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Biography of John Locke
Dates of Birth and Death: (∗) 29 August 1632 in Wrington near Bristol, England (†) 28 October 1704 in Oates, Essex, England Family Data: John Locke was born into a Puritan family. His father was lawyer and clerk in the court of Justice of the Peace in Chew Magna. During the Civil War he was officer on the side of the Parliament and the Puritans. His mother was Agnes Keene. In 1661, Locke inherited several cottages and some land from his father. This made him independent. Locke never married and had no children. In 1682, he had a romanticintellectual relation to Damaris Cudworth (1659-1708). After Locke had to go to the exile to the Netherlands, she married Lord Masham, a widower with 8 children, but she and Locke remained friends till his death. Locke spent the last years of his life (since 1691) in the country house of the Masham family in Oates, Essex. Locke was buried on the churchyard of High Laver. Education: Promoted by Alexander Popham (1605-1669) John attended the prestigious Westminster School in London since 1647, where he had a scholarship, which enabled him to continue his education at one of the famous universities. As from 1652, he studied classical philosophy and science at Christchurch College in Oxford; he finished his studies with the Bachelor of Arts in 1656 and with the Master of Arts in 1658. Then he became senior student teaching Greek, Rhetoric, Ethics and Morals as a lecturer. In 1674, he also made the Bachelor of Medicine. Then he travelled to France. Professional Career: As from 1666, Locke was secretary and personal physician at the service of Anthony Ashley Cooper, the 1. Earl of Shaftesbury (1621-1683). He succeeded to save the Earl’s life by operating his liver. Later, he became tutor of the grandchildren of the Earl and was also politically influenced by Shaftesbury, who belonged to the Whigs. During the changing political situation,

and other philosophical writings (1990). but he refused because of health reasons. The king made him excluded from Oxford. Locke pleaded for freedom. later Michael A. Stewart (eds. – Locke became important for the enlightenment. because of his publications. James II and Charles II were killed during the exile in the Netherlands in the years between 1683 and 1688. In the country-house of the Masham family he became the intellectual hero of the Whigs. 2 vols.e. 2000. (1987). Roman. equality and invulnerability of persons and property. In the meantime he was famous all over Europe. Publications: • John W. as future king.Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia. Drafts for the Essay concerning human understanding. Lockii Epistola de tolerantia (Oxford 1968) (A Letter Concerning Toleration) (Goudae 1689). together with transcripts of Locke’s shorthand in his journal for 1676 (Oxford 1954. with: The correspondence of John Locke.). On the reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the scriptures (1999). because they obeyed a second “prince”. 4 vols. 1 and 2 Corinthians. He died there in 1683. He strictly refused the forced conversion to a religion and pleaded for religious tolerance. Locke was offered a political position in 1689. When William of Orange came to power. A paraphrase and notes on the epistles of St. com ) 2 Shaftesbury was imprisoned and had to go into exile to the Netherlands in 1682 because of his opposition against James II. John Locke. • Peter Anstey (ed. Locke strongly influenced Voltaire and Rousseau and the American Revolution. Yolton. 2 vols.). in the accordance. Locke on money. An Essay concerning human understanding (1987). (1975-1980). • Essays on the law of nature: the Latin text with a translation. 8 vols. Some thoughts concerning education (1989. stochastikon. Ephesians. 2003). except for the atheists. (London 2006). Locke also went to exile according to the Rye House Plot. German: . Paul to the Galatians. because he thought a belief in god was necessary. The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke (Oxford 1975ff). i. 2002. introduction and notes. • Ioan. 2007). Latin-English: (The Hague 1963). (1991). where he was not very popular. and the same of the Catholics.

