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Procedia Environmental Sciences 00 (2011) 000–000 Procedia Environmental Sciences 11 (2011) 1386 – 1391

Procedia Environmental Sciences

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Research and Analysis of Solar Heating Biogas Fermentation System
Su Yuan1,a, Tian Rui2,b,Yang Xiao Hong2,c
1

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China 2 School of Energy and Power Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology Focus Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China a sy12276562@163.com,btianr@imut.edu.cn,cyxh1109@yahoo.cn

Abstract Firstly this paper designs solar heating biogas fermentation system, its volume is 6m3, and than calculates digester’s heat load based on Hohhot’s weather data. Finally, a U-tube collector system was carried out for 5 month experiment, this paper use October’s experimental data, looking for the heat matching relationship between the solar collector system and biogas fermentation system. We can conclude that at Hohhot, in October, the heat was absorbed by 2m2 solar collectors that was ran 8 hours can met the 6m3 digester ‘s fermentation heat demands.

© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Intelligent © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of [name organizer] Information Technology Application Research Association.
Keywords:Biogas; solar; heat; design; experiment;

1.Introduction Hohhot is the home of dairy, according to statistics, there are 5.4 × 106t animal feces were produced every year, this is the objective condition of development and application biogas, as in [1]. Development and application biogas is not only can reduce the environment pollution and use animal feces effectively, but also can save the consumption of coal resources, so it can brings environmental, economic, social and many other benefits. As we known, temperature is an important factor in biogas fermentation, a temperature of 35 ± 2℃ has proven most efficient for production of biogas, so it is necessary to use solar heating system to ensure the normal operation of biogas fermentation in Hohhot. 2.Solar Heating Biogas Fermentation System Solar heating biogas fermentation system is consist of solar collector system, biogas fermentation system, temperature control system, as shown in Fig.1.

1878-0296 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Intelligent Information Technology Application Research Association. doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2011.12.208

small and shallow". V = V1 α  (1) Where. as in [3]. V1 is required biogas volume. according to the GB4750. at the same time. the biogas is produced can be enough for ten people to use.Su Yuan et al.Design biogas digester The design requires the temperature maintained among 35 ± 2℃ and sets the gas production capacity is 0. α is the rate of gas production. digester’s total cost can make minimize. not only can get the optimal size to meet the minimum heat transfer area. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 11 (2011) 1386 – 1391 1387 Figure 1. than according to the minimum heat transfer area to determine the size of each part of digester. the cylindrical digester is consist of two chopping body and one cylinder between them. the biogas consumption of rural households is calculated as 0. Solar heating biogas fermentation system 3. V represents the volume of biogas digester. This paper uses the cylindrical digester. shown in Fig. So the digester volume can be determined by the following formula for the 6m3. Structural diagram of digester The digester is optimized through the above process.3m3/d. Figure 2. but also meet the design principle of “around. as in [2]. the span ratio of the pool cover is f1/D=1/5 and the bottom is f2/D=1/8. .5m3/m3d.2.

