Slavo Kukić . A family splits into two with new needs for home appliances. They have to help with a lot of housework in order for a family to function. Still. a new phone. 8.2. this inevitably influenced the change of men’s roles in a household. Men often take over the shopping activities. they are the leaders in fashion trends. and they see themselves as being different from married people. smaller living space. New breed husbands are married men who willingly share with their wives household chores such as cooking. which is of interest to marketers.5. cleaning and grocery shopping. The segment of singles aged 20-39 tirelessly look for company and pleasure. visit furniture shops and perhaps contact employment or career-planning agencies.2. They are concerned about how they appear in society and what kind of opinion others have about them18. They represent 32% of all married men. travelling and recreation.2 The singles segment There are an increasing percentage of people worldwide who do not want to get married.5. the largest number of singles today is generated from those who get divorced. etc. These demands show that the divorced person could face the need to contact a real estate agent and phone companies. They are usually under age 40 and are mostly well educated. Divorces create a new market. Muris Čičić . Research in the USA identified five different groups of men in their role as a husband19: 1.

Strugglers are the husbands who think of themselves as ship captains. They normally do not make decisions with their wives and they rarely help with housework. Classics. 3. VIII chapter . they are less inclined to feel that the family comes first. 5. 13% of the total.Family 191 2. Bachelor husbands are under age 30 and they comprise 15% of married men. They are less involved in purchase decision-making as they let their wives make most decisions regarding purchase as well as most of housework. Likewise. 4. These men are bachelors at heart. They demand that their wives keep the house clean and they want the final say. They’ll share responsibilities but insist on having the final word. representing 25% of American husbands. They are middle aged and in lower income brackets. typically over age 40. believe women shouldn’t work unless it’s an economic necessity. Retired.

. Inc. Moschis. Kanuk: (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. 125-136 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Puliselic. 176 10. 7. Zagreb: prevod Mate. (1991): Perceptions of Relative Influence: Formation and Measurement. What are the basic family functions? Explain the roles in the purchase process through an example. Slavo Kukić . 314-319 9. 4. 6. K. 10 Ed.R. Provo. Smith (1983): The Impact of Family Communication of Adolescent Consumer Socialisation. 3.o. 119 11. 115 8. Corfman. Kesic.B. p. izdanje. L. (2000): Marketing Management. p. p. S.192 Consumer Behaviour Questions for revision 1.P. No 28. G. Opinio d.. p. p. F. (1973): Osnove sociologije. p. Prentice Hall. D. Prentice Hall 2000. Kesic.C. In which direction is the trend of husband-wife dominance in purchase decisions moving? Why is the analysis of the family life cycle important? Which is the longest stage of the traditional family life cycle and why? In which stage of traditional family life cycle is income highest? Explain some of the current trends of the non-traditional family life cycle. in Advances in Consumer Research.. 5. Muris Čičić . (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. R. p. Miniard (1995): Consumer Behavior.J. Explain the difference between a family and a household. Blackwell and W. 275 2. i L.P. Kanuk.. Association for Consumer Research.L. T. What are the opportunities that the increasing number of singles creates? References 1. ed. (2006): ibid. (2004): ibid. p. P. Journal of Marketing Research. T. 192 7.o. Kinnear. p. pp. Moore and R. L. 2. Kesic. Zagreb. 276 6. Kotler. Engel. (2004): ibid. 113 3. 11. i L. 280 5.. UT. Schiffman L. pp.P. Schiffman. 156 4. Kanuk. The Dryden Press. (2006): ibid. 7. 9. Narodne novine. T. i L. T. 2. 5. izdanje. izdanje. 8. Schiffman. Zagreb.

U.S. Journal of Consumer Research. McGraw-Hill. Vankatesh. L. Bureau of the Census (1997): Household and Family Characteristics. 138 16. J. 189-197 18. L. Business Week. p. Schiffman. i L. and J. pp. Hopper. 253-256 VIII chapter . Kanuk (2004): ibid.A. T. A.D. Kanuk (2004): ibid. 7. (1991): Home Alone – With 660 Billion USD. 285 15. i L. (2006): ibid. (1980): Changing Roles of Women – A Lifestyle Analysis. 76-77 19.. (1995): Family Financial Decision Making: Implications for Marketing Strategy. 24-32 13. p. p. Vol. 121 17. Schiffman. pp. Kesic.Family 193 12. 285 14. L. L. July. Loudon. 1. pp. No 9. pp. Zinn. Della Bitta (1993): Consumer Behavior– Concepts and Applications. p. Journal of Services Marketing.S.


IX chapter SOCIAL CLASSES Chapter objectives • • • • • • The importance of social class in market segmentation Definition of social class Determinants of social class Identification of social class Classification of social classes Characteristics of specific classes .


BRIC: Brazil. but is now considered to be an outdated system and as such researchers have lost interest in it. Coleman2 notes that in the 1950s researching classes was new and interesting. segmenting the society based on the disposable income.1 Development of the thought of social classes The matter of social classes. due to the information they offer in the markets and the explanation of consumer behaviour. The concept of social classes is still interesting in new societies who left socialism (Eastern Europe) or were formed by opening new markets (Asia). Therefore. The consulting company Sachs & Co. or the data they do provide has already been included into the research of consumer lifestyle. however. It was used in the 1970s. even assumes that BRIC will replace G7 in the next three decades. are worth the effort invested in them. Recent studies1 suggest that social classes have become obsolete as a factor explaining consumer behaviour. An acronym for new powers in the world was created.197 9. is rarely the subject of contemporary research and most authors who attempted to measure social classes ran into problems. social classes do not offer sufficient data. explain and/or measure. which is a relatively stable one and therefore researchers do not find it challenging to explain something that has existed in an unchanged form for decades. IX chapter . with the modern methods of lifestyle research accompanied with contemporary programs such as VALS. Social classes. Those were the years when contemporary social classes were being formed into the model we recognise today. India and China. social classes are difficult to define. and the chronic lack of previous research studies does not help the situation. Russia. Nowadays. SOCIAL CLASSES 9.

Muris Čičić . Research in the field of social stratification has moved from contemplative research to observing all sorts of discrimination: gender. postmodern sensitivity or simply a lack of interest. feminists’ fight for women’s rights. sociologists suggested that societies should deal with the comprehensive situation they are in rather than with something as ephemeral as a position in a hierarchy. In the beginning of the 1980s. there are a series of beliefs and values that consumers want to Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the way and conditions of life. The position in social hierarchy implies profession. Slavo Kukić . political power and educational opportunities. There is a noticeable lack of new data about social classes and their influence on the market in literature since the end of the 1970s. ethnic and age discrimination. as well as potential discrepancies caused by belonging to an ethnic/racial group. Regardless of such opinions though. For sociologists. ever since 1960. Due to the above and some other reasons such as political correctness. race. and they certainly influence the formation of attitudes and values as well as consumer behaviour related to purchase. the research of consumers within a social status group is negligible. behind the mere position in a social hierarchy. In fact. However. inequalities in social classes are irrefutable in almost all cultures. and the new methods in lifestyle research took us one step further from the mere hierarchical classification suggested in the social-class related research5. income. paying little attention to this subject for almost two decades. they say. As a result. Coleman believes3. liberalisation of homosexuals and student movements.198 Consumer Behaviour Marketing literature after the 1970s entirely neglected the topic of social classes and so did sociology which had founded the social class studies. the 1960s and the beginnings of the 1970s were the era of cultural fermentation and big discoveries: civil rights movements. along with the income inequality. A complete change in the orientation of sociologic disciplines has occurred. Most publications relied on the data discovered in the 1950s. Coleman persuaded researchers that social groups were still an important factor in market segmentation. there have been few published papers with truly new results regarding social classes. Gilbert and Kahl4 believe that the direction of research has changed and that more attention is being paid to capitalistic values where prestige and accompanying values are just one of the derivatives.

2 Definition of social class Class structure or social stratification has existed in some shape or form throughout the history of human existence. Therefore. real income. a range of social positions in which every member of society can be placed. i. Social status represents one of the basic reference groups and it is of crucial importance to the consumers what members of their social status think about their behaviour. Even though a social class can mean a continuum. 9.e. by their consumption they try to influence other people’s opinion and the possibility of a transfer to a higher level on the hierarchical scale. This phenomenon of establishing oneself through consumption is especially emphasised among the members of the higher classes who want to show off everything they have. is the position that an individual or a family takes considering average standards of cultural assets.Social classes 199 emphasise by belonging to a certain status group. into layers. material property and the participation in the community’s activities. Social class. as Chapin described. researchers still prefer to split the continuum into a small number of specific status groups. Figure 35 IX chapter .

same or similar education. Nowadays researchers often explain social class in relation with social status10. and educational achievements. income. whilst his view of the status is oriented onto the condition or position that provides opportunities and enables progress to a certain group. Muris Čičić . Weber9 underlined the difference between social class and status. Two families who live in a single neighbourhood probably have similar characteristics. have the same or similar expectations.3 Social class determinants Factors that influence social class formation are socio-economic variables. in terms of consumer behaviour and marketing research.e. i. Weber finds that status is a group phenomenon. usually: profession. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . each social class is determined according to the level of status that the individuals within that group have in comparison with the members of other social classes.e. and often socialise with each other formally and informally. Sivadas. He considers that a class is primarily an economic phenomenon. Therefore. income. Unlike class. that a certain group can have a low or high status. authors agree that status is most commonly determined taking one or more of the following socio-economic variables into consideration: family income. family and education. The members of a certain class enjoy a similar position in society. professional status. and professions with the same recognition. Mathew and Curry11 based their research on the indexation of social classes using the data about habitation. power (the level of personal choice or influence over others) and reputation (the level of recognition by others). Some authors add the data about geo-demographic clusters i. Still. 9. the quality of the neighbourhood to these variables. Three factors are frequently used to determine social class: relative wellbeing (the size of economic estate). According to him.200 Consumer Behaviour Lloyd Warner7 is credited with the contemporary definition of social class. a class implies a group of people for which other community members believe and confirm to be inferior or superior in relation to other groups8. Slavo Kukić .

read a larger number of magazines. Generally speaking. a high position on the hierarchical scale. Highly educated consumers read more. Profession is useful as a social class factor in industrialised societies because not all professions are treated equally. the more educated consumers have a broader knowledge about market possibilities14. spend less time watching television.e.2 Education as a social class factor The level of a person’s formal education is another generally accepted marker of the position on the socio-hierarchical scale.3. and extend into a person’s entire existence including habits in purchase and consumption13.3. The question people usually ask each other when they first meet illustrate the importance of profession as a class marker: “What do you do?” The answer to this question serves as a guide for evaluating others and forming opinions about them. all authors agree that the factors: profession.Social classes 201 Despite the wide spectrum of variables that are used for determining the social status belonging. attitudes and motives that stem from the type of profession influence one’s behaviour outside the workplace. IX chapter . Likewise.1 Profession as a social class factor Profession is the best individual factor in the evaluation of social class. 9. the bigger the person’s chances of higher income and a desired or respected position i. 9. the higher the education. Values. trust famous brands less and invest more time and effort into the purchase process than people with high school education15. family and income have a crucial influence on the position on the hierarchical scale. and some authors12 consider that it is usually sufficient. education. Education greatly influences the amount and method of processing the available information during purchase decision-making.

which implies different social values. attitudes. Darian19 suggests that the purchase of luxury goods for children reflects the financial status of their parents. data processing and purchase decision-making on all levels of the social scale16. interests or dividends.3. whether personal or family-based. or just a matter of lack of information and purchase skills.4. communication style etc.3. Income as a social class factor Income. Surprisingly. With regards to young children. All of these money sources determine a certain amount of information about the person.3 Family as a social class factor The next factor relevant for the relation between social class and consumer behaviour stems from the fact that children are raised differently depending on their class. The reason for this may be the lower class’s need to identify with the upper class and therefore be more readily accepted by the community. leading to better purchase and consumption skills than those in the lower classes17. private financial support. Slavo Kukić . Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Muris Čičić . earned wealth. wages (per hour). 9. Researchers who determine social status based on income are interested in either the amount or the source of income. Differences in education. Moschis and Moore18 claim that children from lower classes rely more on wellknown brands and manufacturers than middle class children who prefer other product characteristics. inherited wealth. obviously influences purchase behaviour regarding a product and its price. profits or rewards. The source can be social welfare. can lead to differences in consumer awareness. values. 9. that being exclusively their parents’ responsibility. salaries (per year). they have no influence concerning any purchase whatsoever. Children from upper classes are exposed to more information.202 Consumer Behaviour Numerous studies have proved that people in all social classes show different behaviour while shopping.

Therefore a long-standing debates in the field of marketing concerns the question whether social class or the level of income determine consumer behaviour more precisely21. young people showed that they identified with farmers. The cases of identification with lower classes are rare. despite her currently difficult financial situation is still going to buy expensive products exclusively. which is a reflection of their different values20. it is possible to have families with different income within a single social class. By wearing these uncomfortable worker’s garments. Likewise. or the one they would like to belong to. People spend their income in varying ways. nowadays all famous designers make denim clothes so it no longer symbolises a lower class. Along with these examples. This is about identification and the desire to belong to a class higher than our current one. not all consumer researchers believe that it is an adequate class marker. Considering the different behaviour of social classes.Social classes 203 Although income is a popular way of determining the position in a social class system. whilst identifying with higher classes reflects envy and idealisation. Despite clear determinants. Or the people who acquire wealth unexpectedly will not easily adjust to a luxurious lifestyle. it does not reflect their current position. whilst social class shapes the taste and desire to buy it. especially with denim jeans. is the difference in values and not in the amount of money available. It is important to point out the fact that income determines the possibility of affording a product. What makes people members of a particular social class. it is necessary to mention a frequent case of shopping behaviour that matches the class one wants to belong to. even though this phenomenon has been noted. it is possible that a person belongs to a social class different from the one they were born into. IX chapter . according to this concept. the question arises: What is a person’s shopping habits going to be like and what do they depend on? Whether the person chooses products that symbolise the class they want to belong to or the one they used to belong to. However. Maybe the person used to luxury. Some people still consider that identification with lower classes symbolises a feeling of superiority.

income is the most commonly used factor for determining social class. Subjective approach to measuring social class demands an individual to evaluate his own position on a social scale22. or income. Indexes with one variable: use only one socio-economic variable out of the following: profession. family and income. Indexes with several variables: combine all factors that determine class. That is why this approach is often defined as the awareness of social class. Muris Čičić . there is no consensus about how to measure classes. and yet it seems to be inadequate for this purpose. Therefore all the other previously mentioned factors should be taken into consideration along with it. family background. As a result. 2. 9. researchers encounter numerous problems. therefore reflecting the complexity of social class better.204 Consumer Behaviour Figure 36 As we can see from the above. education. Objective variables include a series of selected socio-economic variables. which often does not match the real picture. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Objective variables of social class are classified into two categories: 1. Such evaluation is based on the image that an individual has about himself. education. There are subjective and objective approaches to determining them though. These variables are the above mentioned factors of social class: profession.4 Determining/measuring a social class When determining a social class. Slavo Kukić .

85% attended high school. 40% bought a product online. By renting advertising space this way. Hearst Corporation. Marketing managers form consumer clusters according to their socio-economic factors. 14% possess university degrees. For example. IX chapter . is: an average household income of 58. one concludes that 70% of the audience have a computer at home.426. who this publication targets. This practise enables advertisers to target consumers depending on their demographic characteristics and consumer behaviour. magazines Time and Newsweek classify their subscribers using this method and send different editions of the same issue to subscribers depending on the geo-demographic cluster they belong to23. For example.4 USD. Each edition contains different types of advertisements depending on the target market. Thanks to the amount of income and level of education.10 USD. Marie Claire. as published in the online information section for potential advertisers. households that make more than 70.6 different publications. for they are only sent to the owners of platinum credit cards.. and the ranking list has Wall Street Journal on top with the average income of 86. As can be expected. They can be formed based on the neighbourhood area and used in hiring media or in other advertising activities. businesses reach specific groups of potential consumers. Good Housekeeping.000 USD watch TV less than poorer households. that 65% use the Internet daily. etc. New York Times. Most media know the average income of their readers. followed by Barrons. Cosmopolitan. The profile of wealthy house owners shows that they read 6.Social classes 205 Measuring and determining social class is highly valuable for the businesses that do the market segmentation. listen to the radio for 12. and 88% of them are subscribed to cable TV. watch TV for 23 hours per week. Socio-economic profile of this site’s audience. Town & Country). For example.8 hours a day.000 USD. through True Story with the average readers’ income of 17. the habits of media exposure with higher class members are different from the general population’s habits.109. developed an original web-site called Home Arts with programs targeting women. Most mass media own developed socio-economic profiles of the population and routinely make them available to the potential advertisers24. i. The examples of magazines Robb Report.e. the editor of several leading magazines for women (Redbook. Worth Magazine or Departures Magazine are interesting.

In an attempt to quantify social classes. to many this suggests that other people are their equals (members of the same class). 2.1 Moving along the hierarchical scale The categories of social classes are usually ranked hierarchically. The living room is often the centre of family life. organisation. Chapin25 made a scale based on the furnishing and equipment of a living room in urban homes. or inferiors (members of a lower class) 27. newspapers. the members of a certain social class perceive the members of other classes as having either a higher or lower position than their own. musical instruments. general atmosphere) reflect the family’s attitudes.5 Classification of social classes 9. carpets. Slavo Kukić . In short.). This has proved very useful for advertisers when designing TV adverts. Likewise. moving from lower to higher social class. 3. 9. and by this determine its position in society. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . superiors (members of an upper class). whilst middle and upper class usually keep it in the bedroom. which is in accordance with the definition that members of different social classes have either an inferior or superior position in relation to other classes26.206 Consumer Behaviour One of the most famous and most developed schemes for evaluating the ownership is Chapin’s scale of social classes. there is an assumption that material values in a living room (curtains. The attitudes of friends and other visitors. It reflects cultural standards.5. paintings. It was discovered that lower class families are prone to keeping their TV set in the living room. as well as other conditions (cleanliness. Muris Čičić . Reasons for this are the following: 1. Accordingly. technical equipment etc. as well as social class are under a strong influence of items selected to be exhibited in a living room. material values and socio-economic status of the family. Therefore. it is safe to conclude that these items influence the attitude of others toward this family.

After World War II. private schools etc. Choosing the number of social classes depends on the quantity of details that a research finds necessary for an adequate explanation of the attitudes or behaviour one studies. the groups of people approximately the same in society’s respect. Profession in itself does not guarantee moving towards a higher status. shared expectations and behaved similarly. Those were. and the ownership structure in former socialist countries brought numerous changes as well. Many preconditions have to be fulfilled in order for an upper class to accept a new member28. upper lowers. Most early studies identified five or six classes.2 Status groups Sociologists disagree about how many categories of classes it is necessary to create in order to be able to describe class structure. Warner identified six classes: upper uppers. IX chapter . The members of different social status have different goals and shopping habits. three or even two status groups that proved to be adequate for their purposes. and they consisted of men and women that mainly socialise d with each other both formally and informally. Upper classes limit access via different financial possibilities. and the direction is generally upwards.5. four. as Warner says. exclusive clubs. 9. lower lowers. downwards. Changes in social classes are mainly caused by education and success in the field that individuals choose. Along with the loss of employment. many generations had to adapt to a life in a significantly lower class from that which their parents belonged to. or rarely. It is considered that the United States of America is the land of greatest opportunities because it is the youngest society. However. inflation in some countries influences the downward change of the status. lower uppers.Social classes 207 Moving along the hierarchical scale is possible. The trend of moving downward on the hierarchical scale is also present. other researchers founded schemes with nine. upper middle class. lower middle class. in comparison to other European traditional cultures. the political elite skilfully turned themselves into the “nouveau riche”. In the countries of the former socialist block.

lower uppers. even though they are not poor (members of the lower class are poor). Finally. (2004): „Consumer Behavior“. p. Muris Čičić . in accordance with their class. and L. The income of these families is usually 25 to 30% higher than the class average. middle class. working status. Pearson Education International. Table 5: Schemes of social status categories Blue-collar workers. upper middles. can be considered to be in a difficult position considering what is expected of them within their class. uppers Lower lowers. upper lowers. car. furniture etc. upper uppers Lower lowers. Kanuk. middle uppers upper uppers Two-class scheme Three-class scheme Four-class scheme Five-class scheme Six-class scheme Seven-class scheme Nine-class scheme Source: Schiffman L. lower middles. middle middles. they are probably in financial trouble considering they make about 15% less than the class average. upper lowers. lower middles. 8th edition. upper lowers. lower middles. white-collar workers Lower. lower uppers. office workers Lowers. upper status Lowers. upper uppers Lower lowers. upper status Lowers. working class. upper middles.208 Consumer Behaviour Coleman29 noticed that there are layers within each group. In order to maintain this standard of life. middle lowers. the underprivileged families are those who. lower uppers. The privileged families within a group are those that have sufficient financial expenses (after the standard package of expenses characteristic for this class including home. Average families are in the middle of the income grade of this class and they can afford a home. clothes and transport) for a more comfortable and luxurious life than other families of their class. 299 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . upper middles. lower middles. middle status Manual workers. senior workers. middles. uppers Lowers. upper middles. Slavo Kukić . upper middles.

Their basic characteristic is the struggle to survive. the newly rich and upper middle class. They buy goods on credit in shopping malls. Consumption structure is aimed at status products. travelling. Upper class.Social classes 209 9. Schiffman and Kanuk31 provided their own analysis of specific social classes. They often wander in search of food and shelter. on holidays and travelling. This layer includes aristocracy. They try to have houses in respectable parts of cities with good schools. “good for children”. membership in private clubs. They spend money in restaurants. local values and behaviour. they prefer domestic products and they are the protectors of traditional values. buying books.6 Consumption in a social class 9. They live on social welfare and often do not have a roof over their heads. Their intention is to buy the “right products”. what is popular. Women stay at home and raise children while men provide for the family and go to pubs. The basic characteristic of this class is the economical and socio-psychological interdependence of family members. mainly good quality brands with affordable prices. and modern. Kesic30 defined the basic characteristics of society’s classification into four classes. Lower class.1 Profile/description of members of different social classes Each social class has its own consumption specifics. IX chapter . and children’s education in reputable schools.6. Therefore members of this class are connected to the local culture. liberal and socially oriented. presented in Table 6. Upper middle class. Lower middle class. They see themselves as intellectuals. investing into art works.

middle managers and owners of small firms • Usually have a university degree. well-established firms • Are used to wealth so they do not spend money in a spectacular manner • • • • Are not well-accepted by the upper uppers Represent the “new money” Are successful executives or other managers Are noisy users of their new wealth Lower uppers: the newly rich Upper middle class: successful professionals • Have no family status or large wealth • Focused on career • Young successful professionals.210 Consumer Behaviour Table 6: The description of social classes Upper uppers: the elite in private clubs • • • • • A small number of highly recognised families Belong to the best private clubs and sponsor large charities Tutor local universities and hospitals Are distinguished doctors or lawyers Can be the heads of important financial institutions.and family-oriented • Primarily non-managerial intellectual workers and highly-paid manual workers • Want to achieve “respect” and be accepted as good citizens • Are religious and often involved in activities sponsored by the religious communities • Prefer neat and adequate appearance and avoid fashionable or high-style clothes • Are the main market for “do it yourself” products Lower middle class: loyal followers Melika Husić-Mehmedović . or the owners of large. many have masters or even a doctorate • Are passionately interested in achieving “better things in life” • Their homes are the symbol of their achievements • Consumption is often notable • Are children. Muris Čičić . Slavo Kukić .

Kanuk. such as common beliefs. but who is the best friend or a bridge partner of a woman from an upper class. (2004): „Consumer Behavior“. 308 9. 8th edition. Coleman32 described several cases of families that belong to a single class and that are in fact quite different from each other.500 dollars per year for doing a secretarial job. and L. Who belongs to which class and what does belonging to it imply? Using a vivid example. p. workers with no skills Often don’t know how to do their job Children are neglected Are prone to the lifestyle of surviving day to day • • • • • • • Lower lowers: the lowest class Source: Schiffman L. fishing equipment etc.2 Differences within social classes Research has shown that there is a constellation of specific lifestyle factors within each social class. The prototype of middle class of the 1980s in the USA is a household in which the husband has an office job making between 24.) • Have a strong “macho” self-image • Men are sports fans. Another example of middle status is a working couple who make up to 42. and where the wife does not have a job which makes this their total income.6.000 or even 45.000 and 29.000 dollars per year (dollar value from 1983). chain smokers and beer-lovers • • • • Poorly educated. In the same middle class is a divorced woman with a college education who supports two children with her 13. which differentiate the members of one group from another.Social classes 211 Upper lowers: the majority that play safe The largest segment of the hierarchical scale Mainly physical workers Seek security See work as the means to “buy” pleasure Want their children to behave properly Members of this group with high wages can spend impulsively Are interested in things that fill their leisure time (TV. The fourth example is a restaurant and bowling hall IX chapter . attitudes. Pearson Education International.000 dollars per year in total. activities and behaviour.

not knowing the class one belongs to along with his consumption habits. pale and torn even. and middle class was hard-working. or the owner is a widower. they can make 60. A social class positions people in categories on a hierarchical scale and by this attaches certain characteristics to them. Slavo Kukić . Nowadays there are people who can do anything. they are young.212 Consumer Behaviour owner whose wife helps him run the business. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . These examples show that social class means and represents much more than mere income categorisation. Members of upper social classes used to be lazy. Having reviewed all these facts. this sociological view ignores a series of psychological characteristics of consumers such as the desire to acquire higher status or the fear of it. John Brooks33 says: “The most effective method of looking for class recognition is by laughing at it. Muris Čičić . and yet they keep working hard. can classes be differentiated from each other?” Another example that Brooks mentions is the fact that members of a higher standard do not want to advertise their success and power. If the people of different social standards stop trying to present themselves differently from others.000 or 70.000 dollars a year and still belong to the middle class because of the lack of social skills necessary for the transfer into an upper class. behaviour does not exclusively depend upon the social class a person belongs to. but is also guided by the social class one wants to belong to. successful. In any case. a divorcee or a woman who never married. or a rebellious rejection to identify with any groups. it becomes clearer why some authors34 believe that lifestyle is a more comprehensive category for analysing consumer behaviour. rich. As mentioned above. Is modesty reason for this or is it just a good way of seeking recognition of their high position? Things change rapidly. However. ambitious. On the other hand there are those who are extremely lazy regardless of living on the edge of poverty or being very poor indeed. which states that a person is confident in his position and can therefore dress as a low-paid farmer from the middle of nowhere. Therefore it is best to wear blue jeans.

