You are on page 1of 5

Igneous Rocks *Andesite - is an extrusive rock intermediate in composition between rhyolite and basalt.

Andesite lava is of moderate viscosity and forms thick lava flows and domes. The word andesite is derived from the Andes Mountains in South America, where andesite is common. Andesite is the volcanic equivalent of diorite. *Anorthosite - on Earth can be divided into two types: Proterozoic anorthosite (also known as massif or massif-type anorthosite) and Archean anorthosite. These two types of anorthosite have different modes of occurrence, appear to be restricted to different periods in Earth's history, and are thought to have had different origins. Lunar anorthosites constitute the lightcoloured areas of the Moon's surface and have been the subject of much research. *Aplite - The Meldon aplites unique chemistry, including its low iron content, made it suitable for glass-making and enamelling. In 1920 plans for large-scale glass manufacture on this site were initiated but within a year this turned into a financial disaster. Because of its hardness, the aplite was also quarried as an aggregate until the early 1970s. *Porphyry - pavers in various sizes are used now to improve the surfaces of all hardscape projects. Once, there was a more decorative use for porphyry in the interior. Rome and especially the Vatican are filled with imperial porphyry. The museums, churches and chapels of Vatican City have more imperial porphyry as sculpture and decoration than anywhere else. The Imperial Porphyry found here came from a single mine in Egypt, the Mons Porphyrites. It was imported by the Romans as a decorative accent stone, for use in tiled floors, as colored columns, or occasionally carved into a vase or sculpture. Its color invokes Royal Purple. *Pegmatite - is a type of crystalline, igneous rock. It is used today as a source of many minerals and gems such as aquamarine and topaz. More importantly, however, Pegmatite is the world's biggest source of lithium and beryllium. *Pumice is a type of extrusive igneous rock, formed from high silica lava explosively erupted from volcanoes. It also refers to a volcanic glass full of cavities and very low in density that is used especially in powder form for smoothing and polishing. Pumice can be formed when lava and water are mixed. *Kimberlite - The present invention provides a process for the preparation of detergent builder Zeolite-A from Kimberlite tailing generated as solid waste during diamond mining is disclosed. The process comprises, reacting an acid treated Kimberlite tailing with alkali solution to obtain sodium silicate and reacting it with alkaline aluminum source at room temperature and crystallizing at higher temperature to obtain Zeolite-A. The product is useful as builder in detergent formulation.

*Tuff can be used for construction. *Ignimbrite- building stone for decorative walls, paving etc. *Grandodiorite - is an intrusive rock, intermediate in composition between diorite andgranite. Although often similar in appearance to diorite or granite, it has a higher quartzcontent than diorite, and a higher mafic mineral content than granite. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs, and in mountain building where it emplaces as large batholiths in mountain roots. Granodiorite is the plutonic equivalent of dacite. *Dacite - is a felsic extrusive rock, intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite. It is often found associated with andesite, and forms lava flows, dikes, and, in some cases, massive intrusions in the centres of old volcanoes. Dacite is the volcanic equivalent of granodiorite. It aggregates, fills etc. in the construction and roading industries (best if olivine content is low); armour rock for seawalls; dimension stone, e.g. stone walls, curb stones, paving stones etc. *Trachyte - building and paving stone; dimension stone for building facings, foyers etc. *Rhyolite - can be used as aggregate, fill etc. in the construction and roading industries (often not ideal for concrete aggregate because of high silica content); obsidian was used by preEuropean Maori as a cutting tool, and can be carved into jewellery; pumice is used as an abrasive (especially in the cosmetic industry), and can also be incorporated into lightweight building materials. *Diorite is an intrusive rock intermediate in composition between gabbro and granite. It is produced in volcanic arcs, and in mountain building where it can occur in large volumes as batholiths in the roots of mountains (e.g. Scotland, Norway). Because it is commonly speckled black and white, it is often referred to as "salt and pepper" rock. Diorite is the plutonic equivalent of andesite. *Peridotite (Dunite) is a very dense, coarse-grained, olivine-rich, ultra-mafic intrusive rock. It is noted for its low silica content, and contains very little or no feldspar (orthoclase,plagioclase). It is a common component of oceanic lithosphere, and is derived from the upper mantle. It is found on land as part of oceanic crust sequences called ophiolites which have been thrust in or on to a continental mass, or as localised intrusions. As a source of valuable ores and minerals, including chromite, platinum, nickel and precious garnet; diamonds are obtained from micarich peridotite (kimberlite) in South Africa.