1977. Mineola 2002). 1764. and: http://www.. http://www.2007).07.org/browse/ authors/l#2447 (16. 1696.2007). 2005). 1759. Oxford 2006). also: Essai philosophique concernant l’entendement humain (Paris 2004). 2006). ed.2007). NJ 2007). com/f locke.. 1788. 1910. . 6. online Farminton Hills) • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690. and: The second treatise of government and A Letter concerning toleration (New York 1956. • The Second Treatise of Government (1690). 2005). 1755. 1710..gutenberg. D¨ usseldorf 1993). German: Zwei Abhandlungen u ¨ber die Regierung (Frankfurt 1906.08. Oxford 2000.08. • Some Thoughts Concerning Education (London 1693. other Edition: Paderborn 2007). .Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia.html (16. 2003. 1999.. • Two treatises of government (London 1694.html (16.. 2004. • A third letter on tolerance (London 1692). German: Gedanken u ¨ber Erziehung (Leipzig 1881. new: Ein Brief u ¨ber Toleranz (englisch-deutsch) (Hamburg 1996.. Cambridge 2003. • Letters concerning toleration (London 1765. German: Zweite Abhandlung u ¨ber die Regierung (Frankfurt 2007). . 1718. . German: Johann Lockens Anleitung des menschlichen Verstandes zur Erkaentnis der Wahrheit (K¨ onigsberg 1755).gutenberg.earlymoderntexts. French: Identit´ e et diff´ erence: l’invention de la conscience. also: http://www.. 2001. other Edition: Uber die Regierung (Stuttgart 1966. Stuttgart 2002).08. 1726. stochastikon. 2006. 1775. new: Versuch u ¨ber den menschlichen Verstand (Hamburg 1988-2000. . Mineola. • Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest. London 2004...2007). and Raising the Value of Money (London 1692. K¨ onigsberg 1755. com ) 3 Herrn Johann Lockens Sendschreiben von der Toleranz. Langesalza 1883. Oder von der Religions. ¨ 2007). 1698. • A second letter on tolerance (London 1690). also: Die Leitung des Verstandes (Schutterwald 1999).und Gewissens-Freyheit (s. com/f locke. New Haven.earlymoderntexts. 1701. 1728.. Bristol 2004). French: Lettre sur la tol´ erance integral (Paris 1995). . an essay concerning human understanding (Paris 1998).org/browse/ authors/l#2447 (16. Con. 2003.l. http://www. Indianapolis 1998.

also: Uber den richtigen Gebrauch des Verstandes (Leipzig 1920. • Of the Conduct of Understanding (London 1706.libraries. wie es in der Heiligen Schrift enthalten ist. • Some thoughts concerning education (Oxford 2000.psu. • Locke in Germany. Oxford 1999). John Locke (London 1706). • John Locke: writings on religion (Oxford 2002). 1754. German: Anleitung des menschlichen Verstandes (K¨ onigsberg ¨ 1755). or: Locke’s Leitung des Verstandes (Heidelberg 1983). http://www. or: Die Leitung des Verstandes (Schutterwald 1999). telle qu’elle nous est rerpr´ esent´ ee dans l’Ecriture Sainte (Oxford 1999).edu/tas/locke/mss/index. . stochastikon. French: Que la religion chr´ etienne est tr` es-raisonnable.08. 1794). correspondence and other papers (Cambridge 2008).2007). John Locke: Selected correspondence (Oxford 2002). • Posthumous works of Mr. 8 vols.Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia. • Que la religion chr´ etienne est tr` es-raisonnable. Hamburg 1978). • The political writings of John Locke (London 2005). • Locke’s travels in France 1675-1679: as related in his journals. • Gedanken u ¨ber Erziehung (Stuttgart 2002). Bristol 2006). Leipzig 1709-1761. 2001).). com ) 4 • The Reasonableness of Christianitas Deliver’d in the Scriptures (London 1695. 1741. (Berlin.html (16. 1781. • Manuscripts v. telle qu’elle nous est ´ repr´ esent´ ee dans l’Ecriture Sainte (Oxford 1999). Chicago 1965. Des ber¨ uhmten Engl¨ anders Johann Loke vernunftm¨ aßiges Christenthum. • Mark Goldie (ed. Scientific Awards: In 1668 Locke became member of the Royal Society.

• Jonathan Francis Bennett. Chiodi. Berkeley. • Jim Alvey. The Cambridge companion to Locke (Cambridge 1999. Hume: central themes (Oxford 2004).). • Peter R. • Jenny Davidson. • Giulio M. Visions of childhood: influential models from Locke to Spock (New York 2001). com ) 5 Bibliography: We only mention the newest literature on Locke. Locke and law (Aldershot 2007). • Elart von Collani. • Jonathan Francis Bennett. • Lorraine Daston. in: Paul V. Leibniz. (2000). Learning from six philosophers: Descartes. John Locke: critical assessments. Regimes of language (2000) pp. Aufl. • Charles Coulston Gillespie (ed. • Daniel Carey. • Christopher Hughes Conn. Classical Probability in the Enlightenment (Princeton 1988). Locke. Cleverley. Defining the Science of Stochastics (Lemgo 2004). . • Peter R. Spinoza. 2006 10.Kant (Norderstedt 2000). Kroskrity (ed.Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia. Los contractualistas ingleses y su concepci´ on de la soberan´ ıa: Thomas Hobbes y John Locke (Montevideo 2005). Anstey. • Michael Ben-Chaim. Locke. • Vere Clairborne Chappell. Locke.Rousseau . • Michael Billig. • Thom Brooks. Locke.). 436-440. 4 vols. and Newton (Aldershot 2004). 139-204. John Locke: critical assessments of leading philosophers. Locke (Paris 2004 ). • Mashhad Al-Allaf. VIII (New York 1973) pp. “Language philosophy as language ideology: John Locke and Johann Gottfried Herder”. Locke on essence and identity (Dordrecht 2003). Hypocrisis and the politics of politeness: manners and morals from Locke to Austen (Cambridge 2004). vol. Berkeley. The hidden roots of critical psychology (2008). Shaftesbury. • Jean Pierre Cl´ ero. Dictionary of scientific biography. La filosof´ ıa politica di Locke (Milano 2006). The philosophy of John Locke: new perspectives [Symposium ’New Work on the Philosophy of John Locke’] (London 2003). stochastikon. • John F. and Hutcheson: contesting diversity in the Enlightenment and beyond (Cambridge 2006). • Reinhard Aulke. • Richard Baumann. • Heber Arbuet Vignali. • Richard Ashcraft. John Locke after 300 years (Palmerston North 2004). Experimental philosophy and the birth of empirical science: Boyle. Hume (Oxford 2001). series II (Cambridge 2006). Grundprobleme moralischer Erziehung in der Moderne: Locke .). Anstey. John Locke’s philosophy of science and metaphysics: the problem of cohesion (Lewiston 2007).

