FOUNDATION

A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the earth.

Types of foundation and their uses
Foundation of building as the name implies is the starting of a building construction on site really. Types of building, nature of soil and environmental conditions are the major determinant of type of foundation you will use for your building. 1)Strip foundation-This is the most common type, it is mainly used where you have strong soil base and non-waterlogged areas. Most small buildings of just a floor are constructed with this type of foundation . Depends on the structural engineers recommendation , the depth of your foundation could be from 600mm to 1200mm mostly for small scale buildings . When the soil is excavated, a level at which the concrete will settle evenly is established, then concrete is poured this may be from 150mm(6”) thick to 450mm(18”) thick depending also on building after that block is set round the trenches at the center of foundation ,the foundation usually follows the block lines. The blocks are then layed to d.p.c level before another concrete is poured on top, this is the german or oversite concrete. This type seems to be the cheapest. 2)Pad foundation-This is where isolated columns (pillars) are casted from the foundation to carry a slab at the top of the ground. This is mostly used when you want to make use of the under of building as parking space or when the other space is not conducive to have foundation. Imagine you are planning to build a house across a flowing stream and you want a situation where you can use your boat to pass under the building because the stream is under . Then you may not need to dig foundation that will cut across the river but just by applying columns (pillars) at the edge of the river like a bridge, this columns are thus isolated and there foundations are reffered to as pad. 3)Raft foundation-This is where you have concrete spread around your building from the base of foundation all through to the german floor/oversite concrete/ground floor slab. It is mainly used in areas where the soil are sandy and loose, you spend more on this than the other previous two most of the time. It is also recommended in waterlogged areas but with buildings of lessstoreys It has a ground beam which shuts out from the foundation base and is also attached to the ground floor slab to form a network of concrete embedded round the building space. The ground beam are usually from 600mm to 1200mm for low buildings. 4)Pile foundation-The most expensive and the strongest type of foundation, this

and earthbag foundations. rubble trench foundations. Spread footing foundation A spread footing foundation. other deep foundations are typically put in place using excavation anPile foundation systems Shallow foundation A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface. a waterlogged area of high building may also require this. which is typical in residential building. The soil are bored deep down the earth and filled with concrete to be able to support loads of multistory building on top. a poor soil at shallow depth. foremost of which is the weight (load) of the structure it will support as well as penetration of soft near- . has a wider bottom portion than the load-bearing foundation walls it supports. pad foundations. drilled shafts. or site constraints. rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. There are many reasons a geotechnical engineer would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation.requires specialist engineering to do. and caissons. Most skyscrapers are constructed with this foundation type. Piles are generally driven into the ground in situ. Shallow foundations include spread footing foundations.There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including the pile. It is the costliest hence it is used for high rise building mostly. slab-on-grade foundations. This wider part "spreads" the weight of the structure over more area for greater stability. the pier (which is analogous to a column). Foundations may also be classified as:DEEP FOUNDATION A deep foundation is a type of foundation distinguished from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground. The design and layout of spread footings is controlled by several factors. mat-slab foundations. but some of the common reasons are very large design loads.

But for high rise building it is not sufficient. .surface layers. and penetration through near-surface layers likely to change volume due to frost heave or shrink swell. These foundations are common in residential construction that includes a basement. and in many commercial structures.

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