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GROUP OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSES FOR STUDENTS LOCATED IN TIMIȘOARA, ROMANIA Mirela – Alexandra ENACHE1, Norbert KAZAMER1, Radu STEPANESCU1 1 University “Politehnica” of Timișoara, Timișoara, Romania

ABSTRACT The current paper contains the constructive solution of
a group of green homes. The purpose was to construct a sustainable student campus which is not only minimising usage of energy but is also a friendly environment system. The design of the life cycle and the demolition of the construction is integrated as an analysis of the current project. Solutions for energy, water and recycling for both individual and group of homes are contained in the paper. Conclusions will emphasis the advantages of creating a group consisted of green buildings instead of small isolated houses. Keywords: green house, group of homes, energy optimisations, water optimisation

The purpose of the project is to achieve the three major requirements of sustainability (environmental, social and economical).

Figure 1 The Sustainabilty Piles

CONSTRUCTION Campus presentation

INTRODUCTION
The current project is designed in three main parts. The first part is consisted of the campus location which is set in the city of Timisoara, the architecture of the houses which is the same for all the five houses excepting the technical house, the campus structure which includes some spare time activities fields and the main building materials used which are mostly local. The optimisation and demand of energy is approached in the second part of the paper. After setting the source, it is presented an optimal solution for the main energy users. For the heating system we have chosen the Infrared Heat Panels, for hot water the solution was using solar panels, for the cooling system the optimisation consisted of both natural and mechanical ventilation and for all the energy production is obtained of photovoltaic panels. The third part is approached by optimising the main water consumers in the house and also by getting the best solution for recycling the produced waste. For water we have identified solutions for the toilet consumption, for having as few leaks as possible in the system and for having hot water as soon as possible at the faucets and showerheads. The paper presents solutions for managing the stormwater and the waste through composting piles. Within this subject we have chosen to achieve a small campus consisted of a group of houses for students, which can live there the entire year (including holidays). The campus is located in the city of Timisoara, and we chose as constrution area the land marked on the Figure 1. We chose this place because it is a location with a wide perspective for development and also it is close to a sports gym, market, and it has access to the main road. The surface is of 5 000 square meters and includes 5 houses, a technical house, 2 polyvalent sport fields, 1 swimming pool, 1 park and parking places. The district is surrounded by hedge.

Figure 2 The construction site chosen in the city of Timișoara

and are designed to host 20 students. we take as model one house. which loses a considerable amount of energy. The techniques of realizing the wall is simple: the mixture of materials shall be inserted in the formwork and compacted. Walls of rammed earth and recycling mineral wool. The kitchen must have at least 10. and is therefore not recommended to have solar heat. They absorb the heat and keeps the house cool during the day at high Figure 3 The plan of the dwelling The technical house is situated in the centre of the campus. The rammed earth wall has a thickness of 35 cm. 2. thermally insulating and very strong and hardwearing.00 sqm). Because of the nature of the materials used it is incombustible. For the left gaps it is used low-e glass. and it has the same building materials as the houses.00 sqm so that people do not become claustrophobic. and ecological roof shingles. Laundry room (4. minimising the energy consumption and using green energy. the automation of the lighting. only that the roof is completely green. Because all the 5 dwelling are the same.00 sqm): divided into study areas and a small library. 4. is automated and can provide optimal temperature for all homes. The wall humidity is between 40-60%.00 sqm): consists of the technical room which serves at electricity distributor both for the campus dwellings and for the national network. and persons with special needs. The wall has a compressive strength of 4. 1 living room (23. 3-5% cement and water.00 sqm). for the house presentation in detail. the houses are also built of ecological construction materials. does not allow the sunlight penetration. chalk. Rammed earth buildings are common in arid regions where wood is in scarce supply. The rooms are positioned to comply the rules regarding heating and lighting. Does not emanate chemicals like other building materials. is home grounded.The shape of the house is rectangular because it avoids the thermal bridges. is a technique used in the building of walls using the raw materials of mud. The 5 houses are designed with the same architecture and materials and is intended for both female and male. The architecture of the dwelling consists of :4 bedrooms(4 x12. These are positioned to the east as the sun rises and people can wake up easily.00 sqm. We chose this option because is less polluting. During the day. It has a wood frame structure with rammed earth walls and recyclable mineral wool insulation. and also solve the possible noise problems. Figure 4 The technical house plan Building Materials In order to achieve a green house. The roof is made of 2 types of materials: green roof. 1 kitchen (13. and to the west because it is not so lighted during the day. .00 sqm): is intended for both as a meeting space as well as media space. The bedrooms are located on the east and on the west side.00 sqm.2 The campus area is redesignable for more homes in the future with another arrangement of the paths. Study room (60. Bathrooms are situated at east and west . This is divided in 4 parts: . Does not favour the mould development. gravel. compared to a concrete class C8/10 that has compressive strength of 8 MPa.00 sqm and is home grounded. It also has the added advantage of being a simple way to construct walls. The technical house has 123. 2 bathrooms (2x4.00 sqm). even if the humidity is high. and can be occupied by at least 20 people.00 sqm): Common to all persons on campus and also is advantageous for saving energy and space inside the dwellings. The living room is inhabited daytime and because of that is located in the south in order to benefit the sun light all day. temperatures are higher due to cooking.3 MPa ideal for a ground house. The media room (22. The advantages of rammed earth walls are:      100% recyclable.00 sqm).1 Technical room (19. 4 students in each house. lime. Water resistant. and the kitchen is situated in north because it is a work space. The bedrooms must have a surface of at least 12. The house has 117. The dwellings are in number of 5. Rammed earth. 3.

