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Persuasive Writing Week 5

Citing Sources

Last week, we learned: - How to read sources critically - Where to find sources - How to enhance your searching This week, we will cover: - APA and MLA documentation - Why we cite? - Parts of an APA Essay

- This is the week you will do peer reviews of at least 2 essays. See the instructions for this in Blackboard!

There are several different styles to cite sources, (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.), but for our essays, we will focus on citing in APA Style. APA: (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. MLA: (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Chicago: used in both the humanities and the social sciences. A bit more complex than either the MLA or the APA, it offers two approaches for documenting sources:

Please take a look in the APA Style Help folder under "Course Documents" in Blackboard. It will provide additional sites and tips for citing sources in this style.

Why are we going to focus on APA?
Most of you have probably covered APA Style or have used it in high school classes. I'm choosing this style because: - it's common for college writing - the formatting is consistent - it allows your readers to cross-reference your sources APA Style, more than likely, has changed since the last time you have used it, due to the advent of the internet. You can now cite "Kindles." Make sure your citing is up-to-date!

Why do we have to cite our sources?
We need to appropriately identify the source of our information. In most styles, the information needed is the same, but the way they are formatted is different.

Discussion 5.1
Read the article "Why Cite" on The Writing Center page for Yale University, and answer the following.

1. What reason to cite (out of the four) is most important to YOU? For example, if a person was using YOUR work in a paper, why would you want him or her to cite it?

Comparing APA and MLA
Here are a few differences between APA and MLA

Use author's last name, first Initial. Use author's last name, first name.

Date follows name. Place date in (parentheses).

Date goes with publication information.

Capitalize only the first word of any Capitalize every important word in title or subtitle. titles of books, articles and journals. Italicize titles of books, journals, magazines and newspapers. Underline or italicize the titles of books, articles and journals.

How are the styles the same?
- Reference pages are done in alphabetical order. - Second lines (or more) are indented one-half inch (five spaces). Example: Matczak, J. (2008). Everyone should try cheese curds at least once . New York: Green and Gold Press.

Discussion 5.2
Go to the APA Style FAQ page. Read the tips on "Punctuation" and "Grammar and Writing Style."

In the board, share one of these tips (questions) with the class. W is this tip important to mention (Is it not well known? It is a common mistake?) Is there anything else you can add to it?

Citing Sources:
What do you need to document in your writing? 1. Any direct quotation 2. Any idea that has come from someone else's work 3. Any fact or statistic that is not well known But what is common knowledge? How do I know if something not "well known?" When in doubt, cite

it's it!

* The checklist for documentation on page 205 of TIA is very helpful!

Citing Sources
At one time, footnotes were used to cite sources: these were placed at the "foot" of the page. Now, it's recommended you use in-text documentation.

In-Text Documentation
APA Style In-Text Documentation: - emphasizes the author and date of publication, and page numbers where it's appropriate (abbreviated with p. or pp.) - Page numbers are used with a quotation.

(whereas MLA places more emphasis on the author and the author's work)

Citing Sources:
One author: Matczak (2008) said that cheese curds are made with highquality whey. Work by Two authors: Cheese curds made with high-quality whey will sell for a higher price (Matczak and Smith, 2008).

Electronic source: This is done the same, author-date style.

The OWLS at Purdue site is a great resource for this!

General APA Guidelines for your essays
- Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standardsized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. - You should use 10-12 pt. Times New Roman font or a similar font.

General APA Guidelines for your essays
Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References. The example in your Harbrace Handbook on pages 641 - 650 is how you should model your essays!

Title Page
The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation. Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER (This should not be longer than 50 characters!)

Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this (flush right): TITLE OF YOUR PAPER page number

(See page 641 in Harbrace!)

Your abstract page should already include the page header (described before). On the first line of the abstract page, center and the word “Abstract." Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, and main ideas of your essay. It should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should be no longer than 120 words. (see pg. 642)

Main Body of Essay
- title is centered - double space is used throughout the paper - margins are 1 inch on both sides

See Harbrace, pages 643 - 649.

Reference Page
- Center the title - Entries are alphabetized on author's last name - subsequent lines are indented 5 spaces - Remember: There is no period after a URL - Personal communication (interviews, emails, etc.) are cited in the text, but do not appear in the reference list.

See example of Reference Page in Harbrace, page 650.

Discussion 5.3
Go to the Athabasca University APA Quiz site. Grab a pen and paper and take the quiz (starting after Appendix B, question 1). - Answer all 26 questions. - Check your answers. On the Discussion Board, talk about a question or two that you got wrong. The purpose of this exercise is to point out common mistakes in reference pages. Hopefully you won't make these in your essays!

Great job!
Keep up the great work! We're almost halfway through the semester! The midterm is next week! See the midterm prep folder under "Course Documents." Don't forget to to answer the Discussion questions and review two essays from your peers. You also have a journal entry due. Contact me if you have questions or need help!, (920) 606-0886