P. 2. Lawson.J. (2002): Social class influences on purchase evaluation criteria. Party. (1941): ibid 9.F. Kanuk. Gilbert. References 1. When was the research of classes at its peak and why? Explain the acronym BRIC.S. CT 8. 265-280 3. Warner. and S. Weber. T. pp. 7. 249-276 6. IL: The Dorsey Press 5. M. Journal of Consumer Research.L. p. Yale University Press. Kahl. 3. (1983): ibid 4. and P. D. Lunt (1941): The Social Life of a Modern Community. Warner. 298 11. (1948): Class. 19. 3. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 6. 8. 10.. izdanje. New Haven. pp. Lunt. i L. in H. What are social classes? What are the main determinants of social classes? Explain the relation between education and social class belonging. 7. pp. W. Mills (editors) From Max Weber. R. Vol. pp.. W. G. 463-479 IX chapter . Sivadas E. Vol. Marketing theory. (1982): The American Class Structure: A New Synthesis. 4. University of Minnesota Press 7. and A..P. Chapin. R. Curry (1997): A Preliminary Examination of the Continuing Significance of Social Class to Marketing: A Geodemographic Replication. Matherw and D. Homewood. No. London: Routledge 10. Prentice Hall 2000.Social classes 213 Questions for revision 1. 295-307 2. Vol. Volume 2(3). Status. Schiffman L. 5. Zagreb: prevod Mate. Williams. S.L. and P. Todd (2002): Consumer Lifestyles: A Social Stratification Perspective. Coleman R. (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. Gerth and C. 6. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 14 No.S. Is income sufficient for explaining social classes? How do researchers measure social class belonging? Describe the purchase behaviour of lower-middle class. (1983): The Continuing Significance of Social Class to Marketing. Coleman. (1933): The Measurement of Social Status.

(2004): ibid. Journal of Marketing Research. p. Warner. June. 90 31. (2002): ibid 18. 32-43 16. Vol. Kanuk. Vol. Williams T. 295-307 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. (2004): ibid. and S. G.214 Consumer Behaviour 12. Foote: Consumer Behavior: Household Decision Making. W.S.P.o. Brooks. 69-74 i Wasson.E. p. Vol. Schiffman. R. 39. Kesic.. 308 32. and L. (1981): Showing Off in America. Zagreb. 14.o. p. Journal of Marketing. April. Schiffman. Vol. 492-6 and Komarovsky. p. Journal of Marketing.L..A. Lunt (1941): ibid. (1987): Social Class and Consumer Behavior: The Relevance of Class and Status. 20.P. pp. Schiffman L. (2006): ibid.W.. R. (2002): ibid 14. J. T. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. Journal of Marketing Research. pp. Lawson. Brown 34. Duncan. Miyashita. 2. 255-65 17. J. C. L. Curry (1997): ibid 24. 54-7 22. 19. 9. April. Vol. Boston: Little. G. Schiffman L. Vol. (1983): ibid 30. 317-25 13. Peters. Zagreb: prevod Mate. (1933): ibid 26.. S. Olshavsky. J. (1969): Is it Time to Quit Thinking of Income Classes?. pp. Fisher. and L. Schiffman L.. 298 28.A. 26. J. and L.P. pp. Advances in Consumer Research. Muris Čičić . Slocum. Marketing theory.P.D. Todd (2002): Consumer Lifestyles: A Social Stratification Perspective. pp.. C. (1974): Selecting the superior segmentation correlate. Journal of Marketing. Kanuk. Coleman.E. Slavo Kukić . (1975): An Effective Display of Unit Price Information. (1998): Parent-Child Decision Making in Children’s Clothing Stores. J.. New York: University Press. Davis (1955): A comparison of indexes of socio-economic status.C. 421-28 20. and A. Kanuk.. p.L. pp. April. and L. (1979): Mass Media and Personal Influences on Adolescent Consumer Learning. Kanuk (2004): ibid. Hisrich. R. F.. Moschis. Developments in Marketing Science. izdanje. p. (1972): Consumers’ Attitudes toward Package Size and Price. (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. T.L. 7. Volume 2(3). Coleman. Opinio d. Vol. Granger. G. and P. M. pp. 11-19 15. 2 19. Kanuk. and L. Williams T. Prentice Hall 2000. pp. February. 300 23.. and M. Vol. izdanje. J. 38. and R. 33. (1970): Social Class and Income as Indicators of Consumer Credit Behavior. (1983): ibid 33. Matthews. (1961): Class Differences in Family Decision Making. pp. 34. 11. Matherw and D. (2004): ibid. Dreiser and S. Billson. American Sociological Review. C. Vol. in N. p. 305 21. Vol. R. July. Journal of Marketing. and H. and R. (1982): External Search: The Role of Consumer Beliefs. 239-48 and Russo. 60-3. Chapin. Darian. August.J. 85 29. pp.R. 27. Moore.N. and J. L. No. Kesic.P. Sivadas E. Kahl. pp. 301 25.W.W.

X chapter CULTURE Chapter objectives • • • • • • • • • Review various definitions and interpretations of culture Influence of culture on consumer behaviour Explain differences among basic cultural factors Analysis of basic characteristics of culture Understand learning and establishment of culture Culture as a shared phenomenon of society The role of verbal and non-verbal symbols Explain monochromic and polychromic cultures Explain high-context and low-context cultures .


religion. improve production and meet other human needs. arts.217 10. The material culture includes production means and other material goods. knowledge. X chapter . For this reason it is not easy to determine its limits. encompassing factors such as language. laws. Several conclusions stem from this definition: • Culture represents a dynamic category that changes throughout time due to the influence of the above factors. products and other artefacts that give a society a distinguished flavour. science and traditions. business partners. its study demands a detailed research of the character of the entire society. nutrition-related customs. Some authors1 define culture as the sum of material and spiritual values that humans created to subdue natural forces. technology. music. but rather someone who actively affects the changes of cultural traditions and interactively becomes the fundamental driving force of the change of traditional elements of a culture. In a way. We choose the following definition: culture represents a set of material and spiritual values conditioned by traditional frames and contemporary changes that shape an acceptable behaviour of members of a society2. Considering the comprehensive nature of culture. CULTURE 10. culture is a society’s personality. philosophy. while spiritual culture comprises the morals. • Culture is a set of material and spiritual values.1 Definition of culture An individual is not a passive observer who receives the components of culture by the process of socialisation. religion. arts.

a shop. Beliefs consist of a large number of mental and verbal statements (e.g.. This means that by believing. 1998 When we talk about culture. we in fact make our own judgement about something.”) that reflect a man’s concrete knowledge and judgement of something (another person.218 Consumer Behaviour • Consumer behaviour under a cultural influence is a result of traditional values and contemporary events. “I believe that. and brand). Figure 37: The influence of cultural factors on consumer behaviour Source: Jeannett and Hennessey. Muris Čičić . product. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . approved by other community members. beliefs and customs that affect our behaviour. based on previously acquired knowledge.. • There is a socially acceptable behaviour of an individual. Slavo Kukić . we must look back at the values.

2. customs and morals are unwritten rules of behaviour accepted by the majority of a culture’s members. a custom is a communal way of behaving. Culture is created. It does not wait somewhere to be “discovered” but is rather created by the correlation of three independent variables: 1. culture possesses specific characteristics or determinants that shape it.2 Cultural characteristics As a feature of individual and group behaviour. X chapter . they are widely accepted by society members. and fulfil the following criteria3: 1. 2. technology. While norms are written rules of the behaviour of society members that are directly related to rewards and sanctions.Culture 219 Values represent accepted beliefs about appropriate behaviour within the frames of a culture. culturally accepted or acceptable behaviour in a certain situation. Culture is transferred. age structure. The main conveyors of cultural values are family. 3. the meaning of the feature being transferred and its conformity with individual values and personality traits. ideology. religious institutions and schools. they are not related to specific objects or situations. Unlike beliefs and values. they serve as guidelines for socially acceptable behaviour. We are going to explain some of the specifics of culture below4. environment. Culture transfers from generation to generation by the process of socialisation. 5. 3. 4. 10. How successful each of these institutions is in the transfer and assumption of cultural postulates depends on the specifics of individuals and groups. there are relatively few of them. they are permanent and difficult to change.

As opposed to the permanence of it. social factors aim at adjusting them with the fundamental principles and basics of culture in the shortest time possible. For example. Culture is an adaptable category. culture assumes ideal standards of behaviour for its members who are then rewarded to reinforce it. Along with being common to the members of a small or large group. There are some similarities among cultures. Culture is permanent and rewarding. innovations. dance. there are punishments for those who violate the “adequate” and desirable behaviour in a culture. On the other hand. Culture is a joint phenomenon. beliefs etc. Culture and consumer behaviour are related categories in a way that culture directs behaviour but behavioural changes can also gradually change culture. This characteristic of culture has the greatest significance for consumer behaviour. Cultures are similar and yet different. all cultures have sports. Even though sometimes there is inconsistency among specific segments of culture. music. Norms are rules that direct the behaviour of members within a culture. beliefs and the moral basis of a wider culture. If needs are met in accordance with the “norms” of a specific culture. Slavo Kukić . However. All areas of culture interact with each other and aspire to harmonisation with general values. laws.220 Consumer Behaviour Culture is shared among members of a society. Namely. Muris Čičić . etc. it can be transferred and adopted in other geographically and culturally remote groups. there are elements that affect its adjustment to technological changes. Customs as a part of unwritten norms of behaviour also affect behaviour within a culture. cuisine. shared by members of a group and reflected on social norms and customs. Culture prescribes behaviour. In this way elements of culture are transferred from generation to generation. behaviour is rewarded and it reinforces the existing norms. Even Melika Husić-Mehmedović . environmental changes. there are enormous differences in the way and method of adopting and using each element of culture. It is these differences that affect specific behaviour of consumers that belong to different cultures. Culture is organise d and integrated.

in the contemporary conditions of telecommunications it seems that their changes are growing exponentially.2. friends or TV heroes. • Technical rules: implicit standards about what is understood as acceptable behaviour. and yet they mostly affect informal learning. 10. This has created a foundation for the so-called Global Culture that is being adopted by young people worldwide.Culture 221 though norms and customs are relatively permanent. in which a child learns primarily by imitating others such as family members.1 How is culture learned? Regarding the rules that culture imposes. authors agree that there are three basic types: • Formal rules: relatively explicit standards of behaviour whose violation is sanctioned. Anthropologists discovered three different ways of learning culture: formal learning. Figure 38 X chapter . • Informal rules: less explicit standards whose violation is not necessarily sanctioned. showing the target audience which model of behaviour to follow. in which adults and older siblings teach the young members of a family “how to behave”. informal learning. how and why to do it5. and technical learning in which teachers in educational institutions teach a child about what to do. A company’s advertising messages can influence all three types of learning culture.

patriotism. a specific belief. Muris Čičić . history. offer spiritual leadership and moral education. and the most influential ones are: • family.2. The young learn basic consumer skills within a family. Media teach their audience how to dress. such as the value of money. Slavo Kukić . how to furnish their home. Educational institutions are particularly responsible for developing the basic skills of learning. civil rights and technical education that prepares people for relevant roles in a society. Therefore. • religious institutions. marketers should recognise that advertising is an important agent for social changes7. taste development and reacting to promotional messages. the relation between price and quality. habits and customs. what patterns of behaviour are accepted and which are not. Likewise. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . When designing their messages. • educational institutions. i. A common language is a key cultural component that enables people to share values. Religious institutions maintain a continuous religious awareness. value or practice has to be an important part of a society. beliefs and traditions onto its younger members.e. Various institutions within a society create elements of culture and make it real. what food to eat. Another institution that is often neglected and plays an important role in the formation of culture is mass media. experiences and traditions. we often believe that the scope of advertising is limited to influencing a need for a specific product or service. culture is often observed as shared customs that link society members6. but in a cultural context advertising has an extended aim of reinforcing the established cultural values and helping develop new tastes.2 Shared culture In order to represent a cultural characteristic. The young receive most of their consumer training within their families. but the educational and religious systems reinforce this training by teaching economic and ethical terms. Family transfers key cultural values.222 Consumer Behaviour 10.

Any word can be a symbol. colours. often in positions that in the past used to be considered only suitable for men. businesses have to use adequate symbols for expressing the desired images or characteristics of a product. In order to effectively communicate with their audience. For this reason. A symbol is anything that represents something else. rousing the feelings of danger and a need for protection and security. in order to give additional meaning to the printed or emitted adverts. wars. In essence. to X chapter . Non-verbal communication includes using symbols such as figures. Nowadays most women work outside the house. considering that many factors can lead to cultural changes within a given culture (new technology. culture has to progress constantly in order to function in the best interest of a society. These career women decreasingly wait for marriage or a husband to buy them luxury items such as fur coats. unstable values and traditions borrowed from other cultures). lack of resources. the word “jaguar” has a symbolic meaning: to some it represents a luxurious car.3 Cultural changes To meet its requirement of satisfying needs. This is not a simple task. expensive watches and diamond jewellery.Culture 223 10. the current main cultural change is a different role of a woman. brands and packaging or the design of a product. businesses constantly have to observe the socio-cultural environment in order to launch existing products or develop promising new ones effectively. The word “hurricane” triggers the thought of wind and rain and has the power to disturb us emotionally. For instance. They often say: “I make enough for a good life.2. These symbols can be verbal or non-verbal9. Equally.3 Language and symbols In order to achieve a shared culture. the symbolic nature of human language separates it from the communication of animals. shapes or texture. society members have to be capable of communicating with each other using a common language. why wait? I am going to buy it for myself. Verbal symbols can include TV announcements or adverts in magazines.”8 10. movements of population.

In this sense. foreign markets. In order to translate the brand name into Chinese. Coca-Cola’s biggest competitor did not have an easy job either.224 Consumer Behaviour others wealth and status. Examples Coca-Cola’s penetration into the Chinese market caused a lot of headaches. Using metaphors is a common cause of misinterpretation and inefficient communication between businesses and consumers. the message needs to be adjusted to the target audience. a large number of experts were hired. A symbol can have several meanings. This made them rename the car as “Caribe”. Sometimes very small differences such as dialects can represent an obstacle for understanding and accepting the marketing message. Despite all efforts they did not sell many cars. When they entered the Chinese market they realised that their slogan “Pepsi Brings you Back to Life” in China means “Pepsi returns your ancestors from the grave”. they discovered that this phrase in fact means “bite a wax tadpole” or “a mare filled with wax”. after which sales rose drastically. Copying and literal translation of a marketing message is a trap into which many businesses fell when they entered new. and to others it suggests a wild and powerful animal that can be seen in the zoo10. sometimes contradictory. you feel so refreshed that it makes your brains free and empty” 11. a provider who uses slang in an advert in order to attract a teenage audience needs to do so very carefully because slang that is misused or old-fashioned will symbolically make the business and the product look outdated. Muris Čičić . After analysing more than 40. Slavo Kukić . so the marketer has to establish exactly what message to send to a target audience. Having printed off several thousand copies of the logo. “Salem – Feeling Free” had a pretty inadequate meaning in Japan: “When you use Salem cigarettes.000 Chinese characters they came up with “Ko-kou-ko-le” which roughly translated means: “joy in the mouth”. General Motors were in a confusing situation when in South America they presented their new vehicle Chevy Nova. The second try was more successful. First they tried with Ke-kou-ke-la. For instance. depending on the dialect. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Then they realised that in Spanish “no va” means “it’s not going”. which is pronounced as CocaCola. The American slogan for the cigarettes Salem.

Some cultures give a significant importance to the symbolism of numbers. Egyptians find this colour to be a symbol of sorrow though12. in our region but also in many western cultures represents peace. holidays etc. promotions. virtue.). Ritual is a kind of symbolic activity that consists of a series of steps that occur in a fixed order and are repeated throughout time14.4 Colours and numbers Colours are mainly used to represent an important element of an advertisement. without word-play. The famous “Chanel No5” could not be accepted in the Japanese market because to them number 5 (shih) symbolises death13. be aware of who our target audience are.Culture 225 The best way to avoid such mistakes is to use simple. wedding. We must be very careful when using colour in advertising. 10. All these rituals affect specific purchases of clothes as well as food products. it is recommended to use local experts who will help to adequately translate the message. culture includes various ritualised experiences and behaviour that have been denied by consumer researchers until recently. 10. for instance. The colour white. funerals.5 Rituals as a part of culture Along with language and symbols. Rituals X chapter . and what meaning colours have in their culture. Besides. courage etc. a ritual consists of a behaviour that occurs in an order set in advance and is usually repeated occasionally but throughout one’s life (such as weddings. it means just the opposite: it is the symbol of death and burial. and the use of a number of services that accompany such rituals. In Japan and other eastern cultures though. By using purple in the United Kingdom. Yellow represents hope. direct and short marketing messages. Therefore. etc. whilst in Thailand this colour will be interpreted as a sign of grief. we give the impression of royalty or class. in many cultures.

a picture of a baby.6 Cultural influence in a business environment A company is successful in a domestic market. Prentice Hall 2000. When they launched their brand in West Africa. something blue) American savings bond. The Marketing mix that it applies provides it a position as a market leader. (2004) „Ponasanje potrosaca“. a baby food producer. the fact that rituals are full of artefacts (products) related to rituals is the most relevant one.226 Consumer Behaviour also affect consumption in the form of buying specific gifts for those occasions. Slavo Kukić . This picture existed on Melika Husić-Mehmedović . a watch Chocolate. p. Table 7 shows some common artefacts in American culture. card Champagne. something borrowed. gift. flowers. was on the packaging. and Kanuk L. fancy clothes Source: Schiffman L. Table 7: Selected rituals and artefacts related to them Selected rituals Wedding Birth of child Birthday Graduation Valentine’s New Year’s Eve Typical artefacts White wedding dress (something old. buying cultural and traditional products such as clothes and culinary specialties. and there are many examples that demonstrate the confusion caused by not understanding other cultures. One such example is the American company Gerber. Zagreb: Translation: Mate. The next step is penetration into a new market. 7th edition. 329 10. silver spoon for the baby Birthday card. their symbol. cake with candles A pen. From a provider’s view. Muris Čičić . party. What is the problem? This situation is fairly common in the world of business. What happens there though? The same marketing mix that has proved to be perfect at home does not now bring even remotely successful results. something new.

Authors Edward and Mildred Hall studied the business culture of the majority of Western European countries at the end of the 1960s. body language. in their hearts or in the market? For some people. the best way to understand a message is for it to be delivered verbally. However. This is why consumers assumed that the little boy from the picture is the very product they are supposed to buy. for example. People raised in these cultures can become impatient with people from low-context cultures. What was the reason for this failure? Research showed that in many African countries there is a common belief that what is on the label is in the jar. people try not to bother each other with step-bystep explanations. The Japanese. Understandably. On one side of Asian culture. Therefore in high-context cultures ideas are not explained in detail. intonation. Communication is mainly based on facial expressions. and if they do not. they can guess. Why do failures like this happen? Why is a single product or a promotional message accepted well in one market but completely ignored in another? How much does culture affect understanding and accepting a marketing message or the position of a product whether in consumers’ awareness.Culture 227 these products ever since 1926 and brought them the position of one of the best known brands in the American market. the product positioned this way was by no means acceptable to the consumers. X chapter . Sales were non-existent. a report from one of the distributors soon arrived. and according to which cultures are distributed to within a range from high-context to low-context ones. prefer indirect communication and symbols more than the Americans who practice direct communication. and classified them based on two basic concepts16: High-context cultures. where listeners know what a message is about. are high-context cultures that prefer communication more complex than a written or verbally delivered message. for instance. non-verbal elements such as music or photography speak louder than words. whilst for others. contacts etc. This leads us to a classification of cultures that is very relevant from the aspect of communication. Testimonies showed15 that “people thought that they are expected to feed their black babies with white babies”.

These people consider that the members of high-context culture are chaotic. We could say that the USA is a typical representative of this culture. Communication in low-context culture is based on explicit. Slavo Kukić . verbal forms of communication. Muris Čičić . photographs and other non-verbal elements. In its essence this type of culture is individualistic rather than collectivistic. Every phone conversation is confirmed by a fax or email. Sentences are complete and only one person speaks at a time. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . unreliable and emotional. music.228 Consumer Behaviour This is why in Japan promotional messages are based on the use of tones. Figure 39 Low-context cultures prefer to explain things clearly and want the other side to do the same.

listen to your presentation and think about what to have for lunch. wink at their colleagues. 1991 X chapter . and activities are grouped according to the content and use. Figure 40: Selected countries. Monochromic cultures respect schedules and timetables. depending on their context Source: Dahringer and Muhlbacher.Culture 229 Polychromic cultures represent the people who simultaneously talk on the phone. drink coffee. They are bored and feel that they are wasting time if only one thing is happening at a specific moment.

230 Consumer Behaviour Hall researched France and Germany and in his studies he found that the French are a high-context/polychromic culture. using feministic topics etc. Muris Čičić . appropriateness of showing certain body parts. Therefore. First of all. This message has two culturological mistakes. which implies that consumers do not react when isolated from external influences. first of all we must understand the cultural surroundings in which it is going to be released. Slavo Kukić . A phone company wanted to add some Latino spirit to their promotional messages. He also concluded that the Greeks are highcontext/monochromic whilst Russians are high-context/polychromic. An adequate cultural context is a key factor for coding and decoding promotional messages and it affects how the message is interpreted (whether it is good or bad. a woman in Latin America will probably not dare to order her husband. when planning promotional activities. Latino Americans are usually not punctual and do not find it necessary to call their friends if they are late for an arranged meeting18. Secondly. conservative or acceptable) and how the recipient responds to its content (notice or not notice it. whether directly or indirectly. Culture is something that determines our behaviour when buying a product17. and that Germans are low-context/monochromic. Various aspects of advertising are under a significant influence of culture. It is safe to say that all human activities are determined by culture. relation toward physical contact (mainly between a man and a woman). so the message consisted of a woman telling her husband: “Hurry up and call Mary. Culture determines elements such as: the style of a marketing message. aesthetic aspect of a message. design. decide to buy or not)19. Tell her we’ll be a bit late”. Melika Husić-Mehmedović .

2.P.essentialaction.o. 5. Zagreb: prevod Mate. What institutions create and comprise a shared culture? List two examples of bad use of verbal and two examples of nonverbal symbols in promotional messages. New York Times.Culture 231 Questions for revision 1. Kesic. 9. L. 322 4. References 1. izdanje. Schiffman. 6.. Miniard (1995): Consumer Behavior. i L. http://www. (1997): All That Glitters Isn’t Purchased by Men.o. 2. Zagreb. What is the fundamental difference between norms and morals? List the characteristics of culture. p. Marusic A. Opinio d. 329 7. Kanuk. p. Describe monochromic versus polychromic cultures. http://www. 7. p. Jovic. Wall Street Journal. p. p. (2004): ibidem. p. i M.R. Marketers Start to Pay Attention to Them.php 13. p. Schiffman. i L. 614 5. What is the difference between material and spiritual culture? Explain the differences between values. Zagreb. 7. T. 324 6. 3. Describe high-context versus low-context cultures. Parker-Pope. A. Prentice Hall 2000. Kanuk. 8. Martic (1967): Sociologija. L. Schiffman. beliefs and traditions. Engel. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. (2001): Medunarodni marketing. Kanuk.. i L. 326 10. T. B.J.sibagraphics. p. D. izdanje. 48 3. 330 8. Schiffman. i L. 4. Explain how culture determines behaviour. L. L. (2004): ibidem. (2004): ibidem. L. Blackwell and W. p. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. p. 176 2. D6 9. L. (2004): ibidem. Domazet. Ekonomski fakultet Sarajevo. Kanuk. i L. Schiffman.. (2004): ibidem. F. 327 11. The Dryden Press. Kanuk. i L. M. Rakita i M. 12. 192 X chapter . Schiffman. B1 i Dana Canedy (1998): As the Purchasing Power of Women Rises.

Sinanagic (2001): ibid. http://papers. http://www. Library of Congress Cataloging. J. Rook. 251-264. 186 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Domazet.grin. 19. Mattock. 12. J. Journal of Consumer Research. England 17. B. 4th ed. 18. and A. Ehrenborg (1996): How to be a better negotiator. D. A. Della Bitta (1993): Consumer Behaviour – Concepts and Applications. p. Rakita i M. 15. Clays Ltd.html 16.232 Consumer Behaviour 14. M.W.. Slavo Kukić . . pp.L. Muris Čičić . Jovic. I J.ssrn. (1985): The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior. David L.

racial and gender subcultures Characteristics of age subcultures Definition and variations of generations . national.XI chapter SUBCULTURE Chapter objectives • • • • • • Understand subculture Categories of subcultures Basic characteristics of religious subcultures Geographic.


engineer… Lower. generations X. age. male Driver. Subcultural classifications are mainly based on various socio-cultural and demographic variables such as nationality. Slovenians.1 Definition of subculture Along with the segmentation of market according to cultural factors. Therefore. values and customs that exist within a society. religion. coast… White. middle. marketers often segment societies into smaller subgroups . Catholic. race. continent. Americans. tradition or behaviour. geographical position. Z… Female.. values and customs that the members of a subculture within a society share. They consist of people who are similar regarding their descent. gender or even employment status. black. upper XI chapter . Orthodox… North. yellow Baby-boom. Y. Figure 41 Categories Nationality Religion Geographical area Race Age Gender Profession Social class Examples French. here we focus on marketing opportunities that stem from the existence of specific beliefs. Instead of analysing the dominant beliefs.subcultures. the concept of subculture is significantly narrower than the analysis of culture.235 11. south. Muslim. SUBCULTURE 11. mechanic..

The creators of promotional messages should always bear in mind that their messages. they had to launch the product marked as “halal” in Indonesia. The differences in religious beliefs vary worldwide. 11. Each one of these characteristics carries a certain set of beliefs. Mormons do not drink coffee. will be viewed through the prism of religious beliefs. Muslims do not eat pork and do not drink alcohol. among other things. and they do not smoke cigarettes.2 Religious subcultures Religion is a consisting part of culture and all members of religious groups decide about purchase under the influence of their religious identity. value system. Even though they are famous for standardisation. We can say that subculture represents a culture within a culture2. a Velez fan and a mountaineer. Certain religions influence consumer behaviour significantly. As an example of the influence of religion on marketing strategy.236 Consumer Behaviour Each subculture consists of smaller subcultures that offer specific identification and socialisation to its members1. a student. tea or alcohol. values. habits and behaviour. we can say that every person at a given moment belongs to different subcultures and is simultaneously a member of a wider culture. and as such subcultures are any groups that share common beliefs. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . a twenty-year-old man in Sarajevo can simultaneously be a Bosnian and Herzegovinian. Muris Čičić . For instance. Research has shown that 90% of Americans are religious but that 70% of the Japanese are not5. Slavo Kukić . Coca Cola is often mentioned. For example. If we illustrate that with an example. and Catholics do not eat meat on Fridays4. attitudes and customs. a young man. Subculture can be defined as a group that is homogenous in its beliefs. Subculture is a separate cultural group that exists as a distinguishing segment within a larger and more complex society3. attitudes.

there are similar distinctions. travelling. people from Krajina have their own customs. and have different customs. Regardless of where people live. etc. These people. Azra or Balasevic. these beliefs are most commonly reflected in the form of the consummation of certain food. people from Herzegovina have a specific accent. still buy or read electronic editions of Oslobodjenje. If we observe that from a consumer behaviour view. and visit their country every summer. There are significant differences across BH even in a simple example such as preparation of traditional “cevapi”. 11.4 National subcultures Nationality is an extremely important sub-cultural category.Subculture 237 11. regardless of whether they have acquired a secondary citizenship or not.3 Geographic subcultures There is a regional identification and a distinction based upon it within each country. For instance. XI chapter . For instance. We can find examples in the behaviour of our Diaspora worldwide. in the United States the Southerners speak and behave differently from others. Even in a small country such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. etc. they still keep their primary identity and pride regarding the language and customs of their ancestors. listening to specific music. still listen to Bijelo Dugme.

