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7 18-4 16-6 7 4)/7 -8+7 2414 ,  )6- )61 1 .

) 7 6-6

5J= E • 5 ,E EJHE ALE • 5 5E E • , *

LE

.7

+1 ) ) ) ) 1 ) >EH = =@=J= =

4)/7 -8)+ %

5=@H<=
2HA@C L H  

" EE H EH= E FH IJ HE
HE A

AJHE 


#
# 

2HAC

A@ JA

=@=?E

FAH=J HE 
2HAC A@ JA HE A =@=?E

'
' 

!

6A HE = AHA
!  ! 2HAC A@ JA HE A =@=?E 

$ 
$ $%

"
"

A>AC L E JACH=
"  2HAC A@ JA HE A =@=?E 

'% 
'% !

EJAH=JKH=

#

!

2HA@C L H

/ =L= 

AJHE E E H EH= E FH IJ HE 
 2HAC A@ JA HE A

AJHE E FH IJ HE
, I KFK 2HAI E =L=MA d : X × X → [0, +∞) A AJHE = X=∅ = = IL= x, y, z ∈ X L=<E   d(x, y ) = 0 ⇔ x = y   d(x, y ) = d(y, x)  ! d(x, y ) d(x, z ) + d(z, y ) ( A A@ = IJ JH KC =) 2H IJ H X = A A @ABE EI= = AJHE = d LA IA AJHE E FH J HE = =L= I= (X, d) E E H= A I= I= X =@= F @H= K AL= IA AJHE?E d H=@E ) FHLE KI L = A E I =>E E KI L   x = y ⇒ d(x, y ) = 0 J=@= IA FHAI E =L=MA d LA FIAK@ AJHE =

-.1 1+1 )  

=

I

1 @ABE E?E A A@

IJ=L

I A@A

I >E A

AJHE A  A A@ = IJ C KC =

(1) d(x1 , xn )

n−1 i=1

d(xi , xi+1 ) xi ∈ X d(z, x) d(x, u) + d(y, v )
#

(2) |d(x, y ) − d(y, z )| (3) |d(x, y ) − d(u, v )| 

A A@ =

IJ

AJL H KC =

$ 



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

,

-.1 1+1 ) 
E
= F IJ L=<E

E >E A JEL

u, v ∈ X

(X, dX ) E (Y, dY ) IK E f : X → Y J= L @= dX (u, v ) = dY (f (u), f (v ))
AJHE E FH IJ HE FHAI E =L=MA

AJHE
= IL=

)2
L=JE I= A@ = A E

- )
F =I K

2HE AJE FHEH @E IL = AJHE A

@= IA @L= E E AJHE E

AJHE @

= FH IJ H= IK AJHE =MA E L=JE E @

CK H=

E

ED A A A =J= @

IE J= = =

C FH IJ H= EIJE AJHE

IE J= = = @HKC C FH IJ H= A K J= = = J

FH IJ HK E JAHAIK A H=IJ AJHE A FH IJ HA E@A JEBE

,

-.1 1+1 )  !
Y
A L=<E

A = IK @=JE

AJHE @

E FH IJ HE

2H IJ H

AJHE

E F JFH IJ H

X

=

A

u, v ∈ Y

dY (u, v ) = dX (u, v )

(X, dX ) E (Y, dY ) Y ⊆ X E = IL=

0A @AH L= A A@ = IJ
) >H IK ALE E =

xi , yi i = 1, . . . , n A p > 1 E q J= L
A A@ = IJ

FH E L G E HA= @= A

E E E J=@= = IL=

F A I E

1/p + 1/q = 1
1/p

L=<E 0A @AH L=

n∈N

n i=1
5FA?E = I C =

n

n i=1

1/q

|xi yi |

i=1
>E =

|xi |

p

|yi |

q

.
E L=H? *KM= L

p=q=2@

A A@ =

IJ

A A@ = IJ E
A = IK >H I ALE E C A = A

LI C
E L G E HA= E E E A A@ = IJ F A I E E L

xi , yi i = 1, . . . , n FH p 1 6=@= = IL=
1/p n i=1

n ∈ N L=<E
1/p

n i=1
,

n

1/p

|xi + yi |

p

|xi |

p

+
i=1
AJHE

|yi |

p

.

-.1 1+1 )  "

A = IK =

(X, d1 ) E (X, d2 )

E FH IJ HE

AJHE A

d1 E d2 IK A

LEL= A J A

(∃c1 , c2 ∈ R+ )(∀x, y ∈ X ) c1 d1 (x, y )

d2 (x, y )

c2 d1 (x, y ).

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

%

=LA@E A A

A

E

=H=

JAHEIJE H=@K A @ >H

ED FHE EJ= ?K

AH=

AJHE

ED FH = I=

IJ

H= E

HEIJEJE K @=GA =<A @= IK ILA AJHE

IJ=LG= EI= A

IJ=

H=@ @= F

@ABE

2

41 -4   X = Kn K ∈ {R, C} I= A A A JE = x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) AJHE A xi ∈ K i = 1, . . . , n 7 L FH IJ HK @ABE E A
n 1/p

dp (x, y ) =
i=1

|xi − yi |

p

,

1

p < ∞,

d∞ (x, y ) = max |xi − yi |.
1 i n

AF IHA@

IA FH LAH=L= @= L=<E
dp (x, y ) n1/p d∞ (x, y ),
p→+∞

d∞ (x, y )

lim dp (x, y ) = d∞ (x, y ).

7 I K = K p = 2 @ >E =
2

IJ= @=H@ K -K E@I K AJHE K
p < +∞  FH IJ H ILED >AI

41 -4 

X = ℓp , 1

= ED HA=
+∞ i=1

ED E E F A I ED E L= x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . ) J= LED @= LAHCEH= AJHE K @ABE E A I=
d(x, y ) =
+∞ i=1
2

|xi |p

1/p

|xi − yi |

p

.

41 -4  ! X = m  FH IJ H ILED CH= E A ED E L= J FH IJ H ILED E L= x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . ) J= LED @= A sup |xi | < +∞ AJHE = i∈N A @=J= I= d(x, y ) = sup |xi − yi |.
i∈N

= EIJE = E @ABE E A AJHE K K FH I HK X = c FH IJ HK LAH E LAHCEH= K = K E CA J ED E L= E K X = c0 FH IJ HK E L= 8=<E c0 ⊂ c ⊂ m
2

41 -4  " X = s  FH IJ H ILED >AI E L= AJHE K @ABE E A I=
d(x, y ) =
+∞ i=1

= ED HA= ED E E

F A I ED

1 |xi − yi | . 2i 1 + |xi − yi |

& 



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

2

41 -4  # X = C[a, b]  FH IJ H AFHA E@ ED BK ?E = = = E JAHL= K [a, b] AJHE = A @=J= I= d(x, y ) = max |x(t) − y (t)|
a t b

2

41 -4  $

[a, b]

= FH IJ HK AFHA E@ ED BK ?E = = CK IA @ABE EI=JE E E JACH= A AJHE A
b 1/p

=

E JAHL= K

dp (x, y ) =
a

|x(t) − y (t)| dt

p

,

1

p < +∞,

E J=@= IA K AIJ

= A C[a, b]

HEIJE Cp [a, b]

241 -4  % X = B[a, b]  FH IJ H CH= E A ED BK ?E = = = E JAHL= K [a, b] AJHE = A @=J= I= d(x, y ) = sup |x(t) − y (t)|

a t b

2

41 -4  &

A = A X = ∅ E A = A = X × X @ABE EI=
d(x, y ) = 0, 1, x = y, x = y.

FHAI E =L=MA

(X, d) A @EI HAJ=

AJHE E FH IJ H

H EH= E FH IJ HE
,

=

-.1 1+1 )  # 8A J HI E FH IJ H (X, K) , K ∈ {R, C} A
F IJ E A AC=JEL = BK ?E = ·   0 =0 x >0 = x=0   λx = |λ| x λ ∈ K  ! x+y x + y LA IA
H A

: X → R J= L= @= A

H EH=

.K ?E = ·
I >E A    FH IJ HK 7 E @K

H = FH IJ H= X

x − y · A AFHA

E@ = BK

x−y

?E =

= IL=

H EH=

LA J HI

H EH= L= = @=J

FH IJ HK FHAI E =L=MA H H EH= = FHE AH K AJHE K

d(x, y ) = x − y
<A IA KLAIJE AJHE

A

AJHE =

)2
IL= E >H=J H =

- )

7 IL=

FH IJ HK AJHE E I= AJHE

AJHE = J

H EH= E FH IJ H A E A L=<E = E @K K A

E FH IJ H AHK  "

s

d(x, y ) = x − y
A

<A IA KLAIJE

d @=JK K FHE

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

'

,

A LEL= A J A =

-.1 1+1 )  $

H A

·

1

E

·

2

= LA J HI
x
ED FH

FH IJ HK X IK
c2 x 1 .

(∃c1 , c2 ∈ R+ )(∀x ∈ X ) c1 x
=LA@E A E FHE AH= H

1

2
IJ

EH=

H=

2

41 -4  ' X =
*E A @LA

Kk p

1

= p = +∞ : x

p < +∞ K ∈ {R, C} : x

k p

1/p

=
i=1

|ξi

|p

.

= max |ξi |
1 i k

H A K FH IJ HK Kk p p
p < +∞

1 IK A LEL= A J A
+∞ i=1 1/p

2

41 -4   X = ℓp , 1

x =

|ξi |p
i∈N

2

41 -4   7 FH IJ HE = E L= m, c, c0 41 -4  
X = C[a, b] x = max |x(t)|
a t b

x = sup |ξi |

2

2

41 -4  ! X = Cp [a, b] 1 41 -4  " X = Lp (a, b) 1
x =

b

1/p

p < +∞

x =
a

|x(t)| dt

p

.

2

p < +∞  FH IJ H A>AC E JACH=>E ED BK ?E = = (a, b) LE@AJE C =LK "
b a 1/p

|x(t)|p dm

.

4=IJ =MA E A K @L= I KF=
AJHE FH IJ HK (X, d) H=IJ =MA J= A x0 ∈ X @ I KF= A ⊆ X @ABE E A I=
,

-.1 1+1 )  % 7

d(x0 , A) = inf {d(x0 , a) | a ∈ A}.

)2
a∈A
E BE

- )
L=<E K F

5 KF {d(x0 , a) | a ∈ A} A CH= E A @ @ AH = IL= 0 5 A@E @= = IL= E I KF A = ∅ @C L=H= K d(x0 , a) IJ E F= A d(x0 , A) @HA A A AC=JEL= HA= = >H 1 KI L=

E

)2
>H=J

- )
=0

A L=<E = E

= FHE

x0 ∈ A
AH =

I

A@E @= A

d(0, R+ )

0∈ /

R+

A d(x0 , A) = 0 A KJE X = R x0 = 0 A = R+ J=@=

A  



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

,

-.1 1+1 )  &

FH IJ HK

(X, d) @ABE

4=IJ =MA E A K I KF L= A, B
E A I=

⊆ X

K

AJHE

d(A, B ) = inf {d(a, b) | a ∈ A, b ∈ B }.

)2
= E

- )

1 KI

L=

A L=<E

= FHE AH

R+ ∩ R− = ∅
A I KF IJ

A ∩ B = ∅ I A@E @= A d(A, B ) = 0 = E >H KJ + B = R− J=@= A d(R+ , R− ) = 0 = A A = R

,

-.1 1+1 )  '

5 KF

(X, d) = I KF A F

E HA= =

A ⊆ X A CH= {d(a, a′ ) | a, a′ ∈ A}
>H

EA

K

AJHE K

FH IJ HK = CH= E A

CH= E A

R

E IA

LA

@E = AJ=H
) A

diam(A) = sup{d(a, a′ ) | a, a′ ∈ A},
I KF=

A
J=@= =<A @= A

)2
2H= = K E

- )

A

A CH= E A

I KF E A@

= E I KF LE IK

CH= E A E E @E = AJ=H E

diam(A) = +∞
A A@ =

,AI HEFJEL A I >E A I KF L=
,

-.1 1+1 )  
X
E E =

A = A

FH IJ H=

r

A I KF

r ∈ R+

JL HA = KC =
K J= E

(X, d)

AJHE

E FH IJ H I= ?A JH

x0 BE
K J=

IEH= = J= E

=

x0

F

KFHA

=JL HA = KC = 5BAH=
I= ?A JH

K (x0 , r) = {x ∈ X | d(x0 , r) < r}.
I= ?A JH

x0 F

KFHA

E =

r

A I KF

K [x0 , r] = {x ∈ X | d(x0 , r)
K J= E

r }.

x0 F

KFHA

E =

r

A I KF

S (x0 , r) = {x ∈ X | d(x0 , r) = r}.
2HE AJE I=@H<= K A @= IK KC E KC = E >H KJ JL HA = E =JL HA = E MA E F @I KF LE IL= E CH= E A I KF E FH IJ H= CH= E A E I KF LE

X

A

7 FH IJ HK

R

KC =

K (x0 , r)
A

A E JAHL= KC

I E?E  FHE = = A IK A@E E

JL HA A

(x0 − r, x0 + r) = A I= ?A JH K x0 = (0, 0)

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41 

F KFHA JEL

E = r = 1 K FH IJ HE = (R2 , d1 ) (R2 , d2 ) E (R2 , d∞ ) HAIFA

5 E = A = A f ∈ C[a, b] @=J= BK ?E = E r > 0 = I E?E FHE = = = A KC = K (f, r ) K FH IJ HK C[a, b] /H=BE A BK ?E = f + r E f − r @ >E = JH= I =?E CH=BE = BK ?E A f = LA J H (0, r ) @ I (0, −r) KC K K (f, r ) K FH IJ HK C[a, b] I= EM=L= K ILA A BK ?E A g ∈ C[a, b] E E IA CH=BE = = E K KJ=H JH= A
CH= E A A CH=BE?E = BK ?E = f − r E f + r

5 E =
,

-.1 1+1 )  
= A K E = 5 KF

5 KF

HA

A A B=

E E A

U ⊆X

E

AJHE

C FH IJ H=

JL HA ED

KC E FH IJ

(X, d) H= X

A

JL

6

- 4- )  
=

E I=

= IL=

U ⊆ X K AJHE K J= K x0 ∈ U F IJ
AJHE FH IJ HK IJL= = I A@A = IL

FH IJ HK E KC

(X, d) A JL = K (x0 , r ) ⊆ U
A ?E =

HA

=

6

- 4- ) 
1◦ 2◦ 3◦

7

(X, d)

I KF L=

U ⊆XE ∅, X ∈ U
FHAIA

U

ILED

JL HA ED

K E = IL= A B= =

E E A A A C A A

A =J= E A =J= E

U U

A A A A A A

A J A J

A ?E A A

U ?E A U
A HA

,

-.1 1+1 )  
= A MAC L

5 KF F A

HA

A J K

F ⊆X

K

AJHE IK =

FH IJ HK EJ=L FH IJ

@

(X, d) H X JL

=JL
I KF  



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

6

- 4- )  !

7

AJHE E

FH IJ HK

(X, d)

A ?E =

ED I KF L=

2◦ 3◦
,

1◦ ∅, X ∈ F
FHAIA K E =

F ⊆X

= I A@A = IL

IJL=

F

ILED

=JL HA

IL= A B= =

E E A A A C A A

A =J= E

A =J= E

F

F

A A A

A J

A ?E A A ?E A

A A A

A J

F

F

-.1 1+1 )  !
K =?E

7 KJH=

X

IK I=@H<= E K I KFK

Int(A) (E E A) A
A JL

M IJ E JAHE H
A K E = ILED

I KF=

A⊆X

K FH IJ HK

JL HA ED I KF L=

U ⊆X

E

)2
I KFK E F @I

- ) Int(A)
A
J KF

= LA HA

E E F

JL @I

HA KF

E I @

KF E

X

E

A I=@H<= E JL

K HA

Int(A) @ A
A = L=<E

A

A

E I=@H<E IL=

6

- 4- )  "
K

J=

x∈X

A A ⊆ X F x ∈ Int(A) =

@I KF E I=

AJHE = A

C FH IJ H= (X, d) d(x, X \ A) > 0.

=

,

-.1 1+1 )  "
I= IL IJL @=

E =
A

O⊆X

J= A x ∈ X x ∈ Int(O)

K FH IJ HK

X

A IL= E I KF

)2
J=@= A IL A J=

- )
A

)

F

IJ

E

JL

HA E

I = J=

KF A

U ⊆ Int(O)

F= A

O

U ⊆X = E A x ∈ U ⊆ O x 2H IJ H X A E = IL= A

6

- 4- )  #

5 KF

E = IL= A IL

A J=

U ⊆X
A

A

JL HA

K FH IJ HK

X

=

E I=

=

A

,

-.1 1+1 )  #
K =?E

)@DAHA ?E =  =JL HAMA
AIJA FHAIA =

I KF=

X

I=@H<A I

A (E E ClA) KF A 5L= = J=
A = =ME

ILED

=JL HA ED I KF L=

A ⊆ X

K FH IJ HK E

x∈A
HA I

LA IA

=@DAHA J = J=

=

I KF=

A

)2
6 = J=

- ) A
)

=JL

KF

E I=@H<E I

KF

A
= E I= E =

- 4- )  $
A A

A

d(x, A) = 0. 6= x IA A I KF A

A ⊆ X

E

A L=<E

x ∈ X x∈A

J=@= L=<E = E I= =

x ∈ A

IL= =

O

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41 

!

, =

-.1 1+1 )  $
IL= = E =

6=

=

O

J= =

A

x0 ∈ X x0 IA A
E A J=

A

J=

=

=C

E =L=M=
6= =

I KF =

L= = J=
J= = = I KF= =C

= I KF= )

=C

A \ {x0 } A′

E =L=M= I E

I KF= A ⊆ X x0 ∈ A A E KF= A 5 KF ILED

E =L=M= I KF=

A

= =L= IA I=

= EL= IA

E L @ E I KF

A
/H= E?=
I KF=

,

-.1 1+1 )  %
A@  IJ=L

A⊆X

A I KF

∂A = A ∩ (X \ A)

IA @

= K K I A@A A

I >E A

! " # $ % & '    !
2

A A JL HA ⇔ A = Int(A) Int(Int(A)) = Int(A) Int(A ∩ B ) = Int(A) ∩ Int(B ) A ⊆ B ⇒ Int(A) ⊆ Int(B )

A=A A∪B =A∪B ∅=∅ A⊆B⇒A⊆B A A =JL HA ⇔ A = A A = A ∪ A′ A A =JL HA ⇔ A′ ⊆ A C(Int(A)) = CA, C(A) = Int(C(A)) C ∂A = A \ Int(A)
5 KF L= ED J= = = =

= =L=

F A A J

41 -4  #
@ E

I= A

{1/n | n ∈ N} K
ED >H AL=

AJHE

FH IJ HK = =C

R I=IJ
A

E IA

A@E = MAC L= J=

E =L=M=

0

F=

A′

= {0}

A = A ∪ {0}
=

= I KF H=?E

Q K FH

IJ HK

R L=<E Q′ = Q = R

LAHCA ?E = K AJHE
A = A J= = = FH
, K

FH IJ HK
(xn )∞ n=1 
E E H= A

(X, d) IJ H= X

AJHE

E FH IJ H E

(xn )

E

-.1 1+1 )  &
=?E

E (xn ) E xn → x0 n → +∞ E

FH IJ H= E

n→+∞

X LAHCEH= lim xn = x0 =

= J=

E

x0 ∈ X

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀n ∈ N) n
6= =

n0 ⇒ d(xn , x0 ) < ε. (xn )

x0 IA

= EL=

CH= E

= LHA@

IJ

E = 

" 



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

6

- 4- )  % - 4- )  &
IJE

)

E

E

= CH= E

K LHA@

IJ

@=

A

=

A@

=

@HA A =

6 @

5L= E A

LAHCA J= CH= E A

E

A

CH= E A

J

I KF MAC LED LHA

{xn | n ∈ N}

,

-.1 1+1 )  ' -.1 1+1 ) 
E F @ E 

=

IL= E E

IJH C

H=IJK E A

E

FHEH @ ED

>H

AL=

n1 < n2 < · · · < nk < · · ·
, 6= = E F IJ

(xnk )
A

F @ E

E =

(xn )
IJ
E =

(xnk )

x∈X

=@DAHA J = LHA@ LAHCEH= = J= E x
IJE E = A

(xn )

=

6

- 4- )  '

5 KF =@DAHA J ED LHA@

=JL HA

I KF

AFHA E@ = FHAI E =L=M=
,

-.1 1+1 ) 
f 

A

2HAI E =L=MA

X E Y AJHE E FH IJ AFHA E@ K J= E x0 ∈ X K
A = IK

HE E

f :X→Y =?E f ∈ C{x0 } =
A =

(∗)
7 FH JEL

(∀V ∈ O(f (x0 )))(∃U ∈ O(x0 )) f (U ) ⊆ V.
IA =<A @= A

f FHA E@

K J=

E

x0

)2

- ) - LEL= A J= KI L KI LK (∗) A
(∀V ∈ O(f (x0 ))) f −1 (V ) ∈ O(f (x0 )). f
AFHA E@ = I KFK A ⊆ X

,

-.1 1+1 ) 
K IL=

2HAI E =L=MA J= E

A

=

A

AFHA E@

x0 ∈ A

6

A = IK X, Y E Z AJHE E FH IJ HE E A = IK @=J= f : X → Y g : Y → Z E J= A x0 ∈ X E y0 = f (x0 ) ∈ Y AFHA E@ K y0 J=@= A h = g ◦ f : X → Z ) A f AFHA E@ K x0 E g AFHA E@ K x0 FHAI E =L=M=

- 4- )  

6

- 4- )  
1◦ 2◦ 3◦ 4◦ f
A

A = IK

X, Y

AJHE

E FH IJ HE E

EI = E IK

A KI > AFHA E@

A LEL= A J E FHAI E =L=MA I KF

f :X→Y

5 A@A E

= IL= E = IL= = IL=

V ⊆ Y I KF f −1 (V ) −1 (V ) E =JL HA I KF F ⊆ Y I KF f E I KF A ⊆ X A f (A) ⊆ f (A)
JL HA

A A

JL HA =JL HA

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41 

#

)2
f
I KF= .K

- )
JL HA

A = IK X E Y ?E = J

AJHE

E FH IJ HE E A = JL HA

A =f JL HA

AFHA E@ = BK C I KF= ?E = JL HA

A F L = E @= A I E = AF L = E

:X→Y

)

A C ?E A

C  =JL HA IJ BK = 

=JL HA  I KF 6=  =JL HA  I KF J JL HA = FHAI E =L= IL= E = EL= IA

AI E =

JL HA

C  =JL HA JL HA

AFHA E@ 

=JL HA  I KF  FHAI E =L=MA 

=JL HA  I KF 

=JL HA

2

41 -4  $
AH

2HAI E =L=MA

AFHA E@ FHE

= E

A FHAI E =L= IL= E

f : R → R+ 0

@ABE EI= I KF =

I=

f (x) = x2
I KF

A =

JL HA

JL HA

f ((−1, 1)) = [0, 1)
A = IK 2HAI E =L=MA L=<E

6

- 4- )  
=

x0 ∈ X
I=

(X, dX ) E (Y, dY ) AJHE f : X → Y A AFHA E@

E FH IJ HE E K J= E

A = = E

x0

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ > 0)(∀x ∈ X ) dX (x, x0 ) < δ ⇒ dY (f (x), f (x0 )) < ε.
6 E

- 4- )  !
A =

A = IK

x0 ∈ X 2HAI E = IL= E E (xn ) E FH LAHCEH= = f (x0 )
,

(X, dX ) E (Y, dY ) AJHE E FH IJ HE f : X → Y =L=MA f A AFHA E@ K J= E x0 = E I= = IJ H= X E LAHCEH= = x0 E (f (xn ))

-.1 1+1 ) 
E

!