593 + 1. Therefore. Qb is the heat of reaction. biogas slurry and the heat to the environment. the heat balance equation can be simplified as: = Q Qs + Qw (3) 4. In addition. soil and the outer wall of digester respectively.The heat of dissipation to the environment The heat of dissipation to the environment is consist of the heat losses from the top. the output is residue. so it can be ignored. MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF DIGESTER Material Reinforced concrete Insulation Thickness(mm ) 200 100 Thermal Conductivity(W/m● k) 1. therefore. TABLE I.029 × latitude (7) . Qw is the heat of the manure. λ1 and λ2 are the thermal conductivity of digester and insulation materials respectively. the system's heat balance equation is: Q = Qb + Qs + Qw + Qz (2) Where. a2 and a3 are the area of the top.. δ and δ2 are the thickness of digester wall and insulation respectively.74 0. so the heat produced by biological fermentation has little effect on the system’s temperature. a1 . Qs is the heat of dissipation to the surrounding environment. and no exact value. as in [4]: When depth is 0cm. the sides and the bottom of digester: Qs1 = a1q1   a1 t2 − t '  δ1 δ2 1 + + + h1 λ1 λ2 h2 1 d2 d1 1 h1 t2 . many researchers believed that the fermentation process activity is not strong. The heat of the effluent is very small.Environmental / Procedia Environmental 11 (2011) 1386 – 1391 Author name / Procedia SciencesSciences 00 (2011) 000–000 4.1.028 The soil temperature of Hohhot is given as following equations.015 × Tair − 0. Qz is the heat of the effluent. Q represents the heat load. the equation is: Tsoil = 4. the sides and the bottom of digester respectively. so the reaction heat can be ignored. h1 and h2 are the heat transfer coefficient between manure and the inner wall of digester.1388 Su Yuan et al. t and t ' are soil temperature at different depths.016 × longitude − 0. biogas.t )+ d3 2l2 δ1 λ1 d3 d2 1 h2 1 h2 (4) Qs 2 = a2 q2   a2 d3 d1h1 + d3 2l1  (5) × ln( × ln( )+  Qs 3 = a3 q3   a3 t2 − t + + δ2 λ2 (6) + Where.Heat balance of biogas fermentation system After analyze this system using thermodynamics we can know that this is an open system in which the input is biomass and solar.

036 × longitude − 0. 8 Solar Test System. by this method reducing the accuracy and increasing the heat dissipation. when compute the heat load of it. m is the mass of the influent. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 11 (2011) 1386 – 1391 1389 Tsoil = 13.05 40 11. 12 Valve Figure 3. 2 Radiation Table.87℃.781 × Tair − 0.52×104 Qs (kJ) Qs 1 1428 Qs2 4448 Qs3 1349 Q (kJ) 3.the pool’s wall and bottom is 11. the temperature of the top is 11. the equation is: The main body of digester is reinforced concrete structure and put it underground.10 Wind Vane.16℃. U-type tubular collector circulatory system . we can compute the soil temperature of the surface.7 Expansion Water Tank.82 °N and altitude is 1063m. 11 Flow meter.68 °E.001× altitude Hohhot is located in longitude 111.6 Solar Station. c represents the heat capacity and approximation for water.134 × latitude (8) When depth is 40cm.143 × latitude − 0. t2 is the temperature of fermentation.65 + 0. 4 Safety Valve. Experimental results and discussion 5.739 × Tair − 0. 9 Anemometer. so it is desirable. 4. so we can know the daily dry dung mass is 123kg. THE HEAT LOAD OF DIGESTER Qw (kJ) 2.1.87 20 12.3 3 m /d. fermentation time is 20d.Solar collector system 1 Solar Collector. t1 is the temperature of the influent. the cow dung dry matter content is 17%. about 300 kilograms,because of setting the fermentation concentration is 10%. THE SOIL TEMPERATURE OF HOTTOT Depth(cm) Soil Temperature(℃) 0 11. and the effective pool capacity is 70%. According to the formula above. when the ambient temperature is 10. underground 20cm and underground 40cm. it is need to add 177kg water to the digester to ensure the fermentation concentration is 10%.The heat of the manure Qw = cm = Δt cm(t2 − t1 )  (10) Where. 3 Hot Water Tank.16 When depth is 20cm. TABLE III.Su Yuan et al. latitude 40.24×104 5. 15℃.73 + 0. at the same tine. so the digester’s daily feed is 0. but increasing the system's safety factor.2kJ/kg℃.046 × longitude  −0. 4. 5 Drain Valve.2. listed in table 2 TABLE II. 35℃ When fermentation temperature is 35℃.1℃. the equation is: (9) Tsoil = 15.