Therefore it is not surprising that it led to confusion when an American in Sarajevo said that to his Bosnian partner. if in the USA you tell someone “See you soon”. Muris Čičić . it is just a polite way to end a conversation. Slavo Kukić .5 Racial subcultures Races are genetic units of population who differ from each other physically based on their biological heritage6. who then took his planner out and found a free slot in the schedule to arrange the meeting. 11.238 Consumer Behaviour Figure 42 There are unwritten rules that shape the social surroundings in a certain country or region. The differences in races are nowadays Melika Husić-Mehmedović . These differences can appear insignificant. but in a wider business context they can create misunderstanding and controversies. For example.

Hispano (11%). it is determined that the women of Afro-American origin use three times more money for buying health and cosmetic products than other groups10. but the efforts to achieve business success through a good understanding and meeting the needs of the members of specific races9. considering that racial homogeneity is present in our region. However. there are significant differences regarding lifestyle and regulations regarding consumption8. white (71%). i. Among all these groups. Afro-Americans. Figure 43 This is by no means racial discrimination.Subculture 239 extremely distinguished worldwide and marketers must be happy if up until this point they have not met this problem. Asian Americans (4%) and American Indian (1%)7. XI chapter . Asian Americans and American Indians. in the USA one can meet Euro-Americans.e. Afro-Americans (13%). For instance. Therefore marketers use these groups as models in their promotional campaigns.

and it is these differences that reflect their behaviour in the market. and the most commonly used ones are generation X. and are less prone to dominant behaviour than men are. 3. baby-boom generation. you know different actors and you spend your time differently. Slavo Kukić . Market segments that can be identified based on the subculture of age groups are13: 1.7 Age subcultures With respect to age differences. Owning things is also seen differently: men see the possession of things as a method to acquire power. Therefore today’s marketing parole should not surprise us: “Women are opportunity No1”12. for family members and the household.6 Gender as subculture This classification is extremely significant because it notes the differences between men and women. Today women represent the basic subculture that dominates a purchase.240 Consumer Behaviour 11. You certainly listen to different music than your parents. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . 11. CDs. for themselves. Age groups are most frequently classified into generations. Young middle-aged. Old14. seniors. women process information differently than men do. beverages. whilst women see it as a form of stimulant and maintaining relations with other people and groups11. For instance. Young. you dress differently from your grandparents. 2. food products. 4. The market of teenagers has significantly developed in the area of modern clothes. generation Y etc. everyone understands that they exist and that they are clearly distinguished. The market of the young is characterised by a significant purchase power and the willingness to spend money. Muris Čičić . Middle-aged. they show more concern and generosity.

XI chapter . not its purchase power. the so-called baby-boom generation. travelling. etc. and due to the size of the segment it has the greatest influence on the consumption of mass products. This segment is interesting due to its specific needs. This segment constantly grows and marketers have to take care of their needs15. psychological and purchase possibilities. The segment of the young middle-aged is a basic segment at the peak of their physical. The last age segment comprises of the old people. leisure time equipment. followed by automobiles. cosmetics and financial services. the segment of the young represents future consumers of other products. The third segment comprises of the middle-aged people. this is a very interesting market that has significant financial means and is ready to spend it. Likewise. improving the conditions of life. etc. A large number of new and innovated products have been inspired by the motives and wishes of the young. The interest of the elderly is aimed at nutritional values.Subculture 241 sports clothes and footwear. These people’s aim is hedonism in all spheres of professional and personal life. which is another reason to pay special attention to it. As a whole. and materialism as a concept of thinking. travelling and relaxation. For them. This segment respects tradition and its values and the members have a significant influence on the younger population. In the developed countries. the real estate market is the most relevant. born between 1946 and 1964. one fourth of this segment comprises of singles and therefore their consumption is aimed at ready-made meals. The key group within this segment are the co-called Yuppies (Young Urban Professionals). A large number of these people are still working. clothes. food.

for their homes and for others – they are consumptionoriented. For instance. and more than half of them have at least a bachelor’s degree. Levi Strauss produces “more comfortable and wider” jeans. They are also appreciated because they comprise 50% of professionals and managers. b) they often make important consumption decisions. c) they include a small sub-segment of trendy consumers (sometimes known as yuppies or young upwardly mobile professionals) that influence consumer taste of other age segments of the society16.242 Consumer Behaviour Figure 44 11. the nature of the products or services they want most changes. As they get old. Slavo Kukić . the sales of Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Baby-boomers present more than 40% of adult consumers and are therefore a desirable market segment.1 Baby-boom generation The term baby-boomers is used to describe the population born between 1946 and 1964.7. due to the older age of this market segment. Muris Čičić . They like to buy for themselves. This generation represents extremely motivated consumers. Businesses see baby-boomers as a very desirable target group because: a) today they are the most numerous age category.

Rolex watches etc.Subculture 243 lineless bifocal eyeglasses have increased. well-educated and have distinguished professional or managerial careers. Even though they only make up 5% of the population. Today. they are generally financially well off. In the “female world” the Botox technique for wrinkle treatment represents the most important cosmetic product for this generation. The disappearance of wrinkles off the face after only one injection of Botox is one of the most significant discoveries for the yuppies. XI chapter . physical condition. as well as the sales of hiking boots17. they divert their attention from expensive property with status brands to travelling. as many yuppies mature. planning other careers or some other form of life guidelines. Figure 45 Yuppies are the most desirable subgroup of baby-boomers. They are often identified with status brands such as BMW or Volvo.

Slavo Kukić . the young population in 2000 made significantly more money than their peers a decade earlier. cynical and lazy. generation X has this attitude: “This is what I want in order to stay in your company and if I am not satisfied I will take my skills elsewhere”18.7. While their parents used to say: “Thank you for the opportunity. It comprises of 46 million young people in the USA.2 Generation X This age group consists of consumers born between 1966 and 1976 (some authors list 1979 or 1981 as the upper limit). They are often found withdrawn. have a family or work overtime to make more money. their time has come now that they have replaced the generation of their parents on the managerial scene. unlike their parents (mainly baby-boomers). I will try to meet your expectations”. Muris Čičić . Generation X are the people who do not like labels and do not want to be distinguished by any standards. as compared to the 77 million of baby-boomers. which means that they are taking over the financial control. Likewise. It is considered that this generation has different expectations from the business environment. they are in no hurry to get married. For generation X it is much more relevant to enjoy life and therefore they have a lifestyle that gives them freedom and flexibility. As we can see from Figure 46.244 Consumer Behaviour 11. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . And yet.

. A European Perspective“. Askegaard. (2002): „Consumer Behaviour. G. 2nd edition The media of generation X are specific. Pearson Education.Subculture 245 Figure 46: Change of income in relation to age Source: Solomon M. They are the generation who grew up with the computer revolution and the sounds of MTV. Bamossy and S. XI chapter . The most popular TV series are The Simpsons and Beverly Hills 9021019. this generation reads newspapers less than any other. Interestingly.

changes and new opportunities. they faced a real problem with their younger brothers and sisters. These are rebels. Even more Melika Husić-Mehmedović . technology is extremely simple. contradictory children of baby-boomers that believe education is a key to success. Generation Y’ers are the most education-minded generation in history.7. technical mages. generation www. the members of Generation Y. If marketers and/or businesses considered that Generation X was stubborn and complicated.3 Y generation Figure 47 The youngest segment of the population varies in the limits of its age. Slavo Kukić .246 Consumer Behaviour 11. Digital Generation or e-generation. challenges. This generation is also known as the Millennial generation. This extreme generation loves adrenalin. but most commonly as Generation Y. Muris Čičić . diversity is guaranteed and social responsibility is a business imperative20. There is a generally accepted opinion that currently it comprises of teenagers and the young born between 1977 and 1984 (some authors list 1978 and 1988 as limits).

they have the perception that a higher education will lead them to a better professional situation. 11. This generation is cynical but tolerant. called XY or MTV generation.7.Subculture 247 than their elders. AIDS epidemics. Chernobyl catastrophe. Also they are willing to change. They live Carpe diem in the globalized world.7. 11.5 Z generation Figure 48 XI chapter . They lived through a lot of negative and pessimistic history milestones. formation of EU or liberation of Nelson Mandela. such as death of Kurt Cobain and Lady D. however due to the negative milestones they witnessed they are rather pessimist toward the future. This generation comprises of the people born between 1975 and 1985 and has characteristics of both X and Y generation. but also some positive such as turning down the Berlin wall.4 XY generation Due to the significant differences between Generation X and Generation Y. the practice experienced the need to create sub-generation. dissolution of SSSR and Yugoslavia.

248 Consumer Behaviour The youngest generation so far is Generation Z or net-generation. Hence. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Next generation is assumed to be called Generation Alpha. FAcebook. They are less ambition then previous generations. MP3. YouTube. tablets. they demand information at any time or place. Muris Čičić . From the beginning this generation is intensively involved into all ways of communication. including www. they have smart-phones. It is composed of the children and young people born between 1990 and 2010. and other gadgets which enable them to be online all the time. The main difference of this generation is that they do not correlate internet strictly with PC. Slavo Kukić . they grew up with economic downturn and they value money more than others. Moreover. etc21. more individuals. they became extremely impatient. SMS. but excellent in gathering data and searching for information.

(2006): ibidem. Della Bitta (1993): Consumer Behavior: Concepts and Applications. Kanuk.. (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. (1997): Opportunity Knocks.J. 7. The Dryden Press. (2006): ibidem. prijevod MATE Zagreb 2. p. T. B.D. 130-132 13. (2001): Upravljanje marketingom. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca. What is subculture and what is its role in the analysis of consumption? 2. 188 6. B. McGraw Hill. What are the characteristics of the baby-boom generation? 7. 60 XI chapter . pp. 4th edition. p. List some foundations for classifying subcultures. D. B. Inc. i L. 11. Kesic. Fort Worth. (2005): Ponasanje potrosaca. B. Zagreb. p. P. Loudon.L. L. Kotler. Zagreb: prevod Mate. 130 10. Newman (1999): Customer Behavior – Consumer Behavior and Beyond. 353 9. p. (2005): ibidem. p. Forbes ASAP. Prentice Hall. Maricic. Centar za izdavacku delatnost Ekonomskog fakulteta u Beogradu. How do we classify the market according to age characteristics? 6. Kesic. Sheth. How is a market segment supposed to be addressed considering its national subculture? 5. T. 62 5. (2005): ibidem. Maricic. p. Opinio d. izdanje. i A. p. 61 12..o.Subculture 249 Questions for revision 1. Kanuk (2004): ibidem. List an example of a scandal due to misunderstanding religious subcultures. p. 3. T. 4. pp. L. i H. Beograd. 346 4. Kassarjian (1972): Consumer Behavior.o. Maricic. Mittal. Prentice Hall 2000.. 186 11. Kesic.H.N. 209-210 8. T. J. P. New York.. 185 7. When was generation X born? 8. 2. New Jersey 3.I.. Peters. izdanje. i L. B. Bennett. p. What media could be used to reach generation Y? References 1. izdanje. Schiffman. Schiffman.

Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training.A. Riedling. Libraries Unlimited Melika Husić-Mehmedović .S. An educator’s guide to information literacy: what every high school senior needs to know. Crispell. Kanuk (2004): ibidem. Merritt Publishing Company. i L. American Demographics and „U. (2005): “From high maintenance to high productivity – What managers need to know about Generation Y”. Kanuk (2004): ibidem. 61 16. p. Santa Monica. Vol. 361 18. T. Slavo Kukić . Tulgan. but Rise Slightlz for 2050“. Vugrinec-Hitrec. V. p. i L. Fakultet ekonomskih znanosti. Wall Street Journal. (1996): „Boomer Facts“. Kesic. 39-44 21. 215 15. Sveuciliste u Zagrebu. p. (2007). 1. M. L. D. Schiffman. Martin C. B. Schiffman L. B3 17. doktorska disertacija. Muris Čičić .250 Consumer Behaviour 14. 37 No. (2006): ibidem. CA 19. 360 20. Population Forecasts Decline for 2000. A. pp. p.. (1995): Managing Generation X: How to Bring Out the Best in Young Talent. (1974): Segmentacija trzista u strategiji marketing.

XII chapter LIFESTYLE Chapter objectives • Understand correlation between market segmentation and consumer behaviour analysis • Types of segmentation • Characteristics of psychographic segmentation • The importance of lifestyle • Methods of segmentation based on lifestyle • Lifestyle in Bosnia Herzegovina .


The main advantage of mass marketing is low cost: all it takes is one communication campaign. segmentation enables producers to identify existing groups of consumers with different characteristics and preferences. the method of distribution and the quality of service. but also by the method of shaping. packing and promoting the product. LIFESTYLE 12. one standardized product. Thanks to this.253 12. equal background. marketers can select some of these groups and design an offer for them. which create better preconditions for a better market position than the one of the direct competitors. On the other hand. Segmentation of target market leads to the selection of target groups and positioning on the selected segments by differentiation of the overall product or service. education and life experience – mass (non-differentiated) marketing would be a logical choice. requests and desires. not only based on the price.1 Market segmentation What is the purpose of researching consumer behaviour? The purpose lies in market segmentation. one marketing strategy. Segmentation is a process that is valid only if the following criteria are met1: XII chapter . If all consumers were equal – had the same needs.

254 Consumer Behaviour Figure 49 • Consumers within a segment are similar to each other in regard to the need for the product and these needs are different from the ones of the consumers from other segments. • Consumers within a segment can be approached by using an adequate marketing mix. • A segment is large enough to be profitable. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . • Consumers within a segment react in a desired way to the marketing mix designed for them. Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić . • Differences between segments can be identified.



For a defined segment to be used for the creation of a marketing mix, the consumers within it must be homogenous towards the variables based on which the segment was defined and heterogeneous in comparison with other segments. Segmentation is an essential marketing tool in the modern business world. The identification of market segments is a starting point for the selection of target markets, the creation of an offer and product differentiation. Depending on the business philosophies that they follow, companies choose one or more target segments. If they decide to target several segments, they create different products and different marketing mixes in order to satisfy each segment appropriately. This situation in the market can be illustrated by numerous examples. Some of them are the designers house Armani, the Spanish fashion producer ZARA, the American producer of clothes The Gap, and many other. Let us observe The Gap that targets the segments of different age, income and way of life by the diversity of their offers. Shops The Gap and Super Gap are designed in a way that attracts a wide audience that likes casual and relaxed style. Gap targets their audience with higher income through their chain of shops Banana Republic, and the lower-income consumers through shops Old Navy Clothing Company. It also targets young parents (that used to be the consumers of Gap and Banana Republic products) via their Baby Gap and Gap Kids shops2. Solomon, Bamossy and Askegaard3 designed one of the simplest but most comprehensive classifications of segmentation variables.

XII chapter


Consumer Behaviour

Table 8: Variables of market segmentation Category Variables Age Gender Social class, occupation, income Ethnic group, religion Stage in life Purchaser vs. user Region Country differences Self-concept, personality Lifestyle Brand loyalty, extent of usage Usage situation Benefits desired


Geographic Psychographic


Source: M. Solomon, G. Bamossy, S. Askegaard (2002) „Consumer Behavior – A European Perspective“ Harlow, p. 8.

Even though the above variables of market segmentation are very useful and simple for research and analysis, in practice they are rarely used independently of each other. Most marketing research nowadays tries to respond to the increasingly complicated situations and markets that marketers face. Consumers’ demands are higher, competition is fiercer in all market segments and this is why it is essential to precisely define our consumers in order to best satisfy their needs. A detailed segmentation demands a combination of several variables which leads to the creation of hybrid segmentation. Geodemographic variables classify consumers into groups according to the place they live in (so called profiles of living regions). The basic assumption for this variable assumes that people living close to each other have a similar level of income and share similar consumption habits therefore having a similar lifestyle. The combination of psychographic and demographic variables gives best results.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić



12.2 Psychographic segmentation
The term psychography was first used by Demby in 1974 by merging the terms psychology and demography4. The objective was a deeper understanding of consumer behaviour in order to create adequate advertising strategy. Other research suggests that the term psychography was in use even before the First World War and that it described psychological characteristics of people in regard to their physical appearance. Later on it evolved into a term used to describe people in regard to their attitudes. Authors today mainly agree about the meaning of the term of psychographic analysis. Marcic5 considers that psychographic analysis is the main instrument for quantifying consumers’ lifestyle. It is a neologism used in marketing more than in psychology. In principle it measures lifestyle by examinees providing answers to specific questions / statements and ranging them according to the level of agreement or disagreement. Consumers’ attitudes are examined, as well as beliefs, opinions, interests and activities. The purpose is to establish causal relations between the above psychographic variables and consumer behaviour regarding the purchase of products and services. Pure statistic measuring also includes subjective analysis, which is simultaneously an advantage and a disadvantage of this method of survey. Strictly speaking, there are still small differences between the terms psychography and lifestyle. The complexity of conceptual understanding and the confusion of lifestyle research is a semantic maze that does not allow clear distinction between these two terms. How valuable is the concrete use of psychographic segmentation can be seen in the review of industries in which it is successfully implemented6. Psychographic segmentation is increasingly used in various branches such as professional consultant services, alcoholic beverages industry, marketing of impressions and personal appearance and banking credit card services. Various psychographic studies of women were intensively conducted in the 70s of the 20th century. The conclusion of this analysis is that the success of today’s businesses greatly depends on knowing our consumers, their habits, desires, motives and behaviour in general. Consumers and their behaviour are necessary to

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Consumer Behaviour

know in order to group them into segments and then satisfy the needs of each segment adequately. By developing the market and a higher complexity of business principles we reach very detailed and comprehensive methods of consumer analysis and their classification into segments. It is necessary to determine which variables to observe in specific cases, i.e. which type of analysis best defines segments. This choice primarily depends on the product or service, then on the level of market development and the existing competition. Best results are achieved by hybrid variables created by the combination of subjective and objective criteria, more specifically the combination of psychology and demographics. Psychography is increasingly analysed, both for research and businesses purposes. In the beginning it was only used for specific industries or specific groups of consumers, but its application nowadays is extended onto all branches. Segments created based on psychographic characteristics give precise and concrete information about consumers and their behaviour, because they combine psychological personality traits (that are different for each individual) and demographic characteristics (that refer to the group a consumer belongs to).

12.3 Lifestyle
12.3.1 Definition of lifestyle
Consumers buy and consume products in order to create, maintain or improve their lifestyle. Previous decisions that individuals have made as well as various events such as a change of a job, finding a new hobby or simply maturing, lead to the changes in lifestyle. Different lifestyle demands the purchase and / or consumption of different products. However, we cannot claim that consumers only think of lifestyle during a purchase. Very often they make decisions that are consistent with their lifestyle without an intentional consideration of their lifestyle. A large number of consumer decisions include very little effort or conscious thinking. Feelings are equally important in many consumer decisions, as well as the physical attributes of a product. However, most consumer decisions include at least a small amount of decision-making and most are under the influence of consumers’ current and desired lifestyle.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić



Figure 50

What does the term consumer lifestyle refer to and why is it so important for understanding why and how consumers act? Simply stated, lifestyle is a way people live their lives. This includes what products they buy, how they use them, what they think about them and what they feel for them. This is a manifestation of personality concept – a complete image that someone

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has about themselves as a result of the culture they live in and individual situations and experiences that make up one’s daily existence. It is a summary of past decisions and future plans. Both individuals and families have a certain lifestyle. We often talk about the “career people”, “family people”, “adventurers”, etc. Lifestyle of individuals is determined by both conscious and non-conscious decisions. People often make selections with a complete awareness of the influence of this specific selection on lifestyle, but in general people are not aware how much the decisions are under the effect of the current or desired lifestyle. Maintaining or changing individual lifestyle often requires product consumption. This is why managers need to understand lifestyle and its determinants. The term lifestyle is used nowadays in scientific research as well as in managerial decision-making. Lifestyle in sociology has a very narrow meaning that refers to the style of living of specific status groups7. In contemporary consumption culture this term stresses and explains the individuality of consumers, their self-depiction and self-awareness. The body, clothes, speech, free time, taste regarding food and drink, home, car, choice of holiday destinations, etc, should all be observed as the indicators of consumers’ individuality. There is no consensus on defining lifestyle. Lifestyle was defined in psychological and anthropological sense, with different emphasis. Contemporary marketing and consumer behaviour theory and practice use lifestyle studies for segmenting the market and understanding their similarities and differences. At the beginning, lifestyle was a broadly defined social term, and it combined all of the general similarities one can observe among people, such as drives, emotions, cultural experience, or life plan8. In psychology, lifestyle was defined as orientation to self, others, and society that each individual develops and follows as a part of his or her value orientation9. Further10, in psychological sense finds that lifestyle is an expression of values, which describes the roles people play in life and how they think those roles should be fulfilled. They reveal both real and ideal lifestyles. Similarly, Havighurst and deVries11 see lifestyle as a syndrome of role activities with a dominant central theme, which is behaviourally visible,

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić



a syndrome that represents a group. Therefore, it is crucial to point out the differences in attitudes within one group, while keeping in mind similarities in behavioural patterns within the same group. A new element introduced by Wilensky12 is that lifestyle is a pattern in behaviour that persists through more than one generation and is connected enough to cross-cut diverse spheres of life. Further, research did not support this opinion, but rather found out that lifestyle changes, even during one’s life, mostly under external influences. Overall, researchers in the social, psychological and economic sense agree that lifestyle is a combination of psychological and social characteristics. After intensive research of lifestyle in a sociological and anthropological sense, the first definition from a marketing perspective says that lifestyle is a group phenomenon that permeates many aspects of life. It implies a central life interest and it differs according to sociologically relevant variables. Wind and Green13 explain the way in which products and services are consumed within a lifestyle, which brings this term into correlation with consumer behaviour. While studying the theory of lifestyle, scholars have developed definitions from the consumer point of view. It defines lifestyle as a set of expansive, observable behaviours. Lifestyle finds its meaning in reference to the distinctive style of life of specific status groups. Within contemporary consumer culture it connotes individuality, self-expression and a stylistic self-consciousness. Lifestyle determines consumption since consumers want to behave according to a specific way of life they wish to accomplish. Using these findings, companies can create products and services which will sufficiently satisfy consumers within a certain lifestyle. Further, individuality in certain socio-demographic surroundings influences lifestyle. While some authors think that lifestyle is individual and specific for everyone, the majority support the theory that it is a group phenomenon based on the same or a similar way that people behave14. The consensus of opinion was that lifestyle represents a combination of individual characteristics and surroundings in which a person lives. Therefore, lifestyle is defined as orientation to self, others and society that

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each individual develops and follows15. Such an orientation derives from personal beliefs based on cultural context and the psychosocial milieu related to the stage of an individual’s life. Finally, only personal peculiarities have to do with an individual’s beliefs, values or norms of daily behaviour, but also the way in which each person conforms to the group, class or global society to which he or she belongs16. Those findings contribute to consumer behaviour, because researchers used lifestyle to define groups/ segments with the same or similar way of living, since they will most likely have a similar consumption. This research bases its conclusion upon the fact that consumption can be explained well using the lifestyle segments, and that groups with the same lifestyle have not only similar individual characteristics, but their correlation with the group and each other is based on the same beliefs. Moreover, analyzing the lifestyle in a certain region and defining the same lifestyle segments, regardless of the nationality or geographical borders, proves the importance of understanding the way of consumers’ life and basing the marketing mix on this knowledge. Having the same consumers’ segments region-wide shifts the emphasis from differences to similarities which leads to the regional cooperation.

12.3.2 Lifestyle Segmentation
Psychographic segmentation divides consumers into different groups depending on their lifestyle and personalities. Consumers in the same demographic group can express different individual profiles. Therefore companies are using new marketing opportunities through lifestyle segmentation. There is a distinction between psychography and lifestyle. Psychograpy includes attitudes, beliefs, and values, while lifestyle is oriented toward behavior and other public actitivites of the individul. Reseachers were generally focused on identification of the trends which influence consumers such as their life, work or leisure, while analyzing lifesyle. Consumers use certain products to accomplish and/or maintain their relationships with others17.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Different scales are developed for measuring consumer values and attitudes and they are mostly geographically focused.Lifestyle 263 Figure 51 Consumers make both conscious and unconscious decisions when it comes to their needs and attitudes. however. Consumers in Australia are segmented using the “Australian Age Lifestyle”. based on their current lifestyle. Further. XII chapter .S. List of Values – LOV. which accordingly leads to changes in consumption patterns. Lifestyle is changeable. all households are divided according to PRIZM or VALS methodology18. and in the U. VALS methodology. According to lifestyle most frequently used scales for market segmentation are: • • • • • Rokeach Value System – RVS. family lifestyle will determine individual lifestyle. Opinion – AIO. Activity. choice of product of brand. in Great Britain a similar methodology is called “Outlook”. Claritas PRIZM. Interest. individuality will be maintained.

Terminal values represent objectives that people would like to achieve.3. active life) A World at Peace (free of war and conflict) Equality (brotherhood. Muris Čičić . effective) Cheerful (lighthearted. creative) Independent (self-reliant. well-mannered) Responsible (dependable. equal opportunity for all) Freedom (independence and free choice) Happiness (contentedness) National Security (protection from attack) Pleasure (an enjoyable life) Salvation (saved. self-sufficient) Intellectual (intelligent.1 RVS methodology Widely used Rokeach Value Survey is based on the self-examination of examinees. rational) Loving (affectionate. and instrumental values are the behaviour that will lead to the achievement of these objectives. tender) Obedient (dutiful. eternal life) Social Recognition (respect and admiration) True Friendship (close companionship) Wisdom (a mature understanding of life) A World of Beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Family Security (taking care of loved ones) Mature Love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) Self-Respect (self-esteem) A Sence of Accomplishment (lasting contribution) Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Source: Schiffman and Kanuk (2004. each measuring different but complementary personality values. tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere. reliable) Self-Controlled (restrained. joyful) Clean (neat. gender and social class of examinees19. Table 9: The instrument of Rokeach research of values TERMINAL VALUES A Comfortable Life (a prosperous life) An Exciting Life (a stimulating. education. 334) INSTRUMENTAL VALUES Ambitious (hardworking. reflective) Logical (consistent.264 Consumer Behaviour 12. income. truthful) Imaginative (daring. Slavo Kukić . These values are an important basis for segmentation because they change depending on the age. respectful) Polite (courteous. The survey is comprised of two parts. selfdisciplined) Melika Husić-Mehmedović . aspiring) Broad Minded (open-minded) Capable (competent. Methodology of Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) uses 18 terminal values and 18 instrumental values (Table 9).2.