.K

?E =

J=

x0 ∈ X

=

f : X → R

A

IA E AFHA E@ =

@

@

K

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ > 0)(∀x ∈ X ) d(x, x0 ) < δ ⇒ f (x) > f (x0 ) − ε.
.K ?E = f A IA f (x) > f (x0 ) − ε ,

E AFHA E@ =
EIFKMA KI L

@

C K J= E x0 = f (x) < f (x0 ) + ε

A

K

AIJ

KI

L=

-.1 1+1 ) 

"

A = IK A

(X, dX ) E (Y, dY )
AFHA E@

AJHE =

E FH IJ HE

2HA

I E =L=MA

f :X→Y

K EB H

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ > 0)(∀x, y ∈ X ) dX (x, y ) < δ ⇒ dY (f (x), f (y )) < ε.

F AJ E FH IJ HE
,

-.1 1+1 ) 

#

E

(xn )

A

E AL

E

(C

E

)=

L=<E

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀m, n ∈ N) m

n

n0 ⇒ d(xm , xn ) < ε. 

$ 



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

6

- 4- )  " - 4- )  # -.1 1+1 ) 
E AL

5L= E 5L= E IJ
$

LAHCA J= E AL E A

E

A

E AL EE = = LE A A@ K =@DA

6

CH= E A

HA J K LHA@
,

AJHE

E FH IJ H

X

A

F AJ=
X

=

E I=

=

IL= E

E E

X

LAHCEH= K FH IJ HK

- ) 1 H= LAHCEH= K FH IJ HK X
= E @= E AL E LAHCEH= K AJHE?E FH IJ H= X E @= MAC L= CH= E = LHA@ IJ FHE F=@= FH IJ HK X

)2

*= =D LE FH IJ HE
,

-.1 1+1 ) 
F AJ= K

%

H EH= E FH IJ H IK = AJHE K

(X, K)
A

A

*= =D L FH IJ H =
H = AJHE C

A
,

@
&

K K MA K E @K K A

-.1 1+1 ) 
X
=

2HAI E =L=MA

FH IJ H=

f :X→X

JH= ?E =
λd(x, y ).

(∃λ ∈ [0, 1))(∀x, y ∈ X ) d(f (x), f (y ))
*H
,

λ

LA IA

ABE?E A J
'

JH= ?E A A

-.1 1+1 ) 
f :X→X
AJHE

6= A

L=M=
6

=

=x ∈ X f (x) = x

BE I =  AF HAJ = J= J= E )
JH= ?E = I= K = A

= FHAI E =

- 4- )  $ *= =D L= JA HA = BE I
E FH IJ H E @= FHAI E =L=MA =

(X, d)
2HEJ = IJ= E

F AJ=

λ
J= =

f

E = A@E IJLA K BE I K J=

f :X →X

ABE?E A J

y

A CH= E?=

E =

LE IK @ABE EI=

(xn ) E E A FHLE E I= xn = f (xn−1 ) , n d(xn , y )

x1 FH E L G= 2 , E L=<E ?A =

y∈X

F= J IJ
,

λn−1 d(x1 , f (x1 )). 1−λ

F F

-.1 1+1 )  ! A = A (X, d) AJHE E FH IJ H A = A A ⊆ X E U = {Ui | i ∈ I } B= E E = F @I KF L= I KF= X U A F HEL= I KF= A = U A F HEL= I KF= X = A X = A A ⊆ i∈I Ui . 5FA?E = i∈I Ui JL HA E 2 J A ?E K 2 HEL= U A JL HA = IK I KF LE Ui i ∈ I
HEL= = HEL= = = E I= = FHA@IJ=LG= F HEL= = EL= F JF HEL=

@=J C

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41 

%

,

-.1 1+1 )  !
A * HA LK = = I >E K F JF

AJHE J E

E FH IJ H IL= C

(X, d)

A

F= J=
HEL= =

=

E

= 0=

JL HA

C F

<A IA E @L

EJE

HEL=

6 >

- 4- )  %
1◦ 2◦ 3◦
FH IJ H

7

AJHE

FH IJ HK

(X, d)

I A@A E KI

LE IK

A KI

A LEL= A J E

X
E

A = =

F= J= I KF

IL= E >AI IL= E E

X

A⊆X
A

E

= >=H

A@ K J=

K

=C

E =L=M=

I=@H<E >=H

A@=

LAHCA J=

F @ E

,

-.1 1+1 )  !
= FH IJ H

5 KF A@=

IA>A

A⊆X

F= J= FH IJ H

=

A

F I

=JH=

I=

=

F= J=

,

-.1 1+1 )  !!
I KF

5 KF

F= J=

A⊆X
F= J=

A

HA =JEL

F= J=

=

A

A

6

- 4- )  & - 4- )  '
X X
A

5L= E

AJHE

E FH IJ H

A

F AJ=

6

5L= E

=JL HA E F @I KF

F= J

C

AJHE

C FH IJ

H=

F= J=

6

- 4- ) 
A 

5L= E

F= J=

I KF K FH E L G

AJHE

FH IJ

HK

=JL HA

6

- 4- )  - 4- ) 
I KF 

5 KF

CH= E A

K ⊆ Rn

A

F= J=

=

E I=

=

A

=JL HA

E

6

AFHA E@ = BK

?E = FHAI E =L=

F= J=

I KF

=

F= J=

2 LA = IJ
,

-.1 1+1 )  !"
<A FHA@IJ=LEJE =

AJHE

E FH IJ H AFH=

(X, d)

A

F LA =
J =

=

IA I KF

X

A 7

K E = @L=

= @EI K

JL HA = I KF=

IKFH J

X
!

A

AF LA =
AJHE FH IJ HK

6 >

- 4- ) 

7

(X, d)

I A@A E KI

LE IK

A KI

A LEL= A J E

1◦ X A F LA 2◦ I KF X IA
=JL HA = I KF=

= A <A FHA@IJ=LEJE = K E = @L= AFH= = @EI K J =

3◦

A@E E EIJ LHA

A

JL HA E E

=JL HA E I KF LE K

X

IK

∅EX 

& 



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

,

-.1 1+1 )  !#
A "

5 KF

(X, d) =
6

(A, dA ) F

LA =

A ⊆ X

A

F LA = I KF
E FH IJ H E FH IJ HE E F LA =

AJHE

C FH IJ H=

AJHE

- 4- ) 

A = IK )

X, Y

AJHE

E@

FHAI E =L=MA

A I KF

f (A) = {f (x) | x ∈ A} ⊆ Y
2

A⊆X

@=

f : X → Y
A F LA =

AFHA E I KF

41 -4  %

5 KF

R

I= AK

E@I

AJHE

A F LA =

5AF=H=>E
, J= = E

IJ
5 KF

-.1 1+1 )  !$
B

A

A

ILK@= CKIJ
A
J

K I KFK = A

=@DAHA J = J=

= I KF=

B = B⊆A

A >E

=

2

41 -4  & - )
=

5 KF

Q

A ILK@= CKIJ K I KFK

R
= ED >H AL= AL= J

)2

5=

KQ
= A

= =L= A AL= = A 5

I KF

I KF H=?E

ED >H

x + iy x, y ∈ Q
6

K=C

K=R KF KQ

K−H=?E
@ I

I KF >H

> E =

A ILK@= CKIJ K

K

- 4- ) 
ε > 0 t b

# 

8= AH JH=I L= JA HA =
E F E

A = A

IL=

F IJ

J= =L @=

a
,

A f ∈ C[a, b] 6=@= = |x(t) − Pε (t)| < ε = ILA

-.1 1+1 )  !%
E = LE A FHA>H

AJHE

E FH IJ H

X

A

IAF=H=>E =

=

K MA

K F

IJ

EL ILK@= CKIJ I KF J= = =

,

-.1 1+1 )  !&
FH IJ HK I KF E

A ?E =

JL HA ED I KF L=

AJHE JL HA

X

>H= K A

>= K

J C FH IJ H= = =

B = {Bi | i ∈ I }
IA IL= E A ?E A

K

AFH= =

X
7

<A FHE = =JE

K E = I KF L= E

B

6

- 4- ) 
1◦ X 2◦ X 3◦ 4◦

$

AJHE

FH IJ HK

X

I A@A E KI

LE IK

A KI >

A LEL= A J E A IAF=H=>E = E = = LE A FHA>H ELK >= K A E AFH= L= A ED A = LE A FHA>H EL

IL= E I KF K IL= = @EI K A FHA>H EL=

X

E A IK ILA J= E E =

J = B=

JL HA ED I KF L= K

X

A

= LE

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41 

'

6

- 4- ) 

%

5L= E

F= J=

AJHE E FH IJ H A IAF=H=>E =

0E >AHJ LE FH IJ HE
A = A X LA J HI E FH IJ H = I KFK K ∈ {R, C} ,-.1 1+1 )  !' 2HAI E =L=MA ·, · : X × X → K A I = =H E FH E L @ LA J H= x, y ∈ X = L=<E 
52 52  52! 52" 52#

λx, y = λ x, y x, y = y, x x, x 0

x1 + x2 , y = x1 , y + x2 , y

λ∈K

x, x = 0 ⇔ x = 0 

52 FHA@IJ=LG= D CA IJ F FHL =HCK A JK = 52  =@E JEL IJ F FHL =HCK A JK = A@ 52 E 52  FHA@IJ=LG= K E A=H IJ F FHL =HCK A JK I >E A I = =H
1◦ 2◦ 3◦ 5◦

C FH E L @=

x, λy = λ x, y x, y1 + y2 = x, y1 + x, y2 λx, λy = |λ|2 x, y x + y, x + y x, x · y, y

4◦ | x, y |2

x, x +

y, y

I >E A 1◦ E 2◦ FHA@IJ=LG= K = JE E A=H IJ I = =H C FH E L @= F @HKC =HCK A JK 5FA?E = = A F GA I = =H= HA= J=@= A I = =H E FH E L @ E A=H= E F @HKC =HCK A JK A A@ = IJ 4◦ A A A@ = IJ E L=H?*KM= LI C = 5◦ A A A@ = IJ E LI C
,

@

-.1 1+1 )  " 8A J HI E FH IJ H X I =>@ALA I = =H E FH E L
= EL= IA FHA@0E >AHJ L E E K EJ=H E FH IJ H A >A A<=L= I= H
x, x

2HA@0E >AHJ L FH IJ H = A

A@ =

- ) )

A H FHA@0E >AHJ L FH IJ H J=@= A x = H = = FH IJ HK H E @K L= = I = =H E FH E L @  



24-/

-, 6-

41 -

,

-.1 1+1 )  " 2HA@0E >AHJ L FH IJ H IJ H K @ IK = H K E @K L= K I = =H E LA IA 0E >AHJ L FH IJ H
=LA@E A E FHE AH= 0E >AHJ

E A = FH E L @

H EH= FH F AJ=

LED FH

IJ

H=

2

41 -4  ' X = Kk 41 -4  41 -4  

k

x, y =
i=1

ξi η i ξi η i
b

2

X = ℓ2

x, y =

+∞ i=1

2 

X = L2 (a, b)

x, y =
a

x(t)y (t) dt

,

=

-.1 1+1 )  "
A x, y = 0

8A J HE x, y ∈ H IK

HJ C = E (K

=?E x ⊥ y )

,

-.1 1+1 )  "! HJ C = E F A A J A A A J= x ∈ H @ABE E A IA I= {y ∈ H | x, y = 0} = HJ C = E F A A J I KF= Y ⊆ H ⊥ @ABE E A IA I= Y = {x ∈ H | (∀y ∈ Y ) x, y = 0}

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41  

=@=?E 



2H LAHEJE @= =

E I A@A A BK

?E A @ABE E

K H=IJ

=M= K

R

f1 (x, y ) = 
= = ?E =

|x − y |
A E I= 

>

f2 (x, y ) =

cos2 (x
A

− y)
A AC=JEL = E I= = A ,=GA

4A

AMA

,= A

|x − y | = 0 =
A BK

|x − y |
=

A

f1 (x, y ) =
= = A E C @

A AC=JEL A HA= A A@ = HA = E

f1 =@ L |x − y | =

G=L=

0 BK ?E = f1 |x − y | = 0 J =
I >E K   A A@ =

x=y 
AH

AJHE A 8=<E E 

A >H

|y − x| = f1 (y, x)
ALA L=<E A A@ =

IJ

a+b

√ a+ b ∗
I >E A

2

IJE

L=@H=J

=LA@A K

|x − y |

|x − z | + |z − y |
IJ @ >E =

HEIJA E

f1 (x, y ) =

= f1 (x, z ) + f1 (z, y ),
E AI > AJHE = 

|x − y |

|x − z | + |z − y |
A

|x − z | +
=

|z − y |

@ =

= = EE A

! ,=

f1

AIJA

AJHE =

R2
EA

= FHE AH

2 =R

f2 (π/2, 0) = cos2 (π/2 − 0) = 0 f2
@ABE E A =

A = FHAI E =L=MA ?E K = = A I=

BK

A AC=JEL = , =

x → f (x)

IJH C A I=

=L = E

[0, +∞)

AFHA E@ K IJ

= E = LHA@

0

x = 0

= =JE @=

@ABE EI= =

AJHE =

R

d(x, y ) = f (|x − y |) x, y ∈ R

4A AMA 2HA = KI LE = =@=J = A f (x) 0 =x 0 = = ILA x, y ∈ R L=<E |x − y | 0 J A d(x, y ) = f (|x − y |) 0 ,=GA d(x, y ) = 0 ⇔ f (|x − y |) = 0 ⇔ |x − y | = 0 ⇔ x = y, J L=<E   = A d(x, y ) = f (|x − y |) = f (|y − x|) = d(y, x) L=<E  

5 E =

√ √ ( a + b)2

L=

A A@

=

IJ IA

A@

IJ=L

@

>E = E

A A@

=

IJE

a+b

√ a + b + 2 ab = 

),)+1

.K J =

?E = >E BK =

f

= =@ L G=L= KI = ?E = >E = F=@= K = K A

LA =@=J = E K  = A

A = )

= IE K J

J

H= H= =

>EJE IJH C @= E =

H=IJK = E

[0, +∞) LE@AJE I
J= E

A >E L=<E

E JAHL= K J=@= >E

x1 > 0 6=@= K A E E A y1 , y2 y1 < x1 < y2 J= LA @= A f (y1 ) = f (y2 ) J= A x1 F IJ A J= x1 − y1 y2 − x1 6=@= A x1 = αy1 + βy2 C@A IK α = Eβ = EC A@ A y2 − y1 y2 − y1 0 < α < 1 E β = 1 − α F= A > C =L IJE f (x1 ) > αf (y1 )+ βf (y2 ) = JH=@E ?E = f (y1 )
E E K A = IK IA E?A E H = E

a
J= KC

E

b

FH E L G E F

EJEL E HA= H J=

E >H

ALE

2 IJ=LE F= A

A (0, 0) E (a, f (a)) E LA

A (b, f (b)) E (a + b, f (a + b))

αEβ
A

=

= I E?E  6=@= A

0<β

α < π/2

tg β

tg α

=

tg β =

f (a + b) − f (b) a+b−b f (a) a
J

E

tg α =

f (a) − f (0) , a−0

J

A

f (a + b) − f (b) a

f ( a + b)

f (a) + f (b) †

5=@= A

d(x, y ) = f (|x − y |) = f (|x − z + z − y |) f (|x − z | + |z − y |) f (|x − z |) + f (|z − y |)
= = EE = I ! <A

(f − H=IJK

= BK

?E =) = BK ?E =)

= d(x, z ) + d(z, y ),
E AI F

(f − IK>=@EJEL

)2
= BK BK 
!

- )
?E =

LK =@=J = 

@ >EJE LA E E >H =

AJHE =

R

d(x, y ) = arctg |x − y | A A@ = AJHE = f (x) = arctg x =@ L G=L= KI LA @=JA K =@=J K  ?E = f1 E =@=J =   = A A@= J= =L FHE AH
= FHE AH A = A

R

AH A

6=

+ f : R+ 0 → R0 F=@= K = IK>=@EJEL = BK ?E = = K L=<E f (x) = 0 = + A x = 0 ,ABE E E FHAI E =L=MA g : X × X → R0 f (d(x, y )) , = =JE @= A J=@= (X, g ) AJHE E FH IJ H

(X, d)

AJHE

E FH IJ H =

J E I= I= =

A

g (x, y ) = 

4A

AMA

IJ=LG= IA
?E K = =@

EJ= ?K = I=
L G=L= L= LK

IJ=
A A@ =

E H=@ I E
IJ =<A @= A

=@=J K 

= BK

IK>=@EJEL =

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

! 