Locke. Locke: his philosophical thought (Oxford 2004). • Nicholas Jolley. Locke (London 2005. NJ 2008). 2003). Locke’s ’Second Treatise on Government’ (London 2007). Feminist interpretations of John Locke (University Park. Lowe. and confusion’s masterpiece: an examination of seventeenth-century political philosophy (Cambridge 2003). Questioning authority: political resistance and the ethic of natural science (New Brunswick. John Locke and the origins of private property: philosophical explorations of individualism. • Paul J. Ressource 2001). • Nancy J. Locke. Narrative power and liberal truth: Hobbes. community. • Andrew Levine. Le sens moral: une histoire de la philosophie morale de Locke ` a Kant (Paris 2000). 25-36. “Herrschaft und Eigentum bei Wilhelm von Ockham und John Locke”. Routledge philosophy guidebook to Locke on human understanding (London 2000). • Verena Epp. . • E. and Mill (Lanham 2002). Language. • Laurent Fonbaustier. Jonathan Lowe. • Bernard Gilson. Edgeworth (Aldershot 2007). Kan. 63-75. Hobbes. John Locke: le droit avant l’´ etat (Paris 2004). • Frederick Esser. John Locke’s investigtion into our knowledge of bodies (elektr. stochastikon. The great art of government: Locke’s use of consent (Lawrence. Iran (Lanham 2003) pp. J. and nation in the 1790s: Locke. Aspekte seiner theoretischen und praktischen Philosophie (Hamburg 2006). 2002). and equality (Cambridge 2004). Tooke. • Laurent Jaffro.). Language. Judd. L’apport de Locke ` a la philosophie g´ en´ erale et politique (Paris 2000). • E. Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 34 (1999) pp.J. • Matthew H. 2006). John Locke’s politics of moral consensus (Cambridge 2005). Lowe. • Lothar Kreimendahl (ed. • Peter Josephson. “The relevance of John Locke to social change in the Muslim world: a comparison with Iran”. Kelly. • Greg Forster. • Nader Hashemi. • Diana M.Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia. Kramer. • Ross Harrison. Themenschwerpunkt: John Locke. custom. • Susan Manly. Hirschmann. Engaging political philosophy: from Hobbes to Rawls (Oxford 2002). • Rhodri Lewis. • Susanne Held. Wordsworth. mind and nature: artificial languages in England from Bacon to Locke (Cambridge 2007). Locke on human understanding (London 2000. • E. Eisenach. Bentham. PA 2007). Eigentum und Herrschaft bei John Locke und Immanuel Kant: ein ideengeschichtlicher Vergleich (Berlin 2006). com ) 6 • Eldon J.