66. Advantages of the green roof are:        Reduces and delays stormwater runoff. d mineral wool=0. Forming a covalent bond with the glass. an almost invisible layer.46. magnesium and barium. planted over a waterproofing membrane. calcium. (4) 0. potassium. Absorb the rain water. applied to glass to increase its thermal efficiency. Antibacterial.) that are coming in contact with the roof. This type of insulating is used because it is ecological.3 temperatures and in the evening they are slowly releasing the stored heat and warm up the rooms. Help filter and bind airborne dust and other particles. etc. the resulting baked-on pyrolytic or hard coat low-E is extremely durable. The green roof is uncirculable and has a thickness of 50 cm. in salts (nitrates and carbonates) to be washed by rainwater. Keeps the home cooler in the summer by reflecting solar heat away. NOx. Roof The green roof is a part of the building that is partially covered with vegetation and a growing medium. CO.  Can have a unique design. Sound-absorbing. . Help improve air quality by reducing CO2 levels. Advantages of the ecological shingels are:    Anti-polluting. either by their implementation in different colours as well as different shapes and paintings.46* =6. Helping to reduce heating costs. Thermal insulation layer calculation According to the calculation of Thermotechnical norm of building construction elements (indicative C1072005) results: R=Rsi+∑Rs+Rse. Figure 7 Shingles roof Glass Low-E is a very thin. Reducing the energy consumed by the air conditioner. is resistant over time and is resistant to humidity. Mineral wool fibres are synthetic vitreous with random orientation and a mass content of over 18% of oxides of sodium. Advantages of Low-e glass are:     Is designed to deflect Ultra-Violet and infrared radiation. (2) U=0. The window has 3 sheets of 3 mm of glass.24 m= 25 cm (5) (6) The ecological roof shingles contains special photocatalytic granules coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2): this substance is activated by UV rays and triggers an oxidation process that converts pollutants (NO. Reduce the urban heat island effect. Figure 6 Layers consisted of the green roof Figure 5 Image of a rammed earth wall The recycled mineral wool insulation is willed at the exterior of the walls. reducing cost of both heating and cooling. provide sound insulation. Self-cleaning. Insulate the building. make the buildings and their surroundings quieter.15 W/ mp*K (3) R= + + =0. (1) U= . fire safety.