2009 2 Radiation Level(MJ/m ) 20 0. it can be seen that the change trend of ambient .1 Radiation Level in Oct.3 0.16th.2009 tank temperature(℃) 60 50 40 30 20 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 time(h) Figure 4.2009 collector medium temperature in Oct.5 0.23rd. solar collector medium temperature Fig.2009 ambient temperature in Oct.23rd.Environmental / Procedia Environmental 11 (2011) 1386 – 1391 Author name / Procedia SciencesSciences 00 (2011) 000–000 5.2009 15 10 5 0 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 time(h) 0 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 time(h) 70 collector medium temperature in Oct.16th.4 is the comparison about ambient temperature.16th.2.2009 tank temperature in Oct. tank temperature.Discussion 25 ambient temperature (℃) ambient temperature in Oct.23rd.2009 60 temperature(℃) 50 40 30 20 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 time(h) 70 tank temperature in Oct.23rd.2009 Radiation Level in Oct. radiation level. solar radiation and the medium temperature of collector in two different types of weather condition.4 0. The comparison about ambient temperature.2 0.1390 Su Yuan et al.6 0.16th.

vol. but the temperature of October 23 is higher than October 16. so the medium temperature of collector is higher and it can deliver much heat to the water tank. T represents running time. pp. 365-375. 5.. and the other part was stored in the water tank. so solar collector can absorb more heat. because of October 23 was sunny.8 49. the solar radiation is gradually increased from 9:00 am to 13:00pm. At Hohhot. the heat was absorbed by 2m2 solar collectors that was ran 8 hours can meet the fermentation heat demands of 6m3 digester. Anaerobic Fermentation Technology in Inner Mongolia Area.Su Yuan et al. in October.2010ZD09) are gratefully acknowledged References [1] [2] [3] [4] 1-8. Li Changqing.”Harbin Institute of Technology.13×105 1.849 0. so the heat was stored in the water tank can reached 1.7 42. T2 is end temperature.1 Conclusions At Hohhot. the system was ran 8 hours. 2009.3. Amulya Kumar N Reddy. so the curve is not smooth. and then it is gradually decreased until 17:00pm almost zero. 46. the heat was absorbed by 2m2 solar collectors that was ran 8 hours. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 11 (2011) 1386 – 1391 1391 temperature is the same nearly in October 16 and October 23. Jan 2009. Fan Wenbin. “Exploration on Developing the Production of Biogas from Cow Dung by Yin Haiwen. “Studies in biogas technology Part.86×105 45.899 Heat(kJ) 3. pp.. vol.8 53. qv is flow of water tank.” Animal Husbandry and Feed Science.2007. while the heat needed for the biogas fermentation is 3. Plants.54 × 105kJ. pp. it can be shown by calculating. “Prediction of Soil Temperature in China. but the trend is consistent. . vol. the heat was absorbed through solar collectors was stored in the water tank. C2. Shi Xuezheng.16 × 104 kJ.50766002) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Natural Science Foundation (No. Qw = qv ρc pT (T2 − T1 )   Where. P Rajabapaiah. While October 16 was cloudy. in October. October 16 was cloudy. The heat was stored in the water tank could meet digester’s demands during 17:00 pm to 9:00 am of next day.Calculation the storage heat of water tank’s In the experiment. Therefore. Dimensions”Indian Acad Science. Optimisation of Plant Zhang Huizhi. 1979. THE TANK HEAT IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF WEATHER CONDITION Weather Condition Sunny Cloudy T1 (℃) T2 (℃) Flow(m3/h) 0. TABLE IV. Liu Yongbin.” Acta Pedologica Sinica. even on cloudy day. 127-128. “Simulation Resesrch on the System Combined Solar Energy with Biogas for Heating Biogas D K Subramanian. Acknowledgment The supports of National Natural Science Fund of China (Project No. however. T1 initial temperature. the water tank’s storage heat is determined by the following equation and list the results in table 4. The solar radiation curve of October 23 is smooth. the heat was stored in the water tank is 1. October 23 was sunny. 30.. some of it for biogas fermentation.86 × 105kJ if the system ran 8 hours.

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