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Infection-Fighting Herbs by Linda B. White, M.D. Germs are everywhere.

Some take up residence in our bodies and do us good, such as the friendly bacteria that colonize the linings of the intestines, upper respiratory tract, and lower urinary system, out-competing bad microbes, contributing to immune defense and good digestion. Other microbes viruses, bacteria, parasites wreak havoc when they invade our bodies. Fortunately, a number of herbs have antimicrobial effects. Many of these herbs are culinary herbs and spices, such as garlic, ginger,thyme, and cinnamon. That means, no matter where you are, you can probably find an herbal ally at the local grocery store. Herbs dont act as quickly or as potently as drugs. For serious infections, antibiotics can save lives. On the other hand, herbs produce fewer side effects and dont seem to be associated with the microbial resistance that plagues antibiotics. Garlic (Allium sativum)has broad activity against a number of organisms and also promotes immune function. People around the globe have used the bulb as food and medicine for thousands of years. Four French thieves added to garlics fame by staying alive as they either robbed or interred (the story varies) victims of the plague. Their alleged secret? Internal and external use of a vinegar made of garlic and other antimicrobial herbs. This vinaigre des quatre voleurs is still sold in France. Garlic has antibacterial activity againstStaphylococcus,Streptococcus, Proteus,Pseudomonas,Mycobacterium, as well as species associated with diarrhea (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Clostridium, Klebsiella, Bacillus subtilis). Happily, though somewhat mysteriously, garlic interferes with disease-causing bacteria, rather than the friendly bacteria such as Lactobacillus that colonize the intestines. Garlic also tackles fungi (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton) and parasites such as (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica,Trypanosomes, Leishmania). Antiviral activity includes influenza A and B, cytomegalovirus, rhinovirus, HIV, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, rotavirus, and some species that cause pneumonia. One study found that people who took a garlic supplement for 12 weeks from November through February had far fewer colds that those who took a dummy pill. Other Allium species (chives, onions, leeks) have antimicrobial activity too. Much of the information about garlics antimicrobial power comes from lab studies. Less is known about how well garlic preparations work in humans infected with these bugs. The same can be said about most of the other herbs listed below. Heat deactivates garlics antimicrobial ingredients. For that reason, its best to consume it raw or as a tablet that promises a certain amount of allicin (a key active chemical). If you apply garlic topically as a paste, protect the skin with olive oil (or some other oil), cover with gauze or clean cloth, and remove after an hour.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has scientific backing as an anti-nausea agent. It may offer other benefits to those stricken with infections diarrhea. Alcohol extracts of ginger are active against bacteria that infect the intestinal tract (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Helicobacter pylori), skin and other soft tissues (Staphylococcus aureus), and respiratory tract (Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae). Ginger has antifungal activity against the yeast Candida albicans. It also discourages intestinal worms. Because studies have shown that heat deactivates the antibacterial effect, it may be best to consume ginger raw, or in tincture or capsule form. A number of other culinary spices not only enhance flavor, but also help preserve food due to their antimicrobial effects. For instance, the two main species of cinnamon, Cinnamomum cassia (also called C. aromaticum) and Cinnamomum verum (also called C. zeylanicum), both have antibacterial and antihelminthic (anti-worm) effects. Other culinary spices and herbs that fit into this category include clove, nutmeg, chili peppers (including cayenne), horse radish, cumin, and tamarind. Several mint family plants commonly used as culinary and medicinal herbs counter infection. Members of this family owe their characteristic tastes, smells, and medicinal effects to their essential oils, some of which are antimicrobial. Examples includethyme (Thymus vulgaris and other species), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare and other species),rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), basil (Ocimum basilicum),lavender (Lavandula species), peppermint (Mentha X piperita), and spearmint (Mentha spicata). Thyme, bee balm (Monarda fistulosa and Monarda didyma), and oregano contain the potent antimicrobial chemical thymol, which is a key ingredient in Listerine. There are many ways you can make use of mint-family herbs. For instance, if youve come down with a cold or flu-like illness, you can make broth-based vegetable soup, adding thyme, rosemary, and oregano before serving. If you have cough or nasal congestion, you can boil a pot of water, add a handful of mintfamily herbs (which are also decongesting and expectorant), cover and steep for 10 to 15 minutes. Remove the lid, lean over, corral the vapors with a towel, and inhale deeply. Eucalyptus, though not in the mint family, is another great herb to use in steam inhalation. Alternatively, you can add one or two drops of essential oil of peppermint essential oil just-boiled water and inhale the vapors. Thyme and oregano are too irritating to use in steam inhalation. If you have asthma, inhalation of essential-oil-laced steam may provoke bronchospasm (tightening of the airways) and is therefore not recommended. Do not take essential oils internally. If you have a sore throat, you can gargle with a tea made from mint-family plants or their essential oils. Sage tea is often recommended for this purpose. If you wish to gargle with it, add teaspoon salt to cup hot (but not scalding) tea. One study found a throat spray made with echinacea (which is antiseptic, immune enhancing,and numbing) and sage worked as well as a conventional spray made from the antiseptic chlorhexidine plus the anesthetic lidocaine. An earlier study showed that a spray made from sage alone was more effective than a dummy spray. If you use essential oil, add only 1 drop to a cup of salty water in a jar and shake well before gargling. Because plant essential oils are very strong, do not drink this mixture. Simply gargle and split.