also the students should have a green living.4  Keeps the home warmer in the winter by reflecting furnace heat back into the home. For every house it is necessary a total of 20 photovoltaic panels with an output of 300 W and 16% efficiency. This energy consumption is possible because the house is well insulated and the materials used to build the house have a high thermal inertia. which has a good thermal insulation. For saving a high amount of consumption. during periods of high solar radiation. the system is connected to the national electricity distribution system. In that way. when panels will not produce the entire energy required (e.g. the energy surplus produced can be sold to the distributor and bought back in the sunless period . computer. so it means to be aware of all sources that consume energy unnecessarily and of all energy losses that may occur.g. it is possible to obtain even a small profit.) and the major consumers: cooling and heating systems. Overall system cost will payback in about 25 years. Obtaining the energy The electricity is obtained entirely from a photovoltaic system that uses panels to capture solar radiation and convert it into electricity. Figure 8 Low-E glass principle ENERGY SOLUTIONS AND OPTIMISATIONS Demand of energy The designed home it is made for 4 students. the system consumes only 1000 kWh/month in the coldest period of the year. it should be obtained at least 1 600 W/year. Figure 10). it is preferred to use an infrared heating technology. The Infrared Heat Panels produce heat in a similar way with the one created by the Sun. This value was obtained after calculating the amount of energy consumed by all the devices in the home (e. they occupy a very small space (e. T. x Figure 9 The principle of obtaining and distributing energy from solar panels Heating system For heating the dwellings. Because the efficiency of these panels depends on the weather conditions. the entire production of energy is about 800 kWh/month. The good thing is that it is sold green energy which has a better price and buy energy on a lower price. so that is enough for our demand. For maximum efficiency. fridge. so the temperature will be constant and the residents will have an extra comfort. So. the average energy demand for a home is about to 780 kWh/month. the panels must be placed in a position and at an angle that allows maximum sun exposure. The waves are emitted by the panels located inside the house. These panels occupy an area of 40. This technology is also advantageous in terms of energy because for a house of 120. Figure 9).g. These panels also look very good and can be used like decorations in the period when are not in use. The Infrared Panels will be placed in every room. which means that the walls will store heat and will release it gradually. when the difference between inside and outside temperature is more than 30⁰ C. the entire installed capacity for a home is 6 kWh and for every installed watt.00 sqm for a house. In that way.00 sqm. In this way. so the best place for panels is on the roof. In this way. Fig.V. it is needed to be used only energysaving light and devices from A energy efficiency class and also the most performant systems for heating and cooling. Because the house is a green one.

and it can reduce the utility bills. The second cooling system. This could help with leaks. appliances). or by watering the lawn and garden with minimum amount of water it can be saved a lot of money. Cooling system As the house was designed to be comfortable and the area where is built is a worm one it is necessary to improve the air quality. These use solar radiation to heat water and function even when the outside temperature is lower than the temperature of the hot water. the walls and the roof material help a lot to keep an optimum temperature because the materials have a high thermal inertia. The entire system has a power of 48 000 Btu. These panels will be mounted on the roof and facing the sun.In building a new home. with solar panels. For this purpose. Because of that. . a house consumes 200 l of hot water so it is necessary to install 5 sqm of solar panels for each house. it is used a solar system. Insulating pipes can provide hot water a quicker use. there were designed two systems: a natural and a mechanical one. and can lower the chance of damage from burst pipes. WATER. resulting a cool house. will be used only when the natural system can not cool the entire required space. The entire system is presented in the Figure 11. By having installed in the system high efficiency clothes washers or toilets. Figure 11 The heating water system Every day. saves water and money. The natural system uses the natural airflow to ventilate the house. The dwelling is specially designed to obtain a lower temperature and to stop the sunlight to enter in the house in certain periods of the day. the water will pass through an electrical boiler before being consumed. showers. Also. is mechanic and uses electricity for cooling the air. SOLUTIONS AND OPTIMISATIONS.  Design the hot water system to minimize the distance between the hot water heater and each fixture (faucets. it should be considered the following ways to save water and money:  Install a pressure-regulating valve to reduce the pressure of water entering the house to 4 atm.  Insulate hot water pipes. If the solar panels cannot heat the water to the desired temperature. Water-Efficient Appliances and Fixtures A typical dwelling is consuming approximately 1 000 l of water every day.5 Figure 12 Comparisson between a green and a traditional roof Figure 10 The Infrared panels heating system Hot water To obtain hot water. It can be fixed by centrally locating the water heater.

