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Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network

Breeding and seed production of silver pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede) at the Mariculture evelopment !enter of Batam
Nur Muflich "uni#anto, $#amsul Ak%ar and &akimin The Indonesian marine finfish aquaculture sector has a new potential species, silver pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede). Silver pompano is a pelagic and active species that is easy to domesticate and culture in tropical marine waters. The Silver pompano belongs to the arangidae (trevally and !ac"s) and lives in the coral reef areas of less than # meters depth ($aton, et.al., %&'&). (ccording to )orut *orlan (+,,-), Silver pompano live in the open sea and are found in the (tlantic, Indian and $acific oceans. .uvenile silver pompano are commonly found in sandy areas or near sandy/clay estuary water. (t the !uvenile stage they tend to group together, becoming solitary as adults ()ianchi, 0., %&'1). Sand molluscs and other invertebrates are the main natural food of this fish ()ianchi, 0., %&'1). Silver pompano was introduced from Taiwan, hina because it is the most popular species cultured in Taiwan, but it is also found in Indonesian waters. It ta"es 2 years for the fish to mature as broodstoc" ((nonymous, +,,#). (s the fish grow fast and fetch a good mar"et price it has a good potential for aquaculture in the (sia/$acific. (t present the 3ariculture 4evelopment entre of )atam has been successful in breeding and producing the seed of silver pompano so that the fingerlings can be produced locally for grow out and reduce reliance on importated fingerlings from overseas sources. The price of silver pompano is around 5p. 6,.,,,7"g or about 8S9 67"g, almost the same as the price for grouper. :owever, the silver pompano is easier to farm, faster growing so shortening the grow out period, has a high survival rate, is more disease resistant and can be stoc"ed in floating cages at around 2 cm si;e.

Broodstock management
)roodstoc"s management, larval rearing, nursery and post harvest are "ey areas for the success of seed production. )roodstoc" are recruited from cultured stoc" at the floating net cages. The fish that are selected for broodstoc" should be at around % "g body weight, have no abnormalities and the body should be propotionally balanced. )roodstoc" are fed trash fish, pellets, vitamins and multivitamins mi<ed at about 2/1= of the total body weight. >ater quality management is vital in order to succeed in production. The water e<change is about -,,= in +- hours, and water quality parameters are maintained at p: #.-/#.', 4? -/6 ppm, water temperature +&/2%@ and salinity at 2,/2+ ppt. Silver pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede). follow monthly lunar cycles. Spawning is stimulated by hormonal treatment and no natural spawning ta"es place at present. The : 0 is administered by in!ection to mature broodstoc" at +1, I87Cg dosage and fibrogen at 1, I87Cg dosage. The in!ection has to be done twice across a two day period. The eggs are usually released on the third day with 6,/#,= fecundity and are about ',,/'1, microns in si;e.

Larval rearing
The capacity of the larvae rearing tan"s is 6 mA. The stoc"ing density is maintained at +,,,,,, eggs7tan" or +, eggs7liter. The hatching rate of silver pompano eggs is about 61/#1=. ( flow/through system is used for larval rearing maintained at three liters7minute increasing to ten liters7minute at the end of the larval rearing period. $hytoplan"ton Nannochloropsis sp is given during the first %- days at +,, liters in the morning and afternoon. Tan" bottom cleaning by siphoning

$pawning technique
The capacity of the broodstoc" spawning tan" is %, mA and %, fishes at %B% male to female ratio are "ept in the spawning tan". 3ale broodstoc" are smaller than the females. The spawning patten of silver pompano does not

'a%le () Feeding programs for silver pompano %roodstock) 4ay 3onday Tuesday >ednesday Thursday *riday Saturday Sunday *eed ompositions Squids D pellets mi<ed D )iovit aquatic Trashfish D pellets mi<ed D )iovit aquatic Trashfish D pellets mi<ed D )iovit aquatic Squids D pellets mi<ed D )iovit aquatic D vitamin Trashfish D pellets mi<ed D )iovit aquatic Trashfish D pellets mi<ed D )iovit aquatic D vitamin E / 5emar"s $ellet mi<ed (yellow eggs D pellets D squid oil)

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Aquaculture Asia Maga,ine

Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network should commence at day ten in order to maintain the water quality, and it should be done every two days. The larvae are fed with live feed (the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia) and artificial feed. 5otifers are given from day three to day fourteen 1/%1 indi/ viduals7ml and given three times a day (morning, afternoon and evening). (t day ten pellets are given in addition to rotifer and the pellet is around +1,/2,, micron in si;e. Artemia are given at day fourteen at ,.+1 individual7ml. (t day fifteen rotifers should be stopped and the quantity of pellets increased every %/+ hours. (t day eighteen the quantity of (rtemia also should be increased to ,.1 individual7ml and should be stopped at day ++. The harvesting of larvae is conducted at day +% using a 1,, microns scope net. (fter harvesting to the larvae are graded and survival rate (S5) estimated. Formally the survival rate is around +,/+1=. the hatchery7nursery cycle. :owever, similar to other marine finfish species such as grouper and golden trevally, deformities are also a problem, for silver pompano a 1= deformity rate is common. )efore distributing to the farmers feeding should be stopped for one day so that the fingerlings are fasted and metabolic rate can be reduced during the transportation to minimi;e losses. The temperature of the water