People who value good relations with others gift with no particular reason. social XII chapter .3. interests and opinions of consumers23. 12. camping and travelling. sense of accomplishment. People who like fun and excitement like skiing. The results show that these phenomena can partially be explained by personal values. being well respected. Likewise. fun and enjoyment in life and excitement in life22. biking. self-fulfilment.Lifestyle 265 Values are often explained as a criterion that individuals use to select or excuse their behaviour and evaluate the behaviour of others20. Activities are manifested actions such as work. In LOV analysis. Several studies showed that over 90 percent of examinees choose the same values if a survey is repeated several months later. opinions) methodology refers to measuring the activities. dancing. Some of the results of LOV methodology show that people who value good relations with others have a lot of friends. etc.2 LOV methodology List of Values (LOV) typology was developed at the University of Michigan21. LOV is a scale often used for measuring lifestyle in numerous studies with significant results. interests. examinees are given a list of eight values: self-respect.3. and values are shaped regarding the experience and learning of each individual. warm relationships with others. and LOV methodology proved to be complete and providing a very good foundation for segmentation. hobbies. people who appreciate the sense of belonging particularly enjoy group sports and other activities that involve others.3 AIO methodology AIO (activities. Every person has a specific structure of values. security.2. It was developed in 197124. sense of belonging. The use of this scale is widely used nowadays for the analysis marketing phenomena. 12. that people who value achievements have high income.2. or that people who appreciate fun and pleasure consume a lot of alcohol.

income. family life cycle. It is under the influence of many elements such as culture. interests and opinions. interests and opinions. specially created for measuring their activities. what is important to them in their approximate surroundings. living area and urbanisation) that the US census lists. sports. This methodology of segmentation based on lifestyle measures people’s activities regarding: • how they spend their free time. work and amuse them. ethnicity.3. • their opinion about themselves and the world around them. and what they think about themselves and the world around them – opinions. • their interests. subculture. what they consider relevant in their environment – interests. relaxation. entrepreneurship. demography. The focus of marketers and researchers is mainly on the identification of trends that affect the way consumers live. culture etc. These data are combined with the Melika Husić-Mehmedović .2.4 PRIZM methodology One of the most popular methodologies for segmentation based on lifestyle is PRIZM. education and where they live. emotions and personality traits. opinions are the obvious convictions about oneself. family. economy. Slavo Kukić . A person’s lifestyle is actually a model of living expressed by activities.266 Consumer Behaviour events. reference groups. profession. Muris Čičić . fun. as well as some individual variables such as motivation. Using AIO methodology. which identifies various socio-economic and demographic factors (education. Interest is a level of excitement that accompanies the events. • some basic characteristics such as their position in life. 12. products. lifestyle can be defined as the way of living that assumes how people spend their time and money – activities. Within AIO examinees are presented detailed questionnaires. social class. social issues. shopping etc. Finally. income. AIO methodology is used for the classification of population into the segments with similar thinking and acting.

as well as on the socio-economic range25. The level of wealth or socioeconomic status characterised by the income of households. profession and property value). education. Social groups: 14 groups based on urbanisation and socio-economic range. each household in the US is classified into one of 62 special types or clusters. in order to group consumers with the same characteristics. Clusters are then classified into 14 social groups marked by the level of urbanisation. This is why the new PRIZM is called The New Evolution. as well as the habits of exposure to the media). property value and profession. is grouped on the scale from poor to wealthy households. Using the census data from 2000. The new version of PRIZM marketing analysis is not based on the traditional groups of algorithms but uses new technologies instead. Likewise. The new methodology combines the data of demographic segmentation and segmentation based on consumer behaviour necessary for an easier identification. According to PRIZM. PRIZM methodology of consumer segmentation was developed by Claritas Inc company and its full name is Claritas PRIZM. 2. Claritas’ statisticians renewed the previous version of PRIZM and developed an entirely new system.Lifestyle 267 data from surveys and panels about the real consumer behaviour (such as shopping and the use of products. understanding and targeting of consumers. which contribute to better segmentation results. XII chapter . purchase by ordering via mail. Claritas uses factor analysis with the census data to reveal demographic and lifestyle changes that show the differences among consumer profiles in accordance with the annual demographic projections. These 66 segments have been classified into two groups: 1. the new PRIZM has been expanded onto 66 segments according to the socio-economic range (that considers characteristics such as income. education. from rural to urban. Life cycle phase groups: 11 groups based on age and the presence of children in households.

leadership.268 Consumer Behaviour 12. it is a psychographic market segmentation that fully depends on psychological traits that affect consumer behaviour. there are some significant differences among VALS segments. It uses psychology to analyze the dynamics underlying consumer preferences and choices. novelty seeking. For instance. impulsiveness. One of three primary motivations inspires consumers: ideals (guided by knowledge and principles). self-confidence.3. and vanity. intellectualism.S. Muris Čičić . VALS is a psychographic scale based on psychological characteristics and basic demographic data. achievers. makers. Instead of observing what consumers do Melika Husić-Mehmedović . adult consumers into one of eight segments based on their responses to the VALS questionnaire.2. The basic assumption of VALS methodology is that people express their characteristics through behaviour. strivers. Considering the characteristics of consumers. and self-expression (desire for social or physical activity. and risk). actualizers and strugglers. experiencers. People with different personalities engage in different behaviours or exhibit similar behaviours for different reasons27. VALS reflects a real-world pattern that explains the relationship between personality traits and consumer behaviour.5 VALS methodology VALS methodology was originally developed by consumer futurist Arnold Mitchell in 1969. i. the segment called believers is comprised of the consumers that are prone to buying American products and they do not like changing their consumption habits. VALS asserts that people express their personalities through their behaviours. innovativeness. especially advanced technology. variety. An individual’s primary motivation determines what in particular is the meaningful core that governs an individual’s activities.e. achievement (demonstrate success to their peers). VALS places U. Resources that play a critical role in buying decisions are a person’s energy. SRI Consulting has been using it as its official methodology since 197826. VALS methodology in SAD groups consumers into eight segments: fulfilled. Slavo Kukić . The main dimensions of the segmentation framework are primary motivation (the horizontal dimension) and resources (the vertical dimension). Actualizers are consumers that prefer top quality and new products. believers.

Passive Observers. 3.4 Lifestyle Analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina For the purpose of understanding lifestyle in Bosnia and Herzegovina a research was conducted in 2009. 2. VALS studies their psychological characteristics and based on that predicts their behaviour. Using VALS methodology 212 respondents participated in the survey. Trendy and Popular individuals. 12. VALS relies on the latest research of personalities and consumer behaviour and finds that consumers with different psychological characteristics react differently to the same stimulus or react similarly due to entirely different reasons. Based on the research conducted by VALS methodology through six main behavioural factors.Lifestyle 269 and form market segments based on that. Urban Intellectuals. Figure 52 XII chapter . three lifestyle clusters were identified28: 1.

270 Consumer Behaviour Urban Intellectuals are interested in life and the world around them. highly educated with a middle or higher income. this group gathers older. uneducated respondents with lower incomes. For Passive Observers life is just passing by. and seek attention. They think it’s a shame to by something you don’t need. Muris Čičić . Instead of fashion and trends. Table 10: Clusters in Bosnia and Herzegovina Melika Husić-Mehmedović . traditional and not interested. Through consumption they try to imitate those they admire. and are highly interested in fashion and pop culture. Disappointed. Trendy and Popular individuals are from a mostly younger age group. this cluster enjoys quality and is mainly comprised of hedonists. They are always seeking new trends. They are very active. Slavo Kukić .

778062 High -0.994042 High 0.16969 Low Urban Intellectuals are not traditional and do not care about religion.991188 High Theory 0.10866 Low 0.18535 Middle 0.92438 Low Activity 0.66165 High -0.Lifestyle 271 Indolence Urban Intellectuals Trendy and Popular Individuals Passive Observers -0. rather they enjoy quality and try to indulge themselves through hedonistic appeal. As presumed.40913 Low 0.02476 Middle -0.717293 High Practice 0.42486 Low Tradition -0.59888 Low 0. Figure 53 XII chapter . They are not involved in fashion trends.051959 Middle -1.37846 High Fashion -0.68139 Low -0. and very active. interested in discussions and culture.431933 High 0. they are engaged in everything around them.517468 Middle 0.

All values are high in the Passive Observers cluster.28% in the third cluster.04% in the first.68% in the second and 20. revealing that respondents are more traditional than expected.272 Consumer Behaviour The Trendy and Popular cluster in BH is indolent. They keep up with fashion trends and can be described as followers. Muris Čičić . and shows the strong influence of religion. 38. absolutely not interested in fashion and value more home-made products. Slavo Kukić . The population distribution through clusters is: 41. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . shows a lack of interest in theory and are highly grounded in tradition. Bosnia and Herzegovina is overall more traditional than expected.

(1985): “Capitalism and Leisure Theory”. (2002): „Consumer Behaviour.Lifestyle 273 Questions for revision 1.. 2. London 8. Solomon M. P. Tam.. M. Vol.): Research in social stratification and mobility. Adler. What is the difference between psychographic segmentation and lifestyle? 4.. H. What criteria need to be met in order for segmentation to be valid? 2. What are the advantages of LOV methodology? 7.. Harper Torchbook (1964. in D. Askegaard. C. Pearson Education. (2005): „Ponasanje potrosaca“. (2002): „Consumer Behaviour. and S. 1.. Pearson Education. (1998): „Gap Gets It“. 68-82 3.) ed.J.E. (1929): „Problems of Neurosis: A Book of Case Hostories“. N. Marcic. Sobel. 11–30. Solomon M. New York: Bedminster Press..) Life Style and Psychographics. M. Tai. 15 No. 260-61 6. (1998): „Segmentation of female market in Greater China“ International Marketing Review Vol.D. M.H. L. Chicago. What is psychographic segmentation? 3. Rojek.. Bamossy and S. Why is lifestyle important? 5. Wells (ed. 2nd edition 4. Bamossy and S. August. pp. in W. G. A. J. Munk. Demby.V. pp. Tavistock. G. Centar za izdavacku djelatnost Ekonomskog fakulteta u Beogradu. Mairet. str. (1974): „Psychographics and from Whence it Came“.R. 61-77 7. C.. IL: American Marketing Association 5. Askegaard. B. Fortune. What are the methods of measuring lifestyle? 6. pp. New York: Harper and Row XII chapter . Treiman and R. What clusters of lifestyle are presented in Bosnia and Herzegovina? References 1. Robinson (eds. Weber. E.. 2nd edition 2. (1983): “Lifestyle differentiation and stratification in contemporary US society. A European Perspective“. A European Perspective“. (1968): “Economy and Society”.

Husic-Mehmedovic. Fraj. 149-174 13. Schutz.J. 99-126 14. NY i Kahle. and A.C.. School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo 15. 34-54 12. Hawke. Glyptis and Tokarski 17. Muris Čičić . Doctoral thesis. E. Husic.R. Green. School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo Melika Husić-Mehmedović . (2006): „Environmental values and lifestyles as determining factors of ecological consumer behaviour: an empirical analysis”.. Praeger. No 15. Slavo Kukić . Kahle.. SRI Consulting Business Intelligence (2006): “Understanding U. (1967): „Symbolisma and life style“. Ibid 19. Levy. Vol 11 No 4.. Ibid 28. Martinez. pp. (2009): „Lifestyle and Luxury Consumption“. Wind.J. P. Ginzberg.R.. pp. Husic. (1990): „Life styles and daily leisure – (Victoria’s Case)“.R. in Wells. M. 4(1). L. Wilensky. and E. Olson. (1983): Social Values and Social Change: Adaption to Life in America.. Tigert. J. pp. Havinhurst.274 Consumer Behaviour 9. Baird and G. Journal of Advertising Research. (1970): „Emerging leisure styles: a microscopic prediction about the fate of the ‘Organization Man’“. Vol. Praeger New York 16. measurment. Doctoral thesis. M. M.G. Consumers”. School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo 26. L. 23/3. Vol. (1969): „Life styles and free time ativities of retired men“. April 2006. 12. and analytical problems of life style research“. in Filipcova. Doctoral thesis. Society and Leisure. J. New York Columbia University Press (Ch. (1973): “The Nature of Human Values”. (1974): „Some conceptual.C. M. School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo 18.. 8 27. M.L.. and D. 50.S. P. (2009): „Lifestyle and Luxury Consumption“. 375-380 23. Journal of Consumer Marketing. E. S. Boston: Irwin 24. I. Rokeach. (1971): “Activities. (1979): „Lifesyles and Consumer Behaviour of Older Americans“.. Vol. Human Development. (2009): „Lifestyle and Luxury Consumption“. 27-34 25. and J. et. 144-165) 10. pp. and P. 133-144 21.. pp.J. J. (1986): „The nine nations of north America and the value basis of geographic segmentation“. Homer and L. New York 11. R. H. 10: Lifestyles pp.. 37-47 22. Journal of Marketing. al. S. (2009): „Lifestyle and Luxury Consumption“. pp. Peter. pp. Beatty. New York: The Free Press 20. pp. Kahle.J. New York. Doctoral thesis. (1966): „Life Styles of Educated Women“. interests and opinions”. H. Wells.. Husic..P. Advances in Consumer Research. De Vries. (1994): „Understanding Consumer Behavior“. W. Ruiz. (1998): “Problems with VALS in international marketing research: An example from an application of the empirical mirror technique”.

XIII chapter ORGANIZATIONAL BUYER BEHAVIOUR Chapter objectives • • • • • Distinguishing different types of organizational markets Specifics of the organizational buyer Types of organizational purchase process Identifying participants and their roles in the process Models of the organizational buyer behaviour .


in turn. market of governmental institutions – the institutions of legislative. leads to a conclusion that the organization as buyer has a large number of its appearances. and. makes a difference between markets for industrial manufacturing needs. finally. public licensed companies and agencies. if different authors on the subject are to be consulted. XIII chapter . however. Within the context of this analysis. executive and judiciary powers. However. for instance. the focus of attention is. One must make a difference within the market intended for organizational customer accordingly. One should bear in mind that. etc. intended for market or sales. above all.277 13. A number of authors. or. Under the lenses of a scientific analysis the attention has been more and more intensively shifted towards the organizational buyer. on a consumer as individual. On the contrary. markets of intermediaries. This. Its detailed description is to be presented in the analysis that follows. it would be wrong reducing the object of the study exclusively on the individual consumer as such – it would be better to observe it either as a single person. that certain differences in their attitude can be identified. on the other hand. or as a part and parcel of a certain market segment. for rendering services that would be impossible to provide without such sales. ORGANIZATIONAL BUYER BEHAVIOUR When it comes to studying the behaviour of consumer.1. we would like to choose a somewhat different attitude. where it is not important if such a mediation has been done in the form of wholesale or retail sales. or the organization that appears on market as a buyer of goods and services for its own production.

1 Commercial buyers One can identify in the group of commercial buyers. have been also known as intermediaries or wholesalers. N. original equipment manufacturers.278 Consumer Behaviour 13. Muris Čičić . networks and strategies. Slavo Kukić . The first ones among them. and the figure above points to it. Figure 54: Types of organizational buyers Source: Ellis. retailers. (2010): Business to Business Marketing: Relationships. finally. of course. Each one of the mentioned types of organizational buyers is to be presented in more details as this analysis continues.1. users organizations. refer to their basic function or task – to distribute goods or products through distribution Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Their name. institutional and governmental institutions as a separate group of buyers (see in more detail Figure 54 below). and. 32-62.1 Types of organizational markets Generally speaking. distributors. Oxford University Press. one can identify three types of buyers on organizational market: commercial. 13. pp. distributors.

in other words. since it was them and not the other companies in the chain of manufacturing the final product. finally. similar to distributors. components that are built into the final product. naturally as their own brand name. but for other set of goods and products and not for those that it directly makes into their own final product. etc. and. use in their manufacturing process different types of consumable goods – machine tools. ultimately. Users are such organizations that use goods and services they happen to buy on business market as a support for their own production process. In the process. who usually resell goods that had been purchased on organizational market to end users in such a way that they added. an original equipment manufacturer can also appear as a user. make them into their own final products. Such goods and services are not. cleaning equipment. manufacturing machine and like – and consumers on the personal consumption market that happen to buy retail products. And. consequently sell them. Nevertheless. we shall speak about them later on. one can add to the group of commercial customers the one of retailers. Toyota and many others. but also as the vendor to customers of their own products. In such a case. Original equipment manufacturers are. paid by those who use their distribution services. they are forced to use them. Manufacturers cannot do without them. Or.Organizational buyer behaviour 279 supply chains or channels. in fact. it is an original equipment manufacturer that is to be understood as a kind of a focal firm. their own value or profit to purchased goods. XIII chapter . products that are built into the final product – car. even more concretely. adding their own profit to the basic value of a product. the original equipment manufacturer appears as organizational buyer to suppliers of components and raw materials. such as General Motors. lubricants. Car manufacturers. firms that buy certain materials or parts from other suppliers. to their own customers. but also. indeed. a part for a private car. These can be either original equipment manufacturers or manufacturers of certain parts used for the final product – for instance. but original equipment manufacturers also use them in its own production. at the same time. but they are not components. an increased portion of the product price that will be. who need to deal both with suppliers and distributors. However.

customers. producers. because they have often developed their own marketing functions. It does not. limitations imposed on them by budgetary financing stipulations can often be even tighter than the ones in the private sector. it is the public sector. as a matter of fact. and secured larger budgets for developing their relations with their customers. not present among commercial customers. ever more sophisticated demands from customers. Slavo Kukić . it is evident that the principle of focusing on the needs of customers is still the largest one. or user for that matter. They can also be classified as institutional customers. the basic assumption is to secure chairs and desks. at all. the majority of retailers also become more and more demanding towards their suppliers. subsequently.2 Institutional customers Institutional customers function under somewhat different logic in relation to commercial ones. in difference from firms that run their operations following the logic of profit. to a lesser or greater extent. On the contrary. are forced to sell their products to retailers in order to have their products reach the end user. In order. student or traveller. In order to meet. However. One refers here to many organizational purchases that need to be done in order to secure functioning of hospitals. equip libraries. public transportation or universities. The similar situation applies to diverse non-for-profit organizations. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . 13.1. or government. that fill in the role of organizations. non-for-profit organizations cannot base their existence and operations on such assumptions. do the purchase and installation of computer equipment. Instead of commercial firms. however. Muris Čičić . Nevertheless. such as different charities and religious organizations. can be seen in the detail that many manufacturers. Such a sector is characterized by many bureaucratic (red tape) steps and procedures that are. and similar things.280 Consumer Behaviour they differ from distributors. either if the end customer. for example. The final effect of such type of changes. is a sick person. mean that their practice in regard to purchase of products and services is somewhat ‘softer’ than the one used by original equipment manufacturers. for public universities to function at all.

and offer information technology3. and BAE Systems in Great Britain. the private sector that produces medical products. such as international foundations.3. governments are interesting partners to do business with. It is true. professional bodies. If one observes. interesting for organizational market as an area of governmental concern. It can be seen. for example. nonfor-profit organizations. and. where such an orientation would be highly logical – such as. Governments in certain developing countries. in accordance with it. but not the least. is estimated to more than £3 trillion a year. In reality. among others. where governments and their institutions appear as customers. indeed. Great Britain £2. At first. multilateral development agencies. And. the actual situation appears to be quite different. for instance. which have been purchased or sold abroad. the organisational market is characterized by certain features.Organizational buyer behaviour 281 13. however. One of them. then. A whole lot of people have been provided with employment in over 1. one might think that the first and foremost concern of any government is the welfare of its citizens or education – so. Oman.1. In the period 19982001. last. USA reached its exports of £9 billion. for instance. and France £2. education and the military. on a number of organizational stakeholders in such a process – development banks. as well as some more recent Internet applications that can be delivered ‘live. based solely on arms sales. The value of healthcare services. render services.’ The future of ‘e-health’ will depend. is associated with the fact XIII chapter . Burma and Pakistan – spend more on the defence than either on health and education combined2. naturally.100 arms industry firms in 98 different countries – including Colt in USA. in their spending on health. The area of healthcare is. Governmental organizations as customers To many companies on an organizational market. it becomes an important piece of information for manufacturers and exporters of the most developed Western countries. however. local environment. that different governments have different political priorities. academic and scientific institutions. however.1 billion. Nowadays.9billion. ‘e-health’ as an umbrella term for a special type of health consulting is particularly interesting. investments in health sector or education should be its priority. Beretta in Italy.

Although the rationality attitude happen to be a prevailing feature of organizational buying.2 Specificities of organizational buying as compared to consumer buying market If one observes this topic in a comparative way. there are certain similarities that can be identified between consumer and organizational buying. Finally. 13. and emotions characterizes customers involved in personal spending. there can be several characteristic features that can be particularly singled out. It is not. bureaucratic procedures and emphasized paperwork. which excludes or reduces to the smallest possible extent a possibility of misuse. one can often see reverse situations – that emotions prevail in organizational buying. governmental purchase on the organizational market is. despite the aforementioned. But. the organizational market has been determined by certain specificities of both market and demand in relation to individual consumer market. as a rule. national (domestic or local) suppliers often function as suppliers. governmental purchases happen to be under very watchful and critical scrutiny of public opinions. it is expected that they also offer a minimum of costs. All this. as a rule. leads to a practice of open bids. if a comparison is made with the personal consumer market. one can conclude that organizational customer buying is much more determined by features that are not so imminent to individual customer buying. Slavo Kukić .282 Consumer Behaviour that. the only detail that comes as a warning that a division between these two markets and two types of buying is not always clearcut. flooded with red tape backdrop. as a consequence. On the other hand. as shown in Table 11. Muris Čičić . However. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . In addition. and that a final consumer is buying while relying on a number of technical data and diverse sources of information. however. even more concretely. Or.

Organizational buyer behaviour 283 Table 11. in fact. manufacturers. etc. processing industry manufacturers and distributors would not have any one to sell to their raw materials. it means that it stems out from a demand of value on consumer buying market. fuel. Different from the consumer buying market. a demand for the car on the consumer buying market is of primary nature. each one for itself. whereas the demand for metal. value Normally others Medium to high Medium to high Normally long Source: Ellis. Characteristic differences between buying behaviour on consumer buying and organizational buying markets Behaviour and characteristics Number of buyers Size of orders Value of orders Evaluating criteria Purchase initiation Level of risk Complexity of decision Information search Consumer buying market Normally large Small Normally low Social. rubber. components and like. However. even more precisely. And they. plastics. And. contribute to the expected satisfaction of the prospective owner. distributors. if there would not be a demand for a certain commodity on consumer buying market. (2010): Business to Business Marketing: Relationships. that we drive. N. 32-62. manufacturers and processing manufacturers of components. as the final product. is the final product composed of a large number of components – metal. pp. the car has come out as the result of work by the whole chain of stakeholders – raw materials suppliers. Therefore. Oxford University Press. A car. individual Normally self Low to medium Low to medium Normally short Organizational buying market Normally small Large Normally large Price. for instance. Or. above all. networks and strategies. plastics. rubber and XIII chapter . where the demand for goods is mostly of primary nature – consumers buy on it in order to satisfy their own needs – the demand on business markets has mainly been drawn from or derived. glass. when their work has been assembled into the car as the final product.

And. almost overnight. has been crucially determined by so-called inelastic demand – a demand that is not susceptible to price fluctuation. depending on price for certain goods. or a lack of elasticity on a shorter run. is under the strong influence of price changes. in other words. or changeable. Demand for goods on market. They are characterized by derived demand. for instance. the company has not been prepared for potential changes of primary demand. as a matter of fact. And they will determine such type of market as long as organisational or buying customers are ready to pay the price of goods that have been determined by the original manufacturer. Due to such type of insensibility. Regardless. Muris Čičić .284 Consumer Behaviour other components that have been purchased on industrial market is. drawn out or derived. Any price increase. The situation is quite different with organizational markets. however. It makes business deals with fluctuating demand a highly risky venture. how high the price of bread can go high up. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . or the acceleration impact that comes out as the consequence of fluctuating demand. and such a demand. it can be faced. has a decrease of demand for such specific goods as a consequence. if oil becomes more expensive. Regardless of. the acceleration effect means that even the slightest percentage of change in the primary demand might cause multiple and greater changes on the derived demand of organizational markets. Organizational or business market is characterized by a so-called fluctuating demand – the demand that is extremely sensitive to even the slightest changes in the fluctuation of primary demand on the consumer buying market. for instance. the demand for it will not decrease in the amount of its increase of price as long as oil derivatives consumers are ready to bear the burden of increase in price. The only exception to the rule can be those goods that satisfy basic human needs. the demand for bread will not change that much. it means that goods market demand is elastic. one says for organizational or business demand markets to be characterized by inelastic demand. Organizational or business market. however. If. within itself a great danger for firm’s transactions on business markets due to the so-called acceleration effect. subsequently. in turn. is characterized by comparatively more emphasized price insensibility. Why? Simply said. Such type of sensitivity conceals. with insurmountable business troubles. consequently. for instance.