As mentioned in the previous paragraph,echinacea has some antiviral and antibacterial properties, though its ability to help people recover faster from infections seems to stem from immune enhancement. However, a recent study found that Echinaforce, a special extract made from Echinacea purpurea, inhibited some respiratory bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, the cause of strep throat. Studies have yet to evaluate the use of this product in treating strep throat. Because such infection can cause signification illness and complications such as rheumatic heart disease, antibiotics are recommended. That said, a number of studies have shown that good product, taken frequently in adequate amounts can shorten the course of viral respiratory infection. Black elderberry (Sambucas nigra) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are two other herbs to keep handy during the cold and flu season. Elderberry has antiviral activity against influenza viruses and enhances immune function. A proprietary elderberry extract (Sambucol) significantly shortens the severity and duration of influenza. Licorice root is demulcent (soothing), expectorant (expels respiratory mucus), antiviral, and immune enhancing. Because it acts on the kidneys to stimulate retention of sodium and water (and loss of potassium), it cant be taken for more than a few days running. It should not be taken by pregnant women, nor people with heart disease, kidney disease, or high blood pressure. Berberine is an antimicrobial plant chemical present in herbs such as goldenseal (Hydrastis Canadensis), Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), and coptis or goldenthread (Coptis chinensis). The bad news is that this chemical isnt well absorbed from the intestinal tract. In other words, if you have a sinus infection, taking goldenseal or Oregon grape root by mouth likely wont deliver much berberine to your sinuses. The good news is that berberine does a good job of treating intestinal infections. Studies show that it inhibits bacterial diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli. Berberine is also antiparasitic against Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica(amoebas), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Leishmania donovani. Studies also show that berberine helps clear giardia in humans. Its also reasonable to apply root preparations topically to infected areas. For instance, a well-strained decoction (with teaspoon salt added for each cup) could be used as a nasal douche for sinusitis, a vaginal douche, or an eyewash for mild pinkeye. Studies have demonstrated success in treating a serious eye infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Nevertheless, you should see your doctor if the whites of one or both your eyes look inflamed, especially in the presence of a yellow-green discharge. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), taken as a juice or concentrated in tablet form, interferes with bacterial adherence to bladder lining, thus preventing infection. Most of the research has been in women (elderly women, young sexually-active women, and pregnant women) prone to repeat bladder infections. Once infection begins, the bacteria have already attached to the bladder lining. At that point, antibiotics can clear the infection swiftly and prevent bacteria from ascending to the kidneys. For prevention, the juice dosage used in studies ranges from 4 to 32 ounces a day. Alternatively, concentrated juice extract can be taken at a dosage of one 300-400 milligram tablet, two to three times a day. Side effects can

include gastrointestinal upset. Also, chemical constituents of cranberry may inhibit the enzymes that break down drugs, thereby raising blood levels of medications such as Coumadin, Valium, Elavil, Motrin, and others. Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) is an Australia native whose essential oil acts as a potent antimicrobial agent. Studies show that its active against the yeast Candida albicans, and bacteria such as staph (Staphylococcus aureus). In lab studies, tea tree oil kills methacillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Some, but not all, studies in humans show that topical applications can eliminate colonization of the bacteria in skin and nose. To my knowledge, no studies have investigated efficacy in treating MRSA. Another tough-to-treat problem is fungal nail infections. However, one study found that 100% tea tree oil, applied twice a day for six months, improved symptoms in more than half of patients, and cured the infection in 18%. Topical applications of 25% or 50% tea tree oil have also been shown to help clear athletes foot, which is caused by the fungus Tinea pedis. And a 5% tea tree product helped clear acne. As with other essential oils, tea tree oil should not be taken internally. Some sensitive people develop skin irritation after application.

Important note: This article is not intended as a substitute for the advise of a health care professional. Some microbes are incredibly virulent. And some people are more vulnerable than others. Microbes innocuous in hardier folk can be lead to life-threatening infections in people with compromised immunity. Newborn babies are vulnerable because their immune systems are immature. Elders face declining immune function. In the face of overwhelming infection, antibiotics can save lives. In other instances, antibiotic treatment may help prevent complications. When to call the doctor. If you feel very ill, contact your health-care provider. If two to three days of home care havent led to improvement of your symptoms, call for an appointment. Also, seek medical attention if a skin lesion grows larger, becomes red, hot and swollen, produces pus or honey-colored crusts, produces red streaks (that stretch toward the heart), or enlarges lymph nodes (usually in groin or armpit). If you have sick infant, call your doctor right away. -- Linda B. White, M.D. is a freelance writer, lecturer, and assistant professor in the Integrative Therapeutic Practices Program at Metropolitan State College of Denver. ANTIBACTERIAL Antibacterial herbs are those that fight and destroy bacteria and include alfalfa, basil, chamomile, cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, parsley, peppermint, rhubarb, tumeric, uva ursi and yucca. NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL HERBS May 26, 2010 | By Fiona Fearey