"

(X, d) AJHE E FH IJ d(x, y ) A@ = AJHE = d1 (x, y ) = 1 + d(x, y )
A = A
4A AMA

H

,

= =JE @= A E FHAI E =L=MA

= I KFK

X
IJ=L @= A @ = KK E E ?E =

I >E A  

E  6= 

AJHE A IA A@ A L=<E E @= A ! @ I

MA E?A @= A IJ= A

d

AJHE = =<A

d1

A AC=JEL = BK

@= F

@= L=<E 

d1 (x, y )
J @= A

d1 (x, z ) + d1 (z, y ), d(x, z ) d(z, y ) + . 1 + d(x, z ) 1 + d(z, y )

d(x, y ) 1 + d(x, y )
2 I A@M= A A@ =

IJ A LEL= A J = A I=

d(x, y ) 1 + d(x, z ) + d(z, y ) + d(x, z )d(z, y ) d(x, z ) 1 + d(x, y ) + d(z, y ) + d(x, y )d(z, y ) + d(z, y ) 1 + d(x, y ) + d(x, z ) + d(x, y )d(x, z ) ,
@ I I=

d(x, y )
2 I A@M=

d(x, z ) + d(z, y ) + 2d(x, z )d(z, y ) + d(x, y )d(x, z )d(z, y ).
A A@ = IJ L=<E AH A

d

AJHE =

=

X → R+ I= 0 @ABE EI= ′ = A x = 0 E f (u) =
H=IJK = = A E

)2

- )

2 I =JH=

FHAI E =L=MA C

f :

R+ 0
J

f (u) = u/(1 + u) 8=<E f (x) = 0 = 1/(1 + u)2 > 0 F= A BK ?E = f IJH IK>=@EJEL = AH = u, v 0 L=<E

E I=

u v u+v = + 1+u+v 1+u+v 1+u+v
2HA = =@=J K  ! 
#

u v + . 1+u 1+v

d1

A

AJHE =

=

X
AJHE = <A KLAIJE

,

= =JE @= IA

= I KFK

I=

R∗ = R ∪ {−∞, +∞} y x , − 1 + |x| 1 + |y |

d(x, y ) =
FHE A K A

∗ FH IJ H (R , d) E
4A AMA

x/(1+ |x|) = ±1

=

AJHE =

x = ±∞ , I= ([−1, 1], d1 )
I=

= =JE J= C@A A

A @= A

AJHE

E

d1 (x, y ) = |x − y |
E A

IJ=LG= IA

EJ= ?K @= F @ABE EI=

=<A @= A

=L=MA

f :

R∗

→ [−1, 1]

d AJHE = = R∗ 2HAI f (x) = x/(1 + |x|) x ∈ R∗

" 

),)+1

>E A JEL 

@

= =JE E = FH E L G A J= A AJHE E FH IJ  E?E K 

d1 (f (x), f (y )) 2HA = J ([−1, 1], d1 ) LE@AJE @ABE 
$

x, y ∈ R∗ L=<E d(x, y ) = ∗ H (R , d) A E AJHE = I=
A

A = A

= I KFK X @ABE EI= = HA =?E = σ J= L= @= = x, y C@A A

x σ y ⇔ ρ(x, y ) = 0 
= , > E
4A

ρ FIAK@

AJHE =

∈ X L=<E

= =JE @= A

σ HA

=?E = A LEL= A ?E A

, E

= =JE @= A I= FH IJ HK

d(Cx , Cy ) = ρ(x, y )
IJ=

@ABE EI= =

AJHE =

=

X/σ
EJ= ?K = I= E H=@

AMA 

=

IJ=LG= IA

Cx = {z ∈ X | z σ x} 2 = = A FHL @= A FHAI E =L=MA d @ >H @ABE EI= A = ′ ′ ′ ′ A d(Cx , Cy ) = ρ(x, y ) E d(Cx , Cy ) = ρ(x , y ) x, x ∈ Cx y, y ∈ Cy ′ ′ , =<E @= A J=@= ρ(x, y ) = ρ(x , y ) 2HE AJE = FHA @= > C ′ ′ ′ ′ A E ρ(y, y ) = 0 x, x ∈ Cx L=<E x σ x F= A ρ(x, x ) = 0 ) = C = A ρ FIAK@ AJHE = = =@ L G=L=  ! F= A 
> 2 @IAJE IA @= A

ρ(x′ , y ′ )
) = J C @

ρ(x′ , y ) + ρ(y, y ′ ) = ρ(x′ , y )
= KA E @= A A @ >H

ρ(x′ , x) + ρ(x, y ) = ρ(x, y ).
F= A

ρ(x, y )

ρ(x′ , y ′ )
A AC=JEL

ρ(x, y ) = ρ(x′ , y ′ )
E I >E A  AJHE = A@E E

FHAI E =L=MA , =<E

d

@ABE EI= AJHE = E  J IJ =

I=@= @= A d 

!

AJHE A I A@A @EHA J = =JE @= L=<E 

EMA E?A @= A ρ FIAK@ @= L=<E

d(Cx , Cy ) = 0 = E I= = A Cx = Cy ) A Cx = Cy J=@= A d(Cx , Cy ) = d(Cx , Cx ) = ρ(x, x) = 0 AH A ρ FIAK@ AJHE = F= =@ L G=L=   >H=J = A d(Cx , Cy ) = 0 J=@= A ρ(x, y ) = 0 F= A x σ y @ I Cx = Cy ,= A (X/σ , d) A
JHA>= F AJHE 
%

E FH IJ H A = A

D(k) [a, b]

I KF ILED HA= HA@=

ED BK 6=@= A

?E =

A

=

[a, b]

E =K

AFHA E@ A E L @A @

k
k

= GK

d(x, y ) =
ν =0
AJHE = K
4A AMA

a t b

max x(ν ) (t) − y (ν ) (t)

D(k) [a, b]
IJ=LG= IA

,

= =JE IJ= E H=@ , = =JE @= =

EJ= ?K = I= AJHE 

&

A = A

(X, d)

x, y ∈ X

L=<E

A A@ =

A⊆X A=∅ IJ |d(x, A) − d(y, A)| d(x, y )
E FH IJ H E

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

#

4A

AMA

1

@ABE E?E A H=IJ

=M= J=

A

@ I KF= @ABE E?E =  %  E

A A@ =

IJE JH KC = = IL=

a ∈ A L=<E d(x, a)
1

d(x, A)
F= A

d(x, y ) + d(y, a),
FHAJD @ A A A@ = IJE I A@E @= A

d(x, A) − d(x, y ) d(y, a) d(x, A) − d(x, y ) d(y, A) J

d(x, A) − d(y, A)
) K F I A@M A A@ = IJE = A E

d(x, y ). xEy
@ >E =

d(y, A) − d(x, A)
J = A@ I= FHAJD @ HEIJA E @ A A@ = = = K

d(y, x) = d(x, y ),
K@ A A@ = I= = K A JH=<A K IJ = IA F A A@ = IJ A

)2
= 
'

- )

= K A @= AFHA E@

FHAI E =L=MA

X
A = A

f : X → R+
AJHE

@ABE EI=

f (x) = d(x, A)

(X, d)

E FH IJ H E

A, B ⊆ X

,

= =JE @= L=<E

d(A, B ) = inf {d(t, B ) | t ∈ A} = inf {d(t, A) | t ∈ B }.
4A AMA

8=<E

inf {d(t, B ) | t ∈ A} = inf {inf {d(t, b) | b ∈ B } | t ∈ A}
) = 


= inf {d(t, b) | t ∈ A, b ∈ B } = d(A, B ).
IJ

C

IA @ A = A

= K A E @HKC= A@ = AJHE

(X, d)

E FH IJ H E

A, B, C ⊆ X

,

= =JE @= A

d(A ∪ B, C ) = min{d(A, C ), d(B, C )}.
4A AMA

8=<E

d(A ∪ B, C ) = inf {d(x, C ) | x ∈ A ∪ B }

= min{d(A, C ), d(B, C )}.

= inf {d(x, C ) | x ∈ A} ∪ {d(x, C ) | x ∈ B }

= inf {d(x, C ) | x ∈ A ∨ x ∈ B }

$ 

),)+1 



A = A (X, d) F L = E

AJHE

E FH IJ H E A, B

A ⊆ B
@
4A

diam(A)

diam(B )

)

⊆X

,

= =JE @= HA =?E =

A FH IJ H

X

CH= E A

= =JE @= A E IL= E MAC L F JFH IJ H
AMA

CH= E A F= A

)

A

A ⊆ B J=@= L=<E (∀x) x ∈ A ⇒ x ∈ B

sup{d(a, a′ ) | a, a′ ∈ A}
J

sup{d(b, b′ ) | b, b′ ∈ B },
E?E K  '  @= A

diam(A)
)

diam(B ) LE@AJE @ABE X
CH= E A

A FH IJ H A CH= E A

F JFH IJ H J H 


A

A⊆X (X, d)

L=<E

diam(A)

diam(X ) < +∞ diam(X ) < +∞ ,= A, B ⊆ X
,

F=

= IL= E

A F JFH I

A = A

AJHE

E FH IJ H E

= =JE

A A@ =

IJ

diam(A ∪ B )
4A AMA

diam(A) + d(A, B ) + diam(B ).
=M= = FH

2

@ABE E?E E H=IJ = IL=

?E =  & 

ε > 0F d(aε , bε ) < d(A, B ) + ε =J
L=<E LE@AJE I E K 

IJ

A J=

d(A, B ) E A K @L= I KF= @ABE E A aε ∈ A E bε ∈ B J= LA @= A E L G A a ∈ A E b ∈ B E IL= ε>0 diam(A)+ d(A, B )+diam(B )+ ε.

d(a, b)

d(a, aε )+ d(aε , bε )+ d(bε , b)

5 E = = = A

diam(A) + d(A, B ) + diam(B )

EC A@

C HM= CH= E?= E

{d(a, a′ ) | a, a′ ∈ A} ∪ {d(b, b′ ) | b, b′ ∈ B },
J ,= 
!

= IL= A

x, y ∈ A ∪ B L=<E d(x, y ) diam(A) + d(A, B ) + diam(B ) diam(A ∪ B ) diam(A) + d(A, B ) + diam(B )
p Ia = Ia × · · · × Ia ∈ Rp p E diam(Ia )
I= IHA@E C@A A

5 KF

IJH= E?A FH IJ

2a > 0 p H= R =

p−FKJ=

Ia = [−a, a] ⊆ R
F AJ K

A

p−

? = C

JA

K

H@E =J

0 AK

E@I

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

%
p A E Ia a F= A

) IK x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xp ) E y = (y1 , y2 , . . . , yp ) J= a E −a yν @= = IL= ν = 1, . . . , p L=<E −a xν |xν − yν | 2a =J A
4A AMA

p

1/2

d(x, y ) =
ν =1

|xν − yν |

2

p(2a)2

1/2

√ = 2a p,

√ p ) 2a p = = J= A x0 = (−a, −a, . . . , −a) E y0 = F= A diam(Ia √ √ p p ) = 2a p (a, a, . . . , a) L=<E x, y ∈ Ia E d(x0 , y0 ) = 2a p J A diam(Ia 
"

E IK @ =LA@A ED I KF L= JL HA E =JL HA E = E EIK E JL HA E E =JL HA E 1◦ A = [a, b] ∪ [a + b, +∞) K R 2◦ B = {(x, y ) | xy = 1} K R2 3◦ C = {(x, y ) | xy 1} K R2 4◦ D = [a, b] × [c, d) K R2 5◦ Ag = {f | f (x) < g (x), f ∈ C[0, 1]} = BE IEH= g ∈ C[0, 1] 6◦ A1g = {f | f (x) g (x), f ∈ C[0, 1]} = BE IEH= g ∈ C[0, 1]
AMA

4A

=JL HA 2◦ 5 KF CB A JL HA JA HA K  #  F= A I KF B 3◦ 5 KF CC A JL HA C =JL HA 4◦ 5 KF D E A E JL 5◦ KC = K I= ?A JH I KF

1◦

=

A I KF CA = (−∞, a) ∪ (b, a + b) JL HA I=@H<E =JL HA I=@H<E E K IL= A IL A J= E K IL= A IL A J=

J

A I KF A A  LE@AJE

A F= A I KF

HA E =JL HA K BK ?E E f ∈ C[0, 1] F

KFHA

E =r A

K (f, r) = {h ∈ C[0, 1] | d(f, h) < r}
0 t 1

= h ∈ C[0, 1] | max |f (t) − h(t)| < r .

L=<E (∀f ∈ Ag )(∃K (f, r)) K (f, r) ⊆ Ag J A I KF Ag JL HA = EIJE = E = K FHE AHK 5◦ F = K A IA @= A I KF CA1g JL HA J = E @= A I KF A1g =JL HA =
6◦ (7 JH= AJHE E FH IJ H) A = A (X, d) AJHE E FH IJ H E A = = d L=<E d(x, y ) max{d(x, z ), d(z, y )} = ILA x, y, z ∈ X , = =JE I A@A = JLH AM= 
#

& 

),)+1 

= >

d(x, z ) = d(z, y ) ⇒ d(x, y ) = max{d(x, z ), d(z, y )} y ∈ K (x, r) ⇒ K (y, r) = K (x, r)
@LA KC A K 

L )

X

E = K >=H A@ K = A@ E

K J=

K

@= A A@ =

@ MED I=@H<= = K @HKC C 4=IJ =MA E A K @LA @EI K J A JL HA A KFHA E = KC A F KFHA A E =

r
A

A IK I=@H<= A K =JL HA
4A AMA

KC E F

r

A@ =

r
@= 

=

A =

A

d(x, z ) < d(z, y )
, =<E

6=@= A

d(x, z ) < d(x, y ) ) >E L=<E d(x, y ) d(x, z ) J=@= >E >E d(z, y ) max{d(z, x), d(x, y )} = d(z, x) J A K JH=@E ?E E I= FHAJF IJ=L d(x, z ) < d(z, y ) 2HA = J A L=<E d(x, z ) < d(x, y ) @ I d(x, z ) < d(x, y ) d(z, y ) 6= A L=<E E d(z, y ) max{d(z, x), d(x, y )} = d(x, y ) 1 F I A@MA @LA A A@ = IJE E = d(x, y ) d(z, y ) d(x, y ) F= A d(x, y ) = d(z, y ) = max{d(x, z ), d(z, y )}
@= A ) = C IA @ = KAEKI K =K =@= L=<E

d(x, z ) = d(z, y ) 2HAJF IJ=LE = FHA d(x, y ) max{d(x, z ), d(z, y )} = d(z, y )

d(z, y ) < d(x, z )
F= A > C 

>

A = A

= FH E L G EIFKMA L=<E

y ∈ K (x, r)

d(z, x)

z ∈ K (y, r) L=<E d(y, z ) < r max{d(z, y ), d(y, x)} < r J K (y, r) ⊆ K (x, r).

d(y, x) < r z ∈ K (x, r) ,= A

(1)
) = 2HA = J C

= FH E L G L=<E

d(y, x) < r

d(z, y )

A L=<E

z ∈ K (x, r) L=<E d(z, x) < r F= > C max{d(z, x), d(x, y )} < r J z ∈ K (y, r)

(2)
1

K (x, r) ⊆ K (y, r). (1) E (2) I 
L I A@E

K (x, r) = K (y, r)
= J= = KC E K (x, r ) E K (y, ρ) K (z, r) = K (x, r) 5 E 1 E

A = A z = A@ E

=

LK @A = > I A@E @= A

I A@E

K (z, ρ) = K (y, ρ) r<ρ
6=@= L=<E E KC A

z ∈ K (x, r) z ∈ K (y, ρ)

A = A C 7

K (x, r) = K (z, r) ⊆ K (z, ρ) = K (y, ρ) K2 = K (y, r) ⊆ K [z, r], K1 ∩ K2 = ∅.

K1 = K (x, r) ⊆ K [z, r],

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

'

6HA>= F

= =JE @= L=<E

d(K1 , K2 ) = ′inf d(x′ , y ′ ) = r.
x ∈K1 y ′ ∈K2

/ K1 K1 ∩ K2 = ∅ J y ∈ d(x, y ) max{d(x, z ), d(z, y )} r ,= A L=<E d(x, y ) = r
= A 7 E I=@= FH E L G A J= A

F= A AH

d(x, y ) r 5 @HKCA IJH= A A d(x, z ) r E d(z, y ) r
E

d(x′ , y ′ ) 8=<E (3)
= A

x′ ∈ K1

y ′ ∈ K2

E

@HA@E

d(x′ , y ′ ) d(x, y ) = r
E

max{d(x′ , x), d(x, y ′ )}.
J A

d(y, y ′ ) < r

d(x, y ′ )
F= = I LK = @ >E =

max{d(x, y ), d(y, y ′ )} = r, d(x, y ′ ) = r.

(4)
1

(3) (4) E

EMA E?A @= A

d(x′ , x) < r I

A@E

d(x′ , y ′ )
@= A = I A

max{d(x′ , x), d(x, y ′ )} = r, d(x′ , y ′ ) = r ′ ′ ′ ′ A x ∈ K1 y ∈ K2 L=<E d(x , y ) = r
E FH IJ H F= A E

LK @A = = I A@E @= A = ILA J=

2HA = J

d(K1 , K2 ) = r 
$

x0 ∈ X E A ⊆ X = , = =JE @= L=<E d(x0 , A) = d(x0 , A) > 2H LAHEJE @= E = IL= E I KF A ⊆ X E IL= K J= d(x0 , A) = d(x0 , IntA)
A = A

(X, d)

AJHE

K

x0 ∈ X

L=<E

4A

AMA 

=

=

A

5 @HKCA IJH= A

A⊆A
E

J

A

d(x0 , A)

d(x0 , A)
=M= J= A @ I KF= @ABE E

@ABE E?E A H=IJ

?E =  %  E @ABE E?E A E BE K = L=<E

(∀ε > 0)(∃aε ∈ A) d(x0 , aε )
,=GA = IL= K J= K LE@AJE JA HA K  $  F= E

ε d(x0 , A) + . 2
J= @= A

aε ∈ A

F IJ A A@ =

E

IJE JH KC = @ >E =

aε ∈ A

d(aε , aε ) < ε/2

d(x0 , aε )

ε d(x0 , aε ) + d(aε , aε ) < d(x0 , aε ) + . 2

! 

),)+1

5=@= E =

ε d(x0 , A) = inf {d(x0 , a) | a ∈ A} d(x0 , aε ) < d(x0 , aε ) + 2 ε ε d(x0 , A) + + = d(x0 , A) + ε. 2 2 d(x0 , A) = = I LA A d(x0 , A) d(x0 , A) J A d(x0 , A) = d(x0 , A) > 6LH AMA A L=<E = FHE AH = X = R x0 = 2 E A = [0, 1] ∪ {2} = x0 ∈ A J A d(x0 , A) = 0 6=@= A IntA = (0, 1) E d(x0 , IntA) = 1 EC A@ @= A K L FHE AHK d(x0 , A) = d(x0 , IntA)
= A

ε > 0

FH E L G

J

F

= = E @= L=<E E

d(x0 , A) 

%

A = A

(X, d)

AJHE 

= ,

= =JE @= L=<E E 

> 2H LAHEJE @=

d(A, B ) = d(IntA, IntB )
4A AMA

A, B ⊆ X d(A, B ) = d(A, B ) = d(A, B ) = d(A, B ) = IL= = @L= I KF= A, B ⊆ X L=<E A@
E FH IJ H

=

IJ 

=

=

I

LK =@=J= =  ' E  $ @ >E =

d(A, B ) = inf d(x, B ) = inf d(x, B ) = d(A, B ), d(A, B ) = inf d(x, A) = inf d(x, A) = d(B, A) = d(A, B ), d(A, B ) = inf d(x, B ) = inf d(x, B ) = d(A, B ),
x∈A
@= A I A@E JLH AMA > A L=<E = FHE AH =

x∈A

x∈A

x∈B

x∈B

x∈A

A

X = R A = [0, 1] ∪ {2} B = {2} ∪ [3, 4] IntA = (0, 1) IntB = (3, 4) F= A d(A, B ) = 0 E d(IntA, IntB ) = 2
ED FH IJ H= A = IK (Xi , di ) 1 i n X E FHAI E =L=MA d : X × X → R @ABE X= n i=1 i I= d(x, y ) = max di (xi , yi ) = x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) 

& 

2H

E L @

AJHE

AJHE EI= ,

E FH IJ HE

1 i n

= =JE I A@A = JLH AM= = >

(X, d)

A

AJHE

E FH IJ H

n

K (a, r) =
=

Ki (ai , r) 

= =

Ki

K = K A @= IA H=@E

KC E K

@

IK

i=1 AJHE K di 
A 

L ) K

Ai

JL

a = (a1 , . . . , an ) ∈ X r ∈ R HA I KF K Xi 1 i n J=@= A A =

n

Ai
i=1

JL HA

X
n 
C

n

Ai =
i=1 i=1

Ai

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

!