Sedimentary Rocks *Argillite - can be carved into ornaments, statuary etc. *Breccia - as dimension stone for decoration of walls and floors; if hard can be used as aggregate, fill etc. in the construction and roading industries. *Chert - mainly decorative; ancient cultures used chert for cutting tools, arrow heads etc. *Conglomerate - as dimension stone for decoration of walls and floors; if hard can be used as aggregate, fill etc. in the construction and roading industries. *Greywacke - widely used as aggregate, fill etc. in the construction and roading industries; as armour rock for sea walls etc. *Limestone - base for cement; as dimension stone for decoration of walls and floors; in the production of lime fertilizer, paper, petrochemicals, pesticide, glass etc. *Mudstone - generally too soft to be of use. *Sandstone - if soft then generally of no use; if hard then can be used as aggregate, fill etc. in the construction and roading industries; dimension stone for buildings, paving, etc. *Coquina - In the past coquina was used for the construction of buildings in Denham, Western Australia, but quarrying is no longer permitted in the World Heritage Site. *Laterite used for building blocks, road building, water supply, waste water treatment, ores ( bauxite, iron, nickel ) *Chalk may be used for its properties as a base. In agriculture, chalk is used for raising pH in soils with high acidity. Small doses of chalk can also be used as an antacid. Additionally, the small particles of chalk make it a substance ideal for cleaning and polishing. For example, toothpaste commonly contains small amounts of chalk, which serves as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a carefully controlled grain size, for very fine polishing of metals. Chalk can also be used as fingerprint powder. *Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate, a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock, and serves as the host rock for large stratabound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) oredeposits of base metals such as lead, zinc, and copper. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly, dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass.

*Travertine is often used as a building material. *Itacolumite is a naturally occurring porous, yellow sandstone that is flexible when cut into thin strips. It occurs in great numbers at Itacolumi, in the southern portion of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is also found in Jhajjar, India; Georgia; and Stokes and McDowell Counties North Carolina, USA. It is the best and most widely known example of a flexible sandstone and is a source of diamonds found in the Minas Gerais area. *Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable.[1] Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility. Mudstones, on the other hand, are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. Metamorphic Rocks *Gneiss - dimension stone for building facings, paving etc. *Hornfels - as aggregate in the construction and roading industries. *Marble - building stone; dimension stone for building facings, paving etc; cut into blocks and cut for monuments, headstones etc (wears over time due to softness of calcite, prone to acid rain damage [calcite is soluble in acid]); whiting material in toothpaste, paint and paper. *Mylonite - as aggregate in the construction and roading industries. *Quartzite - pure quartzite is a source of silica for metallurgical purposes, and for the manufacture of brick; as aggregate in the construction and roading industries; as armour rock for sea walls; dimension stone for building facings, paving etc. *Schist - generally used as a decorative rock, e.g. walls, gardens etc; high percentage of mica group minerals precludes its use in the construction and roading industries. *Amphibolite was a favourite material for the production of adzes (shoe-last-celts) in the central European early Neolithic (Linearbandkeramic and Rssen cultures). Amphibolite is a common dimension stone used in construction, paving, facing of buildings, especially because of its attractive textures, dark color, hardness and polishability and its ready availability. *Serpentinite used as decorative stone in architecture, carvingstone tools, oil lamp known as the Qulliq and Inuit Sculpture, swiss ovenstone, Neutron shield in nuclear reactors. *Slate - historically extensively used for roof and floor tiles, and blackboards; standard material for the beds of pool / snooker / billiard tables.

*Suevite is a rock consisting partly of melted material, typically forming a breccia containing glass and crystal or lithic fragments, formed during animpact event. It forms part of a group of rock types and structures that are known as impactites. *Soapstone used as historical uses and modern uses. *Skarns (tactites in American English) are calcium-bearing silicates of any age. Skarns are most often formed at the contact zone between intrusions ofgranitic magma bodies into contact with carbonate sedimentary rocks such as limestone and dolostone. Hot waters derived from the granitic magma are rich in silica, iron, aluminium, and magnesium. These fluids mix in the contact zone, dissolve calcium-rich carbonate rocks, and convert the host carbonate rock to skarn deposits in a metamorphic process known as "metasomatism". The resulting metamorphic rock may consist of a very wide variety of mineral assemblages dependent largely on the original composition of the magmatic fluids and the purity of the carbonate sedimentary rocks. *Pseudotachylite or Pseudotachylyte is a cohesive glassy or very fine-grained fault rock that is composed of an extremely fine-grained or glassy matrix that often contains inclusions of wallrock fragments. Pseudotachylite characteristically occur in veins; is dark in color; and is glassy in appearance. It often has the appearance of the basaltic glass, tachylyte. Typically, the glass has been completely devitrified into very fine-grained material with radial and concentric clusters of crystals. It occasionally contains crystals with quench textures that began to crystallize from the melt. *A whiteschist is an uncommon metamorphic rock formed at high to ultra-high pressures. It has the characteristic mineral assemblage of kyanite + talc, responsible for its white colour. The name was introduced in 1973 by German mineralogist and petrologist Werner Schreyer. This rock is associated with the metamorphism of some pelites, evaporite sequences or altered basaltic or felsic intrusions Rocks of this primary chemistry are extremely uncommon and they are in most cases thought to be the result of metasomatic alteration, with the removal of various mobile elements. *Granulites are medium to coarsegrained metamorphic rocks that have experienced hightemperature metamorphism, composed mainly offeldspars sometimes associated with quartz and anhydrous ferromagnesian minerals, with granoblastic texture and gneissose to massive structure. They are of particular interest to geologists because many granulites represent samples of the deep continental crust. Some granulites experienced decompression from deep in the Earth to shallower crustal levels at high temperature; others cooled while remaining at depth in the Earth.