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1 CIRCULATING FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION (CFBC) TECHNOLOGY: For fuels with high moisture content and low heating

value such as biomass, municipal wastes, paper & pulp industry wastes, sludge etc. and small capacities, bubbling fluidized bed technology is recommended. The circulating fluidized bed technology is considered suitable for waste fuels with a high percentage of non-combustibles(heating value 5- 5!"#$g%. The &irculating Fluidized 'ed &ombustion technology is environmentally benign. The process employs a &irculating fluidized bed combustor that operates at a temperature of around ())-*)))&. The fuel(crushed coal% along with the sorbent (limestone% is fed to the lower furnace where it is $ept suspended and burnt in an upward flow of combustion air. The sorbent is fed to facilitate capture of sulfur from the coal in the bed itself resulting in conse+uent low sulfur emission. The combustion air is fed in two stages - ,rimary air direct through the combustor and -econdary air, way up the combustor above the fuel feed point. .ue to high gas velocities the fuel ash and unburnt fuel are carried out of the combustor with the flue gases. This is then collected by a recycling cyclone separator and returned to lower furnace. The heat transfer surfaces are usually embedded in the fluidized bed and steam generated is passed through the conventional steam cycle operating on /an$in &ycle. 0lternatively, without the Fluid 'ed 1eat 23changer, the heat transfer surface may be distributed over the combustor and the convective pass.

The features of !r u"at!#$ f"u!%!&e% 'e% 'o!"er are %es r!'e% 'e"o()
1. 4ide range of fuel adaptability5 &onventional boilers for power generation can use only fossil fuel such as high grade coal, oil, and gas. The &F'& also uses low grade coal, biomass, sludge, waste plastics, and waste tire as fuel. 6. 7ow pollution 2missions of pollutants such as 893 and -93 are significantly decreased without adding special environment measures. For the case of fluidized bed boiler, the desulfurization is intrafurnace desulfurization using mainly limestone as the fluidizing material. For the denitration, ordinary boilers operate at combustion temperatures from :,;))9& to :,5))9&, and the circulating fluidized bed boiler operates at lower temperatures ranging from (5)9& to *))9& so that the thermal 893 emissions (generated 893 depending on temperature% are suppressed. <n addition, the operation of circulating fluidized bed boiler is conducted by two stage combustion5 the reducing combustion at the fluidized bed section= and the o3idizing combustion at the freeboard section. Then, the unburnt carbon is collected by a high temperature cyclone located at e3it of the boiler to recycle to the boiler, thus increasing the denitration efficiency. . 1igh combustion efficiency 1igh combustion efficiency is attained by e3cellent combustion mechanism of circulating fluidization mode. ;. -pace saving and high maintenance ability -pace saving is attained because there is no need of separate desulfurization unit, denitration unit, and fuel finely crashing unit. 0ccordingly, sections of trouble occurrence become few, and maintenance becomes easy.

A%*a#ta$es of C!r u"at!#$ F"u!%!&e% Be% Co+'ust!o# Te h#o"o$,:
Fue" F"e-!'!"!t,: The relatively low furnace temperatures are below the ash fusion temperature for nearly all fuels. 0s a result the furnace design is independent of ash characteristics which allows a given furnace to handle a wide variety of fuels. 7ow grade coals, high

rocess . *(-**@ carbon burnout has been achieved. Fluidized 'ed &ombustion .ash re>ects. . -96 removal efficiency of *5@ and higher has been demonstrated along with good sorbent utilization. loads down to 65@ of !&/ and load change rates of up to A@ per minute are possible.esulphurization is accomplished in the combustion zone itself by addition of limestone in the bed. The very high internal & e3ternal recalculating rates of solids result in uniform temperatures throughout the combustor. ?-0 &F'&%5 <mproved &ombustion 2fficiency5 The long residence time in the furnace resulting from collection#recirculation of solid particulate via the cyclone.iagram (7a$eland.roven Technology5 . 9perating Fle3ibility5 &an be designed for cyclic or base load operation. even with difficult-toburn fuels. plus the vigorous solids#gas contact in the furnace caused by the fluidization airflow. result in high combustion efficiency. wastes & other difficult fuels can be burnt easily in the &F'& boiler. . 7ow furnace temperature plus staging of air feed to the furnace produce very low 893 emissions. high sulfur coals. &hlorine & Fluorine are largely retained in ash. -implified Fuel Feeding5 Fuel pulverization not re+uired and only crushing is sufficient for fuel feed. biomass.ollution &ontrol & /educed 2missions5 . <n-situ .