There can be purchased highefficiency shower fixtures for around 10 euro to 20 euros a piece and achieve water savings of 25-60 %. gardens. Selecting a high-efficiency showerhead with a flow rate of less than 10 l/min. and landscapes can be accomplished either manually or with an automatic irrigation system. Faucets and showerheads Figure 13 Water consumption graph for a typical dwelling Figure 15 Aerator screw-on tip of the faucet Faucets Toilets Costs can be reduced by using water more efficiently -detecting and fixing leaky faucets. account for more than 15 % of indoor household water use. In-ground sprinkler and drip irrigation systems need to be operated and maintained properly to be water efficient. Landscaping and Irrigation With common watering practices. installing high efficiency toilets. or soil moisture sensors that activate sprinklers only when soil moisture levels drop below pre-programmed levels. Composting toilets can help conserve water and energy. typically with no water or small volumes of flush water. Drip-type irrigation systems. The decomposition process is generally faster than the anaerobic decomposition used in wet sewage treatment systems such as septic tanks. using more than 30 percent of the indoor water usage. The optimum solution it was using an automatic irrigation systems. via composting or managed aerobic . A composting toilet is a dry toilet that uses a predominantly aerobic processing system that treats excreta. reduce water pollution. Installing system controllers such as rain sensors that prevent sprinklers from turning on during and immediately after rainfall. Although not watering the lawn. Showering accounts for approximately 17 % of residential indoor water. Irrigating lawns. Toilets are by far the biggest water consumption system in the house. and may generate useful garden compost. are considered the most efficient of the automated irrigation methods because they deliver water directly to the plants' roots.6 decomposition. garden. The aerator-the screw-on tip of the faucetultimately determines the maximum flow rate of a faucet. Toilets also happen to be a major source of wasted water due to leaks and inefficiency. Aerators are inexpensive and are an effective water-efficiency measure. a large portion of the water applied to lawns and gardens is not absorbed by the plants. While controllers come in all types of shapes and sizes. for maximum water efficiency. the most important features are how well they can be programmed to handle diverse landscape and weather Figure 14 The composting toilet principle Composting toilets are another option for those who want to be very green. including water efficient spray heads. sometimes irrigation is necessary. or other landscape is the most water-efficient practice. It is lost through evaporation or by watering too quickly or in excess of the plants' needs.

It is also important to revise the watering schedule as the seasons change. erodes soil and stream banks. and coffee grounds. lime or calcium-making it ideal for gardens. helping retain moisture and suppress plant diseases and pests. Reducing irrigation water use. and browns is important for compost development. or coastal water. stream. vegetable waste.This includes materials such as grass clippings.  Reduces the need for chemical fertilizers. the green materials provide nitrogen. Regarding the studies.This includes materials such as dead leaves. and the water provides moisture to help break down the organic matter. Stormwater picks up chemicals.7 conditions. Managing stormwater Rain rushes off roofs. Capture Rainwater RECYCLING Compost is organic material that can be added to soil to help plants grow. of water during the peak summer months. fruit scraps. Advantages of composting:  Enriches soil. Water . This rush of stormwater causes flooding downstream. which harms fish and other wildlife. or branches. and other pollutants and flows into a storm sewer system or directly to a lake. The brown materials provide carbon for the compost. and car and window washing. At every dwell will be installed a different rain barrel which will manage the captured rainwater. All composting requires three basic ingredients: Browns . Figure 17 A typical composting pile Figure 16 Rainwater capture system Another alternative is to collect rainwater from rooftops in rain barrels. . and muddies the water. Greens . and should be composted instead. using rain barrels is legal in Timisoara. A rain barrel will save the average dwell about 20 000 l. greens. Anything that enters most storm sewer systems is discharged untreated into the waterbodies we use for swimming. dirt. river. pavement and compacted soil in developed areas. wetland.Having the right amount of water. mosquito-proof containers that collect and store rainwater that would otherwise wind up in storm drains and streams.  Encourages the production of beneficial bacteria and fungi that break down organic matter to create humus. helps to minimize the negative impacts of stormwater runoff. Over-watering with automated sprinklers is most common during the spring and fall because irrigation schedules are set to summer watering needs. A weather-based controller will be considered to be purchased. The compost pile should have an equal amount of browns to greens. A rain barrel can also be used to collect water and store it for when it is most need. fishing and providing drinking water. Food scraps and yard waste currently make up 20 to 30 percent of what we throw away. a potent green house gas. debris.  Reduces methane emissions from landfills and lowers your carbon footprint. Rain provides free "soft water" with no chlorine. or 40% of total household water use. flower pots. It should be also alternated layers of organic materials of different-sized particles. a rich nutrient-filled material. Making compost keeps these materials out of landfills where they take up space and release methane. in combination with reducing impervious surface areas and pollutants such as pesticides.