Such a feature can be recognized. think about larger buyers. General Motors Company. They may have different functions. regardless if a larger or smaller number of persons happen to be a part of decision-making process. that every individual buying process is more complex. what to buy. may put together a specified list of needs. etc). (such as manufacture. Under such circumstances. from whom to buy. i. and it can be approved afterwards by XIII chapter . for instance. Although the number of buyers on the organizational market is relatively small – it is by far smaller if compared to the personal buying market – one should. buyers. for instance. maintenance). initiators. therefore. designing. or. Or. supply. a larger number of people will be included in the process of reaching a decision. in the course of buying process. middle level management. the number of buyers on the organizational market is relatively small. approvers) etc. manager. university graduates. etc. they may fill in different roles (users. so the possibility of striking a deal and a joint appearance and similar situations are more likely to take place. among others. decision-makers. An engineer. personal consumption. what quantities to buy. that always consist of several dimensions – whether to go or not at all in purchase. Quantities and values of individual buying and sales of stakeholders on business markets are by far larger than the values as shown on customer buying market. as a rule. MBA. of course. They are confronted with relatively complex decisions. buys each year goods on business markets worldwide in the value that surpasses the annual GDP of countries such as Ireland Portugal. gatekeepers. and. in the fact that individual buying process includes involvement of a larger number of persons.Organizational buyer behaviour 285 Whereas the customer buying. the exposure to competition on this market is comparatively smaller than the one on the personal consumption market. or different levels of education (engineers. Greece and Turkey4. It seems logical. yet another specific feature of this market appears as natural. or different hierarchical levels attained (general manager.e. of course. finally. market can consist of millions of individual buyers. apply here that if the purchase of products involves large financial investments. even more concretely.). Business stakeholders have a great influence both on the price of products or services and on the sales conditions under which they are being offered on market. influencers. The rule must.

one refers to a routine purchase activity. on the contrary. All the decisions reached are not identical. however. One must not understand the term buying centrevii as the permanently organized body within the firm. often take part in the reaching the decision. Even more concretely. the decision for purchase has not often been allowed to be carried out by a single person.286 Consumer Behaviour the manager. is the assumed group that might consist of entirely new persons. or only those who are thought to be the most vii A buying centre will be dealt with in more details in the remainder of this chapter. based on the previously accepted plan. Since it requires the most competent persons. and that. it is exposed to different types of external and internal dealings and influences. carried out by the person in charge in the supply sector. is carried out by a team of experts who spend all of their working hours on finding the best offer for goods that the firm needs. in a situation of making decisions on organizational purchase. and the actual purchase. Slavo Kukić . for instance. The involvement of a larger number of people in decision-making procedure on the organizational customer buying market also includes a reaching the decision within the group. depending on what kind of purchase is to be accomplished. For the organizational customer. the group might be even omitted from the process. however. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . however. an individual person makes the decision on purchase on the personal consumption market. If one is to think. might be. on the financially more relevant purchases the purchase. again. On the contrary. in the end. The buying centre. a larger number of persons having been organized as team. but the final purchase. or all the persons whose participation is a necessary precondition for reaching the best decision. Muris Čičić . serves as a proof about the larger complexity of decision of purchase in organizational customer. or buying centre. for instance.might often change in order to reach the right decision. If. in turn. the team members that comprise the team – the group. of production lines – it is highly likely that a number of specialists will participate in the decision-making process. nor as the body that is comprised always of the same people in all the situations. or buying centre . it comes as no surprise that. All this. means that each and every one of them requires other team members that make the decisions. By doing so.

the lack of harmony between the perceived role of individual team member in decision-making and the actual role attributed to such a person in reality. for instance. a household. and the size of hard disk. reduce the formal aspects of procedures to a single aspect only. Such a possibility is excluded with organizational customer: it is more likely that the organizational customer will put forward certain requirements that must be met with the certain model of computer – in terms of processor speed. In the end. the formal aspects of procedures and activities must not be broken in the decision-making process on the purchase of products and services needed for the company. etc. memory capacity. regardless of differences that obviously can be identified between particular individual cases. Different attitudes as expressed by various team members that make purchase decision may also lead to conflicts in relation to criteria that need to be evaluated or preferred in the decision-making procedure. of course. As it is not characteristic for the individual customer. all these decisions on purchase. Neither the technical complexity nor the value of products and services that are the subject of purchase are deemed to be of essential importance. a presence of larger number of persons in reaching decisions might have caused different kinds of problems as a consequence. One might include under the formality of procedures. a relatively frequent practice that can be seen in the organizational customer who requires a number of details in relation to the particular product it intends to purchase. for instance. the internal conflicts within the group must be taken into account as a real possibility. The same formal rules do apply and must be observed when both smaller or larger values purchase are at stake. or if the purchase is done due to some urgent need. when the organizational customer is concerned.Organizational buyer behaviour 287 competent and most useful ones for the company. may solely choose a certain model of desktop computer because it finds its colour agreeable. for instance. One must not. or in the regular supply procedure. On the other hand. The individual customer. XIII chapter . must end with a kind of formal agreement reached between the customer and supplier. and that comply with basic company rules. In such a case. to create gap. and all this with the previously stated price offer of such a product. It is possible.

in the end. the fact that the organizational purchase lasts relatively longer. on three different offers for the same service. might have taken place in the surroundings. On the other hand. In order. as a rule. may have as a consequence the level of insecurity and risk involved with a larger number of variables. but it also needs to adjust it to the customer’s requirements. even more concretely. and that it is followed by formal procedures and activities needed in the decision-making process. its goal is to attain the largest productivity possible. The insecurity and risk. Such effects. Slavo Kukić . does not mean that the organizational market is totally devoid of emotional dimensions when making its purchase decisions. to reach the purchase decision. prices. may have as a consequence and as a rule. and that are connected with the acquired purchase conditions. or the service provider stated the same price as the final one. All what extent is such a purchase rational? Or. for instance. etc. for instance. terms of delivery.288 Consumer Behaviour Whereas the individual customer is relatively highly likely to accept as final the price already attached to the product as advertised in retail sale. poses the same question to itself . the organizational customer always. Despite all the formal procedures and rationality aspects of purchase motives. in the meantime. the purchase decisions on organizational market cannot ignore the fact that such decisions are made by people. by the rationality of purchase motives. without a doubt. If such an envisaged goal is accomplished. On the contrary. in fact. however. The very fact that purchase on the organizational market presupposes the involvement of a larger number of persons. who happen to have Melika Husić-Mehmedović . The organizational customer is also marked. will lead to the ultimate one – the maximizing of profit. the organizational customer will attain two more effects – it will decrease the production costs and increase its profits. Muris Čičić . or when negotiating the price under different conditions that might apply to specific features of product. if s/he is not aware of this feature of organizational buying. a longer period of time between the moment when the initial need for purchase occurred and the actual purchase. And it can also mean that a marketing expert in the company may develop unrealistic purchase plans. it is more likely for the organizational customer to use the form of public announcement and negotiations – and to insist. stem out from changes that.

it is the frequent practice that firms buy from each other. Other situations. of course. close connections are established between suppliers and customers that might have a direct influence on their professional relationship.Organizational buyer behaviour 289 in other firms either their friends. buyer and seller. when buyers are diversified in their geographic locations and the value of products happen to be relatively low. or individuals. once the mutual buying-selling transaction has gone through. more rarely than on the personal customer market. or groups of people they have inclination for. be it primary or indirect reciprocity? There are a larger number of such consequences. as a rule. XIII chapter . What seems to be the consequence of purchase that is carried out under the pretext of practice aforementioned. Nevertheless. on the contrary. they are likely to give their trust in the similar environment under the same conditions with other suppliers. characterized by a reciprocal nature in exchange. for instance. distribution centres have been in function of a particular mediation between the producer and consumer. but. and to whom. However. for example. The organizational buyer’s purchase has also been. or the reciprocity where the purchase of certain items have been conditioned by selling of another item from another company. however. rarely come into contact through an intermediary. can also take place. only the difference in price. but they do occur not as often as the mentioned one. from a variety of objective reasons. Such an intermediary role has also been known on the organizational buyers market. They communicate directly to each other. they are possible. it occurs. one of the most obvious ones happen in terms of payment – the price of purchased product is not being paid each time it has been bought. What does it mean? Above all. An important thing to mention in the features that characterize the organizational customer purchase is the specific distribution channel. This type of reciprocity is referred to as the primary one. In time. The reason lies in the fact that on the organizational buyer market the buying-selling stakeholders. The exceptions to such a practice are relatively rare – they may occur in the situation. but it is often accompanied with another one – described as indirect one. And not only that. What is it all about? It has been mentioned that on the personal consumption market.

It is possible to make a difference between three characteristic situations in such an environment. such as diverse kinds of accessories. at the beginning of each year. chemicals. since such goods supply take place from time to time.290 Consumer Behaviour 13. etc. spare parts. is when the company need to apply the routine buying? As a rule. as a matter of fact. or it is the item that has already been purchased many times in the past. or once every six months. is used in the situation when the buyer wants to modify specification elements. or. or electronic equipment or computers and similar items. the new purchase can be just another element for a further development of mutual partnership. The changed terms or conditions require more time for deliberation and more efforts directed to processing of pertinent details. One can speak about the routine purchase – and some authors refer to it also as a straight rebuy or repeated purchase. terms of delivery. so there is no need to do any additional search for relevant information. has a list of standardized products – be it lesser value equipment. The modified purchase happens quite frequently in such and similar situations. We can imagine.3 Types of organizational buying The organizational buying. or items needed for regular activities. The basic question to be answered. or the purchase on the organizational market. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . of course. modified and new purchase. or the market conditions changed – such as the change in process. On the contrary. Each firm. office supplies. does not necessarily take place according to the same scenario. for example. the estimated list of annual quantities of such items that need to be procured is made. when one places orders for a purchase in a routine manner. Accordingly. it is possible to discern three types of organizational purchase – routine. or so-called limited problem solving. together with the schedule of supply. Slavo Kukić . or certain products had changed their previous features. or buying that occurs repeatedly. The modified rebuy or purchase. the purchase of new vehicles. however. It is carried out by an individual who makes its decision based on the previously established parameters. and based on the positive experience. one thinks of the situation when the item in question is of a lesser importance. Yet another situation can also be identified – if the company did business with the same supplier in the past. Muris Čičić . and like – and. mostly every three months.

if one is to enter into collaboration with the new supplier with whom it did not work with before. finally. Naturally. It also happens when there is no real alternative for such a product. applies to situations when the new product is sought and it has not been purchased before. and if the real need for additional information is almost insignificant. the product that is needed in the long run. and like. so-called complex approach to the modified purchase must be applied. armed systems. the new task purchase takes place in all the situations when the customer wants to buy the product for the first time. installed components. for instance. however. and related to the price. One can imagine. or if it does not have any previous experience with such a product. On the other hand. if it is not happy with the quality of goods delivered before. etc. quality. terms of delivery. there can be two characteristic approaches in purchase problem solving – either a simple or complex one. that different situations might even apply when the new purchase is involved. or when one wants to buy a new furniture. real estate. or. It is also natural to do more effort for gathering the relevant pieces of information in terms of the producer and suppliers. the other. On the other hand. or new technologies have been introduced. Finally. The first. or if the business customers have expressed new requests. the strategic new purchase applies to situations when the items or goods sought are of extreme strategic importance and/or of great XIII chapter .Organizational buyer behaviour 291 the limited deliberation of information that appear as the result of changes that affected ay stage of decision-making process. familiar product. The modified purchase is used most frequently when the customer has not been satisfied with the previous collaboration. If there are too many unknown features on the purchase product. if the same type of purchase is to occur. the purchase in a situation when new materials are being promoted. The difference must be drawn between apparent forms of new purchase – a classic and strategic new purchase. classic new purchase. if there have been no developed business relationship with such a firm. A simple approach is always applied when one wants to purchase the known. and if all this requires the analysis of a number of relevant pieces of information. and if there is a wide variety of suppliers available or present on the market. It is true. such a purchase is subject to many unknown things and it involves certain risks.

1 Buying centre concept The organizational or business purchase is always a complex thing and it involves a larger number of people or participants. Within the group. If. Table 12: Features of three buying type situations Characteristics Time needed Persons involved in purchase Needed information Offered alternatives Novelty Decision-reaching complexity Frequency Repeated purchase little little minimal none none low often Modified purchase a lot of on average medium moderate several average medium from time to time New purchase a lot of large maximal a lot of high medium-high irregular 13. one would like to sum up briefly the features or characteristics of all the three buying situations aforementioned. because of it. All of them comprise a whole known also as a buying centre.292 Consumer Behaviour value. the customer needs to put great efforts in gathering and processing much needed information that can help reaching the right decision. All this presupposes the real need to involve more persons into the buying process. Slavo Kukić . Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the third ones are involved in realization of purchase. which can be defined as „the entirety of individuals and groups that participate in the decision-making process on purchase. or they can influence the flow of information. one can identify different roles of its members – some of them are users. others make decisions. In such a case. and. the customer takes a great responsibility. or influence them. who share the same common goals and risks that can arise from their decision“5. Muris Čičić . in the end.4. it can be done in way as presented in the following Table 12.4 Participants and organizational buying process stages 13.

Nowadays. it was Cyert. buyers and doorkeepers. one can find six roles within the buying centre in published sources. Simon and Trow6 who realized that a certain number of managers had been involved into the process of organizational purchase.Organizational buyer behaviour 293 The very term buying centre has its own history. users. power delegators. More than fifty years ago. whereas Wilson10 added the role of ‘analyst’ and ‘observer’ into the list. published in 19677. influencers. Some authors also add the seventh role – that of decision makers (Figure 55) Figure 55: Members in the process of organizational purchase XIII chapter . and it was further made popular in the study Industrial purchase and creative marketing by Robinson. Faris and Wind. decision-makers and doorkeepers. influencers. They are initiators. together with the buying agent. Bonoma9 complemented these roles having introduced the role of initiator. Webster and Wind8 did go a step further by having identified five basic roles in the buying centres – users. Such a concept was later on determined as the buying centre.

regardless if you have asked for it or not. you found a new computer on your desk. Users are considered to be the persons within the firm who are going to use the product or service. for instance. you might have experienced a situation when. i. Influencers are such members of organization who happen to be. More precisely. but those who are given such power are likely to respect the specifics on the features s/he is supposed to prepare in order for the decision to be reached. and they are also the ablest ones. In other words. Muris Čičić . A middle level manager. the seller can be faced with serious problems how to solve such a problem. If you are. if you and your associates file in many complaints in view of certain faults or flaws found in the computer delivered. the persons that either directly or indirectly may influence how the decision on purchase is made. they have the best developed and vibrant analytical spirit.294 Consumer Behaviour Initiators are persons within the organization who first recognize the need for a certain product or service. without the need to consult his superior and obtains his permission. eventually. the purchase of computers. a secretary. for instance. And the actual solution might require substantial financial investments on behalf of the seller. In this concrete case. However. may in certain situations. Sellers often seek such people before they prepare an actual offer for their product or service and try very hard to find out from them the required features of products. Power delegators are persons who do have actual authority to decide on what particular suppliers a specific product or service will be. they are such type of persons within the organization gifted with most of ideas. they are the ultimate product consumers within the organization. current functions with those that the company might have in the future. That is why sellers pay due respect to such persons in the buying centre. you do not expect the supplier to give you any special call. in fact. who can bring together their actual. a head of office must be consulted in order to find out what kind of features or performance is expected from new computers. make the decision what and Melika Husić-Mehmedović . upon coming to work. or even without his awareness.e. if it develops in the direction desired. If you did not have any influence on the purchase of computer. Slavo Kukić . secured from. The head of office in such a case does not necessarily need to be authorized to make any decisions related to the computer purchase.

based on mutual trust. in the end. why they bring them chocolate or flowers. Why they happen to be so attentive towards them. Even the president itself does not make the decision. for instance. and who. his or her telephone numbers giving you valuable information on the working hours of the key members in the organization’s buying centre. even more concretely. In case when the company. One must also bear in mind that certain powers in decisionmaking process do not necessarily mean that such persons have any influence on what they have purchased. it is the responsibility of the seller to maintain good relationships with the purchasing agent. watchdogs. who usually does not participate in the decision making. or ask them occasionally out for lunch? The reasons are more than obvious – a secretary can be of exceptional help to you. Or. for instance. We often wonder why sellers are so kind and polite to the firm’s secretaries. The company may subsequently allow its own purchasing agent to find the best solution for the organization. or the persons who have authority to prevent sellers or their pieces of information to the “buying centre’s” members. but the corporate body defined to do so by the company’s statutes.Organizational buyer behaviour 295 when to buy. Accordingly. On the contrary. The only person with such a privilege is the president of the company. who is the ultimate authority. they are some kind of guardians. the responsible selling agent may help your organization to reach the decision what brand of computer is the best for you. The final purchase transaction. It comes as no surprise that industrial traders so often try to build good relationships with such people. may be delegated to a purchasing agent. needs to procure office equipment. signs what and how certain things may be bought. Buyers or purchasers are the organization’s members responsible for the actual purchase of the product or service needed to go through. which includes the recommended brand and the best offer in regard to the actual price. XIII chapter . regardless if the same company has earlier bought anything from the same seller. but s/he can also block you in your attempt to gather diverse pieces of information within the organization s/he works in. etc. The secretary may be of use to reveal the key names associated with the transaction you are interested in. in view of the future purchases by the firm s/he represents. Gatekeepers are persons within the organization who control the flow of information in the buying centre.

2 The stages in the organizational purchase process The very buying centre concept does warn about the complexity of organizational buyer’ purchase process. who make the final decision on the purchase – if something is to be bought or not. As a matter of fact. order specification. finally. Muris Čičić . or often also bodies within the organization. and performance review (Figure 56). product’s specification. However. the impression on complexity may be supplied with valid argumentation.4. what to buy. 13.296 Consumer Behaviour And. Slavo Kukić . it is possible to identify several stages or bypasses within the entire purchase or supply process. general need description. from whom to buy. etc. supplier selection. the decision makers are persons. If one is to analyse such a process in more details. proposals submission. Figure 56: The stages in the organizational purchase process Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the majority of authors recognize eight separate stages in the organizational buyer’s purchase process – a problem recognition. supplier search.

the need to buy new raw and processed materials. a development of a new product. the need to buy equipment because the existing one has been outdated. Methods and Experiences. It is the stage when general features of required product or service has been determined. Once the problem is recognized. Product’s specification is logically the next activity that follows the general need description. naturally.5 3. where the outsourcing of European firms on the Asian markets has been analyzed. The best technical features of the product that is to be procured are being decided upon and specified (Figure 57). the purchased materials do not fit the purpose. Selection criterion Quality Price Delivery reliability Technical know-how Geographical location After.Organizational buyer behaviour 297 The process of any purchase begins with the problem recognition. different daily consumables. must be understood as a warning that problem recognition is the key stage in the entire purchase process. or when someone in the firm recognizes the problem or identifies the need that can be fulfilled by the purchase of goods or service.3 2.8 4. Sartor (2006) XIII chapter . Figure 57: Example of supplier evaluation11 In the study Sourcing in China: Strategies. dissatisfaction with the actual service rendering. or a machine failure happens and there is need for a spare component. All this. a more favourable price or better quality of product is sought. the following criteria were ranked in evaluating products according to their importance that they happen to have as an average value for buyers (5 = very important and 1 = not important).3 Source: G.0 2.2 3. And the problem may be just anything – for instance. the general need description follows. Nassimbeni & M.sales services Average importance 4. etc. as well as the quantities that need to be procured for the company’s needs.

the buyer will have a short list of qualified suppliers. the suppliers with proposals submitted will be duly ranked. and define jointly the level of their importance for the supplier evaluation. Supplier selection follows after the proposals submission. Once the qualified suppliers have been shortlisted from the overall listing. Once all the proposals have been duly submitted. by making telephone calls to other firms in order to have recommendations for certain companies. Many buyers. of course. allow the buyer to reject the products that do not meet the standards specified. the remaining suppliers will be asked to officially present their proposals to the buyer. following the ads. It is true that one frequently experiences the situation when the buyer and someone from suppliers’ side work out together such selection criteria. Some of the shortlisted suppliers may also be eliminated at this stage. the buying centre must do yet another important activity – it must specify the desired characteristics expected from the supplier and identify its own assessment for each and every one of them. Based on such data. The buyer will request the shortlisted suppliers to submit their proposals in accordance with selection criteria. The supplier search comes after the specification. or the products that are too expensive to him/her. has been put together. In such a case. Or. by conducting computer online search. the buyer created all the preconditions for proposals submission from potential suppliers. if the buyers have Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . etc.298 Consumer Behaviour Precisely written specifications or selection criteria – such as. the supplier who has been involved into the buyer’s specification procedure has a clear advantage in comparison to a potential competition. are likely to think that one of the good signs for a display of quality can be seen in the fact that a certain supplier had been awarded with ISO standard certificate. the buyer will do an appropriate analysis and evaluate each and every proposal. and only after the selection has been completed in such a manner. conducted in different ways – by reviewing yellow pages of suppliers. for instance. and it does not matter how this list. Muris Čičić . in fact. for instance. In order to choose the final supplier. Once each company has been evaluated according to the previously set specification criteria. The search can be. etc. with a participation on trade fairs. represented in the example above.

The satisfaction of business buyers with the product delivered is most commonly evaluated. etc. and tries to conduct additional negotiations with the ultimate goal to have better prices and other purchase conditions obtained before the final selection. once the product has been bought. Deviations from goals set. may also be taken into consideration – such as a comparison between the evaluation of goods delivered and the average marks of certain criteria in its assessment. Its essence can be seen in the buyer’s need to try to find the answer if it really did a good job. Once the supplier has been selected – either one or several of them – the organizational buyer must place the order and conclude the agreement with the supplier. a procedure in case the product is returned. warrants. it often happens that the organizational buyer selects two or more suppliers. Or. Order specification is the seventh stage in the entire purchase process conducted by the organizational buyer. The order is usually placed by the buyer’s supply department. requested quantities. The price. The actual mark or grade that suppliers receive after the purchase has XIII chapter . the logic applies that the majority of all the purchase is to be ordered from the most reliable supplier. in such a case. Many buyers also find important to consider services that may be rendered after the purchased product has been effectively acquired. On the contrary. But. Performance review (some authors also use the term after-purchase assessment) is the last stage with which the organizational buyer purchase process comes to the end. etc.Organizational buyer behaviour 299 already introduced stocks maintenance system. such as technical specifications. or some other details. it often happens that a buyer approaches the suppliers it is inclined to. whereas the rest is procured from other suppliers. even more concretely. In addition. they may prefer JIT (Just in time) system. (Figure 57). if the product purchased meets and to what extent the criteria set up in specification. The order itself is a complex transaction. and if there is a need to do any corrections of relationships or not. is an important thing for any organizational buyer. expected time of delivery. since it involves a great deal of details. The organizational buyer might ask its users to help assess such a need by asking them to evaluate the product in question themselves in compliance with certain criteria. It is important to mention here that the buyer does not select the one and only supplier each time it wants to buy something. after all.

Sometimes some of the stages may appear concurrently to each other or without the order of steps envisaged. it is often not the case in real life. Sometimes. one set of factors may exert a stronger influence than the others. It can be generally said that one may identify four particular types of influences on the organizational buyer’s decisions – external. a routine or modified purchase. whereas there is no need for their participation in other stages. or vice versa. especially the first and the second one. on the other hand. may have certainly in different ways influenced the decision on the future relationship between the organizational buyer and its supplier – it may secure the continuation of their collaboration and strengthen their mutual business dealings. If. the offers by different suppliers do not differ too much. 13. if there is a definite difference between the offers.300 Consumer Behaviour been done. but it can also lead to a breach or even ending of the collaboration. for instance. afterwards. the personal factors will prevail. and frequently even those from steps four to seven. If here is.5 Basic influences on the organizational purchase process Organizational buyers on the business market are exposed to the influence of many economic and personal factors. but. it often happens that some of the steps are missing. the economic and rational factors will be the most dominant influence factors. involved only with certain purchase procedure stages. Muris Čičić . Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . for instance. individual and relational (Figure 58). Although the organizational purchase procedure may appear as a simple linear progression (as shown on Figure 56). internal. Some buying centre members may be.

it also affected all the firms connected to such a sector – both those who render their financial services. had as a consequence the crisis of trust into the banking system and the impossibility to secure capital much needed for functioning and development of companies. market stagnation. It had. It can XIII chapter . and those that manufacture and sell building materials. and. Or. resulted in slowing down of activities in the building of new homes market. those that offer engineering consulting services. a great increase in price of oil and fuel costs. mentality of „process rather than of a product“.5. which had affected the world in the second half of the first decade in 21st century. globalization of business dealings. and. caused a chain effect on such business dealings that happen to be rather dependent on fuel costs.Organizational buyer behaviour 301 Figure 58: Basic influences on the organizational purchase process 13.1 External influences on the organizational buyer’s decisions There are many external factors they may have influence on the organizational buyer’s decision. finally. etc. subsequently. Socio-economic changes are directly reflected on the organizational buyer behaviour. for instance. The global economic crisis. that had swept the world in 2007. subtlety and power of buyer. One should particularly mention five of them – socio-economic changes. among others.

for timely following the information flow that happen to be important for the company. Slavo Kukić . and their purchase power becomes ever more focused because of the increasing practice of mergers with other companies. Products and services that suppliers offer nowadays are not. and the fact that customers expect greater value for less money from their suppliers.302 Consumer Behaviour be best shown on the example of air carriers and airplane manufacturing industry. and ending with the need to become capable of rendering their own services whenever asked. on the global world market. Muris Čičić . supplier reliability and like. in order to secure their transactions. Organizational buyers become increasingly better informed. The globalization of business dealings must be understood as a necessary by-product of contemporary business. whereas their marketing orientation and approach is more directed to the awareness how to meet rigorous specifications ad customer’s demands on the market. the increase of competition and a decrease of profits. The increase of fuel costs. One of the external influence factors on the organizational buyer is the market stagnation. on the other hand. In other words. caused a drop in number of passengers to most air carriers. where one can see the more evident overcapacity. organizational buyers have been forced to buy worldwide. suppliers become less oriented on a presentation of their products. enough for one to observe differences Melika Husić-Mehmedović . on one hand. made business dealings for airplane manufacturers quite difficult. The increase of sophistication and power of buyers can be best seen in the fact that customers increasingly become ever more demanding in their expectations in view of quality. The principle of mentality oriented more towards ‘a process rather than a product’ refers to the change or direction under the new circumstances. indeed. It has become a prominent feature of so-called mature markets of Europe and North America. Ever more concretely. etc. whereas. Such a fact has as a consequence the need of organizational buyers to adjust to such situations – starting from the fact that they need to have separate departments for global business communication. Such a change came to surface as the logical consequence of the contemporary business dealings.

The difference has become ever more evident in the way how they see their approach to problem-solving. but it can also be observed in certain commercial companies. technology. Some firms have been organized to manage all their purchases from a single centralized department. However. • On the so-called mass production. structure. as a rule. the originator of the final product brand.Organizational buyer behaviour 303 among them. where the large quantities of standardized products have been secured with the basic aim to satisfy the needs of a mass consumer. Such a practice is. quite usual in public licensed companies and public service companies.nature of firm’s business. The nature of a firm’s business is. 13.2 Internal influences on the organizational buyer’s decisions One can single out six possible factors out of the internal group of factors that are related to the organizational buyer purchase . Companies can be categorized according to the way they organize their business activities.5. The single buying centre policy . and on the firm’s ability to display their readiness to comply with such an attitude. the centralized purchase does have its opposite side. such as: • On the production directed towards specific requests of individual buyers. supply ethics. are quite demanding in terms of technology used and its products are manufactured in larger series. and such activities can e based on three crucial principles. one of the most important internal factors that determine the organizational buyer purchase. One of the internal factors is the structure of purchasing. among others. system. supply policy. either if the company manufactures some components of the final product. finally. • On the participation in the making of the final product in a production chain.especially if one XIII chapter . which. or appears as the manufacturer of original equipment . decrease their purchase costs. they can exert a better control over the purchasing process. and. for. by no means. in this way. at the same time.

for instance. terms and manner of delivery. and the very manner of purchase in any company. to receive the best offers that usually also mean the lowest prices. since such a framework allows them to meet the local demands. of course. for instance. The price may. Each organization. it can misfire and come back as a boomerang to the overall company’s business dealings. in it. Muris Čičić . both in terms of product delivery. As a matter of fact. It will always be the case.304 Consumer Behaviour thinks of. when the strategic commitment of the purchase company happens to be lean dealings – where the stock of components or parts is held at minimum – or if the responsibility for all the purchase decisions has been transferred for any reason to higher decision-making levels. Slavo Kukić . Bearing in mind such an aspect. the superior management levels remind their purchase departments from time to time on the basic principles of ethical practice that need to be duly observed. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . business organizations frequently revert to the so-called decentralized purchase. It is often carried out under the influence of the firm that procures products and services from the supplier and the same firm’s strategic commitment. has developed a kind of its own ethical code. Purchasing ethics is also an essential part within the overall process of reaching decisions on purchase. perhaps. in fact. A supplier may want to increase its own volume of business transactions. also determine the way marketing firms will decide on the course of direction of their future activities. led by its own desire to get the product with the best performance features through the supply chain. which decentralized supply prefers. Such needs can be drastically different. for instance. eventually. such experts need to assess what kind of expectations are likely to be found in the firms that buy products for their own purchase supply department . And. etc. That is why the firm’s strategic commitment that buys products or services happens to be of great importance for marketing experts on the organizational market. price. Starting from set principles. but also in terms of the products’ quality. One may find such an attitude in guidelines by a British engine manufacturer. Another important internal factor is the purchasing policy. multinational companies – decrease the possibility of appropriate response for customers’ local needs. where it is even specifically expressed or written what is to be expected from its staff in maintaining good professional relationships with their suppliers. or.

the important internal factor for the organizational buyer purchase is the purchasing technology. Finally. in case they happen to choose them as their supplier. and to combine their requests for products. the scope of personal influence. all these activities make the possibility of an electronic auction a reality.Organizational buyer behaviour 305 Such relationships have been based on a mutual respect and recognition of joint interests and well-being of both firms. 13. above all. etc. especially those that.5. to use the sophisticated contemporary technologies. In the end. It also enables firms to become a part of the network with other companies in similar or related industries. social factors. Internet. it encourages firms to compete among themselves and see to it how quickly they can deliver their products to the market. for instance. XIII chapter . That is why the conditions on contemporary market do require more and more from the suppliers to do many things in order to be ahead of their competitors. One of the important internal factors that determine the organizational buyer purchase is the purchasing system. finally. It also enables networked customers to join their forces and to appear as large buyers to their suppliers.3 Individual influences There are three key factors related to individual features of those who take part in the decision making process in purchasing activities and that affect the organizational buyer purchase. and to establish high standards for keeping the integrity of both sides12. It is also written there that it is expected from the purchase department staff to build the relationship of trust with the company’s suppliers. had exerted a great influence on the ways of communications between the firms and how they trade with each other. The answer to such a question – why? – is rather simple. and. Since the pace of changes in many sectors has greatly accelerated. They include a perception of consequences. It is of equal importance the increase of the number of transactions that take place within e-commerce. Internet facilitates online search that potential suppliers do in order to find their buyers. accelerate the information flow and decrease the time of delivery to their potential customers.

or many of them for that matter. single purchase transactions. there is a relationship based on personal loyalty and proclivity. And. Such an emotion may cause a series of other equally damaging manifestations. in such a case. whereas the higher management levels or boards happen to be more influential in high risk. such as new production lines or business premises. The second situation. one of the individual characteristics refers to so-called social relationships. What do we mean by this? It is. or if that same person feels guilty for the wrong decision made. or to enjoy. The personal influence in the decision making department may be of crucial importance for reaching the purchase decision. Muris Čičić . whereas the second example means the pressure on the same person that may impose many limitations in similar situations to come. the fact that some managers can develop closer personal relations with suppliers – either through activities outside the business environment. for any other reason. personal responsibility for such decisions made – if such a person may give the credit to itself.306 Consumer Behaviour The essence of the first among these three factors. the one of the perception of consequences. some managers have a greater control over the information flow and available resources within the company. In the first case. Accordingly. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . is linked to the fact that different persons might be involved in the organizational purchase process. Even more concretely. causes more problems. One can say in general that purchase managers are the most important persons in reaching the decision if the certain purchase is to be repeated or not. simply. of course. since it creates the sense of guilt and makes the person to look like a loser. which may push aside many objective evaluation criteria. the basic question in all this is to what extent the decisions by such persons in the purchase process have been made under the perception of their own. the inclination of certain persons. the perception is in function of personal self-encouragement to continue with the same practice in the future. that happen to be in charge of the firm’s supply activities. Finally. Slavo Kukić . Yet another individual feature that may be of essential influence on the purchase decision making process may be attributed to the extent of personal influence. Such a position often enables them to have the most decisive influence within the decision making purchase department.