Indigenous people and folk traditions have historically relied on plants to treat a variety of medical conditions. Modern scientific studies indicate that there is truth to some of these long-held beliefs. When it comes to combating bacteria, several herbs show effectiveness against a variety of common--and dangerous---strains. Although herbs are natural, follow all instructions for use and dosage when trying any herbal antibacterial treatments. TEA TREE Tea tree oil is extracted from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia plant, which is native to Australia. Captain James Cook observed indigenous Australians placing crushed tea tree leaves on wounds in 1777. Scientific research supports this traditional practice and affirms tea tree oil's use as a powerful antimicrobial treatment. Anitra C. Carr, Ph.D., a research associate at the Linus Pauling Institute, reports tea tree oil's effectiveness as a treatment for bacterial infections, such as vaginitis. She notes that tea tree oil fights the harmful bacteria without the side effects of the drugs usually used to treat this type of infection. She also cites tea tree oil's effectiveness against five types of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and mupirocin. GARLIC Throughout history, people have attributed health-enhancing properties to garlic, including using it as protection against the bubonic plague and other bacterial infections. Researchers at the University of Wolverhampton in the United Kingdom demonstrated garlic's substantial antibacterial effect against all the strains of Helicobacter pylori tested. This type of bacteria is the cause of most ulcers and gastritis. Adding garlic to foods not adds a zesty flavor, but may help keep your digestive system healthy. OREGANO Long used as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments throughout Mexico and Mediterranean countries, oregano really does offer protection against bacteria and other harmful microbes. According to a study published in the International Journal of Food Microbiology the aromatic phenolic compounds found in oregano---thymol and carvacrol----are responsible for its wide range of antimicrobial activity. Concentrated oregano oil is more effective than fresh or dried oregano leaves if you want the maximum antibacterial effects of oregano. Article reviewed by Christine Brncik Last updated on: May 26, 2010 Read more: THURSDAY, JUNE 11, 2009 Antibacterial LOMBOY ( Syzygium cumini ) Other name :duhat,lumbuy

A. Product uses: Leaves, Seeds, Bark, Fruits Uses : 1.The 40 pieces of young leaves ,boil into 3 glass of water, until half glass of water remain drink 30 minutes before meal for diabetic. 2.The leaves are antibacterial, and are used for strengthening the teeth and gums. 3.The fruit and seeds are sweet, acrid, sour, tonic and cooling. 4.Other advise seeds used for diabetes,diarrhoea and ringworm. 5.The bark is astringent, sweet sour, diuretic, digestive and anthelmintic. 6.Leaves are used as poultices on skin diseases. 7.Decoction of the fruit is used in case of enlargement of the spleen. Posted by Philippine Herbal's at 12:01 AM Akapulko - (Ringworm Bush) - Cassia Alata Linn. - Parts used: leaves Akapulko is a shrub that grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. The leaves contain chrysophanic acid. The leaves are reported to be sudorific, diuretic and purgative, being used in the same manner as senna. The leaves are commonly used for ringworm and other skin diseases. The leaves in decoction are also used to treat bronchitis and asthma. Alagau - (no English) - Prema Odorata Blanco - Parts used: leaves Alagau is a tree that is only found in the Philippines. It grows wild on Mt. Banahaw and in many other places in the Philippines. For many years now, Alagau has been considered a drug in the Philippines, being used to loosen phlegm and relieve coughs. It is also claimed to benefit tuberculosis and headaches. Its other properties are carminative, parasiticide, sudorific, and pectoral. Alagau is one of the great medicinal herbs of the Philippines. Ampalaya - (Bitter Gourd) - Momordica Charantia Linn. Parts used: fruit and leaves Ampalaya is a vegetable grown throughout the Philippines. It is mostly cultivated, although wild forms can be found. It grows wild in the remote areas of Mt. Banahaw. As the English name suggests, the melon has a bitter taste due to the presence of momordicin. There has been much research done on the effectiveness of using Momordica Charantia in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown to increase production of beta cells by the pancreas, thereby improving the bodys ability to produce insulin. It has been recommended by the Department of Health of the Philippines, as one of the best herbal medicines for it's ability to help with liver problems, Diabetes and HIV. It is a common herb used in Chinese herbology. In the Philippines, the leaves are often used for children's coughs. It is also used in the treatment of skin diseases, sterility in women, as a parasiticide, as an antipyretic, and as a purgative. Avocado - (English same) - Persea Americana Mill. Parts used: leaves and bark The Avocado is a fruit and was introduced into the Philippines from tropical America around the 16th century. It is very common on Mt. Banahaw. It is a seasonal fruit, which contains over 20 percent fat, and more protein content than any other fresh fruit. The parts we use in our herbal formulas are the leaves and bark. The leaves and bark are used in domestic medicines because of the pectoral, stomachic, emmengague, resolutive, and antiperiodic properties ascribed to them.