Nurser#
The stoc"ing density of seed in the nursery is maintained at +, individuals7 liter. In the nursery unit water e<change is maintained at +,,=. Siphoning should be done twice a day in the morning and evening to clean wastes from the bottom of the tan". $ellet feeds are used at nursery stage and the si;e of the pellets is depending on the mouth si;e of the fish. The total consumption of pellets could reach % "g7day especially on day 2,. 0rading should be done depending on the growth rate but should be at least every 2 to - days. Silver pompano is a suitable candidate for marine finfish aquaculture in Indonesia because it is more tolerate to water quality problems, easy to adopt to pellet feeds and grow fast. The growth rate of the larvae can reach % mm7day. The table and graphic show the growth of silver pompano fingerlings. (t day 21 the larvae reached 2.- cm in length and were ready to be sold or to be cultured in floating cages. (t the end of rearing period the seeds density was ,.1 individuals7liter which is about +%= survival rate. So from stoc"ing of +,,,,,, eggs -+,,,, fingerlings are harvested at the end of April-"une .//0 *1

Fertilised eggs.

Above/belo ! Larval development.

Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network for pac"ing should be maintained at +1@ /+#@ and the ratio of water and o<ygen is %B2 at +,, fingerlings7bag. so stoc"ing density should be carefully considered so that it allows plenty of space for the fingerlings to move around to reduce stress. The same applies to transportation of fingerlings, they should be pac"ed at lower densities otherwise mortality rate is high. >hen the water quality is not maintained at an optimum level, disease may occur. So water quality management is vital for success of fingerling production and to minimi;e disease problems.

!onclusion
Silver pompano is not a new commodity in Indonesia, it is a well "nown wild caught species in fishing communities. It is a suitable marine finfish aquaculture species because of its fast growth rate, easy weaning to pellet feeds and wide tolerance of water quality. Silver pompano fetch a relatively high mar"et price in Indonesia with good mar"et demand. It has a good quality flesh that is suitable for various cuisines and is accepted by consumers in Indonesia and in the region. Fow that the tech/ nology for seed production is available it is anticipated that the grow out industry will ta"e off in the near future, at least in Indonesia.
3eferences
:elver (%&#6). *ish Futrition. (cademic $ress. London and Few Gor". Cungvan"i!. $, L.) Tiro, ).. $udadera, I.? $otesta. (%&'6). )iology and ulture of Sea )ass (Lates calcari%er). (quaculture E<tension 3anual Fo. %%. Southeast (sian *isheries 4evelopment enter. Tigbauan, Iloilo, *ilipina. 3o"oginta. Ing, (%&&#). *ormulasi $a"an )uatan untu" I"an Laut. $ertemuan Coordinasi dan $emantapan $ere"ayasaan Te"nologi Lintas 8$T. 4ire"torat .enderal $eri"anan. $iper. 5. 0, Ivan. ). 3, Leo. E. ?, .oseph. $. 3, Laurice. 0. *, .hon. 5. L. (%&'+). *ish :atchery

2roduction constraints of silver pompano


(lthough silver pompano is a good candidate for aquaculture in Indonesia it is not without problems. (t seed production stage, stoc"ing density plays an important role. (s silver pompano is a very active and fast swimming species

"arl# $uvenile. 'a%le .) 4ays % 1 %, %1 +, +1 2, 21 evelopment of seed) Length average (cm) ,.+ ,.6 %.2 %.' +.+ +.# 2., 2.0rowth (cm) , ,.,.# ,.1 ,.,.1 ,.2 ,.-

3anagement. 8nited States 4epartment of the Interior, *ish and >ildlife Service. >ashington. 4 . Tatam, S., (di :anafi, Shogo, C. (+,,2). )udidaya )awal )intang di Ceramba .aring (pung. )alai )esar 5iset $eri"anan )udidaya Laut 0ondol, 4epartemen Celautan dan $eri"anan dengan .apan International ooperation (gency. )ali. Tim )alai )udidaya Laut )atam. (%&&&). $embenihan )awal )intang ( Trachinotus blochii (Lecepede). )alai )udidaya Laut )atam 4ire"torat .enderal $eri"anan 4epartemen $ertanian. )atam. >atanabe, T., T. (ra"awa, . Cita!ima and S. *u!ita. (%&'-). Effect of Futrition Huality of

ata on the growth of silver pompano)

broodstoc" 4iets on 5eproduction of 5ed Sea )ream. )ull. of the .apanese Soc. of Sci. *ish 1,.

4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Length (Cm)

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Aquaculture Asia Maga,ine