4A

AMA 

= A@ =

IJ= A

EJ= ?K = I=

IJ= =

H=@ C = ?= 

>

IJ I A@E E I A@A AC A LEL= A ?E I

x ∈ K (a, r) ⇔ d(x, a) < r ⇔ max di (xi , ai ) < r
1 i n

⇔ (∀i ∈ {1, . . . , n}) xi ∈ Ki (ai , r) ⇔x∈ 
L L=<E A = A

⇔ (∀i ∈ {1, . . . , n}) di (xi , ai ) < r
n

Ki (ai , r).
i=1 n

x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) ∈
2 J A

Ai
i=1

6=@= = IL= HA IJ A

i ∈ {1, . . . , n}
= I LK

Ai i ∈ {1, . . . , n} JL JA HA A   = IL= E E @A I i ∈ {1, . . . , n} F A = A ρ = min ρi 6=@= Ki (xi , ρi ) ⊆ Ai
1 i n
JL HA C I KF K A@ =

xi ∈ Ai

I KF J

X

@= A E ρi > 0 J= K (x, ρ) ∈ A F= A A C = ?= LE@AJE JA

IJ I A@E E I A@A AC A LEL= A ?E I

HA K  $ 

x∈

n i=1

Ai ⇔ (∀ρ > 0) ⇔ (∀ρ > 0)

n i=1 n i=1

Ai ∩

n i=1

Ki (xi , ρ) = ∅

Ai ∩ Ki (xi , ρ) = ∅

⇔ (∀ρ > 0)(∀i ∈ {1, . . . , n}) Ai ∩ Ki (xi , ρ) = ∅ ⇔ (∀i ∈ {1, . . . , n})(∀ρ > 0) Ai ∩ Ki (xi , ρ) = ∅ ⇔ (∀i ∈ {1, . . . , n}) xi ∈ Ai ⇔ x ∈ 
'

n

Ai .
i=1
E

A = A (X, d) AJHE E K (A, ρ) = {x ∈ X | d(x, A) < ρ} K (a, ρ) = K (A, ρ) = > L A C

FH IJ H ,

= =JE I A@A = JLH AM=

A ⊆ X A = ∅ ρ > 0

(K (A, 1/n)) ց A
5L= E =JL HA E = F=@= K AC

a∈A

I KF K

X

A

JL HA ED I KF L= FHAIA

Gδ −I

KF

J

CH= E FHA>H

= LHA@

IJ

ELA B= E E A

JL HA ED I KF L= C A 5L= E JL HA E = I KF K

X

A

C H=IJK AC

=JL HA ED I KF L= K E = FHA>H

Fδ −I

KF

J

CH= E

= LHA@

IJ

ELA B= E E A

=JL HA ED I KF L=

! = A@ = IJ I A@E E I A@A AC A LEL= A ?E I 

),)+1

4A

AMA

C = ?=

y ∈ K (A, ρ) ⇔ d(y, A) < ρ ⇔ inf {d(y, a) | a ∈ A} < ρ ⇔y∈ K (a, ρ).
a∈A

⇔ (∃a ∈ A) d(y, a) < ρ ⇔ (∃a ∈ A) y ∈ K (a, ρ) 

> > C
x ∈ K A, 1 n ⇒ d(x, A) < K A, 1 n 1 1 1 < ⇒ x ∈ K A, n n−1 n−1 1 n−1 ,

L=<E

⊆ K A,

F= A (K (A, 1/n))
n→+∞

lim K (A, 1/n) =

+∞

J

F=@= K E E I KF L= 2HA = J
K (A, 1/n)

A L=<E IJE E

I A@A AC A LEL= A ?E I
x∈
+∞ n=1

n=1

= I

LK F I A@MA A@ =

C = ?= LE@AJE JA HA K  $ 
1 n ⇔ (∀n ∈ N) x ∈ K A, 1 n 1 ⇔ (∀n ∈ N) d(x, A) < n ⇔ d(x, A) = 0 ⇔ x ∈ A,

K A,

I A@E 

L A = A F ⊆ X FH E L G= A FHA = JLH AMK >
F =F =
+∞ n=1

n→+∞

lim K (A, 1/n) =

+∞ n=1

K (A, 1/n) = A

=JL HA I KF K X 6=@= A F = F F=
1 n 1 n

K F,

= lim K F,
n→+∞

.

= IK I KF LE K (F, 1/n) JL HA E K X = IL= n ∈ N  = I LK = I KF K (F, 1/n) A K E = A ?E A JL HA ED KC E  LE@AJE JA HA K   J E FHAJD @ A A@ = IJE I A@E @= A IL= E =JL HA E I KF F ⊆ X CH= E = LHA@ IJ A C F=@= K AC E = JL HA ED I KF L= FHAIA FHA>H ELA B= E E A JL HA ED I KF L= J Gδ −I KF 

C A = A A ⊆ X FH E L G= JL HA I KF K X 6=@= A MAC L F A A J CA =JL HA I KF 2 I =JH= E I KF L= (K (CA, 1/n))

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

!!

= F L=

I

LK JLH AM= > E = J

A J

J

F=@= K E H=IJK E E

E

JL HA ED

I KF L= F= A = I

(CK (CA, 1/n))
LK JLH AM= L A

=JL HA ED I K

CA =
@= A @ >E =

+∞ n=1

K CA,

1 n

,

A = C(CA) = C

+∞ n=1

K CA, .
A

1 n

=

+∞ n=1

CK CA,

1 n

1 = lim CK CA, n→+∞ n
,= IJ A IL= E A JL HA I KF C H=IJK AC

E = =JL HA ED I KF L= K E = FHA>H

A⊆X

Fδ −I

KF

@

I

CH= E

= LHA@

ELA B= E E A

=JL HA ED I KF L= 
 

=

FH IJ HK CH= E CA ?E E

(xn ) xn = (ξ1 , ξ2 , . . . , ξk ) 1 p ∞ , = =JE @= A Rk p k LHA@ IJE x = (ξ1 , ξ2 , . . . , ξn ) K Rp
A = A E L=

(n)

(n)

(n)

E J= = = K LAHCA ?E =

AJHE E =

(xn )
LAH

A LEL= A J = E

H@E =JE J= > 2

ν −JED AxKR
A I A@E E E

H@E =J= J= = = = ILA

= =JE @= K FH IJ

H@E =J= =
4A AMA

LAHCA ?E = F

xn J ν = 1, . . . , k HK ℓp 1 p < ∞

(n) L= (ξν )

ν −J

E

LAHCA ?E A F

AJHE?E 

= )

k JHE A K Rp J=@=
A KJE E LE JE J= =

= IL=

LAHCEH= = x = (ξ1 , . . . , ξn ) K I EI K A (xn ) dp (xn , x) → 0 n → +∞ LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  & 

ν −JED Ax
= I E

H@E

ν = 1, . . . , n =J= J= = = xn

L=<E

LAHCEH= K

|ξν

(n)

− ξν | dp (xn , x) = ν −J H@E

J

=

>H=J AF IHA@ > 7

ν = 1, . . . , n L=<E ξν → ξ n → +∞ J=@= I xn → x n → +∞ A@E @= d(xn , x) → 0 n → +∞ @ p < ∞ I A@A E E J= = = K FH IJ HK ℓp 1
= IL= E LE A LAHCEH= K = F=

(n)

e1 = (1, 0, 0, 0, . . .), e2 = (0, 1, 0, 0, . . .), e3 = (0, 0, 1, 0, 0, . . .), . . . .
5LE H@E =J E

0
E

= E

I=

(0, 0, 0, . . .) 


EC A@

d(en , 0) = 1

en

A

LAHCEH=

0 ∈ ℓp

J=

K

=

0

A = A K

FHE

fi : X → R i = 1, . . . , n E A = F : X → Rn p 1 A F (x) = (f1 (x), f2 (x), . . . , fn (x)) x ∈ X , =

=JE @= A

p<∞

!" 

),)+1

BK

?E = F AFHA E@ = i = 1, . . . , n BK ?E = fi
4A AMA

K J=

E

AFHA E@ = K

x0 ∈ X x0

=

E I=

=

A

= IL=

A =

A BK

?E =

?E K  

6=@=

= IL=

F (V ) ⊆ K (F (x0 ), ε) J i = 1, . . . , n E ILA x ∈ V
@ IL= I

EIFKMA

F AFHA E@ = K x0 ∈ X LE@AJE @ABE E ε > 0 F IJ E E = V ∈ O (x0 ) J= L= @= A dp (F (x), F (x0 )) < ε = ILA x ∈ V 6=@= A = ILA dp (F (x), F (x0 )) < ε,

|fi (x) − fi (x0 )|

=

= ILA i = 1, . . . , n L=<E fi (V ) ⊆ K (fi (x0 ), ε) J = E @= = i = 1, . . . , n L=<E fi ∈ C{x0 } 2HAJF IJ=LE I=@= @= = ILA i = 1, . . . , n L=<E fi ∈ C{x0 } 6=@= I LK JA HA A   = IL= ε > 0 L=<E

ε (∀i ∈ {1, . . . , n})(∃Vi ∈ O(x0 )) fi (Vi ) ⊆ K fi (x0 ), √ p n
J = IL= A = A L=<E

,

i = 1, . . . , n
n

= ILA

V =
i=1

Vi

x ∈ Vi
A

L=<E

EC A@

V

√ |fi (x) − fi (x0 )| < ε/ p n
A

E = J=

x0

6=@= = ILA

x∈V

n

dp (F (x), F (x0 ))
i=1
,= A F IJ E

εp n

1/p

= ε.
F= A

F ∈ C{x0 } 

V ∈ O(x0 ) Y
AJHE

J= L

@= A

F (V ) ⊆ K (F (x0 ), ε)

A = IK K

X
,

E

E FH IJ HE E 6=@= A I KF

AFHA E@ = FHAI E =L=M= =JL HA
4A AMA

X

= =JE = = E @= A I KF

f1 : X → Y f2 : X → Y A = {x ∈ X | f1 (x) = f2 (x)}
JHA>= @ = =JE @= A I KF

,= >E @ JL HA

A

=JL HA

= E G 6=@= A f1 (x) = f2 (x) F= F IJ A = IK f1 E f2 V1 ∈ O(f1 (x)) E V2 ∈ O(f2 (x)) AFHA E@ = FHAI E =L=M= J F IJ A E A U1 , U2 ∈ O (x) J= LA @= L=<E f1 (U1 ) ⊆ V1 E f2 (U2 ) ⊆ V2 5 KF U = U1 ∩ U2 A E = J= A x J E ,= A x ∈ U ⊆ G F= A I KF G E I KF LE f1 (U ) E f2 (U ) IK @EI K A = A J A

G=X \A

x FH

E L G = J=

@EI K

E A

JL HA
!

AH I=@H<E

E K IL= A IL ?E =

A J=

A 

A = A H

I=

C∗ [0, 1] I KF BK f = max |f (x)|
x∈[0,1]

A IK @A

F

@A

@EBAHA ?E =>E

A

A = A FHAI E =L=MA

ℓ : C∗ [0, 1] → R

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

!# = =JE @= FHAI E =L=MA

@ABE EI= I= ℓ(f ) = ℓ E A AFHA E@
4A AMA

1 0

1 + (f ′ (x))2 dx 2

2 =J A @= ℓ(f ) FHA@IJ=LG= @K<E K K = HELA f = E JAH L= K [0, 1] 7 E E BK ?E = (fn ) n ∈ N @ABE EI= ED = E JAHL= K [0, 1] J= @= MED LE CH=BE?E FHA@IJ=LG= K = f1  F K HKC =@ [0, 1] = f2  K E K @L= F K HKC= =@ [0, 1/2] E [1/2, 1] = f3  K E K AJEHE F K HKC= =@ [0, 1/4] [1/4, 1/2] [1/2, 3/4] E [3/4, 1] LE@AJE I E K ! EJ@

5 E =! EC A@
fn − 0 =

A @= fn ∈ C∗ [0, 1] = IL=

1 → 0, n → +∞ ⇒ fn → 0, n → +∞ K C∗ [0, 1], 2n ℓ(0) = 1.

n ∈ N ,=GA L=<E

@ ,= J

A A =K

1 π · π · 2n−1 = , n ∈ N; n 2 2 A E E (fn ) L=<E ℓ(fn ) =

= E @= BK

fn → 0, n → +∞ ∧ ℓ(fn ) → ℓ(0),

?E = ℓ E A AFHA E@ = LE@AJE JA HA K  !  

" A = A (X, d) AJHE E FH IJ H E A, B ⊆ X J= LE @= A A ∩ B = ∅ E A ∩ B = ∅ , = =JE @= J=@= F IJ A JL HA E I KF LE U E V J= LE @= A A ⊆ U B ⊆ V E U ∩ V = ∅

, = = A = FHA @= A FHAI E =L=MA f : X → R @ABE EI= I= f (x) = d(x, A) − d(x, B ) AFHA E@ = X = IL= ε > 0 F IJ E δ = ε/2 J= L @= =@ C @ A = x, y ∈ X EIFKMA d(x, y ) < δ J=@= A LE@AJE =@=J=  &
4A AMA

|f (x) − f (y )| = |d(x, A) − d(x, B ) − d(y, A) + d(y, B )| d(x, y ) + d(x, y ) = 2d(x, y ) < 2δ = ε.

|d(x, A) − d(y, A)| + |d(x, B ) − d(y, B )|

!$ 

),)+1

2HA = JA HA E   >A A<E IK

FHAI E =L=MA

U =

JL HA E LE@AJE JA HA K    = KI I LE =

f −1 ((−∞, 0))

f A AFHA E@ =X − 1 V = f ((0, +∞)) 5
J = E @=

KF LE

U

E

V

E

= x ∈ A FHA d(x, B ) > 0 @ C IA @ =

=@=J = L=<E @= 5=@= A

) =

f (x) < 0 K A E @= A B ⊆ V

x ∈ B F= A d(x, A) = 0 x ∈ U ,= A A ⊆ U

U ∩ V = f −1 ((−∞, 0)) ∩ f −1 ((0, +∞))

= f −1 ((−∞, 0) ∩ (0, +∞)) = f −1 (∅) = ∅.
AJHE E FH IJ H E A, B E , 

#

A = A (X, d) J E I KF LE IJLE =

@EI K I= IL

6=@= F IJ

AFHA E@ = BK

⊆X

AFH= ?E =

E

=JL HA E

f −1 (0) = A E f −1 (1) = B f (x) =

= =JE

f : X → [0, 1]

4A

AMA

2HAI E =L=MA IJ=LG= IA

d(x, A) d(x, A) + d(x, B )
@ =<A

=@ L G=L= JH=<A =

IL 

IJL=
$

EJ= ?K @= J

A = A ?E A

=JL HA = E = BK ,
4A

X = A ∪ B FHE A K IK A E B >= JL HA = E E >= A = f : X → Y ) IK FHAI E =L=M= f ↾A HAIJHE ?E f = I KF A E f ↾B AFHA E@ = @= A E f AFHA E@ AEB
JL HA E E A = A

= =JE
AMA

A = IK

H

JL HA

I KF K

Y

6=@= A

f −1 (H ) = (f ↾A )−1 (H ) ∪ (f ↾B )−1 (H ).
−1 (H ) I KFK A E (f ↾B ) − 1 − 1 (H ) E (f ↾B ) (H ) IK JL HA K JL HA I KFK B I KF LE (f ↾A ) − 1 (H ) A JL HA AH A A@ = K E E JL HA E E K FH IJ HK X 5 KF f
= A JL HA I KF K JL HA @L= JL HA = I KF= 6 = E @= A FHAI E =L=MA

(f ↾A )−1 (H )

f

AFHA E@

=

X 

LE@AJE JA HA K    ) = I KF LE 
%

C

IA @ IJ=LG= IA

= K A JLH AMA EJ= ?K @= J

= I K = @ =<A

=@= IK

A

E

B

=JL HA E

, E I=

= =JE @= A FHAI E =L=MA = A I KF

=

a∈R
4A AMA

f : M → R IA E Ma = {x ∈ M | f (x) a}
@ =L @= @

AFHA E@ =JL HA

@

@

= IL=

A = A

HA= = ,

>H

= = A

f : M → R IA E AFHA E@ (xn ) E J= = = E Ma J= @= x0 ∈ Ma
A = A

E a FH E L G= xn → x0 n → +∞

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

!%

xn → x0 n → +∞ I A@E @= = IL= ε > 0 K (x0 , ε) J= L= @= = @ L G LA E n J = n > n0  IJE L=<E xn ∈ K (x0 , ε) LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  &  1 IA E AFHA E@ @ @ BK ?E A f LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  !  I A@E @= A f (x0 ) < f (x) + ε = xn ∈ Ma n ∈ N J A f (xn ) a = ILA n ∈ N = ILA x ∈ K (x0 , δ ) F= = n > n0 L=<E
1 FHAJF IJ=L A @= KC = F IJ E

f (x0 ) < f (xn ) + ε
,= A = IL= = E I KF >H=J

a + ε.
F= A

ε > 0 L=<E f (x0 ) ε + a Ma I=@H<E ILA IL A J= A =C
FHAJF IJ=LE L G @= A E =>H= = IL= 7 E

f (x0 )
I KF

a

J

E =L=M= F= A

x0 ∈ Ma
=JL HA =JL HA >A A<E

> 0 FH E a = f (x0 ) − ε′ 2

′ A = Aε

a ∈ R
J=

FHAJF IJ=L?E I KF

Ma K x0 ∈ M E

Ma = {x | f (x)
A =JL HA F= A I KF

a} = {x | f (x)

f (x0 ) − ε′ }

CMa = {x | f (x) > f (x0 ) − ε′ }
JL HA K =

CMa LE@AJE JA HA K  #  = E @= A BK f (x0 ) − ε′ J x0 ∈ M FH E L G = J= = J ?A FH IJ HK M 
&

x0 ∈ CMa

J

F IJ

K (x0 , ε) = A I=@H<= = = IL= K J= K x ∈ K (x0 , ε) L=<E f (x) > ?E = f IA E AFHA E@ = K J= E x0 = A BK ?E = f IA E AFHA E@ = @ @ =
E KC =

E IK

@ I A@A ED I KF L=

F= J E

1◦

X = {x | x ∈

Rn 2,

x

1}

2◦ A = [aij ]3×3 [aij ]3×3 ∈ R9 2, 3◦ A∗ = [aij ]3×3 [ai,j ]3×3 ∈ 4◦ F × [0, 1] C@A A F = J H
4A AMA

3

i,j =1 9 R2 , |a11 |
L I KF

|ai,j | = 1 + |a22 | + |a33 | = 1
E A @=JE I KF =JL HA

7 ILE

FHE AHE =

A

FH LAH=L=JE @=  K

E

CH= E A 

LE@AJE JA HA K 

1◦ 2◦
J= F E

5 KF , K

X

A =JL HA

E

CH= E A

Rn 2

F= A A = A

F= J= LAHCA 6HA>=

=<E

= FHA @= A I KF

= =JE @=

A

@=J I=

An =

A0 ∈ A

(n) [aij ]3×3

A

=JL HA

n ∈ N

E

(An ) A0 = lim An
n→+∞

!& 

),)+1

A

=

A

n → +∞ 0

5=@= E

A0 = [aij ]3×3
=

(0)

=

An → A0 n → +∞
3 i,j =1 (n) (0)

J

aij → aij

(n)

(0)

3 i,j =1
@= A I A@E

(n) aij

3

(0) aij

i,j =1

aij − aij

→ 0, n → +∞,

3 i,j =1
@ I

aij

(n)

3

aij
i,j =1

(0)

→ 0, n → +∞,

3 i,j =1

aij

(n)

3


A

i,j =1 3

aij , n → +∞.
(n) 3

(0)

2 =

An ∈ A n ∈ N E @= A0 ∈ A
J ,= A I KF A

J

i,j =1
HA

aij

=1

F=

A E

i,j =1

aij

(0)

=1

J

A

A J

=JL

= IL=

E A

A

A ∈ A L=<E
3 1/2 3 i,j =1

A =
i,j =1
F= A I = KF

|aij |

2

|aij | = 1,

A
A I KF

CH= KF

E

A =JL HA E A E A CH= F= E A A A <A >EJE F= E J= F= J= =E A

3◦
= IK

5

a, b, c ∈ R J=

A∗

A

E A

CH= LE @=

 a 0 n An =  0 b 0  ∈ A∗ , 0 0 c n
F= J

|a| + |b| + |c| = 1

J=@=

n ∈ N, An → +∞, n → +∞

=

An = (|a|2 + |b|2 + |c|2 + n2 )1/2 4◦
= A

F × [0, 1] ⊆ [0, 1] × [0, 1]

A I

KF

F × [0, 1]

CH=

E

A

5

E

= "

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

!'

>A A<E 

LE@AJE I E K "

F1 = [0, 1/3] ∪ [2/3, 1],

F2 = [0, 1/9] ∪ [2/9, 1/3] ∪ [2/3, 7/9] ∪ [8/9, 1]

6=@= A =JL HA ,= 
'

F =
n∈N

Fn

= IL= 

LE@AJE JA HA K  ! A I KF

2◦ 

n∈NI
E

KF

Fn

A

=JL HA

F= A E I KF

F

F × [0, 1]

A =JL HA

CH= E A

F= A

F= J=

,

= =JE @= I KF LE 

= > EIK
4A

{x | x ∈ ℓ2 ∧ x
F= J E = 2 7 = = A

{f | f ∈ C[0, 1] ∧ f

1}

K

ℓ2 1}
K

C[0, 1]

AMA

@= K @=J J E

I KFK F IJ I KFK

E

E

E

A I=@H<E EA

LAHCA J= F= J=

F @ E E

FHA = JA HA E  % K @=J

= E @= @=JE I KF

(xn )
=

xn = (0, 0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .)
A = LAHCA J=

=

A >

In = [1/(n + 1), 1/n] n ∈ N 2 I =JH= BK ?E = J= LED @= = IL= n ∈ N BK ?E = fn K IHA@E E E E = LHA@ IJ 1 = H= ALE = E JAHL= = In E L= MAC= A@ = K I= E JAHL= K In A E A=H = LE@AJE I E K #
A = A

xm − xn =

2

m=n

E

(xn )

n−1

FKJ=

F @ E E

JAHL= = A

(fn ) = In

K E E

5 E =# EC A@ IK ILA BK ?E A

n ∈ N F= A (fn ) E (fn ) A =

E E @=J C I KF= LAHCA J= F @ E

fn n ∈ N
=

AFHA E@ A A

F= @=JE I KF

= [0, 1] E fn = 1 fn − fm = 1 = n = m J EA F= J=

" 

),)+1 

!