This approach presupposes that relationships are short term situations. so. respectively – may exert a positive influence on supply chains performance outside their own firm in the turbulent environment. Quite opposite to this. a relational influence refers to the relationship between the customer organization and other stakeholders in the industrial network that organization is a part of. The styles of managers that enter into buying-selling relationship may. A relational approach is based on emphasizing the relationship that rests on long term commitments and trust. and where the status quo is needed for success in purchase – the one that follows ‘day by day’ logic. XIII chapter . Such an approach shows a tendency to support and instigate each other. where formality and centralized decision making are more frequent. It seems that the transactional management style.4 Relational influences As one of the four separate types of influence on the organizational buyer’s decision. however. can better use stable business setting. one can discern two indicative. In the relationship and behaviour that organizational buyer displays as its features. and where the exchange is sometimes built on the principle of doubt. for instance. of course. It is thought that ‘transformational’ leaders – those who try to raise awareness on others and promote positive changes in individuals. approaches – relational and transactional ones. A transactional approach. in accordance to such behaviour. They have the tendency to cause the purchase behaviour that can be described as “polite but distant” and like. starts from entirely opposite assumptions. as.Organizational buyer behaviour 307 13. the people in purchase departments act in a manner that is both characterized by being co-operative and constructive. department and organization. influence the nature of relations between different companies. mutually exclusive. in the chain supply offer – for several stronger customers or buyers13. the ‘transactional’ leaders – those who try to meet the current demands with the emphasis of keeping the standards within the market exchange – are not so well adjusted for managing the relationship trust that is required in a highly dynamic context of business operations.5.

The first two groups. Muris Čičić . in addition to the aforementioned ones. One can discern two characteristic model versions within them. respectively. the model loses its useful value. the customer and consumer satisfaction. which begins with the assumption that the goal is to reach the minimal price. and all this is based on the assumption that the buyer has gathered complete information about the market and that substitutes are of the same quality. Slavo Kukić . relationship with other persons within the buying centre. limitations in view of selection of product and management of material. whereas the third group. In accordance to the aforementioned differences. Traditional models point out the primary economic factors in decision making. and a few other elements. since the assumed conditions cannot be realized on the market. as follows: • Minimal prices model. a possibility of avoiding risks. but such a notion has not been applied in detail within the group of models offered.6 Organizational buyer models of behaviour One can identify in the sources available a larger number of purchase decision making models on the organizational market. The reduction of costs is possible to attain in several ways. The first ones among them are connected to prices. classic and behaviouristic ones. one can subdivide all the behaviour models on the organizational market into three groups – traditional. One can single out two characteristic models within this group: Melika Husić-Mehmedović . • Minimal costs model. other aspects – the interests of those involved in the purchase process. Classic models have been developed based on the awareness that the purchase process can be explained by a single one. or a few variables. require just a mere piece of information about them. The latter models emphasize. Nevertheless. business transactions costs. the so-called behaviouristic models required a somewhat more detailed attitude. where the most frequent one is the purchase of materials and components of poor quality. which tries to reduce the overall costs to a minimum.308 Consumer Behaviour 13. the traditional and classic models.

which is general enough to be applied on all the purchase situations. and it allows.1 Behaviouristic models The essence of this type of model is. On the other hand. order process selection. They are: XIII chapter . product purchase. internal and external limitations with the description of basic actions that each stage encompasses. at the same time. specification description. routine and modified rebuy ones – and between eight stages of purchase that explains the order of organizational purchase – problem recognition. It is possible. This model. in compliance with such an approach. 13. this model also presupposes two directions that certain activities might take – a logical flow of purchase decision making. product specification. search for and evaluation of potential sources. proposals submissions.6. loyalty to a brand or supplier. to make a difference between the three most characteristic behaviouristic models. meeting the goal. and the evaluation of performance review of both products and suppliers.6. • Robinson – Stindus model consists of five stages – problem recognition. on one hand. the purchase behaviour style and perceived risk.Organizational buyer behaviour 309 • Buygrid model. in an attempt to explain the behaviour within the organization through behaviour of individuals or a group within the organization. but.1 Simple behaviouristic models This group of models try to explain the organizational buyer behaviour in view of individual or group variables – personality features. harmonization of performances with goals and tasks. though. makes a difference between three purchase situations – new task.1. assessment of submissions and suppliers. on the other hand. simply said. One can also discern within this group two basic models – simple and complex behaviouristic models. 13. a search for solution for the stages ha we have not been happy with in the first attempt. it is equally relevant to be important for individual customers.

based on such a loyalty. the organizational variables. on the other hand. According to this model. b) reducing risk strategy. or the combination of some of aforementioned variables. which refers to the effects of specific organizational structure on the purchase itself. Levitt’s model is based on the buyer’s insecurity while evaluating alterative courses of action. Business relationship between a customer and supplier. delivery. • Perceived risk model. since the level of the goal set has also automatically determined the risk level. Several types of motives and needs are used for such a purpose – the motif of strengthening one’s own ego. the need for security. Slavo Kukić . which is expressed in the form of opinion acquired on certain suppliers. and the factors and rules of behaviour that facilitate decision making. quality. service. the motif for climbing the hierarchy. the risk perceived refers to the insecurity when deliberating on the actual emergence of a certain event. by knowing the personality features. one can predict the purchase style behaviour or the factors and elements that will be of importance when the purchase decision is to be made. it can be made possible by several types of activities: a) gathering and processing of information on the problem that has generated the risk. such as price. which tries to explain the purchase decision making by personality variables. buyer’s experience with diverse sources. According to this model. and there is a need to adjust the risk degree with the real and useful details when setting the goals. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . The key issue in the whole concept is how to reduce or decrease the perceived risk. • Loyalty supplier model. The model offers a conclusion that relies on the assumption that. which is based on Levitt’s perceived risk model of industrial purchase. and the insecurity of the same event’s results.310 Consumer Behaviour • Personality features model. which begins with the premise that the loyalty on the industrial market has been much more emphasised and lasts longer than the loyalty on the personal consumption market. on one hand. are insurmountable barrier for new suppliers who hope to enter the same market. The model is based on the network of four groups of variables – traditionally aimed variables. Muris Čičić .

Organizational buyer behaviour


c) loyalty to brand and product or to the supplier, since it reduces the

risk, and d) the scope of investment into purchase, since investing is not limited to financial expenditures only, but also on spending on time and human resources that take part in decision making process. Complex behaviouristic models
The most common feature of complex behaviouristic models, and one can find a number of them in available sources, can be narrowed down to the process where the customer on the organizational market can reach the decision on purchase similar to the process that the customer on the personal consumption market also goes through. In other words, one cannot reduce the organizational purchase on economic factors only, but, just as it happens with this type of market, as well as with the personal purchase, a number of many other, psychological, sociological and surroundings factors that both direct and limit the purchase process flow can be identified. A special theoretical attention should be given to two models within this group of models that deal with organizational purchase process. One refers here to Webster-Wind and Sheth models, respectively. Webster-Wind model or organizational purchase has been characterized by the fact that it tries to explain the purchase process as an act, and not as a process. The model represents the structure comprised of four groups of variables – surroundings factor, organizational factors, the supply centre factors, and the individual features of purchase participants (Figure 59).

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Figure 59: Structural elements in Webster-Wind model of organizational purchase

The figure above, of course, refers to yet another aspect of Webster-Wind model. Each one of the four groups of variables implies a network of diverse types of influences. Surroundings, for instance, includes influences that come from the state, trade unions, associations; organizational variables are, again, the common denominator for influences that emerge as the result of goals, technology and structure; the buying centre influences involve the purchase activities influences and the roles that the buying centre members have; and, finally, the individual variables include a personality, perception, experience and other personal features. Webster-Wind model belongs to the so-called general models. And it means, in fact, that, with some minor adjustments, it can be applied to a number of different situations and conditions. The model complexity is the result of opinion where the purchase process has been understood as a multidimensional process, the process has been determined, in addition to certain economic, by some other components, above all, social and psychological ones.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Organizational buyer behaviour


What is considered to be the flaw in the model comes out from the fact that it wants to encompass all the influence factors without attempting to bring them together. Its other deficiency can be seen in its static nature – it is not possible to transfer the experience, having been gathered in a single act of purchase, by a feedback influence to the new process of reaching the purchase decision. It is generally thought that Sheth model of organizational purchase has by far best specified particular groups of variables, which are important from the standpoint of their influences on the purchase decision, as well as on their precise interconnection (Figure 60).

Figure 60: The structure of Sheth model of organizational purchase

The previous figure also reflects the structure of Sheth model of organizational purchase. It can be seen from it, that the organizational buyer purchase process has been, in fact, the result of four groups of variables: • Elements of psychological area, which include all the variables related to understanding of decision maker in the organizational purchase, and

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which refer to the ability of product to satisfy the usual and specified criteria applicable on the product itself, such as quality, price, time of delivery, and like. It is obvious that the possibilities of the decision maker on organizational purchase depend, of course, on its personal features – its level of education and lifestyle, its previous experience, its level of information about the product and supplier, etc. • Elements related to business buyer purchase and organization. It is considered that variables related to purchase are, for instance, the types of purchase, terms for delivery, time constrictions, the sense of risk involved with purchase and like. As far as the variables related to the organization, one may distinguish, at least, a few of them – the size of company, its business orientation, the level of centralization, etc. • Variables related to decision making within the organization and conflict solving methods that are related to decision making. The decision making process in the organization related to purchase may follow two different scenarios – it can be displayed in the form of an individual person who reaches the decision, or, it can appear as the decision making within the group. In the latter case, it is, again, possible to experience different types of conflict that may arise. Some of them, for instance, stem out from different criteria in evaluation of features and differences in expectations from the product and supplier. Some other, again, are related to the selection of different approaches in decision making, the differences in defining the goals, etc. • Situational variables presuppose the entire set of influences that are related to the organizational buyer decision making on purchase caused by the situational factor. Those variables, however, do not have the constant and/or identical influence on the organizational buyer behaviour. The model, therefore, does not aspire to specify this group of variables and interconnect them in a meaningful way with other influences within the model.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Organizational buyer behaviour


Questions for revision
1. Name three main organizational markets and their characteristics. 2. Who can be a commercial buyer? Give an example. 3. Describe specific of the organizational buying compared to consumer market. 4. What is a routine purchase and how it is conducted? 5. Name and describe members in the process of organizational purchase. 6. Describe and two stages in the organizational buying process. 7. Explain internal influences on the organizational buyer’s decisions. 8. What is a difference between traditional and classic model of organizational buying behaviour?

1. Kesic, T. (2006), Ponasanje potrosaca, OPINIO doo, Zagreb 2. Burrows, G. (2006), Kalashnikov AK47, Trigger Issues S, New Internationalist Publications, Oxford 3. Scott, R.E. & Palacios, M.F. (2002), “E-Health: Challenges Going Global”, in: Scott, C.E. & Thurston, W.E. (eds.), Collaboration in Context, University of Calgary, pp. 45-55. 4. Hutt, M.D. & Speh T.W. (2001), Business Marketing Management, A Strategic View of Industrial and Organizational Markets (7th ed.) Dryden Press (HBJ) 5. Kotler, P. (2001) Upravljanje marketingom, analiza, planiranje, primjena i kontrola (= Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control), 9. izdanje, Mate, Zagreb 6. Cyert, R.M., Simon, H. and Trow, D. (1956), “Observation of decision”, Journal of Business, Vol. 29, pp. 237-248 7. Robinson, Patrick J., Charles W. Faris, and Yoram Wind (1967): Industrial Buying and Creative Marketing, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. 8. Webster, F.E. & Wind, Y. (1972), Organizational Buying Behaviour, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 9. Weslcy J. Johnston and Thomas V. Bonoma, ‘The Buying Center: Structure and Interaction Patterns’, Journal of Marketing, 45 (1981), pp. 143- 156

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10. Wilson, D. (1999): Organizational Marketing, International Thompson, London 11. Nassimbeni, G. & Sartor, M. (2006) Sourcing in China: Strategies, Methods and Experiences, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills 12. Ellis, N. & Higgins, M. (2006), “Recatechizing Codes of Practice in Supply Chain Relationships: Discourse, Identity and Otherness”, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 14, pp. 327-350 13. Hult, G.T.M., Ketchen, D.J. & Chabowski, B.R. (2007), “Leadership, the Buying Centre and Supply Chain Performance: A study of Linked Users, Buyers and Suppliers”, Industrial Marketing Management, 26, pp. 393-403

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

XIV chapter
Chapter objectives

• • • • •

Understand purchase stages Explain the reasons for various purchase frequencies The influence of direct marketing on purchase Post-purchase evaluation and behaviour Methods of keeping consumers and creating loyalty

It can simply give pleasure. Some of them are.e. the need for this activity due to health.1 Behaviour during purchase Why do people purchase products and services? In other words. fitness or any other reasons. They will be explained in detail below. Purchase therefore does not always have a specific goal that has to be achieved. XIV chapter . etc. what motivates them to do it? This question is inevitable in any serious analysis of purchase as one of the elements of the decision-making process. as emphasised before. purchase is a part of an obligation within a role that an individual has – a role of a housewife. Another personal motive is pleasure that purchase provides. learning about new trends. sensual stimuli. an employee in charge of supply. In other words. People with these personal traits will probably shop whenever they want to celebrate something or to deal with depression caused by a life situation of any kind.319 14. Tauber provided a partial answer to it in 19721. constitute the elements of output data of the purchase decision-making model presented in this study. ORGANIZATIONAL BUYER BEHAVIOUR Purchase and post-purchase evaluation. etc. 14. The first one is: personal motives – the differentiation from everyday routine. There are two groups of motives that make a person purchase. difficult to identify separately. he believes. Personal motive to purchase can also be physical activity i. however. such as playing roles as a motive of purchase.

Muris Čičić . etc. only the product that he wishes to buy is problematic. It implies a significantly lower level of consumer involvement. Long-lasting products have those characteristics. Situation is different with the partially planned buying though. Another one is communication with people with similar interests.320 Consumer Behaviour Social motives of purchase. whether it is a communication with salespeople or other consumers. other Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Going shopping can also be motivated by an opportunity to communicate with the members of a specific reference group. furniture. More precisely. The feeling of social status is another social motive of purchase. as the second type of motives. a consumer only pays attention to certain details regarding the product he wants to buy. The reason for this is that. As a rule. fully planned buying occurs when a consumer intends to buy a product that has a special meaning for him.2 Purchase planning Purchase is an activity that. In other words. These facts. during the decision-making process. in order to be completed looks for the answers to at least two questions: what to buy and where to buy? Regarding the first question. Slavo Kukić . considering that some shops function as a meeting point for the members. gained by going shopping in certain types of shops. appliances etc. The first. there is no possibility for a purchase to happen without a previous information collection. A possibility to make new friends or a simple observation of people that a shopping activity enables is one of them. 14. are miscellaneous. such as buying a car. enjoying haggling can be another motive to shop. Finally. especially the meaning of a product and the level of financial expenditures result in a high level of consumer involvement in the process of purchase decision-making and in the very act of purchase. as well as products that demand significant financial means from the family budget. comparing products of different brands from different perspectives. it is possible to identify three types of purchase: fully or partially planned and unplanned buying. Such approach results in the entire dilemma being solved before the very purchase. The consumer therefore knows what product and brand to buy and usually knows in which shop to buy it as well.

is usually left for the very act of purchase and is made at the shop while buying a specific product. In other words. This means that trial purchase is always related to a product one has no experience with whatsoever. etc.Purchase and post-purchase behaviour 321 details stay out of any serious pre-purchase consideration with this type of purchase. Such a situation. In the case of unplanned buying. The reason can be its marketing promotion or the curiosity of how much the characteristics of the product emphasised in the marketing promotion are compatible with the real situation. regardless of being loyal to other brands. Product and brand are both chosen there. will try the new product. The choice of brand. everything happens at the moment of shopping and at the shop. What are the characteristics of each one of them? Trial purchase is significantly characterized by the fact that it is a first purchase. This situation therefore leaves a much wider space of marketing influence over a consumer. or a purchase with long-term trust. A stimulant can also be the wish to try a new brand. his decision can be largely influenced by mass media communication. we cannot speak about any level of prepurchase consumer involvement. A number of consumers. repeated. 14. in each one of them another variation can be identified: whether it is a trial. without any influence of promotional activities. A consumer decides about the purchase based on the information that he has collected in different ways. XIV chapter . an activity during which the product is evaluated. as well as other details such as the design. for instance. the method of payment etc. This can regard a product or just a brand. for example. or based on his own need to try a new product. A salesperson at a shop can significantly influence the decision as well. For instance. Let us assume. fully or partially planned or unplanned buying. occurs with all forms of impulsive purchase. for instance.3 Purchase frequency Regardless of the type of purchase though. trial purchase is a sort of exploration of a product. In both cases however. that a new toothpaste is launched onto the market.

so-called direct marketing is increasingly popular nowadays: “an activity where a salesperson makes direct efforts towards the target consumer. other forms of purchase are used. For instance. etc) in order to get a response”2. Pre-purchase information collection is also reduced to the search for one brand only: the brand one is loyal to. Muris Čičić . car etc is a classic example of such a purchase. a repeated purchase often means the creation of loyalty towards a certain brand of product. First of all. Slavo Kukić . the third type of purchase is purchase with long-term trust. in the case of repeated purchases it is logical to expect that greater quantities are bought than during the initial purchase. Namely. cable TV. telemarketing. This sort of experiment is simply not an option. Even though this is a purchase with a single denominator. it means that the consumer evaluated the product positively.322 Consumer Behaviour Repeated purchase occurs when a consumer. 14. which is assumed due to the existing loyalty. direct mail. Finally. a repeated purchase can mean a few things. It occurs in two forms. dishwasher. The possibility of a trial purchase in this case is excluded. as the above definition implies. Finally. because you cannot just go and buy another one if it proves to be unsatisfactory. decides to buy the same product or brand. using one or more media (direct sale. it is reduced to a mere decision about the product that needs to be bought. If it occurs. You are clearly going to have the product for several years. after the first purchase. Buying a fridge. e-mail. In this case the purchase is often a shortened process. it is possible to identify several forms of it. The first one is a purchase that is the result of loyalty to a brand. Another instance of a purchase with long-term trust is the purchase of permanent products. On the other hand. If it is a new brand. but not the brand.4 Direct marketing Along with the above. The relation of long-term trust is created during the first purchase. We can therefore identify several types of Melika Husić-Mehmedović . it shows that this brand proved to be better than other ones. This then means that it has to be the product in which you have trust at the very act of purchase.

Today this method of shopping is increasingly used. without having to go to shops. as well as catalogues. Online marketing. because this is the segment of consumers who are in a constant rush and value shopping fast. There is data in literature claiming that the biggest growth in telemarketing is with young consumers. electronic devices etc. particularly people aged between 25 and 34. order collection and finally street sales. telephone or e-mail order and receive the product by mail. One of them is face to face sales or direct sales. Telemarketing is mainly aimed at individual. There are different forms of direct sales: sales “door-to-door”. One of the types of direct marketing is direct mail. Its share in total sales is going to grow radically in a relatively short period of time though. Another form of direct marketing is telemarketing. newspaper and magazine additions. this form of direct marketing is most commonly aimed at the educated city population. radio. more precisely. toys. also known as internet advertising is among the forms of direct marketing as well. house demonstrations. letters can be used. whose point is in communication with potential consumers via the media that describes the product. for instance. place their written. Among the significant forms of direct marketing is that of catalogue sales. the turnover via direct sales worldwide in 2006 was $132 billion. According to the official data.Purchase and post-purchase behaviour 323 direct marketing. audio and video equipment. On the other hand. XIV chapter . the form of sales “at a distance”. delivery and sales in the house. nowadays certainly a basic type of selling via mail that is used in many areas of sales: that of clothes and footwear. unknown consumers. hardware and software. This is a set of promotional activities that aim at the promotion of services and goods via online media and the internet. The buyers. In the USA. $17 billion of which was in the EU. television. As media for establishing the contact. a type of personal sales where contact with consumers and sales of goods or services are achieved primarily by informing consumers via direct phone calls. telefax or email. the oldest method of direct marketing that includes presentations and demonstrations to consumers in their homes and that is used a lot worldwide nowadays. telemarketing makes up over 20% of total sales.

who practice it more than others? Grouping this type of consumers is possible through a large number of features. recognising the affinity to direct marketing is also related to some other variables that can be marked as psychological features. Having extensive purchase experience is related. comparing products etc. in which case they prefer some of the forms of direct marketing to the physical effort that a purchase process implies. it is practiced more by married couples with small. the consumers with the socio-economic position above the average. to purchase power. is purchase power. pre-school children.324 Consumer Behaviour The birth of the Internet led to enormous changes in the methods of advertising. due to their personality traits. Slavo Kukić . relatively young consumers are more attracted to direct marketing. Melika Husić-Mehmedović .e. One of them. including some other variables that accompany it. On the other hand. such as walking. we notice that consumers from higher social layers are more prone to it. Namely. One of the factors used for this classification is consumers’ age. This group includes consumers aged about 40. as well as kiosk marketing. i. In all this we must not forget the structure of consumers that use direct marketing. which implies a greater affinity with direct marketing as well. has a greater speed of dispersal covering a wider range of potential users. Finally. for instance. especially if both parents are employed. for example. One can assume that consumers with a better socio-economic position have a more extensive buying experience. If we observe the relation of direct marketing affinity with socio-economic status. primarily because it enables the reduction of information distribution costs. the socio-economic position of consumers. have a greater affinity towards accepting new products. Who are the consumers that are prone to using it. Some consumers. Others have a more distinguished feature of comfort orientation. to a certain extent. Muris Čičić . other forms of direct marketing are television marketing and marketing of other mass media with direct response. Finally.

washing machines etc. XIV chapter .Purchase and post-purchase behaviour 325 14. The reason is that for them it is very important what the post-purchase reaction of the consumers will be: positive or negative. imply stricter demands regarding warranties. One of them is assembly service for the product that producers or providers of certain products such as furniture. who help consumers learn how to use a product through a system of home visits during a purchase. good customer service implies offering him a compatible printer. they have to establish a relation based on a partnership with him. It depends on whether the consumers will start trusting a specific product or brand. the interest of product and service providers for the consumers ends. are a precondition of building loyalty to the brand. If. etc. scanner. The range of offers in the post-purchase partnership with consumers implies additional products that supplement the bought product. a consumer buys a computer. for instance. is also provided with suitable warranties that accompany a product. This help does not only come in written form. Namely. whether they will become loyal to it and trust the company that provides it. Tougher market conditions. This manifests in a large number of forms. On the contrary. Market competition that businesses are exposed to forces them to show the same intensity of interest for their consumers after a purchase. the salespeople etc. it is becoming increasingly more common to get practical instructions provided by personnel trained for this. They are important for several reasons: they reduce insecurity during purchase. nowadays businesses mainly offer warranties that last for several years. as a rule. Salespeople often practice offering help with learning how to use a product. offer free of charge. increase the trust in the provider. as manuals. in order to keep a consumer. some of them even up to five years. etc.5 Post-purchase evaluation It would be wrong to believe that. internet connection device. of course. Instead of semi-annual and annual. with the act of purchase. responding to consumers’ requests. or after it. The buyer.

This situation results in the feeling of pleasure. The consequence. Muris Čičić . often delight. is a precondition of the consumer’s future relationship with the product. the company. after all. or something else. one of three occurs. The established balance determines a certain post-purchase feeling. including the service during the purchase. Finally. for instance. First of all. in the post-purchase evaluation it is objectively possible and it often occurs that the product is below the pre-purchase consumer expectations. the reaction to it in the form of product evaluation can occur in different forms: as neutral reaction. In other words. The second form of a post-purchase product evaluation is the product exceeding expectations. Regarding the purchase act. This is not a feeling of delight. the brand. a perfume. and the shop where it was bought. It depends on a number of factors whether a complaint occurs.326 Consumer Behaviour Post-purchase partnership. even in BH. Slavo Kukić . In such situations it is logical that a post-purchase reaction in the form of dissatisfaction is expressed. but it is neither a disappointment with the purchase. exceeds them or fails to meet them. especially if they exceed a certain value. This is a complete post-purchase balance between the expectation and the experience. The first one is that the product matches the pre-purchase expectations. on the meaning the consumer relates to Melika Husić-Mehmedović . in reality. sending gifts on special occasions etc. can be manifested in various ways: as prize games for the consumers. the politeness of salespeople etc. can be a consumer complaint regarding the bought product. It can be an integral part of the purchase act. it can result in various types of reactions. Gifting is not just a part of post-purchase strategy for product and service providers. brand and the shop in which it is bought. Then an item of clothing can be gifted. Therefore it is very important how consumers evaluate the bought products because of the feeling the product causes. Regarding the reaction to a purchase. but also in trust and even loyalty to the product. expressed satisfaction or dissatisfaction depending on whether the product meets consumers’ expectations. Dissatisfaction as an emotional reaction is not the only reaction though. We can say that this feeling is neutral. Giving gifts to customers after their purchase is rather common nowadays.