Banaba - (no English) - Lagerstroemia Speciosa Linn. Parts used: leaves and bark Banaba is a tree which is found throughout the Philippines, including Mt. Banahaw. There has been much resource done on Banaba leaves and their ability to reduce blood sugar, and its "insulin-like principle." In the Philippines, Banaba is a popular medicine plant and is used in treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is high in colosolic acid which is used in many drugs for diabetes. It is also used in weight-loss products. The leaves are also known to be diuretic and purgative. The bark is used to stop diarrhea. Bauang - (Garlic) - Allium Sativum Linn. Parts used: bulb Bauang is cultivated throughout the Philippines. The Filipino variety of Bauang is very small, and four times more expensive than the imported varieties of Bauang found in the markets. The reason for this is the superior quality and pungency of the small Tagolog (Filipino) variety. We use ONLY the Tagolog variety in our herbs. Bauang is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal herb. Bauang is a diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and stimulant. As an antiseptic, its use has long been recognized. In World War I it was widely employed in the control of suppuration in wounds. The raw juice was expressed, diluted with water, and put on swabs of sterilized Sphagnum moss, which were applied to the wound. Where this treatment was given, it was proved that there were no septic results, and the lives of thousands of men were saved by its use. Bauang is an invaluable medicine for asthma, hoarseness, coughs, difficulty of breathing, and most other disorders of the lungs, being of particular virtue in chronic bronchitis, on account of its powers of promoting expectoration. The successful treatment of tubercular consumption by Bauang has been recorded. The successful treatment of tubercular consumption by Bauang has been recorded. In the Philippines, the bulbs are prescribed for high blood pressure. Dr. James Balch, in his book "The Super Anti-Oxidants," states that garlic acts as a super antioxidant, lowers blood pressure, boosts the immune system, balances blood sugar, prevents heart disease, assists in fat metabolism, and aids in cancer prevention. Bayabas - (Guava) - Psidium Guajava Linn. Parts used: fruit, leaves, and bark Bayabas is a fruit found throughout the Philippines. While the larger varieties are cultivated, most of it grows wild. It is very abundant on Mt. Banahaw in its wild form. The leaves and bark are known to be astringent, vulnerary, and antidiarrhetic. The bark is used in the chronic diarrhea of children. The fruit is known to be anthelmintic, and is used for high blood pressure, poor circulation, diabetes and asthma. The fruit also has probably the highest concentration of vitamin C of any of the tropical fruits in the Philippines. Bignay (no English) Antidesma Bunius Linn. Parts used: fruit, leaves Bignay is a fruit tree with small red berries. It grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. The fruit is commonly used to make jam and wine. The fruit is known for its cooling properties. The leaves are sudorific and employed in treating snakebite, in Asia. The fruit is harvested once a year, and we add fresh bignay juice to our Kombucha Health drinks during that time. Cacao - (Cocoa) - Theobroma Cacao Linn. Parts used: pulpy flesh from fruit Cacao is a fruit tree cultivated throughout the Philippines, and is very abundant on Mt. Banahaw. It is most known for the seeds of its fruit, which is used to manufacture cacao, chocolate, cacao butter, etc. We use the pulpy flesh of the fruit in our Digestive Enzyme

tincture, because it contains the enzymes protease, invertase, raffinase, cesease and oxydase. Carrot - (English same) - Daucus Carota Linn. Parts used: root Carrots are only grown in the Philippines at high elevation, and grow well on Mt. Banahaw. Among the many health benefits of carrots would include: useful for toxemia, constipation, asthma, poor complexion, poor teeth, insomnia, high blood pressure, inflamed kidneys and bladder, colitis, and catarrh. They can improve the appearance of hair and nails, help improve eyesight, correct dropsy, end painful urination, increase menstrual flow, and help to keep the skin healthy. The juice of carrots is said to be a great colon cleanser, and cancer preventer. Darangita - (Mandarin Orange, or Tangerine Orange) - Citrus Reticulata Blanco Parts used: fruit Darangita is a fruit tree common throughout the Philippines and abundant on Mt. Banahaw. Darangita is valued for its pleasant flavor and high concentration of vitamin C. Damong Maria - (Mugwort) - Artemisia Vulgaris Linn. Parts used: leaves Damong Maria is a small plant found in many places in the Philippines, often cultivated. On Mt. Banahaw it grows wild. It is known to be stomachic, antispasmodic, alterative, anthelmintic, haemoptysis, antiseptic, and carminative. Filipinos use it for all sorts of stomach ailments. Duhat - (Black Plum/Java Plum) - Syzygium Cumini Skeels Parts used: fruit, leaves, bark, seeds Duhat is a fruit tree found mostly wild throughout the Philippines. Duhat seeds are known for the treatment of diabetes, as are the leaves and the juice from the fruit. The bark is astringent and in decoction is used as a mouthwash and as a gargle for ulcerations of the mouth. Dumero - (Rosemary) - Rosmarinus Officinalis Linn. Parts used: leaves Dumero is cultivated in some places in the Philippines, and is grown on Mt. Banahaw. Dumero is reported to fight bacteria, relax the stomach, stimulate circulation and digestion, act as an astringent and decongestant, and improve circulation to the brain. It is reported to help prevent liver toxicity, and have anticancer and antitumor properties. Gabi - (Taro) - Colocasia Esculenta Linn. Parts used: root Gabi is a large leaf plant with a tuberous rootstock. It grows wild throughout the Philippines, and is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. The roots are a staple food in some localities. The tubers are digestive, laxative, diuretic, lactagogue, and styptic. Gogo (no English) - Entada Phaseoloides Linn. Parts used: bark This plant is very large tree found throughout the Philippines. It grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. Gogo is used extensively in the Philippines for washing hair and for hair tonics. When the bark is soaked in water and rubbed, it produces a lather which cleanses the scalp very effectively. The active principle of the bark is saponin. Gumamela - (Hibiscus) - Hibiscus Rosasinensis Linn. Parts used: flower Gumamela is cultivated as an ornamental flower throughout the Philippines. It is common on