A = A = K LHA@
AMA

(X, d)
=

F= J= ?E =

AJHE

E FH IJ H @ IJE<A

,

= =JE @= IL= = K E = IE

HA= =
4A

AFHA E@ = BK IJ

X

f :X →R

E E =

5 KF f (X ) ⊆ R A F= J= LE@AJE JA HA K   F= A f (X ) =JL HA E CH= E A JA HA =    6 = E @= F IJ A A A A JE m, M ∈ f (X ) J= LE @= A m = inf f (X ) E M = sup f (X )  > C CH= E A IJE I KF= f (X ) F IJ A m E M = > C =JL HA IJE A J= LA @= A m = f (xm ) E m, M ∈ f (X ) A = IK xm , xM ∈ X J= @= = FH E L G K J= K x ∈ X L=<E f (x) ∈ f (X ) F= A M = f (xM ) f (xm ) f (x) f (xM ) I KF 
!

A = IK

(X, dX ) f

E

(Y, dY )
) A

AJHE

E FH IJ HE E F= J= FHAI E =L=MA J=@=

FHA E@ @
4A

FHAI E =L=MA K EB H

(X, dX ) f
AFHA E@

AJHE

f : X → Y

A

E FH IJ H

= =JE @= A
AMA

AFHA E@

2

J

A FHAI E =L=MA

(∀ε > 0)(∀x ∈ X )(∃δ (x) > 0)(∀x′ ∈ X ) dX (x′ , x) < δ (x)

ε ⇒ dY (f (x′ ), f (x)) < . 2
HEL= = = F F= J C

KC A

FH IJ H= X F= F IJ @= KC A IJ H=

KdX (x, δ (x)/2) x ∈ X
E

>H= K K

JL HA E F >H= K K

= =

KdX (xν , δ (xν )/2) ν = 1, . . . , n 
LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  !  J

I KF J= = = {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }

⊆X

J= =L FH

HEL=

n

X

@= A

X =
ν =1

KdX (xν , δ (xν )/2) .

A = A

δ = min
A = IK F IJ @= A E

def

δ (x1 ) δ (x2 ) δ (xn ) , ,..., 2 2 2
A = A A

x′ , x′′ ∈ X FH E L G A J= E @A I ν0 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , n} J= dX (x′ , xν0 ) <

′ =L @= x

dX (x′ , x′′ ) < δ 6=@= ∈ KdX (xν0 , δ (xν0 )/2) J

δ (xν0 ) < δ (xν0 ). 2

5 @HKCA IJH= A

dX (x′′ , xν0 )
F= A

1 dX (x′′ , x′ ) + dX (x′ , xν0 ) < δ + δ (xν0 ) 2

δ (xν0 ),

dY (f (x′ ), f (x′′ ))

dY (f (x′ ), f (xν0 )) + dY (f (x′′ ), f (xν0 )) <

ε ε + = ε. 2 2

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

"

,=

A

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ > 0)(∀x′ , x′′ ∈ X ) dX (x′ , x′′ ) < δ ⇒ dY (f (x′ ), f (x′′ )) < ε,
J ?E K  
!

= E @= " A = A ,

A BK

?E =

f

K EB H

AFHA E@ = LE@AJE @ABE E

(X, d) A

AJHE

E FH IJ H E

A, B

AFH=

E F @I KF LE

@

X

= =JE I A@A = JLH AM= A I KF F= J= @= F IJ E J= = 

= )

d(A, B ) = d(a, B ) > ) IK A E B F= J E b∈B = A A d(A, B ) = d(a, b) L ) AA F= J= I KF ′ diam(A) = d(a, a )
4A AMA

a ∈ A
A J= A

=

K A

I KF LE

@= F IJ

a ∈ A

E

@= F IJ

A J=

=

a, a′ ∈ A J=

LA @= A

f : X → R+ 0 @ABE EI= = I= f (x) = d(x, B ) x ∈ X A AFHA E@ = = X LE@AJE =@=J=  & E =F A K F I A MAC= + F= A E MA = HAIJHE ?E = = I KF A f ↾A : A → R0 AFHA E@ = 2 FHAJF IJ=L?E I KF A A F= J= F= BK ?E = f ↾A = MA K @ IJE<A IL E E K LE@AJE =@=J=  ! J F IJ E J= = a ∈ A J= L= @= A d(a, B ) d(x, B ) = IL= x ∈ A = A d(A, B ) = inf d(x, B ) J A x∈A d(a, B ) = d(A, B ) + FHAI E =L=MA = X × X > 4=IJ =MA d : X × X → R0 A AFHA E@ @ = =JE F= A E MAC L= HAIJHE ?E = = I KF A × B J= A AFHA E@ = = IK I KF LE A E B F= J E J A E A×B F= J= F= d ↾A×B @ IJE<A E E K = I KFK A × B J F IJ A a ∈ A b ∈ B J= LE @= = ILA x ∈ A y ∈ B L=<E d(a, b) d(x, y ) F= A d(A, B ) = d(a, b) 
= .K ?E = L IJ=LG= IA = =JE @= FH=L A = A EJ= ?K = I= F= J= IJ= E H=@ 
!!

, IL
AMA

AJHE

E FH IJ H

A

<A >EJE E

AJHE

=
4A

F JFH IJ HK

(X, d)

F= J=

AJHE

E FH IJ H

2HAJF IJ=LE

@= A

(Y, dY )

MAC L FH=LE F JFH IJ H Y E FHAI E  2 J 6=@=

X
A

6=@= F IJ

@ABE E?E K 

x1 = f (x0 ) ∈ Y = A f F FHAJF

= X E A E AJHE = I= =L=MA f : X → Y A A E AJHE = LE@AJE A Y X J F IJ E J= = x0 ∈ X \ Y A = A d(x0 , x1 ) = r > 0 A = A @=GA x2 = f (x1 )
AJHE = J L=<E

IJ=L?E E

d(x2 , x1 ) = d(f (x0 ), f (x1 )) = d(x1 , x0 ) = r > 0,

" 

),)+1

F= A

BE E

A x0 ∈ X \ Y = x2 ∈ Y J A E x2 = x0 ,A n = 2, 3, . . . J= A xn+1 = f (xn ) 6E A @ >E = = ILA n ∈ N E J= = = (xn ) K X J= =L @= A d(xn , xn+1 ) = r > 0 = A FH IJ H X F= J= J IL= E E K MA K E = LAHCA J= F @ E F= E E (xn ) E = LAHCA J= F @ E E A E AL E LE@AJE JA HA K  "  A KJE J EA CK A AH = IL= n, k ∈ N L=<E d(xn , xn+k ) ρ = d(x0 , Y ) > 0 AH A Y = f (X ) F= J= F= JE A E =JL HA I KF K AJHE FH IJ HK X = x0 ∈ Y

x1 = x2
E

=

@=GA

= 

!"

A = IK

F 1 , F2 , . . .
A = L=<E

AFH=

E

F= J E F @I KF LE

AJHE

C

FH IJ H= AFH= =
4A AMA

X
=

E

I KF IK I KF LE

F1 ⊇ F2 ⊇ · · · ⊇ Fn ⊇ · · · Fn
F= J E J IK E

6=@= A

+∞ n=1

Fn

=JL HA E

F= IK

I KF LE

Gn = X \ Fn
IKFH J

JL HA E E L=<E JLH AMK @= A

2HAJF IJ=LE

G1 +∞

⊆ G2 ⊆ · · · ⊆ Gn ⊆ · · · Fn = ∅
8=<E

+∞ n=1
F= A

Gn =

+∞ n=1

(X \ Fn ) = X \ F1
= EJE

n=1 +∞ n=1

Fn = X \ ∅ = X, X
= I= E I KF HEL= J = = JE E IK = F= J= F JF A@= IA E

JL HA E F JL HA I KF LE LA E E A KJE AFH= = 
!#

{Gn | n ∈ N}
HEL= C F

JL HA E F <A E @L

HEL= A

FH IJ H=

I KF=

F1
= =

HEL= = = A A

Gn
J C J

H=IJK E K I EI K E C F JF

K EA J

@ MED  = FHE AH C= I=

HEL= =

>A A<E

Gm
,=

I=@H<E A

CK A AH A

I KF

F1 \ Gm = Fm = ∅
AJHE E FH IJ H

+∞ n=1

F1
A

Fn

A = A ?E = =

BK

(C[0, a], d) a > 0 [0, a] I= AJHE
a

AFHA E@ ED HA=

ED

d(f, g ) =
0
,

|f (x) − g (x)| dx,

f, g ∈ C[0, a].

= =JE @= A I KF X ILED BK ?E = fα : [0, a] → R 0 α a @=JED I= F= J= K FH IJ HK (C[0, a], d) E = E H=IJ =MA fα (x) = αx x ∈ [0, a] d(f, X ) BK ?E A f : [0, a] → R @=JA I= f (x) = ax − x2 x ∈ [0, 1] @ I KF= X
4A AMA

A = A (fan ) A [0, a]

[0, a]

=

n∈N

E E

X

6=@= A (an ) E

E I= A A A JE = E F @I KF @ R

F= J=

I KF  =JL HA

CH= E A

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

"!

J

F IJ

E

LAHCA J=

F @ E

k → +∞

6=@=

fank → fa∗
a 0

(ank ) k → +∞

E =

(an )
a 0

A =

AH L=<E

ank → a∗ ∈ [0, a]

d(fank , fa∗ ) =
,= A K I KFK

|ank x − a∗ x| dx = |ank − a∗ |
IL= E E E = LAHCA J=

x dx → 0, k → +∞.
F @ E F= A I KF

X

X
A

F= J= = E 

LE@AJE JA HA K  %  I=@= H=IJ =MA

d(f, X )

2HA = @ABE E?E E H=IJ

=M= J=

@ I KF= @ABE E?E =  %  A

a

d(f, X ) = inf {d(f, fα ) | fα ∈ X } = inf
2 J E J A I KF X min d(f, fα ) F= J= E H=IJ =MA ,EHA J E

α∈[0,a] 0

|f (x) − fα (x)| dx.
?E = J F I

AFHA E@ = BK @ >E =

α∈[0,a]

E H= K =L=MA

a

d(f, fα ) =
0

|ax − x2 − αx| dx =

a 0

| − x2 + (a − α)x| dx
a a−α

=
0

a−α

(a − α)x − x2 dx +

x2 − (a − α)x dx

(a − α)3 a3 a2 = + − (a − α) . 3 3 2
- IJHA J BK A LHA@ IJE BK A FHLE E L @ BK ?E A A@ =

IJE α = A d′ (f, fα ) = a2 /2 − (a − α)2 ′ ′′ >0 J = A d (f, fα ) A d (f, fα ) = 0 = α=α0 ?E = d(f, fα ) @ IJE<A IL E E K = α = α0 ,= A √ 2−1 a2 (a − α0 )3 a3 + − (a − α0 ) = √ a3 . d(f, X ) = d(f, fα0 ) = 3 3 2 3 2

?E A d(f, fα ) @ >E = K IA = LHA@ A

0 √= α0 = a(1 − 2/2) 

!$

A = = =JE @=
AMA

A

FHAI E =L= ,
4A

X

(X, d) K X J= A f AFHA

F= J= @= A E@ = BK

AJHE

E FH IJ H E

f

BK = ILA

?E =

=

d(f (x), f (y )) = d(x, y )
?E = E @= @ABE E AE

AJHE K

x, y ∈ X

=<E = FHA @= A BK ?E = f AFHA E@ = = I KFK X V (f (x)) J= A f (x) F IJ E KC = K (f (x), r) r > 0 J= @= A K (f (x), r ) ⊆ V (f (x)) 2 J BK ?E = f KL= H=IJ =MA J A f (K (x, r )) = K (f (x), r ) ⊆ V (f (x)) 2HA = J A BK ?E = f A AFHA E@ = = I KFK X , = E K

"" 

),)+1

, IJ= A E A

=<E

I=@= @=

A

f

>E A ?E =

1 ,= A

d(f (x), f (y )) = d(x, y ) = 0
A = A

F= A

x=y

f (x) = f (y ) f A E A JEL
?E = E A E F @

I A@E @= = BK

A

?E =

(X, d)
E

@= F =<A @= A f IEH A f n+1 (x) = f (f n (x)) n ∈ N F= J= AJHE A @= = ILA E AL

JEL = BK 2 I =JH= F IJ

E FH IJ H J E

LAHCEH= K F IJ

X F= n0 ∈ N J=

2HA = J

A = A x ∈ X (f n (x)) = n E E (f k (x)) = IL= ε > 0

p ∈ N L=<E

d(f nk0 (x), f nk0 +p (x)) = d(x, f s (x)) < ε,
C@A A s = nk0 +p − nk0 1 FHAJD @ ε > 0 L=<E K (x, ε) ∩ f (X ) = ∅ J @= = A X F= J= I KF E f AFHA F= J= J= K F= A L=<E =JL HA @ I A A A A@ = IJE I A@E @= J = J= ?E = J A E I ,= A = IL=

x =@DAHA

= I KF=

E@ = BK

f (X ) KF f (X )
= IL= K

f (X ) = f (X )
?E = =

= E

x∈X
A

f

AFHA E@ = >E A JEL = BK 

x ∈ f (X )

KL= H=IJ

=MA

f

A

AJHE = LE@AJE @ABE E?E K 

)2
E

- )
AJHE =

)

X

EA =

F= J= EAE

FH IJ H BK AJHE = AH

?E =

f

A =

H= >EJE

= FHE AH =MA = E

x+1 
!%

KL= H=IJ A = A

X = (0, +∞) d = |x − y |
AJHE E FH IJ H E

BK

?E =

f (x) =

AI E =

X

X 2
7 = L

(X, d) @EI

HAJ=

card(X ) X 

= IK @ >

= E ILA

JL HA A ILA =JL HA A K EA KC A

KC A E ILA IBAHA K

IK K I EI K E = E ILA

K (x, r) E K [x, r] X

JL HA A E ILA =JL HA A I KF LA K 

L ,=
4A AMA

E A FH IJ H JL HA = E =

X

F LA = =JL HA = KC = E IBAH= I= ?A JH K J= E

KC = IK HA@

x

F

KFHA

rKX

K (x, r) = {y | d(y, x) < r} = K [x, r] = {y | d(y, x) r} =

{x}, r 1, X, r > 1, {x}, r < 1, X, r 1, ∅, r = 1, X \ {x}, r = 1.
A J= =

S (x, r) = K [x, r] \ K (x, r) =
5=@= A =I @= = = I KF

K (x, r)

K [x, r]

X E = >=H @L= A A = r = 1 A K (x, r ) = K [x, r ]

r = 1

L=<E

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

"# 

> A@

=

I

LK @A = = L=<E

= E I KF

A E IL= E I KF

{x} K A =

@EI HAJ
x∈A A⊆X

K (x, 1) = {x} ⊆ {x}
AJHE FH IJ HK JL HA FH IJ HK A JL HA

F= JL HA 

A IL= E 6=@= ,= A

IL= E I KF K @EI HAJ 5L= E I KF A E =JL HA IK ILE I KF LE K @EI HAJ L ,EI HAJ= A I= JL HA 
!&

AJHE

{x} 

LE@AJE JA HA K 

AH A MAC L AJHE E FH IJ H

F A A J FH IJ HK

JL HA JL HA E

I KF F

J

AJHE

E I=@H<E >=H @LA J= !

A

EA E

AH A K MA K E =JL HA

= FHE AH IL= E A@

= E I KF EIJ LHA A 

LE@AJE JA HA K 

,
AMA

= =JE @= IK E JAHL= E A@E E F LA = E I KF LE K 2 @IAJE IA = FHA @= A I KF

R‡

I ⊆ R E JAHL= = E I= = (∀x, y, z ∈ R) x, z ∈ I ∧ x < y < z ⇒ y ∈ I E E A LEL= A J (∀x, z ∈ R) x, z ∈ I ⇒ [x, z ] ⊆ I 2HAJF IJ=LE IKFH J J @= A A ⊆ R F LA = I KF E @= A E A E JAHL= 6=@= F IJ A J= A x, y, z ∈ R J= LA @= A x < y < z E FHE J x, z ∈ A = y ∈ A 2 I =JH= I KF LA U1 = A ∩ (−∞, y ) = {a ∈ A | a < y } E U2 = A ∩ (y, +∞) = {a ∈ A | a > y } 5 KF LE U1 E U2 IK AFH= E AH x ∈ U1 E z ∈ U2 @EI K J E AH A U1 ∩ U2 = (−∞, y ) ∩ (y, +∞) = ∅ E L=<E
4A

U1 ∪ U2 = A ∩ (−∞, y ) ∪ A ∩ (y, +∞) = A ∩ (−∞, y ) ∪ (y, +∞) = A,
AH A

A ⊆ (−∞, y ) ∪ (y, +∞) = R \ {y } = IK I KF LE U1 E U2 IA A <A FHE = =JE = K E = @L= AFH= = @EI K J = JL HA = I KF= F= A E A F LA = LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  !"  ,= A A@E E F LA = E I KF LE K R IK E JAHL= E
JL HA E K A J A = A 

!'

FHAI E =L=MA @= F IJ
4A AMA

E J= =

X F LA = AJHE E FH IJ H f : X → R AFHA E@ x, y ∈ X E c ∈ R J= LE @= A f (x) < c < f (y ) , = =JE = ξ ∈ X J= L= @= A f (ξ ) = c
A FHAI E =L=MA

f

AFHA E@

E

X
A

F LA = = A I

FH IJ H J J F IJ

A E

f (X ) F LA = I KF K R LE@AJE JA HA K  "  F= f (X ) ⊆ R E JAHL= = A f (x) < c < f (y ) J J= = ξ ∈ X J= L= @= A c = f (ξ ) 
"

LK =@=J =  !&

c ∈ f (X )

,=

E F IJ

E

AFHA E@

E

A JEL

FHAI E =L=MA

HKC=

= E

JAHL=

,EHA J = F I A@E?= L C =@=J = A @= A IL= E FHA>H EL F @I KF @

R

AF

LA =

"$ 

),)+1

4A

AMA

2HAJF IJ=LE E JAHL= = =

@= J= L

FHAI E =L=MA J= = A@E IJLA = J=

f

F IJ HKCK =

E

A = A 2 J

J= E

= E A JEL

M

MA A

HECE =

=

k

M′ A f

FHAI E =L=MA J

M

5 E =$ 5 KF

AFHA E@ = F= A I KF E

k \ {M }

A F LA = 

LE@AJE I E K $ E BK F LA = I KF ,= JA HA =  A

?E = " E

f (k \ {M }) = i \ {M ′ }
A JEL ,

f (k \ {M })
E A F LA = HKC=

f ↾k\{M }

A

A KJE

A F IJ

AFHA E@

FHAI E =L=MA

= E JAHL= E FH IJ H E E = >=H @LA J= A 

"

= =JE @= A F LA = EL A = A

AJHE

AFHA>H
4A AMA

(X, d) F LA = AJHE E FH IJ H card(X ) 2 E x0 X ,ABE E E f : X → R I= f (x) = d(x0 , x) x ∈ X 2HAI E =L=MA f A AFHA E@ E A IJ= J AH A f (x0 ) = 0 2 A = = y = x0 J= L y F IJ E AH A F FHAJF IJ=L?E card(X ) A FH IJ H X F LA = J A f (X ) F LA = f (y ) = d(x0 , y ) = r > 0 = I KF K R F= A f (X ) E JAHL= LE@AJE =@=J=  !& = 0, r ∈ f (X ) J A [0, r ] ⊆ f (X ) F= A card(X ) card(f (X )) card([0, r]) = c
FH E L G = J= = E 
"

A = IK

A

i∈I
4A

Ai = ∅

@

Ai i ∈ I

F LA = E I KF LE

AJHE

C FH IJ H=

X

)

= =JE @= A

A=
i∈I

Ai F

LA =

I KF

AMA

2HAJF IJ=LE E ! JL HA 6=@= F IJ

@= E

A

E A F LA = I KF J=

6=@= F IJ

E

AFH= =

EIJ LHA A JA HA K  I KF=

=JL HA E i0

U

K F JFH IJ HK

A 

LE@AJE

U ∩ Ai0 EIJ LHA A Ai0 I A@E @= J A Ai ⊆ U = IL= @ I A A F LA = 
"!