All this raises another group of questions related to post-purchase evaluation and consumer reaction. Greater knowledge implies a greater possibility of it. or speaking about them publicly in any other way.Purchase and post-purchase behaviour 327 the product and the price he paid. several techniques for keeping consumers are XIV chapter . if he considers that he paid a significant amount of money for a product. The relevance of keeping consumers is doubtless. acquaintances. and vice versa. However. its malfunctions. it is logical to expect his complaint if he is dissatisfied with it.6 Keeping consumers This is not the worst that can happen though. the differences between the characteristics a product has and those advertised by the company using various media. As a rule it is followed by the decision not to buy any other products of the same brand. just like positive experiences would motivate them to it. For instance. 14. The consequence of the expressed consumer dissatisfaction can be the decision never to buy that product again. The knowledge about the specific product also affects the decision about a complaint. The decision about it is closely related to the experience of doing it. the shop and all other outlets owned by the same company. We mustn’t exclude the possibility of consumers spreading negative information regarding the product: to inform others about their dissatisfaction with the product. Why? Because the consumers we keep imply longterm loyalty and they spread positive feedback regarding the product and salespeople. which implies another question: How to keep the consumers we have? In theory but also in marketing practice. Consumers can do this by telling their friends. if we follow the path it leads to. This way the individual dissatisfaction can lead to a chain reaction and cause much more damage than an individual product abandonment does. How to keep the current consumers? Many believe that keeping the existing consumers is more important than gaining new ones. we see that this is not the last reaction in a row. Failures with any previous complaints can discourage a person.

is related to providing warranties to a great extent. Slavo Kukić . For it to be possible. is not a technique to be relied on in the future.e. therefore. it excludes the possibility of eventual glorifications and disappointments by what one gets. Therefore. it implies the obligation of the management to be close to their clients and always ready to respond to their requests. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Satisfaction can be achieved in two ways.328 Consumer Behaviour recognised. for instance. to react directly and affect the continuous quality improvement of their products. the creation of realistic consumer expectations is often mentioned. after all. complaints etc. One of them. the feeling of financial and psychological risk during a product purchase is decreased. Keeping consumers. or there is no reaction whatsoever. as a method of keeping consumers. The reason for a negative consumer reaction can also be an unrealistic pre-purchase expectation. Muris Čičić . is the individualisation of marketing. Some of them are explained below. The first one is a classic method. One of the methods of keeping consumers is by conducting consumer surveys about product satisfaction. the marketing approach to every single consumer and his demands. i. The second approach does not wait for reactions in order to respond once the dissatisfaction is already expressed – it precedes the reactions by collecting details about the manifestation of dissatisfaction through surveys and it prepares actions to reduce or avoid dissatisfaction entirely. Among the techniques of keeping consumers is certainly the total quality control as well. If a warranty is provided. an approach based on the logic of waiting for the consumers to react. The practice of unanimous communication that necessarily assumes mass media communication with consumers. where reaction is always related to the expression of dissatisfaction in the form of claims. If it is applied.

Journal of Marketing. 2. Vol 36 pp. Gower XIV chapter . (1972): Why do people shop?. E. 3.): Dictionary of Marketing. (1995. Tauber. 5. What motivates people to purchase? Is purchase a planned or unplanned activity? How is purchase with long-term trust created? Explain the definition. What is the role of warranty in keeping consumers? References 1. 4.J. W.M. Koschnick. advantages and disadvantages of telemarketing.Purchase and post-purchase behaviour 329 Questions for revision 1.46-59 2.


informal and neutral sources Advantages and disadvantages of using spokespeople Analysis of noise and obstructions in communication Review of marketing communication mix elements Understand how a message is created .XV chapter COMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Chapter objectives • • • • • • • • • Understand the role and importance of communication Review the communication process Explain the roles and elements in a communication process Analysis of message source credibility Comparison of the credibility of formal.


form a picture about the availability of a product to everyone or only to a selected market group. colour. message and media) communication would not be possible without feedback1. all other elements of marketing mix continuously send a certain message to consumers. OCOMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR One of the main reasons to analyse consumer behaviour is to create an adequate communication mix that will reach the target audience. 15. XV chapter .1 Communication model Simply defined. The level of price or the existence of discount for instance tells us about the image or quality of a product. Along with promotion. A company’s communication with its environment can be planned or unplanned. Every contact with a product brand delivers a message that can improve or worsen the consumers’ image about the company and/or its products. Along with these four basic components (sender. This is why the entire marketing mix has to be consistent. a product should communicate the desired image by its packaging. Distribution channels. selective or exclusive. whether mass. Communication can be verbal (written or oral) or visual (picture. which creates a picture about the consumers’ evaluation of a product or service. recipient. design. For successful marketing communications a company has to understand that everything it does sends a message to its audience. colours etc. communication is the transfer of a message from a sender to a recipient via media. logo). Finally.333 15.

gesture). The resulting message is verbal (oral or written) or non-verbal (an image. and this source can be formal or informal. i. A message reaches the desired recipient via media. The information available to the sender is transferred into a message through a coding process. appealing to reason or to emotions. The recipient of the communication message is the target audience. personal or impersonal. an individual or an organisation.334 Consumer Behaviour Figure 61: Communication model2 The message sender is usually the initiator of communication. Muris Čičić . pictures. words and images. Coding turns the message into symbols. which can be different from Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Most commonly the combination of a verbal and non-verbal message gives most information to the target audience. Impersonal communication represents every media without personal contact or direct feedback3. Media is a communication channel through which a message travels from the sender to the recipient. Personal channels represent a direct communication between the sender and the recipient and are used when products are expensive. complicated to use or highly risky.e. symbol. It can be paid for or unpaid. Slavo Kukić . printed or electronic.

do not share a same or similar way of thinking. Sometimes. animals and food that smell bad. It depends on the experience. if the message sender and recipient do not have a common experience ground. Communication can be created for the complete target market.tests. The mental association that this advert for breath freshener caused among the audience was very negative. Figure 62 Finally. personal traits and mood of the message recipient. The message recipient decodes it in order for it to be interpreted correctly. whether it is expressed verbally or non-verbally. In personal communication the response is available immediately. the message is misinterpreted and its impact is negative. but very often the target audience is only the part of the target market that we created the specific communication campaign for. In impersonal communication feedback must be explored by various pre. feedback depends on the media used in communication. XV chapter . A recent example for that is a TV advertisement for Pepermint bonbons and the slogan “For breath that will be remembered”.and post. Audience are the consumers that specific communication is aimed at.Communication and consumer behaviour 335 target market. while market is comprised of all the consumers that the complete marketing mix is aimed at. followed by very unpleasant images of things.

colleagues): because they do not get paid by the company involved.336 Consumer Behaviour 15. legally and honestly in any situation. family. Credibility is built in several ways. it is likely to build a good reputation. Today the most common method of building trust is by social responsibility4. consumers and the environment. Muris Čičić . One of them is the benefit that the message sender has. A company with a good reputation is trusted more because it is believed to act correctly. their credibility is questionable. If a company is perceived by the public as one responsible toward its employees. This is also why people trust newspaper or magazine articles as neutral sources more than a paid marketing message. In the case of commercial salespeople who receive commission from the products they sell. Slavo Kukić .2 Message source credibility Credibility of sources from which information is received is one of the key factors that affect the reception of a message. This is the reason people trust informal sources more (friends.5 Figure 63: Trust in sources Melika Husić-Mehmedović .

It is up to managers to decide who gets most trust of their consumers and the public in general. 15. there are various spokespeople that will present them. Further. Celebrities are efficient with products with high XV chapter . then the neutral sources (official analysis and reports). employees and people who sell our products and services will be attracted to other. then media (34%). Marketing messages with celebrities often get most attention.5%). companies (12. experts or common people to promote their products. consumers. it showed that consumers trust the informal sources most (friends and family).3 Spokesperson In order for the consumers to be ready to trust a message a company wants to send.” Research conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2006 showed that consumers trust the information they get via newspaper articles or TV programs (77%) more than that from advertising (23%). We intend to keep the same high standard of integrity everywhere. If this reputation is tarnished. This is why companies hire celebrities. However. Among other things. Regarding the trust in institutions. investors. We will keep our word. it states that “The most valuable property of a company is the reputation achieved by its integrity. more appealing companies. and finally government sources and bodies (8%). Companies hire famous and successful actors. sportspeople to become the company’s trademark. musicians. Depending on the nature of a product. For instance. nor will we accept obligations that we do not intend to fulfil. research has shown that this is not always the best choice. We will not promise more than what is reasonable to expect we are able to fulfil. non-government organisations are trusted most (60%).Communication and consumer behaviour 337 Some companies go very far with social ethics. Caterpillar issued “The Code of Worldwide Business Conduct and Operating Principles” in 19746. suppliers. employees. and finally they trust the formal company sources least. management has to make sure it is heard by the people who have the consumers’ trust.

For many consumers it is the very care about employees that shows a company’s social responsibility best. even though the company’s image worsens in this situation. Many companies forget the importance of employees as spokespeople. They are less successful presenting products related to high financial of physical risk7. 7 days a week. borrowing some of the characteristics that the marketer wants associated with the product. a negative image of a personality does not become better after he/she is associated with a company’s positive image. The sources within companies are trusted significantly less. Then follow the experts and representatives of nongovernment sector. not just during working hours9. Muris Čičić . Most consumers believe that the way a company treats its employees plays an important role in purchase decision-making.338 Consumer Behaviour psychological or social risk or with products that include the elements of good taste and self-image. Research has also shown that the products that do not have a welldefined image can develop it through celebrities. They represent their company 24 hours a day. In Bosnia and Herzegovina. Slavo Kukić . Melika Husić-Mehmedović . This is why one must not forget that the employees are often the representatives of a company with most credibility. common people in the role of spokespeople are trusted most.8 On the other hand.

There are two types of barriers in communication: selective perception and psychological noise.Communication and consumer behaviour 339 Figure 64: Spokespeople’s credibility 15.4 Communication barriers Various barriers occur in communication channels. obstructing the undisturbed flow of a message. XV chapter .

grazers continuously wander through channels. speeding up the adverts using video recorders or DVD players. Slavo Kukić . Figure 65 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . not getting too involved in any of the programs. These are so-called zippers. Muris Čičić . and their attention is the most difficult kind to trap with an advert. Marketers respond to this by emitting the same adverts on several different channels simultaneously10. consumers often change the channel while promotional messages are on. Zappers operate in a similar way.340 Consumer Behaviour Selective perception enables the consumers to pay less attention to the messages that are of little or no importance to them and focus on those that are very relevant. Watching TV adverts. Finally.

Communication and consumer behaviour


Psychological noise occurs as the result of inattention or partial concentration of the message recipient. When we think about several things simultaneously or do several things at once, the level of concentration for each is significantly lower. If a person is daydreaming about the coming holiday during a business meeting, they can miss an important piece of information. The same goes for advertising messages. If we take a look at the Vogue magazine, we will notice that the first 30 to 50 pages are adverts only. Amongst this amount of brands, not one will stand out. Rumours are another problem for successful communication. They are unverified claims about an event that circulate orally and change its content in the process. Their characteristics are the non-verification of data, transfer of claims about this data and the change of content during the transfer11. Newspaper articles, TV and radio programs are also prone to rumours or so-called “soft information”: allusions and gossip. This sort of information about a company most commonly comes from a competitor. This does not reduce their significance though, for the recipient of the message will have an incorrect image about the company and form his attitude based on it12.

15.5 Forms of marketing communication
Marketing communication mix consists of five basic elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Advertising Public relations Personal selling Sales promotions and Direct marketing

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Figure 66

The most visible marketing activity is advertising because it uses mass media. In short, it is every paid form of communication by an identified sponsor who promotes ideas, goods and services via mass media13. Public relations create a positive image about a company in the eyes of all interest groups, including the public (via media), employees, consumers, the local community etc. This activity also uses mass media but not through a direct lease of space but by announcing their news. Personal selling represents “face-to-face” communication, i.e. it is interpersonal. It is used when an expensive, complicated or highly risky product or service is presented. Activities that add value to a product for an indefinite period of time and stimulate purchase directly are known as sales promotions14. It includes activities such as discounts, economic packaging, prize games, coupons and samples, product tasting etc. Direct marketing represents direct communication between the sender and the recipient that does not have to be interpersonal. Direct mail, the Internet, phone, catalogues etc are used here as media.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Communication and consumer behaviour


15.6 Message creation
During message formation in the communication process, it is important to make several decisions. The first one regards whether to use one-sided or two-sided argumentation, i.e. whether to only show the good sides of the product or both good and bad. The first impression is that we should use one-sided argumentation i.e. only present the positive features of a company’s product/service, for why would we say something negative about ourselves. Finally, consumers never want to hear about the bad sides of their favourite product. In favour of two-sided argumentation is the fact that if we do not reveal the bad sides of the product, our competitors will, and when they do it will certainly not be subtle. One-sided argumentation is used by traditional companies and it is generally advised to use it with a sympathetic audience. If the audience is highly educated and in a critical mood, they are more likely to prefer hearing the opposing view and a two-sided argumentation is advised15. It is particularly effective in situations of personal selling when a salesperson can immediately face the disagreement of a consumer, or when consumers have already been exposed to the negative claims of competitors16.

Figure 67

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Comparative advertising occurs when our product is compared to one or more competitors’ products. Pepsi and Coca-Cola often use this type of communication in their campaigns. Research has shown that if independent sources are used to prove the superiority of our brand, or the opinion of relevant experts, it can contribute to the creation of positive attitudes about the brand and purchase decisions of consumers17. On the other hand however, comparative advertising unnecessarily gives room to the competitors, pays the media space to mention them or even use their logotype. Eventually this can lead to consumers’ confusion about whose advert it actually was.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

Communication and consumer behaviour


Questions for revision
1. Why is communication studied together with consumer behaviour? 2. What is the role of individual elements in the communication model? 3. Explain the process of coding and decoding using an example. 4. What increases and what decreases the credibility of message source? 5. When should celebrities not be used as spokespeople? 6. How can selective perception be avoided? 7. Explain the elements of communication mix. 8. What are the disadvantages of two-sided argumentation? 9. What are the advantages of comparative advertising?

1. Schiffman, L. i L. Kanuk, (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca, Prentice Hall 2000, 7. izdanje, Zagreb: prevod Mate, p. 228 2. Chisnall, M.P. (1995): Consumer Behavior, McGraw-Hill Compani, p. 286 3. Brkic, N. (2003): Upravaljanje marketing komuniciranjem, Ekonomski fakultet u Sarajevu, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, p. 199. 4. Swaen, V. i J. Vanhamme, (2005): ‘The use of Corporate Social Responsibility Arguments in Communication Campaigns: Does Source Credibility Matter?’, Advances in Consumer Research, Volume 32, p. 590 5. Davis, A. (2005): PR od A do Z: sve sto treba da znate o odnosima s javnoscu uz pomoc 501 pitanja, Adizes, Novi Sad, p. 175 6. Cutlip, S.M., A.H. Center i G.M. Broom, (2003): Odnosi s javnoscu, MATE, Zagreb, 2003, p. 463 7. Chew, F. and K. Soohong, (1994): Using Concept Mapping To Go Beyond the Source Credibility model in Assessing Celebrity – Message Congruence, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in journalism and Mass Communication, Atlanta, GA, p.6

XV chapter


Consumer Behaviour

8. Chew, F. i K. Soohong, (1994): ibid 9. Verschoor, C. C., (2006): Consumers consider the importance of corporate social responsibility, Strategic Finance, August, 2006., p. 20 10. Kaufman, C.F. i P.M. Lane, (1994): In Pursuit of the Nomadic Viewer, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 4-17 11. Rot, N., (1978): Osnovi socijalne psihologije, Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd, p. 18 12. Vercic, D., F. Zavrl, P. Rijavec, A.T. Vercic i K. Laco (2004): Odnosi s medijima, Masmedia, Zagreb, p. 163 13. Brkic, N. (2003): ibid, p. 11 14. Brkic, N. (2003): ibid, p. 12 15. Schiffman L. i L. Kanuk, (2004): ibid, p. 246 16. Crowley, A.E. and D.H. Wayne, (1994): An Integrative Framework for Understanding Two-Sided Persuasion, Journal of Consumer Research, March, pp. 561-574 17. Rose, R.L., P.W. Miniard, M.J. Barone, K.C. Manning i B.D. Till (1993): When Persuasion Goes Undetected: The Case of Comparative Advertising, Journal of Marketing Research, 30, August, pp. 315-330

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . Muris Čičić

XVI chapter
Chapter objectives

• • • •

The meaning of decision in consumer behaviour Analysis of levels on which decisions are made Define theoretical approaches to decision-making Analysis and comparison of theoretical approaches to decision-making • Understand Schiffman-Kanuk model of consumer behaviour

can imply a selection between two or more alternatives. XVI chapter . In consumer behaviour these alternatives can vary in the range of to buy or not to buy.1 Theoretical meaning of decision Making a purchase decision is a complex process. one cannot speak about the existence of free will. socalled Hobson’s choice. In real life however. the situations when there is no possibility of purchase selection are very rare. to choose brand A or brand B. If we apply this determinant to consumer behaviour. PURCHASE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS 16. In order to deal with its substance and dimensions though. Without these and similar alternatives. consumers are almost always in a situation of choosing between two or more alternatives. In this case we identify force. we can say that there are no decisions without the existence of at least two alternatives. etc. it is necessary to answer a crucial question: what is a decision as a theoretical term? A decision.e. i. Therefore they can make various decisions related to purchase and consumption (Table 13). More precisely. generally speaking.349 16. to spend time in X or Y way.

Muris Čičić . 2004. Some situations.350 Consumer Behaviour Table 13: Types of choices related to purchase and consumption Category of decision Basic decision about purchase or consumption ALTERNATIVE A Buy or consume a product (service) Buy or consume • a specific brand • the usual brand • a basic model • a new brand • brand on sale • a national brand ALTERNATIVE B Not buy or consume a product (service) Buy or consume • other brand • other famous brand • luxurious or status model • the usual brand or some other famous brand • brand that is not on sale • a specific shop’s brand Buy • in some other kind of shop (low price shop) • in another shop • goods from a shop • in a shop one needs to travel to • • Pay with credit card Pay in instalments Decisions about buying or consuming a brand Decisions about the channel of purchase Buy • in a certain type of shop (mall) • in the usual shop • at home (phone.2 Levels of decision-making Making a decision about buying a product or service should not be viewed as a one-time act. such involvement is absolutely unnecessary. we can identify three Melika Husić-Mehmedović . In other situations however. pp 438 16. It is a process that requires various levels of involvement of those who make the decision. require a high level of involvement in searching for information necessary to decide. the Internet) • in a nearby shop • Pay in cash • Pay the entire bill when it arrives Payment decisions Source: Adapted from Schiffman and Kanuk. for instance. Slavo Kukić . Depending on the level of involvement though.

If he has a certain experience with a product or a set of products though. For instance. In the purchase decision-making. without searching for additional information. but not a definite affinity towards the brand within the group. in order to build the criteria or narrow down the selection onto a small number of brands that should be considered. It can be expected in the situations when consumers have the set criteria for evaluating the category of the product and the brand. Routine purchase behaviour is relatively frequent in every consumer’s life. Which one out of the two scenarios will happen depends on the person’s experience with the product or service. this behaviour can be characterized by one of two possible scenarios. first of all. The type and amount of information necessary for a consumer’s decision-making depend on the level of underdevelopment of the criteria. The precondition for a purchase decision is an abundance of information that has to be collected in advance. as compared to routine behaviour. it is not excluded that he will reach for more information that would justify his positive decision. This is when consumers need additional information in order to make the purchase decision. The reason for this is that a consumer does not have sufficiently developed criteria for the evaluation.e. The low level of criteria can refer to the category of a product or certain brands in this product category. The decision-maker can. but not any firmly set criteria. if a consumer has the set criteria for evaluating the brand. rely on what he already knows about the product without searching for any additional information. The search for the information is therefore a precondition of a purchase decision.Purchase decision-making process 351 basic levels of consumer decision-making: limited and extensive problemsolving. in order to recognise the subtle differences among the existing brands. It is possible to search for some information though. XVI chapter . Extensive problem-solving is certainly the most complex level of decisionmaking. without losing extra time or affecting the decision significantly. Limited problem-solving is a more complex level of decision making. and routine purchase behaviour. that he will rely on what he already knows about the product. there is no doubt that the decision will be made according to the first scenario. i.

warranties. All his decisions are based on economic parameters. On the other hand. he has to be capable of making a “perfect decision”. Human finiteness is also manifested in the fact that human personality is characterized by specific values and goals. cognitive and emotional. or both. whether it refers to skills only.352 Consumer Behaviour 16. Various levels of a human’s finiteness are some of them. Are they sufficient though? The critics of the economic approach rightfully point out a few arguments on which they base the stance that this approach is too idealistic and too simplified. Slavo Kukić . the inclusion of all these elements is hard to achieve. a man is a rational being. Due to this finiteness.3. however. The system of values is a variable Melika Husić-Mehmedović . capable of evaluating positive and negative sides of each alternative. In real life however. humans are often not aware of all the available alternatives. Four most prominent ones.3 Theoretical approach to consumer’s decision-making In theory. In order for a man to act rationally. are the so-called pure theoretical approaches: economic. the crucial elements for the decision about a specific product are the price. passive. as well as other economic parameters influence a consumer’s purchase decision. All the above. habits only. In other words. and capable of choosing the best alternative. neither are they able to view them from all perspectives. he has to include several elements: has to be aware of all existing alternatives. There are many reasons for this. Muris Čičić . it is possible to identify a large number of approaches to explaining consumer behaviour in purchase decision-making. 16. Human beings are finite primarily in their skills and habits. in order to be able to make such a decision. conditions that competitors offer etc. More precisely. they claim. They are explained below. Decisions about the purchase of product and services are therefore also based on them. payment method and date.1 Economic approach Economic approach to decision-making relies on the theory about socalled economic man.

2 Passive approach This approach to explaining consumer behaviour in purchase decisionmaking can also be considered one-sided. it also. Impulsiveness and irrationality are not foreign to humans. However. All the problems of the passive approach stem from its incorrect theoretical foundation. If these are the determinants of a human personality in general. people are finite in the amount of knowledge available to them. therefore. to a lesser or greater extent.3. Finally. primarily within a family and in an early childhood. and that. This system of values is a particularity of each person and it is impossible to bring different subsystems of value under different economic parameters as an umbrella system or common denominator that they all follow in the same manner. The foundation of the approach is that humans are impulsive and irrational beings. humans are impulsive and irrational as consumers. or a decision that in some other way refers to its insufficiency and deviation from perfection. etc. The reasons for this can be found in the elements it is based on. This sort of finiteness varies from man to man. it is logical that they refer to humans as consumers of products and services as well. XVI chapter . school. In other words.Purchase decision-making process 353 that is formed in the process of people’s upbringing. and to be content with a “good enough” or “acceptable” decision. as well as many others. and then in the social community. On the contrary. humans are often subject to all sorts of external influences. 16. the interests and promotional actions of product and service providers. depends on the amount of knowledge an individual has. which means that they are subject to. therefore force one to give up on the possibility of making a “perfect decision” at the very beginning. and hinders a person from making an economically perfect decision. simplified and unrealistic. The above sorts of finiteness. there are no values that significantly determine their structure and way of life. among other things.

Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the cognitive approach to explaining consumer behaviour in decision-making builds its foundation on the conception of humans as cognitive beings. then it is unrealistic to expect that consumers are. in other words. and based on that choose a product that they believe offers the most. In order to base a decision on thinking. What does this actually mean? A few details must be paid attention to. other producers’ products. The attitudes and affinities created this way are a precondition for the purchase decision-making that follows. along with the product of a specific producer. consumers play an equally important role and often dominate over the product and service producers and providers.3 Cognitive approach Unlike the previous two. Using this philosophy. and it must be. shops etc. The structure of a human personality is much more complex. If this is the case. In reality. he is then capable of forming attitudes and affinities toward certain brands. providers’ etc. it sees a consumer as a person who bases and solves the problem of purchase decision-making by thinking. as a rule. in order to make a purchase decision. is just the opposite: consumers are rarely subject to manipulation. This mood often leads to impulsive purchase. Muris Čičić . a consumer must. Slavo Kukić . first of all. the subject of someone’s manipulation: producers’. The reality.354 Consumer Behaviour However. especially a cheap product. 16.3. structured from a multitude of elements and it is almost impossible to reduce it to one of them. For instance. they often decide to search information concerning alternatives. search for information about the chosen brands and shops. creating extremely high-prices. Based on the collected information. on the contrary. Reality is different than that though. and every effort to manipulate them can have a boomerang effect on anyone who attempts it. they are not primary determinants of humans – not in general neither as consumers. The choice of a product. can also be affected by the consumer’s current mood.

he is satisfied with the information that enables the making of a satisfactory decision. Instead of persisting on the completeness of the information. sufficient. Why? The reason is that a consumer here. If. like in the passive approach. This information. In other words. we want to determine the position of the cognitive approach. optimal.e. all the knowledge necessary for making such a decision.Purchase decision-making process 355 Regarding the collection of information about products. is not capable of making a perfect decision because he does not have all the information. he never tends to collect all the information he can.4 Emotional approach This approach is also considered a purely theoretical approach to explaining consumer behaviour in decision-making. can be the result of manipulative suggestions and actions of the producers and providers of products and services. what is it? There is no doubt that complete information is only possible as an ideally typical category. it could be observed as a kind of middle value in between the economic and passive approach to explaining consumer behaviour. even if it was. It is not possible to realise it in real life. mass buying is not based on the previous careful information collection and evaluation of alternatives. brands and shops. and mood on the other. However. In real life. He stops the search for information when he finds that there are a sufficient number of preconditions to make a “satisfactory” decision. they are often impulsive. Its foundation is the thesis that real life is not the same as theoretical constructions. another question is raised: how much information? Can complete information be realised at all? If this is not possible. is there an amount of information that can be considered necessary. i. “carried by emotions” and special moods. and if there is. just as in the economic approach. On the contrary.3. 16. a real consumer acts differently. This impulsive purchase therefore uses two sorts of preconditions: emotions on the one hand. What do they mean and how to determine them? XVI chapter . in accordance with the above.

What is the essence of an emotional decision? The accent is not on the pre-purchase collection of information but on the feelings or emotions: joy. music or images. in their own town our out of it. moods are states that are inclined to be long-term. You will say. we can classify them into positive such as hope. Mood will significantly affect whether a person shops alone or in Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the logic is to follow the matrix: “go for it”. Unlike emotions that are always a response to the environment. that way influencing an impression that a person creates and their appearance for hours. emotion can be defined as a response to the environment. brand or product. sometimes weeks. that it is lovely if your mood is pleasant. “you deserve it” etc. fear. Muris Čičić . worried. Mood as a precondition of decision-making can be defined as a state of feeling or spiritual state at a given moment. and negative emotions: anger. a consumer already has it at the moment of experiencing an advert. happiness. Considering the above. fear etc. shop. etc. angry or just dull or sluggish. love and sorrow stimulate tension that initiates action. For instance. You will buy. but that it is a problem if you are sad. More precisely. hope. hatred. There are an unlimited number of emotions that depend on the person and the culture. Slavo Kukić . what sort of shop. love. instead of searching for information in order to make the best decision. famous brands of clothes not because you look better in them. It depends on the mood when consumers are going to buy and where. emotions represent a state of impulse that precedes action. Emotions are often used in advertising food. As a rule however. “magic”. pride. mood is the state that already exists at the moment of receiving an impulse from the environment. envy. jealousy. Along with that. the state of impulse that precedes action. For instance. there is no doubt that mood is an important variable in consumer behaviour. for instance.356 Consumer Behaviour In marketing. fashion clothes. anger. Initiated by various stimuli such as words. for instance. underwear and non-alcoholic beverages. but because you feel better due to the brand status. satisfaction. days. cosmetics. sorrow.

etc.Purchase decision-making process 357 company with friends. they try to influence the mood by decorating the exterior. salespeople’s behaviour etc. etc. The general atmosphere in a shop is relevant as well: the kind of music. For instance. it is a specific combination of two models: cognitive and emotional. parking space. mood affects how consumers react at the very place where they shop. parents. we could say that. If we try to group their model into one of the theoretical models and if we adopt it as our own in this analysis. or a combination of attractive external colours of the building. For instance. the arrangement of shelves.4 Schiffman-Kanuk model of decision-making Schiffman and Kanuk developed their own model of purchase decisionmaking. All this can be considered the reason salespeople try to affect the mood of consumers. Why is mood so relevant? Because of the consequences certain moods lead to. They then try to affect the mood within the interior: the combination of colours. colleagues. according to the logic of its foundations. it depends on one’s mood how much time they spend in a shop. XVI chapter . They do this in various ways. what the chances are of them buying a product they came there for. lighting. 16. And finally.