Mt. Banahaw. Gumamela flowers are used as an expectorant in bronchitis, for general coughs, and as a refrigerant drink in fevers. Guyabano - (no English) - Anona Muricata Linn. Parts used: fruit Guyabano is a fruit tree cultivated throughout the Philippines. It is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. The fruit The Guyabano fruit is an excellent source of vitamin B and C, and is known to have pectoral and febrifuge properties. Hierba Buena - (Mint) - Mentha Arvensis Linn. Parts used: leaves Hierba Buena is cultivated throughout the Philippines, although it does well at higher altitudes. It is grown on Mt. Banahaw. This mint is known as a remedy for weakness of the stomach and for diarrhea. It is valuable as an antiseptic, and has been used in alcohol solutions for asthma. Kalabasa - (Squash) - Cucurbita Maxima Duchesne Parts used: seeds Kalabasa is a vegetable cultivated throughout the Philippines, and is common on Mt. Banahaw. Kalabasa seeds are used as an anthelmintic, which is attributed to the presence of saponin in the seeds. They are used to combat tapeworms. The seeds are also used as a diuretic for urinary diseases. Kalamansi - (no English) - Citrus Microcarpa Bunge Parts used: fruit Kalamansi is a small citrus fruit that appears as cross between a lemon and lime. It is widely cultivated throughout the Philippines, and is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. It is a native of the Philippines, and does not occur naturally outside of the Philippines. The juice of Kalamansi is known as a refrigerant, a remedy for coughs and for itches, a deodorant, and an antiphlogistic. Kamatis - (Tomato) - Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill. Parts used: fruit Kamatis is cultivated throughout the Philippines. The original form of this species has small fruit. Dr. Eduardo Quisumbing, author of the classic book "Medicinal Plants of the Philippines," states, "Briefly, the medical and food value of tomatoes may be stated thus: -(a) Tomatoes are the richest in vitamins of all foods; (b) they are the most wonderful and effective blood cleansers of all foods known to man; (c) they are the richest of all vegetables in the natural health acids which keep our stomachs and intestines in condition; (d) they are a most extraordinary corrective for kidneys, being a gentle, natural stimulant which helps to wash away the poisons which cause disease and contaminate our systems." Kamote - (Sweet Potato) - Impomoea Batatas Linn. Parts used: leaves Kamote is tuber grown throughout the Philippines, and grows especially well at higher altitudes. It is one of the main commercial crops grown on Mt. Banahaw. Depending on the variety, the leaves are either green or purple. Research has been done on the use of Kamote leaves, especially the purple ones, in the treatment of diabetes. They are also a rich source of iron and calcium. Kauayan - (Bamboo) - Bambusa Spinosa Roxb. Parts used: leaves Kauayan is a tree grown throughout the Philippines, and is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. The bamboo is used primarily in building purposes, including furniture and household items. The