To demonstrate the statement above. This emphasys the fact that after the full life of the house. Figure 19 Building materials influence over the environment at a rammed-earth house . the materials are unpolluting and can be still used for other different projects. Figure 18 Campus design Figure 20 Building materials influence over the environment at a mansoury house The campus system presents the following advantages:  the technical house is providing both study and multimedia room for the students and also is a place for social interaction. Building material Rammed earth Glass Low-e Mineral wool Shingles Green roof Wood This analysis was made for the main building materials. lighting and water income are managed. because of the green environment of the campus the noise pollution is reduced. the sports ground offers a higher efficiency because is served for a large number of householders. the technical house is the only place where the electricity. It can be easily observed that the rammedearth built house obtained a fossil fuel usance of five times smaller than the traditional mansoury home. Also in the charts represented in Figure 18 and Figure 19 can be observed various differences between major indicators regarding the impact of building materials over the environment and health. From this point the utilities are distributed to each dwelling. Table 1 End of life for building materials Reuse [%] Recycling [%] 100% 100% 100% 100% 60% 50% 40% 50% Burn [%] Landfill [%]    The graph below represents the influence of the building materials over the environment.8 DISCUSSION Using a campus system like the one presented in the paper instead of only one dwelling can obtain certain advantages. Table 1 shows that the main part of the materials are recyclable or reusable. it is presented in Figure 18 the campus design.

Eng. Associate Prof. From a social perspective. Springer. Sustainability of Construction – Integrated Approach to Life-time Structural Engineering.softpedia. 2012.Eng.Eng. Economically. [6] Learning About Renewable Energy | Using Renewable Energy. Nicolae CRAINIC. USA [4] E. Hawthom.profi-solar. Adrian CIUTINĂ. 2012. Green Building-Guidebook for Sustainable Arhitecture. Schwarz. Huan.Phd. P. Konkkari. H. Princeton Architectural Press. Blok. Assistant Prof.ro [Accessed 12 January 2013].epa. the campus provides a meeting. Spain. 2004. Stang.ro [Accessed 06 January 2013]. USA ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank to Associate Prof. 2012.Phd. 2012.Phd. [7] Hot Water And Heating With The Cheapest Energy | Calculate The Demand. usage of common spaces. which all contributed at an inexpensive and simple method of construction. 2007.gov [12] Rain Water Harvesting. Neufert.com [Accessed 10 January 2013]. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. Multicompa Lds. 2010. Laurence. Alutus.gov [Accessed 04 January 2013]. V. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. [ONLINE] Available at: http://eartheasy. research. [ONLINE] Available at: http://technicalstudies. [10] NOMENCLATURE [ds] . [ONLINE] Available at: http://forum. Prof. Sizing Solar Panels | Calculator. social and economical point of view.Eng. interaction and study place for the inhabitants.com [13] Eartheasy. Romania [5] L. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. Daniel GRECEA. A campus with persons of same age and occupation can generate creative group activities (e. M. Mösle. Manualul arhitectului.. R. Bauer. P. REFERENCES [1] I.layer width [m] [R] – heat transfer resistance [m2K/W] [Ri] – heat transfer resistance for internal surfaces [m2K/W] [Re] – heat transfer resistance for external surfaces [m2K/W] [U] – thermical transmittance [W/m2K] [λ] – thermical conductivity [W/mK] [11] United States Environmental Protection Agency.sistemeeco. How to build a house. T. The site is also using green energy.Neufert. Regarding the whole from environmental. cheap materials.Eng.ro [Accessed 04 January 2013]. there have been found methods for using global energetic systems.Phd. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.Phd. it can be concluded that the campus is a sustainable and green complex of dwellings. [9] Green House | Photovoltaic Panels. uses local and reusable and recyclable materials. Associate Prof. This paper was elaborated for the preparation of IP Erasmus ISTIAS 2013 Project (AUTARCHIC House) held in Valladolid..2012.panosol.9 CONCLUSION From the environmental point of view the campus contains green spaces.Braganca. C.Eng.Phd. C. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. Germany [3] A. 2010. Neufert. 2012. Associate Prof.g.com . Dinu GUBENCU for their advice and support at editing this paper. Snyder. The architecture is also seen as an unity and it is fitted with surroundings. COST. 2007. 2012. The Green Hous: New Directions in Sustainable Architecture. 2008. sport). Dorin LELEA.youngster. [8] ECO Systems | Solar Photovoltaic Panels. Portugal [2] M. The Tauton Press.nrel. Daniel DAN.