CFBC S.reparation & Feeding -ystem 0sh /emoval -ystem Fue" Fee% S. This reduces erosion problems in the furnace which are a ma>or cause for maintenance problems in &F'&. The optimum system design depends upon ash and sulfur content in coal.ressurised &irculating Fluidised 'ed (.F' either &irculating or 'ubbling. This </-&F' technology is e3clusively patented by 'abcoc$ & 4ilco3. . The waste heat from the combustion turbine is recovered in a 1/-D that generates steam to drive the steam turbine of the combined cycle.ste+ Fuel feed system is either pneumatic or wet type. <n the latter case. 8ormally coal is fed as coal -water mi3ture as they have demonstrated to burn more evenly. internal recirculation &F' has been developed.ste+ -orbents are not combustibles and are generally fed either continuously or intermittent. The commercial availability of most of these units e3ceeds *(@. The regulation of this secondary recycle system offers furnace temperature control resulting in improved boiler performance. the multi cyclone dust collector captures finer solids which pass through the ?-beam and recycles them to the lower furnace in a controlled manner. The flue gas undergoes a final clean-up through ceramic candle filters before entering the combustion turbine at around (:C)&./ecycling &yclone.(@ particle collection efficiency for the two-stage particle separation system. coal-water mi3ture has found favours since large +uantities of water are needed for coals with high ash. The fuel feed size is lower than ). For fuels with low ash contents. <t offers higher combustion efficiency due to more . The manufacture claim to achieve B**. The sorbent is crushed to around mm top size.o#e#ts The &F'& systems comprise of the following ma>or components5 • • • • • • Fluidised 'ed &ombustor & associated systems Fluid 'ed 1eat 23changer -olids separation system .ste+ Co+. ?-beam particle separators &onventional steam turbine systems Fuel . <n addition. 0 cyclone separates particulate from pressurised flue gas stream and returns them to the bed. <nternal recirculation &F' uses ?-'eam separators installed in the flue gas e3it path to collect and recycle the solids directly to the bottom of the furnace. ?-beams are a staggered array of stainless steel channels in the furnace e3it plane which capture most of the solids suspended in the flue gas.Foster 4heeler has more than :5) &F' steam generators in operation. bars at around (A:)&.&F'% process has been preferred by Foster 4heeler over the 'ubbling bed. The fuel is fed in the form of coal-water paste with 65@ water by weight. &ombustion is aided by compressed air usually under a pressure of :) to :. The </-&F' operates at low flue gas velocities of ( m#s as compared to 6A m#s with e3ternal recirculation &F'. dries and fed in loc$ hoppers Te h#o"o$! a" A%*a# e+e#ts <n addition to e3ternal particle recirculation &F'. The &F'& process has been integrated with 0dvanced . The fuel & sorbent are fed into a .ressurised Fluidised 'ed &ombustion system.A5 in. which affects its efficiency. This design uses significantly less amount of refractory due to elimination of hot gas cyclone path. Sor'e#t Fee% S. loc$hoppers are used.

since a circulating unit is taller and more slender. 7ow sorbent consumption for the same sulfur removal because of increased efficiency. . 0 higher velocity in the circulating mode results in units of smaller size for the same capacity. 'etter 893 control from ease of staged combustion.carbon burnout in circulating mode.

This company has supplied the F'& boilers to Ganoria &hemicals. 9ther . wood wastes. Fizag(65!4. 7urgi for F'&. 'abcoc$ & 4ilco3 has also supplied few bubbling bed F'& boilers in <ndia since :**6. (E*))-E*5)#$4% I#%!a# S e#ar!o Fluidised 'ed &ombustion is a proven & established technology (not new. 0ll these plants are still in operation. -urat. /enu$oot (:!4 captive power plant based on the most advanced <nternalparticle recirculation F'&. !#s 7urgi 7ent>es 'abcoc$ 2nergietechni$ Dmbh (77'%. Foster 4heeler is the only e3perienced pet-co$e fired &F'& supplier in <ndia. There are over :) operating &F'& boilers worldwide. Foster 4heeler has more than :5) &F' steam generators in operation. /enu$oot and &entral . 0nother notable fact is that '&4 does not have any e3perience with petroleum-co$e fired F'& within or outside <ndia.ulp !ills. 1owever with pet-co$e. <nterestingly. Status &F'& technology has been proven for all type of fuels including high ash coal. coal washery re>ects. before :**6. 1owever F'& plants are economical only for poor +uality fuels which can not be fired in conventional boilers. in contrast to general perception%. lignite.Te h#o"o$. The bidders include <1<.&7Hs proposed refinery at 'hatinda in . petroleum co$e% and !ysore . Dermany has . <-D2& "ohn Thompson. -namprogetti for <D&& and Foster 4heeler. '&4 currently does not have any new order on hand in <ndia. ?-0 supplied few &irculating F'& boilers in :**6-*5 through its <ndian licensee. to supply '&4 boilers of all types in <ndia as Therma3 'abcoc$ & 4ico3 7td. Trichy = &F/<. had floated an open tender for their proposed power plant with options both for F'& & <D&&. <D&& is also techno-economically competitive with F'&. .aper !ills. &urrently Foster 4heeler is directly e3ecuting two new orders from /ain &alcining.ue to this 2ssar 9il. &urrently most <ndian oil refineries are planning to set up refinery residue fired captive power plants. !#s 'abcoc$ & 4ilco3 have about . The commercial availability of most of these units e3ceeds *(@. 'hadravati(6)!4. The common <ndian fuels used include high ash coals. The most important of these is the Ganoria &hemicals.hanbad etc.6 &F'& steam generators (B(A)) !4% in operation worldwide.-? oil companies are planning on similar lines. currently. multi-fuel%.un>ab plans to go for <D& . were invariably supplied by '127 and based on obsolete 7urgi bubbling bed F'& technology licensed to '127 by 7urgi 7ent>es 'abcoc$. 7ater small size captive power plants also used F'& boilers.) operating &F' units worldwide. '&4 has formed a >oint venture with Therma3 7td.& based plants. /ecently. 7ater Foster 4heeler. biomass and lignite. 1.ilot and e3perimental F'& boilers were in operation as early as :*AA in <ndia at '127. <nitially these boilers were used for co-generation and process gas#steam applications at industrial installations. . refinery residue etc. 0ll initial F'& boilers. COSTS The investment costs of pro>ects based on the &F'& technology are much lesser than the conventional . .

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