silicious concretion of the culms is said to be stimulant, astringent, tonic, cooling, and antispasmodic. The leaves are used as an emmenagogue and an anthelmintic. Labanos - (White Radish) - Raphanus Sativus Linn. Parts used: root and leaves Labanos is a vegetable cultivated throughout the Philippines and is one of the main crops of Mt. Banahaw. The leaves of labanos are laxative and diuretic. The roots are considered stimulant, carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic, and nervine tonic. They are also useful in diseases of the heart, ammenorrhoea, leprosy, and cholera. Lagundi - (Five Leafed Chaste Tree) - Vitex Negundo Linn. Parts used: flowers, seeds, root Lagundi is a common medicine shrub in the Philippines, and is found on Mt. Banahaw. The use of Lagundi for medicinal purposes has a long history in the Philippines. Today, pharmaceutical companies sell it in capsule form at drug stores. The root is reported to be tonic, febrifuge, and expectorant. The root is also used in a great variety of diseases: dyspepsia, colic, rheumatism, worms, boils, and leprosy. The flowers are used in diarrhea, cholera, fever, and diseases of the liver, and are also recommended as a cardiac tonic. The seeds make a cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy, and for inflammation of the mouth. The leaves are reported to be used for coughs and asthma. Langka - (Jack Fruit) - Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam. Parts used: fruit and leaves Langka is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines. It is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. The ripe fruit is said to be demulcent, nutritive, and laxative. Lukban - (Pomelo/Grapefruit) - Citrus Grandis Osbeck Parts used: fruit, leaves, seeds Lukban is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines, and is abundant and wild on Mt. Banahaw. Lukban is a pomelo, which is similar to grapefruit. It is pure-strain citrus fruit, whereas grapefruit is a hybrid between pomelo and orange. Lukban leaves are used in the Philippines, in the form of a decoction or infusion, as a sedative in nervous affections. The leaves are also said to be useful in epilepsy, chorea, and convulsive coughs. The seeds are known to have antiseptic qualities. Luya - (Ginger) - Zingiber Officinale Rosc. Parts used: rhizome (root stock) Luya is a root stock grown in many places in the Philippines, and is very common on Mt. Banahaw. Luya is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal herb. It is commonly used in treating colds and flu in children, because of it effectiveness and safety in large doses. Japanese researchers have found that Luya causes the heart to beat more strongly and slowly and that blood pressure lowers by 10 to 15 points after Luya is ingested. Indian researchers have found that Luya is also effective in removing cholesterol from both the blood and liver. Luya is also reported to sooth the stomach, helping digestion. It is reported to relive gas, flatulence, and cramping, and facilitate the breakdown of food in the stomach and the absorption of food in the small intestine. A number of researchers have found that Luya is highly effective in alleviating motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting, being more effective than Dramamine. Luya's various isolated components also possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral, diuretic, antifungal, antiseptic, and antibiotic properties. It has been found effective in the treatment of heart disease, migraines, stroke, coughs, dizziness, fever, kidney stones, and viral infections.

Makahia - (no English) - Biophytum Sensitivum Linn. Parts used: leaves Makahia is found throughout the Philippines and is found wild everywhere on Mt. Banahaw. It is not cultivated, and is considered a weed. The Tagalog name, and suggested by the scientific name, means "sensitive." The reason it is given this name is that upon human touch the leaves contract and appear to wilt, but then open up again a short time later. Makahia is known as a diuretic, and is considered alterant and antiasthmatic. It is used for urinary complaints, and is useful in diseases arising from corrupt blood and bile. Makabuhay - (no English) - Menispermum crispum Linn. Parts used: leaves Makabuhay is a vine found throughout the Philippines. It contains a bitter principle, colombine, traces of an alkaloid, and a glucoside, berberine. The Filipinos and Malay in general consider this vine as a universal medicine. The name in Tagalog means "to give life." It is commonly used for stomach trouble, indigestion, diarrhea, and ulcers. It is known as a febrifuge, and is said to have anti-malaria properties. Recent studies in the Philippines have found it useful as an insecticide for rice crops. Not for pregnant women, as can cause abortions. Malungai - (Horse Radish Tree) - Moringa Oleifera Lam. Parts used: leaves Malungai is a tree found throughout the Philippines, including Mt. Banahaw. It is a common vegetable found in the market. They are a rich source of calcium and iron. The leaves are purgative, and diuretic. Manga - (Mango) - Mangifera Indica Linn. Parts used: leaves, fruit Manga is a fruit tree cultivated throughout the Philippines, and is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. The leaves are used in treatment of diabetes, for chronic diseases of the lungs, for asthma and colds. The flowers are used for diarrhea. The ripe fruit is said to be diuretic, laxative, and useful for constipation. The seed (pit/stone) of Manga is used for diarrhea and is considered anthelmintic. The seeds are also used for treating round worm. Mansanitas - (Jujube) - Zizyphus Mauritiana -Lam. Parts used: fruit, leaves, seeds, bark Many varieties of Mansanitas are scattered throughout the Philippines. There is a variety that grows wild on Mt. Banahaw in a few places. Where it grows, it is a huge fruit tree that can produce several hundred kilos of fruit per year. Fortunately, we have one tree on our farm that is wild. The bark and leaves are employed as an effective astringent in dysentery and diarrhea. The fruit is said to be nourishing, mucilaginious, pectoral, and styptic, and is said to purify the blood and assist in digestion. The fruit is also a mild laxative and expectorant, being used to relieve coughs. Niyog - (Coconut) - Cocos Nucifera Linn. Parts used: fruit, root Niyog is a palm tree cultivated throughout the Philippines. Mt. Banahaw, being in Quezon Province, the coconut capital of the Philippines, is rich in Niyog trees. The roots of Niyog are astringent, and are used for coughs. Niyog fruit is often processed into oil or milk because of its refrigerant, aperient, diuretic, anthelmintic, and purgative properties. It is often used in cosmetics as a lotion for the skin. Noni/Bankoro - (Noni/Indian Mulberry) -Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Parts used: fruit Bankoro is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines, chiefly along or near the seashore. This tropical fruit, which is native to the Philippines, has become very popular recently due to