U ∩ Ai0 = ∅ J=@= A E JL HA E =JL HA I KF K Ai0 F= > C F LA = IJE A = ∅ A U ∩ Ai0 = Ai0 J Ai0 ⊆ U = A i∈I i i∈I J A⊆U 2 J AE U ⊆A J A U =A ∈I
@= A I KF H EH= C FH IJ H= A <A

,

= =JE @= FH=LE F JFH IJ H

>EJE
4A

JL HA 2HAJF IJ=LE IKFH J C FH IJ H= J J @= F IJ E JL HA FH=LE F J A

AMA

FH IJ H J= L

Y

H EH=

@= A

K (0, ε) ⊆ Y

X = 0 ∈ Y J F IJ E {y | y − 0 = y < ε} ⊆ Y

ε>0
A = A

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

"%

@=

x∈X \Y αx ∈ Y
6=@= A

6=@= = IL= J=@= >E

H=

0 < ε1 < ε

FH E L G = HA= F=

α ∈ K \ {0} L=<E αx ∈ X \ Y = 1 @= L=<E E α (αx) = x ∈ Y 
= IJ= J= A = A

>E L=<E A = A

ε1 ε1 x x1 = αx = x
E I= =

x1 = ε1 < ε
E

x1 ∈ K (0, ε) ⊆ Y
C FH IJ H=

JH=@E ?E = A E AL = 

""

L=<E
4A

n→+∞

(xn ) E AJHE lim diam{xk | k
= E E HA= E A ED >H

(X, d)
= =JE

n} = 0. ,
AL=

AMA

F=@= K E ,= A )

dn = diam{xk | k
LAHCA J= E AL J=@=

CH= E A

n}

E

(dn )

A

J A

I= @ MA IJH= A >H

0

(dn ) A E (xn )

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀m, n ∈ N) m
F= A

n
J

n0 ⇒ d(xm , xn ) < ε,
A

dn0 = diam{xk | k n0 } < ε 2 dn < ε = ILA n n0 F= A lim dn = 0
5 E F =<A , = =JE @= K A AJHE E AL FH IJ HK E K IA F = K A @= A KI

(dn )

F=@= K E

E

J

A

n→+∞

L E @ L G=

IJ=LG= IA

EJ= ?K @= J 

"# 

= ) K

R

= IL=

2H LAHEJE @= > ) IK

(xn ) x∈X

X

J=@=

(X, d) L=<A I A@A A E (d(xn , x))

= JLH AM= LAHCA J=

E L=<E

>H=J E LE K

LAHCEH= K L ) J=@= A E
4A AMA

(xn ) E (yn ) E ALE R A E (xn ) E AL K X E = E (xn ) LAHCA J=
= IL=

X

J=@=

E

(d(xn , yn )) (xnk )
I >E A

E =

LAHCA J=

F @ E 

=

AJHE A @=JA F I A @ABE E?E A    @= F AJ= A I A@E @= A J LAHCA J= >H=J A L=<E J E E

x∈X

L=<E

A A@ =

IJ LE@AJE

I

L A

(d(xn , x))

|d(xn , x) − d(xm , x)| E AL E K R = A FH
E LAHCEH= F= A

K MA K IL= E

E AL

d(xn , xm ) IJ H R E (d(xn , x))
K

LAHCA ?E A E AL 2 AJHE

E = = = A

(d(xn , x))
J

R

= IL=

x∈X

A I A@E @= A

(xn )

A@ E

FHE AH

A = A

X = N I= @EI

HAJ

d(x, y ) =

1, x = y, 0, x = y,

"& 

),)+1

=

E (xn ) @ABE EI= I= xn = n n ∈ N 6=@= d(xn , x) = 1 = ILA n > k F= A lim d(xn , x) = 1 A LAHCA J= E > = ILA

= ,=

F=

(xn ) n n0

EA

E AL

x∈N

5 @HKCA IJH= A A

n→+∞

x = k ∈ N L=<E A E d((xn , x))

d(xn , xn+1 ) = 1 n ∈ N
L @= = ILA > C A A@ =

= FH E L G L=<E

m

E =>H= ε > 0 F IJ E n0 ∈ N J= d(xm , xn ) < ε/2 E d(ym , yn ) < ε/2 F= I L A I >E A

IJE

AJL H KC = LE@AJE

AJHE A @=JA F I A @ABE

E?E A    = m n (d(xn , yn )) L )

|d(xn , yn ) − d(xm , ym )| d(xn , xm ) + d(yn , ym ) I A@E @= n0 L=<E |d(xn , yn ) − d(xm , ym )| < ε/2 + ε/2 = ε J @= A E AL E K R F= A LAHCA J=
E J=@= > C E A A@ = IJE A A@E @=

JH

∗ (xnk ) LAHCEH= = J= E x ∗ d(xn , xnk ) + d(xnk , x∗ ) I KC = d(xn , x ) ∗ LAHCEH= = x

(xn )

J=

)2
IL= E

- )

6LH AMA = A IFA?E = = E yn

I K = JLH AM= > >K@K E @= A LAHCA J= F= IJ C= E

IJ= J=

E AL JA HA =  "  
"$

= x ∈ X, n ∈ N
AJHE A

A = IK

d1

E E

d2

A LEL= A J A

= I KFK =

X
A

,

= =JE @= E AL E K

(xn ) (X, d2 )
A
4A AMA

E AL

K FH IJ HK

(X, d1 ) =

E I=

= A

IK

AJHE A

J

F IJ

m2 d1 (x, y )

m1 , m2 ∈ (xn )

d1 E d2 A LEL= A J A LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  "  + R J= LE @= L=<E d1 (x, y ) m1 d2 (x, y ) E d2 (x, y )
E AL E K

A = A

(X, d1 )

6=@=

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀m, n ∈ N) m
6=@= = ILA

n

n0 ⇒ d1 (xm , xn ) < ε.
@= =

ε′ = ε/m2 > 0 F IJ E n′ 0 ∈ N J= d1 (xm , xn ) < ε′ = ε/m2 J m2 d1 (xm , xn ) < ε d2 (xm , xn )
F= A

m

n

n′ 0

L=<E

5=@= A

m2 d1 (xm , xn ) < ε,

(xn )
A = A

E AL

E K

(X, d2 )
E FH IJ H IJ E 

"%

(X, d)

AJHE

(xn ) E X

A ,

CH= E A A L= = =JE I A@A =

HE =?E A = JLH AM=

L=<E

A A@ =

+∞ n=1

d(xn , xn+1 ) < +∞
E AL 

= 5L= E

E

CH= E A A L=HE =?E A A

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

"' 

> 5L= E
4A AMA

E AL A = A IJE

E E = >=H A@= E

F @ E

CH= E A A L=HE =?E A 

=

(xn )

CH= E A A L=HE =?E A E A AC=JEL IJE

m>n

6=@=

=

I

LK

A A@ =

C KC = E

AJHE A @ >E =

d(xm , xn )
J

m−1 ν =n

d(xν , xν +1 )

+∞ ν =n

d(xν , xν +1 ) → 0, m → +∞,

(xn ) 
>

A A = A

E AL

E G= E AL E K

FHEH @ ED >H

(xn ) FH E L AL= (kn ) I=

X

,ABE E

E

E

kn = min{k ∈ N | k > kn−1 ∧ (∀m
6= =L ALA = E

k1 = min{k ∈ N | (∀m (kn ) F
IJ E AH A

k ) d(xm , xk ) < 1/2},

k ) d(xm , xk ) < 1/2n }. d(xkn , xkn+1 )
E A J LAHCEH= CH= E A A @ E E =

E

(xn )

E AL 6=@= = ILA FHEH @ A >H

n
I

L=<E

d(xkn , xkn+1 ) < 1/2n
C A HEJAHE K = EC A@ E AL =

F= HA@ J

+∞ n=1

LK F HA@>A ,= A IL= E

= E @= A

L=HE =?E A

(xn )
=?E A 
"&

E E = >=H A@=

k1 < k2 < · · ·

(xkn ) (xkn ) F

F @ E

CH= E A A L=HE

2 JHA>= A @=

E @ L G= A FHAIA EE IL=

KI C

L @=

AJHE K E AJHE

E FH IJ H E = A@ AFH= =

(X, d) >K@A
ED =JL HA ED = =JE F A I KF ,

F AJ=

F=@= K AC

I KF L= K
4A AMA

X

E @E = AJ=H= JA<E = FHA @= A E I AFH= = IL= LK = IE K E

2HAJF IJ=LE

E FH IJ H IJ E

(X, d)

J= EE @= A

A = A E

(Fn )

F=@= K E =

ED =JL HA ED I KF L= K

(X, d)

n(ε) ∈ N J= L C Fn E @L E (fn ) A E AL AH = IL= ε > 0 = E F A@= A A A J fn n n(ε) L=<E fn ∈ Fn ⊆ Fn(ε) F= A d(fm , fn ) diam(Fn(ε) ) < ε = m n n(ε) = A F FHAJF IJ=L?E FH IJ H X F AJ= J IL= E J IK ILE E AL E LAHCEH= K MA K A = fn → f n → +∞ 2 I KF LE Fn =JL HA E J f ∈ Fn = ILA n ∈ N F= JE A E f ∈ n∈N Fn ) >E F IJ = g ∈ n∈N Fn g = f J=@= >E >E d(f, g ) = r > 0 @= A F= f E g A >E C E EIJ LHA A FHEF=@=JE I KFK Fn∗ J= L diam(Fn∗ ) < r
@E = AJ=H= JA<E

ε>0F

diam(Fn(ε) ) < ε

A E > H= E

IL=

2HAJF IJ=LE

I=@= @= A FHAIA

IL=

C

F=@= K AC K E

E = A@

AFH= =

ED

=JL HA ED I KF L= K

X

EE

E @E = AJ=H= JA<E

I KF

# 

),)+1

A = A (xn ) k (n) ∈ N J=

FH E L G= L @= A

E AL

E

K

X
= ILA

= IL=

d(xk(n) , xk ) < 1/n

k

n ∈ N k (n) . H

F IJ EH=

E

F1 = F=@= K E E AFH= ED =JL HA ED I KF L= Fn = I A@A E = E K [xk(1) , 1] F2 = F1 ∩ K [xk(2) , 1/2], . . . , Fn = Fn−1 ∩ K [xk(n) , 1/n], . . . = I KF {a} E (diam(Fn )) JA<E K E F= n∈N Fn I=@H<E A@ LAHCEH= = a J=@= E E AL E = IA F = K A @= E (xk(n) ) (xn ) LAHCEH= = a AH = k k (n) L=<E d(xk , a) d(xk , xk(n) ) + d(xk(n) , a) <
A FH IJ H A = A ,

1 1 2 + = → 0, n → +∞. n n n

2HA = J 
"'

X

A

F AJ= AJHE E FH IJ H = E I=

J H

F @I KF
4A AMA

(X, d) = =JE @= A Y @X
A = A

F AJ= F AJ=

Y
=

MAC L F JFH I A

FH IJ H =

Y

=JL HA

E AL (yn ) FH E L G= E AL E K X F= LAHCEH= K E KY = A (yn ) F AJ= X = AI J A lim yn ∈ Y F= A I KF Y n→+∞ 2HAJF IJ=LE I=@= @= A Y F AJ= FH IJ H E y0 ∈ Y 6=@= A = IL= n ∈ N I KF K (y0 , 1/n) ∩ Y AFH= = LE@AJE JA HA K  $  A = I KF 7 E I=@= E (yn ) = IL= k ∈ N L=<E J= = yn FHEF=@= J E AL E K Y 6= E LAHCEH= = d(yn+k , yn ) < 2/n F= A (yn ) A Y = Y F= A I KF Y =JL HA J= E y0 ∈ Y 2HA = J

Y =JL HA AY ⊆ X J KF Y =JL HA

E F @I KF

@

X

E 

# 

LA

E

AJHE = *AH= A = A X I KF ILED x = (xν ) E y = (yν ) E X @ABE E E

E

L= A A A =J= I KF=

A

=

d(x, y ) =

0, x = y, 1 , x = y, k = min{ν ∈ N | xν = yν }. k d
AJHE = 

= , > ,

= =JE @= A

= =JE @= A FH IJ

X H (X, d)
=

F AJ= 

L 1IFEJ=JE IAF=H=>E =
4A

IJ FH IJ H=

(X, d) K
?E = I=@= 

=LEI

IJE

@

=H@E

C >H
AMA

= I KF=

A
A @ 

=

EC A@ IJ=L

d

A AC=JEL = BK =<E LE E E E

I >E A  ! A 

E  

AJHE A IA A@

= KK ,

A = IK x

y = (yν ) E z = (zν ) FH E L G d(x, z ) + d(z, y ) 2HAJF IJ=LE

I=@= @=

X =x=y Ax = y E A =

= (xν ) 0 = d(x, y ) A d(x, y ) = 1/p

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

#

)

y = z J=@= A d(z, y ) = 0 E d(x, z ) = 1/p F= L=<E d(x, z ) + d(z, y ) ) = C A E = x = z ) J=@= A d(y, z ) = 1/q = A E FHEH @= >H q A K =MK K FHAJF IJ=LE @= A p q ,= A L=<E
A

A A@ = A E F

IJ J IJ

d(x, y )

y = z

xν = yν yν = zν
A = A J A

= =

ν = 1, . . . , q − 1
=1

ν = 1, . . . , p − 1

E E

xp = yp ; yq = zq .

k

k = min{ν ∈ N | xν = zν } = p 5=@= A@ IJ=L @ >E = d(x, z ) = 1 k 1 p

ν < p L=<E xν = yν = zν

1 1 + = d(x, y ) + d(y, z ). p q
(m) (m)

,=

A L=<E E  > A = A

!

(x(m) ) x(m) = (x1 , x2 , . . .) FHE L G= E AL E K X 6=@= = IL= n ∈ N J = IL= ε = 1/n > 0 F IJ E k (n) ∈ N J= @= = ILA p, q k (n) L=<E d(x(p) , x(q) ) < 1/n @=L@A I A@E @= = (p) (k(n)) (m) ) F= IK K E K n−JED H@E =J= E = (x p k (n) L=<E xn = xn F AL E @ k (n)−J C = = ILE A A A JE A@ = E E >A A<E A ED I= yn ,= A IL= E H@E =J E E A LAHCA J= J = IL= n∈N (m) @= A lim xn = yn F IJ E yn ∈ A J=
m→+∞
>A A<E K A E E

(yn ) I= y E @

=<E

@= 

LE@AJE I E K %

x(m) → y m → +∞

x(1) x(2) ↓? y

x1 (2) x1 ↓ y1

(1)

x2 (2) x2 ↓ y2

(1)

··· ··· ···

xn (2) xn ↓ yn

(1)

··· ··· ···

5 E =% A = A E =>H= E A = A n ∈ N J= L @= L=<E mν ∈ N ν = 1, . . . , n J= LE @= E ν −JED mν A = A m0 = max{mν | 1 ν n} =J= F IJ= A yν = m (m) m m0 L=<E xν = yν ν = 1, . . . , n F= A

ε>0

FH E L G A

1/n < ε
H@E 6=@= =

6=@= F IJ

d(x(m) , y ) < 1/n < ε

J

x(m) → y, n → +∞.

# 

),)+1

= F AJ=

A IL= E

E AL

E

LAHCA J=

K

X

J

A FH IJ H

X

card(A) ℵ0 E A = A α ∈ A BE IEH= E A A A J >A A<E I= Y I KF ILED E L= x = (xν ) A A A =J= I KF= A E LA E ν 5 KF Y A = LE A FHA E = K I >E K @= A xν = α = @ L G E KX = FH E L G E =>H= >H EL A = A y = (yν ) FH E L G= ε > 0 K E n J= L @= A n 1/ε 6=@= E x = (y1 , y2 , . . . , yn , α, α, . . .) FHEF=@= I KFK Y E L=<E d(x, y ) < 1/n ε ,= A I KF Y A = LE A FHA>H EL E ILK@= CKIJ K X F= A FH IJ H (X, d) IAF=H=>E = = card(A) ℵ0 
L A = A A = A I=@=

JA HA K  
#

A = A Z I KF ILED IJ=?E =H ED card(A) > ℵ0 E L= A A A =J= I KF= A J ILED E L= x = (ξ, ξ, . . .) ξ ∈ A 5 KF Z A AFHA>H EL AH A card(Z ) = card(A) ) IK x, y ∈ Z E x = y J=@= A x = (ξ, ξ, . . .) y = (η, η, . . .) E ξ = η F= A d(x, y ) = 1 ,= A I KF Z IA I=IJ E @ E L= ED J= = = LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  $  FH IJ H= X E AFHA>H EL A F= FH IJ H X E A IAF=H=>E = = card(A) > ℵ0 LE@AJE $

,

= =JE @= A

H EH= E FH IJ H

IL=
4A

p
AMA

1
=

,

= =JE @= A J= FH IJ H IAF=H=>E = IK >E A A @LA H A K

Kk p K ∈ {R, C} Kk p p 1
F AJ E AL

F AJ=

=

A KI >

A LE

L= A J A @ L G A = A

= FHE AH @

= =JE

IJ FH IJ H=

Kk 2 (1)

6=@= = IL=

(xn ) xn = ε>0F

(n) (n) (ξ1 , . . . , ξk ) FH E L G=
IJ E

Kk 2

E K FH IJ HK

n0 J=

@= = ILA

m

n

n0 L=<E

k

d(xm , xn ) =
ν =1 (m) (n)

(m) ξν


=

(n) ξν

2

1/2

< ε.

= E

A

ξν

(1) I

A@E @= A

− ξν

d(xm , xn ) < ε

m

n

n0

= ILA

ν = 1, . . . , k

(m) (n) − ξν ξν <ε
@ I E AL @= F IJ @= E A = IL=

=

m

n

n0 ; ν = 1, . . . , k,
E

BE IEH=

K F GK I = =H=

K

> C

ν ∈ {1, . . . , k}

A I = =HE

ν = 1, . . . , k

ξν ∈ K

J= LE @=

(ξν ) n ∈ N F AJ IJE FH IJ H= K I A@E (n) ξν → ξν n → +∞ = IL=

(n)

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

#!

7 H

E

J=

(m) @= ξν

x = (ξ1 , . . . , ξk ) 2K J= K E K (1) @= m → +∞ > → ξν m → +∞ = ILA ν = 1, . . . , k I A@E @= A = n n0
K

E

k ν =1
J J= 6 = E @=

ξν −

(n) ξν

2

1/2

= d(xn , x) < ε,
= E

AH A K MA K IL= E

xn → x n → +∞
I=@= IAF=H=>E

E AL

x ∈ Kk 2

J

A FH IJ H

Kk 2

F A $

LAHCA J= 

@ABE E?E = 

k = E @= A E FH IJ H Kp
1IFEJ=

F AJ=

= IL=

p p

1 1
= E

k IJ FH IJ H= Kp

B = {(q1 , . . . , qk ) | q1 , . . . , qk ∈ KQ },
C@A A

KQ

I KF

ILK@= CKIJ I KF J= = = K FH IJ HK @ABE E?E =  !%  
#

K−H=?E

=

ED >H

AL=

5 KF

B

A

= LE

A FHA>H

EL

Kk p

F= A FH IJ H

Kk p

IAF=H=>E =

,

= =JE @= A

H EH= E FH IJ H

ℓp

F AJ=

E IAF=H=>E =

= IL=
4A AMA

p 1

1
A = A 6=@=

ℓp p
L=<E

(xn ) xn = (ξν ) FH E L G= = IL= ε > 0 F IJ E n0 ∈ N J=
+∞ ν =1 (m) ξν

(n)

E AL

E

K FH IJ HK

@= = ILA

m

n

n0

(1)
= A = IL= = IL=

d(xm , xn ) = ν ∈N
E = L=<E

(n) ξν

p

1/p

< ε.
J E

ξν

(m)

− ξν

(n)

d(xm , xn )
E

(1)

I A@E @=

I = =H=

K

ν ∈N
I=@=

A FH IJ H BE IEH= E

J= LE @= = IL= 7 E

n → +∞
=

K F AJ= J F IJ A I = =HE ξν ∈ K (n) ν ∈ N L=<E ξν → ξν n → +∞ @= A x ∈ ℓp E @= xn → x x = (ξν ) , = = A x ∈ ℓp
E JHA>= F = =JE @=

ν −JED

H@E =J= J

(ξν )

(n)

E AL K F GK

,= >E F A IL= E L

= = E @= A E AL

+∞ ν =1

|ξν |p

LAHCEH= F IJ E

CH= E A 

LE@AJE JA HA K  #  J

M > 0 J=

@= A

xn =

+∞ ν =1

(n) ξν

p

1/p

M,

n ∈ N,

#" 

),)+1

J

k (n) ξν ν =1
) @ K FHAJD >E = A A@ = @= @ A A@ =

p

M p,

n ∈ N, k ∈ N.
IEH= =

IJE BE

k

E FKIJE FK J= K ,=

@=

k
A

ν =1
IJE @=

|ξν |p
=

Mp k ∈ N
@ >E = @= A =

n → +∞
I A@M

=@

E K F A

k → +∞

+∞

ν =1

|ξν |p n0

Mp

x ∈ ℓp

1

HA

=?E A

(1) E
k

m
p

n < εp ,

ν =1
) K FHAJD @ > EH A A@ @=

(m) (n) ξν − ξν
= IJE BE

k ∈ N. n0 E k ∈ N
>E A E FKIJE @=

m → +∞

(m) ξν k

→ ξν

n m → +∞
IEH=

@

ν =1
= = FK J= K E K F I

(n) ξν − ξν
A A@

p

< εp .
IJE @=

A@M

=

n

n0 L=<E
+∞ ν =1 (n) ξν − ξν p

k → +∞

@

>E =

@=

= xn − x

p

< εp ,

@

I 2HA ,

@=

xn → x n → +∞
A H EH= A E FH H IJ EH= K F H I=@= @=

= J =<E

ℓp

A IJ

F H

AJ=

= IL= =

p

1
= IL=

E FH IJ E

ℓp

IAF=H=>E A FHA>H

p
I

1
7

6HA>= F = E A = K FH AH

= =JE @= K MA

= LE

EL ILK@= CKIJ

KF J=

IJ

HK

ℓp
>

E

LA A

J =

H= A

(en ) C@A

A

δij

H

L @A

J= IE

en = (δnν ) n, ν ∈ N

=

B = {q1 e1 + · · · + qn en | q1 , . . . , qn ∈ KQ , n ∈ N}.
5 KF , J= K

B

A FHA>H =<E

EL A I KF

I=@= @=

B

ILK@= CKIJ K

ℓp
A

7

E

FH

E L

G

K

x = (ξν ) ∈ ℓp E FH

E L

G

ε>0

=

x

p

=

+∞ ν =1

|ξν |p < +∞

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

##

J

F IJ

E

k ∈ N K
J

J= F IJ

@=

A

+∞ ν =k+1

|ξν |p < εp /2 ∈ KQ

=

A I KF

KQ

ILK@= CKIJ K

A I = =HE

ν = 1, . . . , k L=<E |ξν − qν |
k p k

q1 , . . . , qk p ε /(2k ) 5=@= A
p +∞ ν =k+1

J= LE @=

= IL=

x−
J J

qν eν
ν =1 k

=
ν =1

|ξν − qν | +
J

|ξν |p B

k

εp εp + = εp , 2k 2 ℓp
2HA =

x−
,

qν eν
ν =1

ε

= E @= A I KF = IL=

ILK@= CKIJ K

A FH IJ H ℓp A IAF=H=>E = = =JE @= A IJ 7

p m

1
F AJ= 1IFEJ=JE IAF= 

#!