2004. Muris Čičić . Slavo Kukić . 7 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . p.358 Consumer Behaviour Figure 68: Simple model of decision-making Source: Schiffman and Kanuk.

What is input data then? It is the entirety of external influences to which a consumer is either temporarily or permanently exposed to as a person. How is it manifested? First of all. The next important influence from the group of socio-cultural influences is the influence of social classes that individuals belong to. If we carefully review the structure of the elements included in the input data though. family atmosphere.4. according to the principle of connected containers. Below we will continue to analyse the first two components of the model. is analysed in a separate chapter. they would all. according to the Schiffman-Kanuk model. being strongest in one’s childhood because it is then that a human’s personality traits are formed. are transferred to all its members. we start to wonder whether its name was well-chosen. More precisely. The range of socio-cultural influences is wide.1 Input data as an element of the mode Input data. output data. The last one of them. On the contrary. It does not stop later on. Family influence is certainly in this group. that includes purchase and post-purchase behaviour. it is primary too. Socio-cultural influences are crucial for the nature of a human personality. According to many. it affects the formation of a person’s attitudes and values. 16. If we try to identify all the influences. attitudes and finally his behaviour. according to the similarity be classified into two large groups: socio-cultural influences on the one hand and marketing activities on the other. as well as the stratification layers within them. process and output data. family system of values and all other elements of family life. is the first component of the decision-making process as a unit. in puberty or even the stage of human biological maturity. The system of values that a person builds is related to them. affecting his values. it is XVI chapter .Purchase decision-making process 359 The model includes three relevant components: input data. as well as the attitudes one adopts. It is an influence that a person is exposed to throughout life.

Muris Čičić . etc. a people or a society.e. the external manifestation of those attitudes and values is even more relevant for an individual. We are interested in how a human behaves as a buyer and consumer of goods and services of course. Slavo Kukić . These comments can doubtlessly have a certain. There is no doubt that within each culture one can identify the difference between consumer behaviour typical for a teenage population and that of older or old age groups. sometimes crucial influence on an individual’s decision. Let us imagine. our friends’ comments about the furniture we have chosen and intend to buy. The influence of culture and subculture is another socio-cultural influence. Finally. Various influences that affect individuals belong to this group. It implies cultural standards that are dominant for a region. The other group of external influences that a consumer is exposed to comprises of marketing activities. because it came from the people we care about and because these people have no other interests other than the wish to help you. or about a theatre play we intend to see. age groups and many others. inform them and persuade them to buy their product. etc. However. the influence of informal and other non-commercial sources must not be ignored. articles in reputable magazines. It is difficult to understand it without the behaviour pertaining to a specific class or an individual stratification layer within it. how class position or a stratification layer affect the choice of a suit brand. for instance. The influence of subcultures of some social groups is equally important: of confessional. food products. One of these activities is advertising in mass Melika Husić-Mehmedović . a journey we want to go on. restaurants. Similar effect can be achieved by some other informal and non-commercial sources: newspaper articles. Likewise it is common for people’s behaviour. including their consumer behaviour. or university professors etc.360 Consumer Behaviour common for a person to adopt the attitudes and values that are dominant in their social class or a stratification layer within it as their own. i. technical intelligence. holiday destination etc. professional. to be determined by their profession: the fact that they belong to either a group of manual workers. as separate kinds of socio-cultural influences. various actions through which companies want to reach the consumers.

therefore. i. telemarketing that now includes mobile phones along with landline phones. Marketing activities also include the selection of distribution channels: mutually dependent organisations involved in the process that makes products and services available for use or consumption.e. as well as presentational and selling skills that he can use to persuade the buyer about having made the right choice. People. but love to buy. this is a form of propaganda directly aimed at the target group of consumers. its use saves time for both buyers and sellers: actions are often performed momentarily. There are various distribution channels: channels for products for final consumption. etc. letters. XVI chapter . mailing lists etc. so this form is considered rational. in order to exchange goods with a consumer. “do not like to be sold to.) to receive a response”2. a group of individuals and organisations that direct the flow of the product from the producer to the consumer. In order to function like that however. makes a direct effort aimed at the target consumer. print. using one or more media (direct sale. i. Most consumers. It is every form of presenting products that implies direct communication with consumers.e. communication systems. The job of an excellent salesperson is to create an atmosphere in which people will want to buy. it is essential that the salesperson has a large amount of information about the product or service. radio. in order to respond to individual wishes and needs. email. Direct marketing is another important marketing activity. It is the “activity through which a salesperson. In other words. cable TV. new media such as the Internet. free phones. direct mail. etc.”3 What is this actually about? Some research has shown that only 30% of consumers come to a shop to buy a specific brand. Distribution channels imply a route that a final product takes from the factory door to the final consumer. Jeffrey Gitomer points out. Along with the fact that this sort of marketing business affects the attitudes and behaviour of potential buyers. Its significance is in the fact that salespeople try to motivate the buyers to make a decision.Purchase decision-making process 361 media: via television. As direct marketing means catalogues are used. can be motivated to buy a product or service at the very place of sales. Personal selling is also classified as a marketing activity. coupons.

How to solve it? Various scenarios are possible: renting a larger flat. What is the essence of each one of them? 16. evaluation of alternatives. Let us assume that this person is the owner of a one-room flat. He has a wife and a child. such as knowing certain psychological variables: motivation. there must exist and be noticed by a consumer a certain difference between a real condition i.4. learning. larger Melika Husić-Mehmedović . personality.2 Process as an element of the model If we observe it as a part of the model of purchase decision-making.e. This is not all though. This difference must be above the level of acceptable. If such a difference is not achieved. Regardless of the kind of distribution channels though. they can affect the attitudes and behaviour of specific consumers. neither the need nor the motive to fulfil it will be caused. Muris Čičić . The above situation can be explained by a concrete example. then it is possible to identify three basic stages of it: need recognition.1 Need recognition Need recognition is the first stage of making a purchase decision. or buying a new. pre-purchase information collection. In order to cause a need.2. Let us assume that he wants to extend his family by having two more children. one has to face a certain “problem” first. however. Slavo Kukić . attitudes. process implies the method in which consumers make a purchase decision.362 Consumer Behaviour channels for industrial products. etc. 16. and finally.4. If process is observed as a method consumers use to make purchase decisions. specific preconditions must be provided. perception. One of them is the problem of accommodation: where to live? The extension of a family implies the need for a larger flat. In order to understand this process as a unit. In order to speak about the recognition of a need. Such intention. and finally multiple marketing channels. a consumer’s current situation and the situation he wants to be in. places several problems for the man.

Unlike them. Miniard. What is relevant is that a new need that follows the extension of the family has been recognised. Our example with the accommodation for an extended family is one of them. The role of producers.Purchase decision-making process 363 flat. Problems come in different forms though. 1774 Only one type of problems that cause needs is mentioned in the above example. is to inform consumers about it in an adequate way and stimulate the need for it in them. we can differentiate between inactive and active problems. Figure 69: The influence of the level of difference on need recognition Source: Engel. when a new product appears on the market. XVI chapter . 1995. active problems are those that a consumer is aware of. appropriate for a large family. Inactive problems are those that a consumer is not aware of. Blackwell. In this case the choice of scenario is not relevant. but can lead to communication or stimulate a consumer’s mental processes towards problem recognition in some other way. p. For instance.

Regardless of the type of the problem. get a relatively good position. Among the variables of problem understanding is also the change of the environment. for example. with new needs that require a completely new structure of consumption. urgent problems are not expected. If a new fashionable item appears in the market. Routine problems are those in which the difference between the situation a consumer is in and the one he desires is expected. Slavo Kukić . You did not expect this problem. It is enough. car. scholarship etc) are among them. a large number of consumers will feel the need to buy it. imply momentary action. such as buying daily groceries and other home products. we can identify routine. got married and had children. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . you have a car accident. and therefore it does not require immediate action. but the action taken to solve it. These are entirely new circumstances . For instance. you get hired by a reputable company after your studies.364 Consumer Behaviour Further on. the referent group was changed . Muris Čičić .and this changes the structure of your needs. Planned problems are also in the group of expected problems. they do not require immediate solutions. Buying semi-permanent and permanent products whose purchase is planned (a house. which leads to unexpected expenses for fixing your vehicle. He is now in entirely new life conditions. For instance. after living a bachelor’s life. Unlike urgent problems though. routine rules set well in advance. Instead of non-conventional dressing you are suddenly in the situation where a suit and a tie are this case. and unlike the routine problems. planned and unplanned problems. Unplanned problems are also not expected. must be immediate. their solution does not require immediate action. urgent. acquaintances from higher social layers and start socialising with them. in order for you to be able to drive your car again. Therefore these situations. These types of life conditions change with each new life cycle. Such action is not something one cannot live without though. according to the standard. One of them is certainly the change of life conditions. it is enough to list the examples for several of these variables. Unlike routine problems. In order to illuminate their meaning. its understanding is the process that often depends on a series of factors or variables. Three are pointed out here. to imagine the situation of a consumer who.

including the changes related to consumption. for instance. car.2. we can identify different dimensions of information search. When does it start? Simply stated. Regarding this. such as decisions that imply significant financial means to buy permanent products (a house.) lead to a more complex search and evaluation of information. etc. direction and order of information search. the search for information as a precondition of purchase decision-making occurs in different situations. This level in fact provides answers to a large number of questions: how many brands should be considered. house appliances etc. it is the process that starts right after the recognition of a need that can be fulfilled by a purchase or consumption. We shall define three in our analysis: the level. how many shops to visit. a car he did not even consider before that point. Let us first analyse the difference in the level of information search. Another variable of understanding a problem and fulfilling a need related to it is the change of financial conditions of any specific consumer. What sort of information a consumer will look for largely depends on the purchase situation. which would also force him to make radical changes. Then he wins a lot of money from a betting shop. This fact would certainly bring a lot of changes in this man’s life: he would buy a house. Unless a purchase is a routine one.Purchase decision-making process 365 instead of McDonald’s restaurants you get oriented towards reputable restaurants and a different style of food. And the opposite: low-risk decisions result in simple tactics of the information search and evaluation. how many product XVI chapter . The scenario can also be the opposite: for a person to move from a position of wealth to one of poverty. Let us imagine. 16.4. etc.2 Pre-purchase search for information Pre-purchase search for information is the second relevant stage in the process of purchase decision-making. High-risk purchase decisions. a man who worked for wages and based on his income had a certain lifestyle.

affects both the level and the direction of the search. In order to make a purchase decision.366 Consumer Behaviour features to evaluate. often without any additional search for information about other. what sources of information to use. They then often give up on the search for external information and proceed to make a purchase decision based on the internal search. what product features to evaluate. shops etc. consumers mainly orient towards internal or external sources. the answers to these questions are in a direct relation with the consumer’s personality traits: whether he is open for communication or not. Information can be collected from various sources. but also the consumer’s personality. In the former case the need for information is generally smaller. then the need for external information is generally smaller. etc. The direction of a search can also be affected by marketing activities that direct consumers towards specific brands. A larger need for clarity. if consumers manage to restore the saved knowledge before making a decision. The answers to all these questions depend on whether the purchase is a routine one or a new and complicated one. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . consumers can ask themselves a large number of questions: what brands to consider. The order of a search is also relevant for the information search. how much time to spend on the search. Slavo Kukić . visit shops. It answers the questions such as: in what order to evaluate the brands. The internal source of information is very important for making a decision about the selection of a shop. etc. Muris Čičić . and the information and knowledge gathered before the need occurs. In order to make a decision. for instance. better shops. However. The direction of the search also depends on a large number of variables: the level of search first of all. often combining the two. Generally consumers choose the shops they are used to and they have good experience with. If there is such an experience. evaluate product features or use the information. Likewise. how many information sources to consult. etc. what shops to visit. Internal sources are in fact consumers’ previous experiences with the product or products they intend to buy. and in the latter it is significantly larger in all the listed perspectives. The direction of information search is another situation that determines the dimension of the search.

If consumers have less knowledge about the product category and the purchase is relevant.Purchase decision-making process 367 not even the most attractive marketing activities will make them choose shopping at a shop they have had a bad experience with and whose image in their perception is negative. The very act of purchase can also be considered as external information. They provide the data about product specifications. Therefore. but also through non-commercial sources: from family members. They include the information consumers can get through various marketing activities: adverts. friends. the logical consequence is to reserve more time for shopping and to search for information before the purchase more intensively. from newspapers and magazines. directly from salespeople and in other ways. by comparing prices. Most women find shopping relaxing and fun. external sources. demanding significant financial means. retail prices. purchase can stimulate the interest for the additional information search. The Internet is another external source of information and its influence today on pre-purchase information search is significant. If consumers do not have any previous experience with the product they plan to buy or if their experience with it is limited and they decide that the information stored in their memory is insufficient. etc.e. due to differences in price between specific producers and salespeople. neither do they enjoy it. the greater the effort to search for external information about it. comparison with competitor’s products etc. One of the reasons is that all serious businesses today have their web-sites with all relevant information about the products they offer. Men often feel just the opposite: they do not find it relaxing or fun. i. Men and women have a different approach to shopping. it is logical to expect them to search for the information from other. Regarding the external sources of information necessary for making a purchase decision. they love to shop and they enjoy it. the following rule applies: the lesser the knowledge about a certain category of a product. The goal is simple: to save money by “shopping smart”. XVI chapter .

Situational factors consist of many different determinants of the intensity of information search. Regardless of the source of information that will be used in order to make a purchase decision. Slavo Kukić . i. it often excludes the comparison between different shops. The limited available time pressures you and forces you to change many rules in the process of purchase decision-making: it reduces the amount of information on which you base your decision. Muris Čičić . a consumer will have the need for more information during his new purchase. The situations when they do in fact probably occur most frequently. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . this situation will surely result in the need for a greater amount and variety of information.368 Consumer Behaviour In real life consumers often combine internal and external information sources. Another situational factor is the time pressure related to decision-making. sometimes entirely excluded. All this requires a more detailed information search as a precondition of the new purchase decision. if you need to buy a perfume for yourself. One of them is the level of social acceptability of a product. In the case of a long interval. as factors on which it depends whether the information search will be more or less distinguished. If we need to buy a product about which we have extensive previous experience though. This intensity depends on a large number of various factors or determinants. better brand may have been launched in the meantime.e. for instance. or the old one could have been improved. However. Finally. If you need to buy a perfume for someone’s birthday though. etc. the need for a large amount of information will be reduced. you will take care about the social acceptability of the perfume’s brand. experience related to a product one wants to buy is another situational factor. The reason for this is simple: a new. retail and consumer-related factors. they can all be classified into four large groups: situational. the purchase with no previous experience or a purchase about which we have unsatisfactory experiences. and that you need to make several different purchases while you are there. Imagine. the brand will often not be relevant. we can identify differences in the intensity of prepurchase information search. There are many product factors. that for one day you are in a large city to which you rarely travel. etc. For instance. One of them is the interval between two purchases. product. If it is the first purchase.

surely your need for information will be stronger than if you are buying a product worth several KM (Convertible Marks). One of them. the range of products they offer etc. a detailed search for information will precede the purchase decision. but the decision may be delayed for a certain time due to the possibility of price change. If we need to buy one. In the case of the perception of these differences being large. With daily food products these changes are relatively insignificant. for instance. If consumers believe that there are significant differences between specific brands. therefore. At least two kinds of variables are relevant here. it is a product characteristic for frequent changes. If we need to buy a computer though. it is certain to result in a greater search for information before making a final purchase decision. their information search will be much more intensive and comprehensive than if he perceived all those brands as approximately the same. If you need to buy a TV set. The changes in the product development are another product factor. You will be interested in the prices of different brands of TV sets. Therefore every new purchase requires new information in order not to make a bad decision. Another factor in this group is politeness of salespeople. Frequent changes of prices are typical for this sort of product. in other words. the prices of the same brand with different providers. Retail factors are a separate group of factors that affect the intensity of the information search. The price is also one of the most significant product factors. Some other parameters related to retail as a factor can affect the intensity of the information search: the proximity of retail shops. and a lot of other information. a large group of factors on which the intensity and comprehensiveness of the information search depend is related to the XVI chapter . is the perception about the level of differences that exist among retailers. There are a large number of factors in this group. Salespeople. the relation between the price and the warranty.Purchase decision-making process 369 One of the product factors is related to the existence of a large number of alternative product brands. Finally. can be what makes one decide to purchase in that retail shop despite the fact that the price of a product is slightly higher than elsewhere. Therefore not every new decision about buying them will require new information.

the larger the number of brands in it. Melika Husić-Mehmedović . the need for additional information is smaller and purchases often become routine. and if they do not. The existence of an evoked group or consideration group implies the simultaneous existence of two more groups of brands. the need for information is much greater. Muris Čičić . i. If it is smaller. Schiffman and Kanuk. Regarding this group. A non-dogmatic person.4. Slavo Kukić . One of them. the intensity of the information search necessary for purchase decision-making depends on a large number of consumer features. is in a direct relation with personality traits. The first one is the unwanted group. the principle applies that the greater the experience of a consumer. loyalty to the familiar brands prevails. The second one is the inactive group: the brands that a consumer perceives as those with no advantages and that make him indifferent (Figure 70). If they do. 14. The need for information. for instance. therefore. It is relevant whether the person takes pleasure in shopping or not.3 Evaluation of alternatives In theory. the group of brands that a consumer finds unacceptable or “less worthy” and does not take into consideration. The educated also have a stronger need for information than those with a lower level of education.2. base their approach on the thesis about two types of consumer information that are used for the evaluation of potential alternatives. for instance. is more prone to information search than a more or less dogmatic one that cares about the loyalty to a brand more. If this knowledge is greater.370 Consumer Behaviour consumers themselves. The first type is the so-called evoked group or a list of brands that a consumer plans to select from. the need for information will be much stronger. for instance. Previous knowledge about a specific product is another factor related to consumers. Therefore.e. one can find various approaches to the issue of the evaluation of alternatives. Younger people have a greater need for information than the older that rely on experience more. is consumer demographic characteristics. This group is relatively small and as a rule includes three to five different brands.

would be: whether an alarm is included. p. strap. The criteria for the evaluation of potential alternatives for them. Wrist watches would be evaluated in an entirely new way. Regarding personal computers for instance. XVI chapter . etc. additional equipment.Purchase decision-making process 371 Figure 70: Evoked group as a subgroup of all brands in a certain class of products Adapted from: Schiffman&Kanuk. for instance. the speed of information processing will surely be one of the criteria. warranty. The criteria for a colour TV are significantly different though: the quality of picture. whether it is waterproof. size of hard drive. 448 The second type of consumer information that is used for the evaluation of potential alternatives is the criteria applied in the evaluation of each individual brand within the evoked group. quartz machinery etc. the price. These criteria are often formed considering the important features of a product. whether it is portable. 2004. etc. price. as well as the price. size of screen.

One of them. claiming that a product is partially or entirely produced in a country considered to be providing good quality. producers and traders spend significant means in order to develop the desired image of their brand. There are a large number of such criteria. some of them occur relatively more frequently than others in the evaluation of different sorts of products and therefore direct the flow of their purchase more frequently.372 Consumer Behaviour It seems however. Another criterion for the evaluation of products is the brand. primarily the most significant ones: so-called critical selection criteria as determinants that direct the flow of a product purchase. starts with the need to determine the evaluation criteria. The country of origin of a product is another criterion of the evaluation. All German products are generally perceived as good quality. product brand and the country of origin. The USA. Muris Čičić . is a common scenario. and all those coming from undeveloped or developing countries as poor quality. In most cases only one or two of these criteria represent relevant determinants of the choices that direct the flow Melika Husić-Mehmedović . it is necessary to know that its significance in relation to other criteria varies from product to product. What are the reasons for this? Price is certainly one of the criteria for the evaluation that is most frequently mentioned. Therefore. Japan etc. Despite this however. A large number of products are chosen based on a brand as a synonym for product quality. A few things should be noted here. Slavo Kukić . The name of brand is also used as a status symbol so by buying a renowned brand one actually buys social status. Its relevance is in a direct relation to the level of life standard. Due to all this. However.. the less relevant the price is as a criterion for purchase decision-making. The following rule applies here: the higher the standard. A product can be perceived as quality only due to the fact that it originates from a specific country or of poor quality because it originates from another one. Three of them will be pointed out here: the price. such as Germany. that this approach to the evaluation of alternatives is not the best solution and that some others are theoretically acceptable. for instance5.

the larger the number of the selective criteria. the final choice will be made by summarising all evaluated values and selecting the product with the highest total grade. The essence is in a consumer allowing the possibility of various product features to be evaluated as either positive or negative. The more permanent and expensive a product is. The first one is known as the noncompensational. when a highly-evaluated feature cannot compensate for other poor features. as a rule. a large number of alternatives are eliminated. these criteria then add up. which makes the decision-making easier from the very beginning. XVI chapter . non-compensational rule of decision-making that is used. By determining this sort of minimum.e. Its essence is in the consumer determining what the minimum performance of every chosen feature is that evaluated brands have to achieve. The logic used in this approach is the following: every brand is valued according to the previously selected criteria. and selected is the brand that receives the highest grand total of all features.e. occurs in several forms. the minimal acceptable threshold that the feature has to reach. the product weaknesses. the advantages a product has can compensate for the negatively evaluated features i. There are two basic approaches in using the above as well as many other criteria for product evaluation. For every considered feature the minimal acceptable level is determined.Purchase decision-making process 373 of a purchase of a certain product. The second approach to product evaluation is known as the compensational rule of decision-making. i. i. and the second one as compensational rule of decisionmaking.e. One of them is the rule of separation. It is important that positively evaluated features. If these minimum values are reached. What is their essence? The first. One of those variants is known as the rule of linking.

. 2. Zagreb 2. Masmedia. Kanuk (2004): Ponasanje potrosaca. MATE. What are the internal sources of information and what is their significance? 7. Zagreb 4. Define theoretical approaches of decision-making. (1993): Rjecnik marketinga. Schiffman. 4. i L. How do consumers evaluate alternatives? 1.5 nacela velicanstvene prodaje: Kako uspjesno prodavati zauvijek. Kesic. Opinio. Miniard (1995): Consumer Behavior. L. Muris Čičić . What are the specifics of Schiffman-Kanuk’s model of decisionmaking? 5. (2006): Ponasanje potrosaca.L. Gitomer.J. D. 6. The Dryden Press 5. Rocco. Engel. F. (2007): Mala crvena knjiga prodaje . Slavo Kukić . Zagrebacka skola ekonomije i menadzmenta.12. 3. J.P.374 Consumer Behaviour Questions for revision What is Hobson’s choice? Explain routine purchase behaviour. Zagreb 3. Zagreb Melika Husić-Mehmedović .G. List some sorts of problems in purchase decision-making. Blackwell and W.R. F. T. References 1.



377 SUBJECT INDEX A Absolute threshold of perception 82. 263. 164 Attribution theory xi. 17. 84 AIO xiii. 103 Beliefs 214. 218 Black box 5. 377 C Causal research 27 CETSCALE 121 Claritas PRIZM 263 . 18. 266 American Marketing Association (AMA) 5 Artefacts 217. 242 Behavioural theory of personality x. 226 Attitude change xi. 163. 156. 14 Business-to-Business Marketing (B2B) 11 Butterfly curve 85. 265. 158 B Baby-boom generation xiii.

156 Commercial buyers xiv. 378 E Emotional motives 51.378 Consumer Behaviour Cognitive dissonance theory xi. 341. Slavo Kukić . 223 D Descriptive research 27 Differential threshold of perception 82 Digital revolution 4 Direct marketing xiv. 378 Dogmatism 107. 339 Communication model xv. 121 Evaluation of alternatives xv. 370 Exploratory research 26 Extensive problem-solving 351 F Family life cycle xii. 322. 361 Disposal stage 7. 342. 333 Conclusive research 27 Conditional learning xi. 57 Ethics vii. 131 Consumer sovereignty 7 Consumption stage 7 Cultural changes xiii. 59 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . 278 Communication barriers xv. Muris Čičić . 1 Ethnocentrism 95. 183 Focus groups 40 Frustration 58.

247. 374 Horney’s socio-psychological theory 104. 268 Institutional customers xiv. 105. 281 H High-context cultures 227 Hobson’s choice 349. 27.Subject index 379 G Generation X xiii. 280 Interpretivism 25. 250 Generation Y 246. 39 Information search 283 Innovativeness 106. 244. 26 J Just Noticeable Difference (JND) 83 L Limited problem-solving 351 . 250 Generation Z 248 Generic goals 54 Gestalt theory 92 Governmental organizations xiv. 247. 121 I In-depth interviews 25. 121. 108. 107. 246.

51. Muris Čičić . 111. 113 Polychromic cultures 229 Positive goals 55 Positivism 25 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . 141. 59. 58. 57. Slavo Kukić . 65. 241 McClelland’s theory 60.380 Consumer Behaviour LOV xiii. 188 Norms 176. 265. 95. 220 O Observational learning 140. 71 Metaphor analysis 41 Model learning xi. 100. 142 P Pavlov’s theory 130. 132 Personality traits x. 71 Materialism 78. 104 Non-traditional family life cycle xii. 273 Low-context cultures 228 M Maslow’s hierarchy x. 137 Monochromic cultures 229 Motivational research 66 N Negative goals 55 Neo-Freudian theory of personality x. 263.

Subject index 381 Post-purchase behaviour 7. 347. 321. 32 R Rational motives 57 Reisman’s social theory 105 Repeated purchase 292. 7. 322. 11. 13. 322 Repetition 133 Rituals xiii. 262 Purchase xiv. 349 Purchase stage 7 Purchase with long-term trust 321. 283. 325 Primary needs 53 Problem/need recognition 7 Product-specific goals 54 Projective techniques 40. 257. 13. 225 Rokeach Value System – RVS 263 Routine purchase 351 S Schiffman-Kanuk model of decision-making xv. 69 Psychoanalytic theory of personality x. 317. 329 Q Qualitative research ix. 359 Post-purchase evaluation xiv. 28. 101 Psychographic segmentation xiii. 39 Quantitative research ix. 121. 320. 31. 357 Secondary needs 54 Selective perception 340 . 319. 179. 317. 317.

Muris Čičić . 227. 223. 215. 207 Subliminal perception 82. 86. 94 Symbols 14. 18.382 Consumer Behaviour Self-image 115. 268. 94 Social character of personality 108 Spokesperson xv. 274 W Weber’s Law 82. 85. 337 Status groups xii. 93. 197. 263. 334 T Trial purchase 321 Tricomponent attitude model 152 V VALS xiii. 83. 269. 86. 116 Sensory 77 Sensory adaptation 82. 225. 17. 84 Melika Husić-Mehmedović . Slavo Kukić . 231. 84.