some heavy marketing by certain companies, and is now known by its common name "Noni." It is hard to find reliable scientific information on this herb among all the hype, but there is no doubt that Noni is a very effective herb. It is said to be antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and used to retard cancer and tumorous growth. Papaya - (English same) - Carica Papaya - Linn. Parts used: fruit, leaves, flowers, seeds Papaya is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines, mostly cultivated. The native species grows mostly wild on Mt. Banahaw. Papaya is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal plant. The leaves, fruits, stem and roots all contain the proteolytic enzyme papain. Exhaustive studies have been done on papain, and it is reported to be a true, soluble, digestive ferment or a mixture of ferments of vegetable origin, its proteolytic action marked in acid, alkaline, and neutral solutions and also in the presence of many chemicals, antiseptics, and therapeutic agents. It has a peculiar softening and disintegrating actions in proteids, and its general proteolytic action is that of a genuine digestive ferment, similar to that of the ferments of animal origin. It acts in the way rennet does upon milk, and has a pronounced digestive power at a wide range of temperatures. Papain is used effectively as an anthelmintic. The leaves are often employed as a remedy for asthma, and said to also be a heart tonic. The flowers have pectoral properties. The fruit is used in cosmetics for a healthy skin complexion. The green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Studies at the University of Nigeria have revealed that extracts of ripe and unripe papaya fruits and of the seeds are active against gram-positive bacteria. Strong doses are effective against gram-negative bacteria. The substance has protein-like properties. Pepino - (Cucumber) - Cucumis Sativus Linn. Parts used: fruit and seeds Pepino is a vine cultivated throughout the Philippines, including Mt. Banahaw. Pepino is sometimes given to children with dysentery, and also considered cooling, diuretic, and purgative. A salve is recommended for skin diseases, and for scalds and burns. The seeds are said to have anti-tapeworm properties. Pepino is also useful in eliminating water from the body, which makes is important for those with heart and kidney problems. Pia - (Pineapple) - Anana Cosmosus Linn. Parts used: fruit, leaves/stalks Pia is a fruit widely cultivated in the Philippines. There are two varieties, the native one, which has smaller fruits and is grown on Mt. Banahaw, and the Smooth Cayenne variety, which was introduced from Hawaii. Pia is well-known for its digestive enzyme bromelin, which has anthelmintic properties. Sambong - (Blumea Camphor) - Blumea Balsamifera Linn. Parts used: leaves Sambong is found throughout the Philippines, and grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. Doctors in the Philippines prescribe Sambong for the dissolution of kidney stones. The leaves of Sambong are used as a tea in the Philippines, and as a cure for colds. It is also said to have antidiarrhetic and antigastralgic properties. It is also used as an expectorant. It is given for worms and dysentery. It is one of the most common used medicinal herbs in the Philippines. Sampalok - (Tamarind) - Tamarindus Indica Linn. Parts used: fruit, leaves, bark Sampalok is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines, and is common on Mt. Banahaw. Sampalok fruit is used as a laxative, for bilious vomiting, and against cholera. It is also a refrigerant, and used to reduce fevers. The bark is astringent and tonic, and used for asthma

and amenorrhoea. The leaves are used to destroy worms in children, and are useful for jaundice. Santol - (no English) - Sandoricum Koetjape Merr. Parts used: bark Santol is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines, and grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. The bark of Santol contains a bitter substance, sandoricum acid, and is used to treat ringworm. Suganda - (no English) - Coleus Amboinicus Lour. Parts used: leaves Suganda, called "oregano" here on Mt. Banahaw, is an herb cultivated mostly in peoples gardens. It is well-known on Mt. Banahaw, and thrives in the soil and climate there. When you ask people locally here why they grow it, they will universally claim that it is effective in relieving coughs, especially in children. The leaves are also used externally to relieve pain. Sili - (Chili Pepper/Cayenne) - Capsicum Frutescens Linn. Parts used: fruit Sili is found throughout the Philippines, being introduced from Mexico, and grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. Sili, also know as Cayenne, is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal plant. This variety of cayenne, capsicum frutescens, is known as the hottest of all peppers, having a heat level of 9. It is commonly used in Tabasco sauce. Cayenne is known to be very affective in the treatment of heart disorders, such as high blood pressure, and in digestive disorders. It is an excellent cleanser of the whole digestive system. Noted herbalist Dr. Schulze lists cayenne as his number one medical emergency herb, and always carries a tincture of it around with him. He claims to have treated many patients with it for over 20 years, and to have even revived a man who had gone into cardiac arrest with doses of cayenne tincture. Cayenne is said to be a powerful and pure stimulant, having no narcotic effect, increasing the power of the pulse and carrying the blood to all parts of the Body. It also equalizes and restores the balance of circulation throughout the body. Cayenne is a hemostat, arresting the flow of blood from a cut or wound in seconds and a cardiac tonic, helping to rebuild the heart. It is an antiseptic, killingpathogens and a counter-irritant, helping to relieve pain. Cayenne is also a stomachic, helping to digest foods and a carminative, helping to expel gas Talong - (Eggplant) - Solanum Melongena Linn. Parts used: root Talong is cultivated throughout the Philippines, and is common on Mt. Banahaw. In the Philippines, the Talong roots are taken as a decoction internally as an antiasthmatic and general stimulant. The roots are also used in treatment of skin diseases Taglad - (Lemon Grass; Ginger Grass) - Andropogon Citratus DC. Parts used: leaves Taglad is a grass and is clutivated throughout the Philippines. It is grown on Mt. Banahaw near rice fields, and is a popular ingredient in herbal teas and herbal soaps. It is used to aid digestion, for stomach problems and to reduce fevers. Dayap Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle LIME Constituents and properties Pulp: citric acid, 4.24%; protein, 0.94%; sugar, 0.5%. Juice: citric acid, 7.67%; vitamin C.