H EH= E FH IJ H

H=>E
4A AMA

L C FH IJ H= E FH E L G= E AL E E

m (1)

6=@= = IL=

ε>0F

IJ

n0 ∈ N J=
ν ∈N

(xn ) xn = (ξν ) K FH IJ HK @= = ILA m n n0 L=<E

(n)

(m) (n) < ε. − ξν d(xm , xn ) = sup ξν (m)

ν ∈ N L=<E ξν ν ∈ N E ILA m n n0
= IL=

− ξν

(n)

d(xm , xn )

E

(1) I

A@E @= A = IL=

(2)
,= A A = IL=

(m) (n) < ε. − ξν ξν

E AL K F GK I = =H= J= LE @= = IL= E I=@= E

ν ∈ N

E

ν −JED K > C
,

ξν ∈ K
7

BE IEH=

x = (ξν )
E AL E F IJ @ I

n → +∞
=

(ξν ) n ∈ N F AJ IJE FH IJ H= K F IJ A (n) ν ∈ N L=<E ξν → ξν n → +∞ = = A @= A x ∈ m E @= xn → x
H@E =J= J E H= >EJE @= = IL= CH= E A

(n)

A

(xn )
(n)

K FH IJ HK E 

LE@AJE JA HA K  #  J

xn = sup ξν
FHAJD @

M

m M > 0 J= L (n) M ξν n → +∞

= ILA @ >E =

ν ∈N
J

n ∈ N L=<E ν, n ∈ N ) K
@= A

A A@ = = E @=

IJE FKIJE

@=

ν∈N
)

K

A A@ = @ >E A

x∈m IJE (2) FKIJE
(n) < ε, ξν − ξν

|ξν | ξν
(m)

M → ξν

@=

m → +∞

m → +∞

> EH

@=

n

n0 ; ν ∈ N,

#$ 

),)+1

F= A ,=

ν ∈N A xn
F AJ=

sup ξν − ξν

(n)

= ILA

n

n0

@

I F= A

d(xn , x) < ε

=

n

n0 m

→ x n → +∞

K FH IJ HK

m

H EH= E FH IJ H

1IFEJ= I KF

I=@= IAF=H=>E

IJ FH IJ H=

m

2 I =JH=

I A@A E

A = {(α1 , α2 , . . .) ∈ m | αν = 0 ∨ αν = 1, ν ∈ N}.
5 KF

A

A

AFHA>H

EL K

m

A = IK

x, y ∈ A x = y

6=@= A

x − y = sup |αν (x) − αν (y )| = 1.
ν ∈N

K (x, 1/3) = {z ∈ m | z − x < 1/3} x ∈ A K (x, 1/3) ∩ K (y, 1/3) = ∅ =E A = >E A = ∗ ∗ J= = x FHEF=@= = LE @LA = KC = = J=@= >E L=<E x − x < 1/3 ∗ < 1/3 @ I E y −x x − y < 2/3 J A A CK A AH A x − y = 1 ,= A {K (x, 1/3) | x ∈ A} A AFHA>H EL= B= E E = @EI K J ED JL HA ED I KF L= K FH IJ HK m F= FH IJ H m E A IAF=H=>E = LE@A
7 E B= E E K KC E 6=@= =

x = y

L=<E

JE JA HA K  
#"

$

,
AMA

= =JE @= IK FH IJ HE F AJ

c E c0
IJ=LG= IA <A IA @

F AJ E E IAF=H=>E <A IA @ = =JE = = @

E C @ = K

4A

IJ FH IJ H= c E c0

=

F AJ F AJ

IJ FH IJ H=

m c

EJ= ?K @= J = =JE E @ L G

=<A = E =

IJ FH IJ H=

= @HKCE A @

A

c

F JFH IJ H *= =D L C FH IJ H= IJ J = A

=JL HA =

m (n) (xn ) xn = (ξν )
= LHA@

= =JE MAC LK E K FH IJ HK

LAHCA J=

c

m F AJ= @= >E @ = = E @= A E x ∈ m E AL LAHCA J= J @= x ∈ c @ L G A@ = =JE @= A E x = (ξν ) = xn → x n → +∞ J = IL= ε > 0 F IJ E n0 ∈ N J= @= = ILA (n) (n) n n0 L=<E d(xn , x) = sup ξν − ξν < ε @= A A ξν − ξν < ε = ν ∈N ILA ν ∈ N n n0
= A FH IJ H 7 = E E I=@= E @A I

x = (ξν ) ∈ m MAC

L= CH= E

IJ J=@=

x∈c

xn1 =

(n ) (ξν 1 )

n1 ∈ N

J= =L @= A

ξν

(n1 )

− ξν < ε/3 ν ∈ N
=  "  2HA = J J A

= E @= = @ L G

∈c ν∈N J A E AL JA HA (n1 ) (n1 ) < ε/3 − ξk LA E A j, k L=<E ξj + ξj
(n1 )

|ξj − ξk |

ξj − ξj

(n1 )

− ξk

(n1 )

+ ξk

(n1 )

− ξk <

ε ε ε + + = ε, 3 3 3

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

#%

F= A

E

(ξν )

E AL @= F JFH IJ H

A

LAHCA J= F AJ

@

I

c

A =JL HA

C FH IJ H= F= A E I= F AJ IJ C

x∈c

2HA = J F AJ= C FH

A

H EH= E FH IJ H IJ H= c F= A @ L G @= J , @ =<A =<E I=@= @= A A = A @

c0

A F JFH IJ H

H EH= IJ=LG= IA

= =JE MAC LK =JL HA

EJ= ?K

H EH= E FH IJ HE

c

IAF=H=>E = 

@

=

=

c0

AI E = 

B = {(q1 , q2 , . . . , qn , q, q, . . .) | q1 , q2 . . . , qn , q ∈ KQ , n ∈ N}.
5 KF B A FHA>H EL , =<E x = (ξν ) FH E L G = J= = FH A = A ξ = lim ξn 7 E FH IJ HK IJ H= E @= A B ILK@= CKIJ K c A = c E ε > 0 FH E L G E =>H= (xk ) xk = (ξ1 , . . . , ξk , ξ, ξ, . . .) A K

c

6=@= A

n→+∞

x − xk = (0, . . . , 0, ξk+1 − ξ, ξk+2 − ξ, . . .) E
k−FKJ=

x − xk = sup |ξν − ξ | → 0, k → +∞,
ν k+1
F= F IJ E

k0 ∈ N J=

@= A

(1)
@ I 7 E

ε x − xk0 = sup |ξν − ξ | < , 2 ν k0 +1 |ξν − ξ | < ε/2
I=@= = ILA

ν

k0 + 1

q1 , . . . , qk0 , q ∈ KQ J= LA @= A |ξ − q | < ε/2 E @= = ILA ν = 1, . . . , k0 L=<E |ξν − qν | < ε/2 >A A<E y = (q1 , . . . , qk0 , q, q, . . .) EC A@ @= y ∈ B E xk0 − y < ε/2 1 FHAJD @ A A A@ = IJE E A A@ = IJE (1) I A@E @= A x − y < ε F= A I KF B ILK@= CKIJ K FH IJ HK c ,= A FH IJ H c A IAF=H=>E = 
##

,

= =JE @= A = FH E L G=

= =

E JAHL=

[a, b] HA= K=R
@

A

IA

H EH= E FH IJ H
4A AMA

C[a, b]
I=IJ E

F AJ=

E IAF=H=>E = I ?E =

1◦

2HAJF IJ=LE

= FHA @= A F GA I = =H= @ ILED HA= ED

@= IA FH IJ H @ABE EI= ED 7 E

C[a, b]

AFHA E@ ED BK

= E JAHL= K

[a, b]
E AL E IJ E n0

FH E L G= 6=@= = IL=

t ∈ [a, b] (1)

ε > 0F

(fn ) K FH ∈ N J=

IJ HK

@= A = ILA m

C[a, b] fn = fn (t) n n0

|fm (t) − fn (t)| < ε,

t ∈ [a, b].

#& 

),)+1

.E IEH= E K BK

K F I A@M BE IEH=

A A@ =

IJE

R

F= A

LAHCA J=

> C

t ∈ [a, b]
F AJ = J= EK

6=@= A

IJE FH IJ H=

(fn (t)) R

E AL 6 L=<E = @=

= IL= ?E =

t ∈ [a, b] F= A f (t) = lim fn (t) 2K J= K
n→+∞
IJ E

= E

@ABE EI= = HA= @ >E =

= IL=

ε>0F

n0 ∈ N J=

@= A = ILA

(1) @= m → +∞ n

n0 EIFKMA

|fn (t) − f (t)| < ε,
@ = BK I @= E

t ∈ [a, b],
= BK ?E E f =@ = E JAHL= K

(fn ) K
?E A J

EB H

IK ILA BK ?E = L G LA E

n@

f ∈ C[a, b]
A

§ 1
=

fn n ∈ N n

2HA = J ,

H EH= E FH

n → +∞ [a, b] J A E A A@ = IJE (1) I A@E @= A fn − f < ε = n0 F= fn → f n → +∞ K FH IJ HK C[a, b] IJ H C[a, b] A F AJ=
LAHCEH= AFHA E@ A IJ FH IJ H=

=<E

I=@= IAF=H=>E

C[a, b]

A = A

Q B = {Pn (t) = q0 + q1 t + · · · + qn tn | q0 , . . . , qn ∈ Q, n ∈ N}.
5 KF 7

B

A E

EC A@

FHA>H

EL ?E K E F

FH E L G K BK #  F IJ J= =L @= A

JA HA A JA HA = 

a0 , . . . , an ∈ R

f ∈ C[a, b] = I LK 8= AH JH=I LA E P (t) = a0 + a1 t + · · · + an tn

ε f − Pn = sup |f (t) − Pn (t)| < . 2 t∈[a,b]
= J= @ >E A E F E

Pn F

IJ

EF

E

ABE?E A JE = J= =L @= A

Q ∈B Pn

I= H=?E

=

E

ε Q Q Pn − Pn = sup |Pn (t) − Pn (t)| < . 2 t∈[a,b]
1 F I A@MA @LA A A@ = IJE I A@E @= A I KF

B

A ILK@= CKIJ K FH IJ HK JHE J=@= I=IJ I=@= I K = E

C[a, b]

F=

Q < ε 2HA = J f − Pn A FH IJ H C[a, b] IAF=H=>E
?E =

A =

2◦ 4= C[a, b] IA
<A
§
6

=@= A F GA I = =H= F A I ED BK 2H E L G K BK

@ ILED

AFHA E@ ED

= E JAHL= K

[a, b]

FHA@IJ=LEJE K
A = A

> E K

f = u + iv

FHE

K = C 2H IJ H f : [a, b] → C ?E K f ∈ C[a, b] J=@= A K IK u E v HA= A
AFHA E@ ED I KFK

- 4- )
E

K J=

a ∈ A n → +∞ 6=@=

E K EB H A E BK

(fn ) (fn : A → R n ∈ N A ⊆ R) E BK ?E = LAHCEH= = BK ?E E f : A → R = ?E = f AFHA E@ = K J= E a

A

=@

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

#'

BK ED

?E A

AFHA E@ A

=

[a, b]

4=@E FHAC A@ E AC =FEI= FH IJ H HA= = E A IJ HK 6=@=

[a, b] 7 E FH E L G= E AL E (fn ) K FH un (t) + ivn (t) t ∈ [a, b] un , vn ∈ CR [a, b] n ∈ N @ L G LA E A m, n  = m n n0  L=<E
AFHA E@ ED BK ?E = = E JAHL= K

CR [a, b] C[a, b] fn (t) = = IL= ε>0E
I=

|fm (t) − fn (t)| =
> C

(um (t) − un (t))2 + (vm (t) − vn (t))2 < ε, |fm (t) − fn (t)|
E

t ∈ [a, b].

|um (t) − un (t)|
L=<E

|vm (t) − vn (t)| n n
E 6

|fm (t) − fn (t)|,

|um (t) − un (t)| < ε, |vm (t) − vn (t)| < ε, (un )
E J = E @= IK @

m m
E ALE

n0 ; t ∈ [a, b], n0 ; t ∈ [a, b],
LE K FH IJ HK E LE = E @=

CR [a, b] = (un ) E (vn ) ?E A u, v ∈ CR [a, b] J= LA @= LAHCEH= K K CR [a, b] F= F IJ A BK un → u n → +∞ E vn → v n → +∞ K CR [a, b] 7 E I=@= BK ?E K f = u + iv EC A@ f ∈ C[a, b] = A (vn )
E I = = E @= A F AJ=

|fn (t) − f (t)| =
J A E

(un (t) − u(t))2 + (vn (t) − v (t))2 ,
@ H I

n

n0
,

|fn (t) − f (t)| < ε = n n0 t ∈ [a, b] ,= A fn → f n → +∞ F= A FH IJ
= IAF=H=>E = K IJE = F A I= @ = HA= = > EH > E K =E A L=<E E

C[a, b]

fn − f < ε
F AJ=

=

H EH= E FH IJ H

C[a, b]

A

I E = AH F <A E

F A I = L=HE = J= 8= ?E = f ∈ C[a, b] u, v ∈ CR [a, b] E @= IA IL= E

JH=I LA JA HA A =FEI=JE K > E =

@= IA FH E L G = BK C@A IK

f = u + iv

Pn (t) = a0 + a1 t + · · · + an tn ,
I= F A I E ABE?E A JE =

t ∈ [a, b],
<A FHA@IJ=LEJE K > E =

a0 , . . . , an

Pn (t) = Re a0 + · · · + (Re an )tn + i Im a0 + · · · + (Im an )tn .

)2
= A

- )
IA

7 FH IJ HK

AFHA E@ ED BK =

?E =

= E JAHL= K

[a, b]

HA

<A IA KLAIJE E JACH=

H = I=

b

1/p

f =
a

|f (t)|p dt

,

p

1.

$ 

),)+1

@C L=H= K E LHA@ IL= 
#$

H EH= E FH IJ H IA J=@= C F=H= AJH=

>A A<=L= I=

Cp [a, b]
A F AJ=

= ILA =

IJE HA=

p

1

FH IJ H

Cp [a, b]

A

p

1

A IAF=H=>E =

A = A

S

I KF ILED

AFHA E@ ED E

CH= E A ED BK I=

?E =

=

R

,

= =JE @= A FHAI E =L=MA

d

@ABE EI=

d(f, g ) = sup |f (t) − g (t)|,
t∈R
AJHE = E @=
4A

f, g ∈ S,
E FH IJ H

= I KFK

S

,

= =JE @= A

AJHE

(X, d)
= @

F AJ=

E A IAF=H=>E =
AMA

IJ=LG= IA

EJ= ?K @= @ , =

=<A @= A F AJ

d S

AJHE = @ @

S

E @= A LAH =

FH IJ H F AJ

(S, d)

F AJ=

IJE A I E = HEIJEJE

= K

IJE FH IJ H= A

C[a, b]
C

7 I K = K FH IJ H= E =

= =

CA ?E A FH E L G K EB H @= , F IJ K L E A LAHCA ?E = J C

E AL C =

(fn ) EI

EMA E?K @= E

LAHCA ?E A E =

E = (fn )

= BK

?E E f

= R I A@E K EB H

f

= IL= ?E =

E JAHL= K AFHA E@ =

@= I A@E @= A BK =<E

f

[−a, a] 0 < a < +∞ =R
, = = A @= KC E J ED JL HA ED

I=@= @= FH IJ H EL= B= E E =

(S, d)

E A IAF=H=>E = @EI K

AFHA>H

A KI > $

FH IJ HK LE@AJE JA HA K  A = A

A

I KF ILED BK

IL= = @= A I K

@ E JAHL= =

E E K FHA@IJ=LGA K

?E = A IK = (−∞, 1/2] A@ = [n − 1/2, n + 1/2] n ∈ N E = K = CH=BE = I E?E & E E IK A@ = A = E >H = K E

A

0

= EC

=

F

EC A@ E I KF

A ⊆ S E @= A E = EIJE =H@E ℵ KF= N J card(A) = 2 0 = c

P(N) F=HJEJEL

5 E =& = A

AFHA>H

f, g ∈ A f = g (S, d)

A

d(f, g ) = 1
A KI >

2HA = J @EI K

A

EL= B= E E =

J ED

JL HA ED

{K (f, 1/2) | f ∈ A} KC E K S

F= FH IJ H

E A IAF=H=>E =

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

$ 

#%

,

= =JE @= A ?E =

H EH= E FH IJ H

ED BK ,
4A

= E JAHL= K L= FH IJ H

[a, b] I=

H

= =JE @=
AMA

E A IAF=H=>E = =<A

B[a, b] ILED CK ED CH= E f = sup |f (t)| *= =D
t∈[a,b]
IJ F AJ

A L

IJ=LG= IA  ##

EJ= ?K @= @

L C FH IJ H= 

LE@AJE =@=J= , HA= = I= =<E >H

I=@= @= FH IJ H

B[a, b]

E A IAF=H=>E =

= FH E L G= @ABE EI= K

α ∈ [a, b] K

E

BK

?E K

fα : [a, b] → {0, 1} t ∈ [a, b].
CH= E A A =

fα (t) =
EC A@ A @= IK ILA BK J A

1, t = α, 0, t = α,

α=β

E

fα = fβ

?E A fα α ∈ [a, b] card{fα | α ∈ [a, b]} = c

=

A

=

α=β

L=<E E

fα − fβ = sup |fα (t) − fβ (t)| = 1.
t∈[a,b]
7

K = {K (fα , 1/3) | α ∈ [a, b]} EC A @ A card(K) = c = α, β ∈ [a, b] α = β A K (fα , 1/3)∩K (fβ , 1/3) = ∅ ∗ ∈ K (f , 1/3) ∩ K (f , 1/3) 2HAJF IJ=LE IKFH J @= F IJ E f α β ∗ < 1/3 E f ∗ − fβ < 1/3 @= A A fα − fβ 6=@= A f − fα fα − f ∗ + f ∗ − fβ < 2/3 J A A CK A AH A fα − fβ = 1
E I=@= JL HA K A ?E K 2HA = J A JL HA ED I KF L= K FH IJ HK

K

A

AFHA>H

EL=

A ?E K

A KI >

@EI K

J ED

B[a, b]

F=

E A IAF=H=>E = 

LE@AJE

JA HA K  
#&

$ = =JE I A@A = JLH AM= A

, 

= )

X

IAF=H=>E =

AJHE

E FH IJ H E BK

?E =

AFHA E@ = E IEH A JEL = J=@= A E > 5L= E F JFH IJ H IAF=H=>E >E =

Y

IAF=H=>E = C AJHE

FH IJ H

f :X →Y

C FH IJ H= A IAF=H=

= = A = FHA @= = BK ?E = f I E = I KF A = I KF card(A) card(B ) =E A = A f IEH A JEL = BK ?E = − 1 J A {f (b) | b ∈ B } B= E E = AFH= ED I KF L= = I LK = IE A −1 (b) E > H= E IL= C I KF= f <A @= E @L E A A A J E >A A<E ,ABE E E BK ?E K g : B → A J= @= A g (b) = ab C= I= ab EC A@ = IL= b ∈ B L=<E f (g (b)) = b ) A g (b1 ) = g (b2 ) J=@= A = I E = f (g (b1 )) = f (g (b2 )) J b1 = b2 F= A g E A JEL = BK ?E = B K A > C J C= A card(B ) card(A)
4A AMA 

= ,

B

J=@= A

$ 

),)+1

@

A FHA>H EL ILK@= CKIJ I KF K X = I LK f (E ) A = LE A FHA>H EL I KF = y ∈ Y F IJ E x ∈ X J= L @= A f (x) = y A = A V E = J= A y 6=@= F IJ E U E = J= A x E J= = e ∈ E ∩ U J= L= @= A f (e) ∈ f (U ) ⊆ V F= A I KF f (E ) ILK@= CKIJ K Y 2HA = J A Y A IAF=H=>E = FH IJ H > AJHE E FH IJ H (X, d) A IAF=H=>E = = E I= = E = A = = LE A FHA>H ELK >= K B = {Bν | ν ∈ N} LE@AJE JA HA K  $  AJHE C FH IJ H= (X, d) 6=@= A A ?E = A (Y, dY ) F JFH IJ H BY = {Bν ∩ Y | ν ∈ N} = LE A FHA>H EL= >= = FH IJ H= (Y, dY ) F= A A = A = LE = = C JLH AM= IAF=H=>E = A = A E

E 

#'

GX

B= E E = ILED

JL HA ED I KF L= ED

AJHE

C FH I

J H=

(X, d)

A = A

Σ

I KF ILED IAF=H=>E

AJHE

ED FH IJ H=

1 H= K =JE =
4A

max{card(GX ) | X ∈ Σ} 
= AJHE E FH IJ H A FHA>H ELK >= K 

>

max{card(X ) | X ∈ Σ}
= = A

AMA

E =

= LE

card(B ) U=

A =

card(P(B)) c E f IEH A JEL FHAI E =L=MA J A card(GX ) c = X = R A GR ⊇ {(0, α) | α ∈ [1, 2]} F= A card(GR ) c = A R IAF=H=>E = AJHE E FH IJ H J A FHA = @ = = card(GR ) c ,= A card(GR ) = c F= A max{card(GX ) | X ∈ Σ} = c > 5L= E A@ = I KF {x} K AJHE FH IJ HK X A =JL HA F= A I KF X \{x} JL HA 7 E FHAI E =L=MA f : X → GX @ABE EI= I= f (x) = X \ {x} 2HAI E =L=MA f A E A JEL F= A card(X ) card(GX ) c = I LK @A = = ,= A = X ∈ Σ A card(X ) c = A R ∈ Σ E card(R) = c J A max{card(X ) | X ∈ Σ} = c 
$

ν ∈I ⊆N

X A IAF=H=>E = X ∈ Σ = E I= B = {Bν | ν ∈ N} JA HA =  $  ℵ0 J A card(P(B)) c 6=@= IA U <A FHA@IJ=LEJE = I A@A E A U ∈ GX Bν 6E A A @HA A FHAI E =L=MA f : P(B ) → GX
=

= E = A

FH IJ H LA J

xn
E I=

H EH= E FH IJ HE , = =JE @= A A = IK X1 , . . . , Xn H EH= E FH IJ H = = FH E L G= X = X1 × · · · × X n H x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ X @ABE E A H K I= x = x1 + · · · + = = =JE @= A FH IJ H IK ILE FH IJ HE = =JE @= A FH = IK ILE FH 

> , = 

L , = E I=

X I= L= KLA@A X1 , . . . , Xn *= =D LE IJ H X I= L= KLA@A IJ HE X1 , . . . , Xn IAF=H=>E

H

*= =D L =

H E

IAF=H=>E =

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

$!

