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-the forces that the dental material will be subjected to Compressive: crushing like biting forces ( upper on lower

teeth) Tensile: biting force stretches a material Shear: e.g. an incisor used for cutting. -tarnish : that the amalgam become dark because of surface reaction with oxygen, chloride, sulfides. -corrosion : that the amalgam become dark because of surface reaction and weaker because of inner reactions. *Percolation : gap formation between a filling and the tooth because of deferent ( CTE ). Microleakage: Occurs when the restoration does not completely seal the surrounding margins of the cavity preparation. the harmful materials through the gap between tooth and restoration. Can cause: Staining Recurrent caries Sensitivity. -micromechanical: a term used to describe how composite is bonded to tooth surface by creating a ruff surface in enamel and dentin by making small holes . Affected by: Viscosity Film thickness Surface characteristics: cleanliness, moisture contamination, texture, energy. -acid etch with phosphoric acid; to remove mineral, create porosity, wettability. -adhesion; the force that binds two dissimilar materials together when they are brought into intimate contact.
the adhesion affected by;

-Wettability of the substrate surface -The viscosity of adhesive

-The morphology or surface roughness


-Surface energy: the attraction of atoms to a surface (directed inward). In
liquids, it is called surface tension. ---------------------------------------

Enamel etching
 Etching time: 10-30 seconds (around 15 seconds)  Primary teeth and fluoride treated teeth require more time  Etched enamel looks frosty white when dried  Etching produces a rough surface (pits) into which resin flows and forms resin tags = micromechanical retention.

The depth of penetration depends on:  Etching time  Rinsing time
 These two actors determine how effective etching was, and how well debris were removed from enamel surface.

-Without etching, bonding is weakened and this leads to microleakage.  In amalgam corrosion products may seal any spaces between cavity and
restoration, in GIC the release of fluoride provides protection but in composite, good bonding is essential.

-Liquid or gel (the gel is made by adding colloidal silica to the acid) phosphoric acid 30-50% (usually 37%). -If contamination occurs enamel should be re-etched for 10 seconds. -When the bonding resin is apply to etched dentin, it penetrate the exposed collagen matrix and dentinal tubule. An intermingling of resin

with etched dentin forms a hybrid layer. This layer provide a resin rich layer for bonding with other resins such as composite resin.

-PRR: minimal cavity preparation, resin composite placement, sealant placement on top. --------------------------------------------------GIC; Self-cured, tooth colored, fluoride releasing restorative materials that bond to tooth
structure without an additional bonding agent.

-Glass(Silica, Alumina, Calcium fluoride), Polyacid, Water, Tartaric acid. Different types and combinations of polyacid and glass create different versions of GIC.


 Fluoride release: high initial fluoride release, then lower continuous release
for long time. F-antibacterial, remineralization

  Biocompatibility: Tolerated by surrounding tissue & kind to pulp. However,
they’ve been associated with postoperative sensitivity, acid pH initially then neutral

  Strength: Moderate compressive strength, low tensile strength. not suitable for
stress bearing areas

  Thermal expansion: similar to that of tooth structure.

-GIC should be protected with a varnish (resin dissolved in a volatile solvent) to avoid moisture contamination and dehydration. Clinical uses of GIC: restorative material in non-stress bearing areas;
 Root caries  Occlusal lesions in primary teeth  Temporary restorations  Cervical cavities (abrasion and erosion lesions)  Anterior class III when color matching is not an issue  Liners and bases: used to protect the pulp from: Temperature changes

Chemicals from other restorative materials Acid etchants  GIC bases are used to rebuild missing tooth structure, stronger than liners and have a higher powder: liquid ratio.

-Lamination or sandwich technique: GIC is used as a base underneath composite restorations, in deep proximal cavities where the gingival floor is on the root. -----------------------------------Amalgam; -Why amalgam: Inexpensive, Ease of use, Proven track record–>100 years,
Familiarity. -Drawbacks: –Esthetics –Mercury content. Constituents in amalgam: Basic: silver, tin, copper, mercury. Others: zinc, indium, palladium. -Creep: usually seen with low-copper amalgam. It involves a change in the shape of the restoration due to compression from chewing and opposing teeth.

Physical properties of amalgam: Strength: High compressive strength 400-450 MPa, but low tensile strength
(12% of C.S) and low shear strength, therefore enough bulk of amalgam is needed to provide enough strength.

•High copper amalgam have higher strength values after the first hour of placement than low copper amalgams.

•Over trituration; sticks to capsule
–decreases working / setting time –slight increase in setting contraction

•Under trituration; –grainy, crumbly mix.

Burnishing; maybe done before carving to further condense amalgam and
remove excess mercury. –Carving is done soon after amalgam is placed in cavity –Finishing and polishing is done after 24 hours.

Amalgam bonding
Using resin bonding agents: –Etching of cavity preparation –Bonding is done with one or two bonding resins: •1st technique: bonding agent applied to enamel and dentine, followed by chemical cured resin. Amalgam is condensed against the wet resin. •2nd technique: a single chemical cure bonding agent is applied before
placement of amalgam

Composite resin: Composition: Resin matrix, Fillers, Coupling agents (silane)join filler and
matrix, Pigments.

-Resin matrix: bis-GMA (bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate). UDMA (Urethane
dimethacrylate) These resins are made of oligomers (organic molecules) and low molecular weight monomers. 

-Fillers: silica, quartz, glasses Why add fillers: -Add strength -Increase wear resistance -Reduce polymerization shrinkage. --------------------------------------------Light curing units:

Halogen light bulbs are used as a light source. Light delivery probe or tip is glass or glass encased in metal or plastic casing. Should be covered in a disposable cover.

-------------------------------------------Compomers: Composites modified with polyacid (polyacid-modified resin). The resin contains MMA and polycarboxylic acid. Light activation chemicals are included and also fluoride containing glasses. Fluoride release is small compared to conventional GIC due to resin binding the glass fillers after light activation.