Juice is regarded as antiseptic, tonic, antiscorbutic, astringent, diuretic. Root bark is febrifuge. Parts utilized Fruit, roots, bark, rind. Uses Folkloric Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostril for irritant inhalation. Decoction of roots used for dysentery; root-bark as febrifuge. Crushed leaves applied to forehead for headaches. Leaf decoction for eyewash and to bathe a feverish patient. Mouthwash and gargle for sore throat and thrush. Externally, fresh juice is used to clean wounds; roasted, for chronic sores. Juice used for irritation and swelling of mosquito bites. Poultice of leaves applied to ulcer wounds. Poultice of leaves for skin diseases or on the abdomen after childbirth. In southwest Nigeria, roots, bark, stem, twigs, leaves and fruit used in treatment of malaria. Others Flavor: Use juice and grated rind. A pleasant ade. Substitute for true lemon. Good source of vitamin C. As fumigant, steaming brew of leaves under the blanket. Lime oil is extracted by steam distillation of the fruit rinds; used for colds, sore throats, bronchitis, asthma. Also for arthritis, obesity, cellulite and as tonic and astringent. Studies Essential oils / Antifungal: Study on essential oils of three varieties of C. aurantifolia showed the plant to be very rich in monoterpenes, with limonene its major compound. The three extracts showed fungicidal inhibiting action to Phaeoramularia angolensis and presents an alternative to chemical fungicides used for Citrus fruit crops. Antiproliferative / Anti-cancer: Study of in vitro effects of several concentrations of lime juice (CLJ) showed significant inhibition of proliferation of human breast carcinoma cell line and assumes that protein components of the CLJ extract may have anti-proliferative effects on tumor cell lines. Antimicrobial: (1) Study investigating the antibacterial effects of two plants extracts showed Citrus aurantifolia showing promising borad spectrum antibacterial effects on human pathogens. (2) Antimicrobial study of bitter leaf (V. amygdalina) extract and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juice against five organisms concluded both are potential antimicrobial agents. Antiaflatoxigenic: The essential oils of we medicinal plants were studied for its inhibition ofthe toxigenic fungus Aspergillus parasiticus.Citrus aurantifolia was found to inhibit both A. parasiticus and aflatoxin production. The study suggests some medicinal plants may be potential candidates for protection of food and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and subsequent AF contamination.

Antiproliferative / Colon Cancer Prevention: Study of the lime volatile oil of CA yielded 22 compounds, D-limonene, D-dihydrocarvone among the major componds. The oil showed 78% inhibition of human colon cancer cells, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induction, results that suggested potential antiproliferative benefits in colon cancer prevention. Nephrolithiasis: Consumption of Citrus auratifolia Swingle in idiopathic calcium renal stone with hypocitraturia increased the urine volume, pH level and total citrate value, total potassium and decreased the calcium ration to urine citrate with consequent decrease of renal stone recurrence. Fertility Effects: Lime juice causes irregularity of the estrous cycle, partially blocks ovulation, and may possibly compromise fertility. Toxicity Studies: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of water extract from roots of Citrus aurantifolia in rats showed no signs of toxicity and no significant histopathological changes in the internal organs. Weight Reduction / Decreased Food Intake / Limonene: Study investigated the effects of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) essential oils in reducting body weight, alone or in combination with ketotifen, an antihistamine drug that causes weight gain. Lime essential oil treatment displayed a reduction of body weight and food consumption in mice. In combination with ketotifen, there was significant suppression of weight gain, as well as decreased body weight. Oil analysis yielded 22 main components, with limonene (28.27%) as the principal one. Antioxidant: Study showed both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties. In contrast to lime peel, excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial and may be harmful because of an inadvertent U dose response. Availability Commercial cultivation. Extracts, essential oils and supplements in the cybermarket.