Locke’s letter: concerning some pas- . • Kim Ian Parker. John Locke and the problem of depravity (Oxford 2003). • Ivano Petrocchi. The philosophy of Edward Stillingfleet. governo civile (Genova 2004). • John Marshall.M. The eighteenth century 49 (2008) pp. • Alexander S. The biblical politics of John Locke (Waterloo. Vol. politica. 2004). • Lex Newman. John Locke (M¨ unchen 2007). “Huguenot thought after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes: toleration. Locke’s philosophy of language (Cambridge 2004). zum Einfluß des sp¨ aten Locke auf Kant und die deutsche Aufkl¨ arung (Frankfurt 2004). toleration and early Enlightenment culture: religious intolerance and arguments for religious toleration in early modern and ’early Enlightenment’ Europe (Cambridge 2006).Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia. Property rights and the limits of democracy (Cheltenham 2002). • John Marshall. Spellman. and the ascent of modern constitutionalism (Lanham 2008). Mensch oder B¨ urger? (M¨ unster 2005). • W. 43-65. • Sean R. Lockes Nachlaßschrift Of the Conduct of the Understanding und ihr Einfluß auf Kant: das Gleichgewicht des Verstandes. integration”. and method: the logic of ideas of Descartes and Locke and its reception in the Dutch Republic. Silver. Ireland and colonial America (Brighton 2001) pp. stochastikon. • Michaela Meermann. Locke e il costituzionalismo: etica. ’Socinanism’. Ont. Edward Stillingfleet als Kritiker der Ideenlehre John Lockes (Frankfurt 2000). John Locke. • Gottfried Schwitzgebel. • Bortolo Martinelli. 5: The Bishop of Worcester’s answer to Mr. • Jean-Fabien Spitz. • Paul Schuurman. John Locke et les fondements de la libert´ e moderne (Paris 2001). 383-396. in: From strangers to citizens: the integration of immigrant communities in Britain. • Alexander Moseley. Ott. • Edward Stillingfleet. mental faculties. Leopardi tra Leibniz e Locke: alla ricerca di un orientamento e di un fondamento (Roma 2003). Rosenthal. • Charles Kershaw Rowley. 1817. • Maurizio Merlo. • Edward Stillingfleet. com ) 7 • Franco Manti. • Rainer Specht. Crown under law: Richard Hooker. John Locke. The Cambridge companion to Locke’s “Essay concerning human understanding” (Cambridge 2007). Bristol 2000). La legge e la coscienza: il problema della libert` a nella filosofia politica di John Locke (Monza 2006). Ideas. The philosophy of Edward Stillingfleet: including his replies to John Locke (London 1661. “Locke’s pineapple and the history of taste”. 1630-1750 (Leiden 2004). John Locke (London 2007). • Walter R.

La diffusion de Locke en France (Oxford 2001). com ) 8 sages relating to his essay of human understanding (London 1697. John Locke and the rhetoric of modernity (Lanham 2008). • Michael P. Yolton. • Nathan Tarcov. • James Tully. in: Deductive rationality (Lanham 2008) pp. • Samuel Zinaich. Kan. 29-46.wikipedia.philolex. Locke’s Essay concerning human understanding: a readers guide (London 2007). Launching liberalism: on Lockean political philosophy (Lawrence. • Roger Stuart Woolhouse.de/locke. person. God. • Udo Thiel. Ind.Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia.htm (16 August 2007). Locke and the way of ideas (South Bend. • Yasuhiko Tomida. Locke on government (London 2002.2007). • Alex Scott Tuckness. “John Locke. • Tapani Turkka. Quine.org/wiki/John Locke (16 August 2007). 2002). Locke and the legislative point of view: toleration.stanford. • Voltaire Foundation (ed. contested principles. • Henrik Syse.). Yolton. • William Uzgalis. Natural law. Zuckert. and the law (Princeton 2002). Thomas Hobbes and the development of political economy”. Locke’s essay and the rhetoric of science (Lewisburg 2003). 2003). and rights: an exploration of the relationship between natural law and natural rights. • http://www. • John W. • Peter Walmesley. • http:/plato. John Locke’s moral revolution: from natura law to moral relativism (Lanham 2006). 2007). Locke: essays and discussions on naturalism (Hildesheim 2007). . Locke’s education for liberty (Lanham 1999). religion. Rorty. Locke: a biography (Cambridge 2007). • David A. Locke. • Gideon Yaffe. Staveley. and spirits in the Essays (Ithaca NY 2004). Laslett and beyond: John Locke’s “Two treatises of government” revisited (Tampere 2004). • Yasuhiko Tomida.08. Lloyd Thomas. 2000). Inquiries into Locke’s theory of ideas (Hildesheim 2001). • http://en. The two intellectual worlds of John Locke: man. and equality: Christian foundations of John Locke’s political thought (Cambridge 2002. A discourse on property: John Locke and his adversaries (Cambridge 2006). 2000). Liberty worth the name: Locke on free agency (Princeton 2000). with special emphasis on the teachings of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke (Cambridge 2007). stochastikon.edu/entries/locke/ (16. • Thea Vinnicombe. • John W. Locke: epistemology and metaphysics (Aldershot 2002). Richard W. • Philip Vogt. • Jeremy Waldron.

Author(s) of this contribution: Claudia von Collani Version: 1.rice. stochastikon.00 . com ) 9 • http://galileo.Copyright c by Stochastikon GmbH (http: // encyclopedia.html (03 November 2008).edu/Catalog/NewFiles/locke.