4A

AMA 

=

IJ=LG= IA

EJ= ?K @= FH LAHE = FHA @=

I >E A

H A

A FH IJ H X *= =D L A = A = (m) ν n (xν ) m ∈ N E AL E K FH E E (xm ) K FH IJ HK X @ABE EI= = I A@A E = E IJ HK Xν 7 (m) (m) xm = (0, . . . , 0, xν , 0 . . . , 0) m ∈ N FHE A K IA xν = = E = ν −J F E?E E 6=@= = IL= ε > 0 F IJ E n0 ∈ N J= @= = ILA m k n0 (m) (k ) L=<E xm − xk = xν − xν < ε J = E @= A (xm ) E AL E K LAHCEH= A = FH IJ HK X = A X *= =D L FH IJ H J E (xm ) xm → y = (y1 , . . . , yν , . . . , yn ) m → +∞ = A > 2HAJF IJ=LE BE IEH= IL=

ν 1

n

y − xm =
J A

k=1 k=ν

m) − yν , yk + x( ν (m)

k = 1, . . . , n k = ν E xν → yν m → +∞ K FH IJ HK E AL Xν ,= A = IL= ν = 1, . . . , n K FH IJ HK Xν FH E L G= F AJ E E LAHCEH= F= IK ILE FH IJ HE Xν ν = 1, . . . , n 2HAJF IJ=LE I=@= @= IK ILE FH IJ HE Xν ν = 1, . . . , n F AJ E (m) (m) E AL E K FH IJ HK X xm = (x1 , . . . , xn ) 6=@= = A = A (xm ) IL= ε > 0 F IJ E n0 J= @= = ILA m k n0 L=<E yk = 0
=

n

xm − xk =
F= = IL=

ν =1 (m)

m) (k) x( − xν < ε, ν (k) (m)

− xν ε m k n0 J (xν ) F AJ IJE m∈N A E AL E K FH IJ HK Xν ν = 1, . . . , n 1 (m) LAHCA J E FH IJ H= Xν ν = 1, . . . , n I A@E @= IK ILE E LE (xν ) (m) @ I F IJ A yν ∈ Xν ν = 1, . . . , n J= LE @= A xν − yν < ε/n =m@ L G LA E m Nν ν = 1, . . . , n A = A y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) E N = max{N1 , . . . , Nn } 6=@= = ILA m N L=<E xm − y < ε F= E LAHCEH= K X J = E @= A FH IJ H X *= =D L (xm ) L 2HAJF IJ=LE @= A FH IJ H X = X1 × · · · × Xn IAF=H=>E = (m) (m) A = A B = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) | m ∈ N} ILK@= CKIJ I KF J= = = K X (m) , = = A @= A J=@= I KF Bν = {xν | m ∈ N} ILK@= CKIJ I KF J= = = A = A xν ∈ Xν FH E L G = J= = 6=@= K FH IJ HK Xν ν = 1, . . . , n A yν = (0, . . . , 0, xν , 0, . . . , 0) ∈ X F= = IL= ε > 0 F IJ E E @A I (m ) (m ) m0 ∈ N J= =L @= A yν − (x1 0 , . . . , xn 0 ) < ε J ν = 1, . . . , n L=<E xν
n

xk
k=1 k=ν

(m0 )

(m0 ) + xν − xν < ε.

$" 

),)+1

1 F I A@MA I KF J

A A@ =

IJE I A@E @= A

ILK@= CKIJ K

=

A

EC A@

xν − xν

(m0 )

J

= E @= A EL I KF

= LE

A FHA>H

A FH IJ H

IAF=H=>E =

= ILA

2HAJF IJ=LE

I=@= @= IK FH

Bν = {xν ν = 1, . . . , n 7 E
A = A

(m)

ν = 1, . . . , n IJ HE Xν ν = 1, . . . , n

IAF=H=>E

E

| m ∈ N}
I KF

ILK@= CKIJ I KF J= = = K FH IJ HK

B = {(x1
K FH IJ HK ILA ILK@= CKIJ K

(m1 )

(mn ) , . . . xn ) | m1 , . . . , mn ∈ N}

ε>0F

X EC A@ A I KF B = LE A FHA>H EL = A I KF Bν Xν ν = 1, . . . , n J = IL= K J= K x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ X E IJ A E @A IE m1 , . . . , mn ∈ N J= LE @= A
mν ) xν − x( < ν

ε , n

ν = 1, . . . , n.
n

6=@= A

x − (x1
F= A I KF 
$

(m1 )

(mn ) , . . . , xn ) = ν =1
,= A

mν ) xν − x( < ε, ν
FH IJ H E = =

B ILK@= CKIJ K X

X

A IAF=H=>E =

,

= =JE @= LA J HI E FH IJ H

E JAHL= K
4A AMA

[0, 1] I=
E

H E F E

P [0, 1] ILED CK ED F P = max |P (t)| E A *= =D L
=

7

(Pn )

t∈[0,1]

@ABE EI=

I=

Pn (x) = 1 +
E

x x2 xn + + ··· + , 1! 2! n!
AH = IL=

n ∈ N, x ∈ [0, 1].
E

m

(Pn ) A n n0

E AL L=<E

ε>0

F IJ

n0 ∈ N

J=

@=

= ILA

Pm − Pn = max |Pm (x) − Pn (x)| = max
x∈[0,1]
= F E EA 
$

x∈[0,1]

xm xn+1 + ··· + < ε. (n + 1)! m!
?E = IJ

= IL= K

F AJ= ,

x ∈ [a, b] L=<E Pn (x) → ex n → +∞ = BK A E E AL E A LAHCEH= K P [0, 1] F= FH
A LA J HI E FH IJ H

ex E A H P [0, 1]

= =JE @=

P (t) = an
H= @=

tn

FH IJ H

+ an−1

tn−1

=@ F GA

E A *= =D L

P ILED CK ED F E = + · · · + a0 a0 , . . . , an ∈ K n ∈ N0  A@= H E K I= H P = |a0 | + |a1 | + · · · + |an | = E

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

$#

4A

AMA

IJ=LG= IA H E F K

EJ= IJ =

?K @= F HK

=<K @= FHAI

E

=L=MA

FHA@IJ=LG= 7 E

= FH E

(Pn )

P

P →

P

@ABE

EI=

I=

Pn (t) = 1 +
6=@= = FH E L G A E @A

t tn + 2 + ··· + n . 2 2 2 IA m n L=<E
m

t2

Pm − Pn =
F= F A E E K

ν =n+1

1 1 < n, ν 2 2

(Pn ) E AL 2HAJF IJ=LE @= E (Pn ) LAHCEH= K P = P = br tr + br−1 tr−1 + · · · + b0 6=@= = n > r L=<E 1 1 1 1 1 Pn − P = |b0 − 1| + b1 − + · · · br − r + r+1 + · · · + n > r+1 , 2 2 2 2 2 J A K JH=@E ?E E I= FHAJF IJ=L @= Pn → P n → +∞ ,= A H EH= E FH IJ H P E A F AJ=
, E =FI = =JE @= KJ A H EH= J= FH IJ H K 

$!
IL=

X
FH =

F

AJ=

=

E I=

=

LAHCA

HA@ K MA

LAHCEH=

4A

AMA J=

=F =

A A

E E

@=

A K

H

EH= ED IK

IJ

HK

X

HA@

LAHCA CA J=

4A@

+∞ ν =1

n−JED F=H?E =
A =FI KJ

(sn ) sn =
= A >H

LAHCA

J=

xν n ν =1 xn +∞ ν =1
E HA@

+∞

LAH


LAH

LAHCA 2HAJF CEH= J= @=

J=

ν =1
@= A FH IJ H

IJ=LE A<E

n

X
6=@=

F

AJ= = IL=

E @= HA@

+∞ ν =1
F


IJ E

>A A

sn =
ν =1 m

ε> 0

n0 ∈ N

sm − sn
F= A E

ν =n+1
E AL

xν = |sm − sn | < ε,
= A

m
FH IJ

n
H

n0 ,
J E

(sn )

X

F

AJ=

(sn )

LAHCEH= F= E HA@

+∞ ν =1


= A

LAHCEH=

2HAJF >E E E

IJ=LE LAHCEH= E FHEH @

I=@= @= IL= A

E =FI

KJ

LAHCA E AL = I A@A E

J= E =

HA@ K K E

X

E

ED >H

kn+1 = min{k ∈ N | k > kn ∧ (∀ν

k0 = min{k ∈ N | (∀ν

(xn ) FH E L G= AL= (kn ) n ∈ N0

X

,ABE

k ) xν − xk < 1/2 },

0

k ) xν − xk < 1/2n+1 }.

$$ 6= =L E (kn ) n ∈ N0 F IJ E AH A E (xn ) E AL k0 < k1 < · · · 7 E F @ E (xkn ) E = (xn ) E >A A<E 2 I =JH= HA@
+∞ ν =1 

),)+1

EC A@ A yn = xkn

(yν − yν −1 ) = (y1 − y0 ) + (y2 − y1 ) + (y3 − y2 ) + · · · .

4A@ I

+∞ ν =1

LK FHAJF IJ=L A @= IL= E =FI
+∞ ν =1

yν − yν −1

LAHCEH= @

= =JE  LE@AJE =@=J=  "% KJ LAHCA J= HA@ E >E

=

LAHCEH= I A@E @= HA@

(yn ) LAHCEH= ,= A E AL E (xn ) E = LAHCA J= F @ E F= A E I= LAHCA J= LE@AJE =@=J=  "# L 2HA = J A FH IJ H X A F AJ= 
$"

(yν − yν −1 )

LAHCEH= = @=J A E @= E

A = A X H EH= FH IJ H A AFH= = I KF E BX (A) LA J HI E FH IJ H ILED CH= E A ED FHAI E =L=M= f : A → X FHE A K A f = sup f (t) X 2 = =JE @= A H EH= E LA J HI E FH IJ H
BX (A)
4A AMA

t∈A

F AJ= =

E I=

=

A FH IJ H X

F AJ=

@= K >E

2HAJF IJ=LE FHL @= A FH IJ H X F AJ= , = = A LAHCA J= HA@ E H EH= FH IJ HK BX (A) IL= E =FI KJ LAHCEH= @= HA@
+∞

2HAJF IJ=LE ,ABE E E

fn
+∞ n=1

I=@= BK
+∞ n=1

?E K f (t) =

n=1

LAHCEH= fn ∈ BX (A) n ∈ N
fn (t)

=

A

fn (t)

+∞ X n=1

fn < +∞,

J HA@ IJ H J

+∞ n=1

fn (t)

X

LAHCEH= K X

= I ?E = f

LK =@=J =  $! HA@ HA J

+∞

> EH
fn (t)

@= A X A = IL=

F AJ= FH
t∈A t∈A

F= A BK

@ABE EI= =
+∞

n=1

LAHCEH= = IL=

=
+∞

f (t)

X n=1

fn (t)

X n=1

fn < +∞,

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

$%

J

f ∈ BX (A) f (t) −

,=GA

= IL=

BE IEH=

t ∈ A L=<E
+∞ X ν =n+1

n

fν (t)
ν =1 X

=

+∞ ν =n+1 +∞ ν =n+1

fν (t) fν (t)

fν (t)

X

BX (A)
@ I

→ 0, n → +∞,
I HA@

F= E CEH=

sup f (t) −
t∈A
= BK

n

fν (t)
ν =1

?E E

f

X
F AJ=

→ 0 n → +∞ BX (A)
=

+∞ n=0

fn

LAH

K FH IJ HK

LK =@=J =  $! I A@E @=

A FH IJ H

2HAJF IJ=LE IL= ,= A FH IJ H

BX (A)
BK

I=@= @= A ?E A HB=

H EH= E FH IJ H I= F JFH IJ H

x ∈ X

=L=M= FH IJ A = A F IJ E

(xn ) FH n0 ∈ N J=
t∈A

X AE H= BX (A)

fx (t) = x t ∈ A
E AL

FHEF=@= K FH IJ HK

BX (A)

F AJ=

=

IJ= J ED FHAI E

BX (A) ε > 0
= A

E L G=

@= = ILA

m

n
X

E K X 6=@= = IL= n0 L=<E xm − xn < ε

fxm −fxn = sup fxm (t) − fxn (t)
J E AL E A (fxn ) fx ∈ BX (A) x ∈ X J= K

= sup xm −xn < ε, m
t∈A

n

n0 ,

BX (A) F= A LAHCA J= J F IJ E fxn → fx n → +∞ K BX (A) @ = =JE @= H= >EJE IJ= J = BK ?E = 6=@= A CH= E = LHA@ IJ E = (fxn ) fxn − fx < ε = n n0 F= = IL= t ∈ A L=<E fxn (t) − fx (t) X < ε xn − x < ε n n0 J = E @= xn → x n → +∞ n n0 @ I = x ∈ X J A FH IJ H X F AJ=
@= 
$#

,

= =JE @= A = IBAH=

H EH= E FH IJ H

X
=

F AJ= F AJ= A

=

E I=

=

A

A@E E
4A AMA

S = {x ∈ X | x = 1} X
F AJ= A FH IJ HK

I KF =JL HA I KF K  "'

A = A FH IJ H AJHE

S

F AJ

F AJ= F AJ= 

LE@AJE =@=J=

2HAJF IJ=LE E AL A E K

I=@= @= A I KF S 1 A = A A@ = E K

A = A (xn ) FH E L G= F AJ=

X

( xn ) r = 0 J=@= xn → 0 LAHCEH= 2HAJF IJ=LE @= A r = 0 E K E n → +∞ F= E (xn ) = ILA n @ L G LA E A n k E (yn ) @ABE EI= I= yn = xn / xn = xn → r n → +∞ J F IJ E n0 ∈ N J= @= A r/2 xn
E AL J E LAHCEH= K

( xn )

R

IJE xm − xn R = A FH IJ H R xn → r n → +∞ )

xm − xn

I A@E @=

A

$& 

),)+1

= ILA

n

m

n

n0 6=@= n(ε) L=<E

= IL=

ε>0

F

IJ

E E

@A

I

n(ε)

J=

@=

= ILA

ym − yn =

xn xn xn xm − xn xm − + − = xm xn xm xm xn xm − xn xn xm − xn + xm xm xn 2ε 4ε 2 xm − xn = , xm r/2 r
E

J

=

E @=

A

(yn )

E AL K

X

=

A

yn

= 1

J

A

E

(yn )
F IJ = FH J IJ

E

E AL = A@E E KC E S 1 F AJ IJE I KF= S I A@E @= y ∈ S J= @= yn → y n → +∞ J xn / xn → y n → +∞ xn → r n → +∞ J xn → ry n → +∞ 2 J A X LA J HI E LAHCEH= K X H y ∈ X E r ∈ R \ {0} J ry ∈ X F= E (xn ) = E @= A FH IJ H X F AJ= 

$$
HA@

A

= A

X LA
+∞

J

HI

E FH

IJ

H ILED , =D L

E

L=

+∞ n=1

x = (ξν ) ξν ∈ K
A FH IJ H

= H

A

|ξn+1 − ξn |
n=1

LAHCEH= *=

= =JE @=

X

I=

x = |ξ1 | +
4A AMA

|ξn+1 − ξn |
EJ= IJ HK

IJ=LG= IA H = = FH

?K @= @

=<A @=

A FHAI

E

=L=MA

(xn ) xn = (ξν ) FH E L G= (m) (n) m, n ∈ N I 6=@= E xm − xn ξ1 − ξ1 E K F GK I = =H= K F= LAHCEH= K K (n) ξ1 = lim ξ1
A = A

x∈X

X
E AL E A F K FH A@E @= ,= A

x → x
IJ HK

(n)

X

(n) (ξ1 )
IJ E

E AL

ξ1 ∈ K
E

n→+∞

1

(n) (n) (ξ2 − ξ1 )
J A E E

xm − xn
(n) (ξ2 )

ξ2
E AL K

(m)

− ξ1
F= J=

(m)

− (ξ2 − ξ1 )
LAHCEH= = E

(n)

(n)

m, n ∈ N
E

I

A@E @= A

K

(n) (ξ1 )

LAHCEH=

LAHCA E @=GA

K

K

J

F

IJ =

ξ2 ∈ K ξ2 = lim ξ2
n→+∞
K A @= = IL=

(n)

=IJ=LG= K F IJ E

FEI=

EF

IJKF=

GK

ξν ∈ K ξν = lim
E I=@= E

7

x = (ξν )
E AL E

n→+∞

(n) ξν
2 = = A @=

ν∈N
A

x∈X
= A

xn → x n → +∞
K

E @=

(xn )

A

CH=

E

A

X

J

F

IJ

E HA=

=

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

$'

IJ=

J=

M >0

J=

L= @=

A

xn
(n)

M

= ILA

n∈N

@

I

ξ1
F= = IL=

(n)

+

+∞ ν =1

(n) ξν +1 − ξν

M,

n ∈ N,

k ∈ N L=<E ξ1
(n) k

+
ν =1
=

(n) ξν +1 − ξν
IJE BE IEH=

(n)

M,

n ∈ N.
@=

) @

K FHAJD >E =

@

A A@

k ∈ N E FKIJE M. k → +∞ @ M,

n → +∞

k

|ξ1 | +
2K J= K E I=@= K F I A@M

ν =1

|ξν +1 − ξν |
= IJE @=

A A@

>E =

|ξ1 | +
@

+∞ ν =1

|ξν +1 − ξν |

x∈X = IL= ε>0F
I

IJ

E

n0 ∈ N J= +
+∞ ν =1

@=

= ILA

m

n

n0 L=<E

xm − xn = ξ1
@ I = IL=

(m)

− ξ1

(n)

(m) (n) ξν +1 − ξν +1 − (ξν − ξν ) < ε,

(m)

(n)

k ∈ N E IL= − ξ1
(n) k

m
(m)

n
(n)

n0 L=<E

ξ1
) @ K FHAJD >E =

(m)

+
ν =1
=

(m) (n) ξν +1 − ξν +1 − (ξν − ξν ) < ε.
IEH=

@

A A@

IJE BE

kEn

= FKIJE

@=

m → +∞

ξ1
)

(n)

k

− ξ1 +
I A@M

ν =1

(n) ξν +1 − ξν +1 − (ξν − ξν ) < ε,
A A@ = IJE FKIJE @=

(n)

n

n0 .
>E =

I=@= K F

k → +∞ @

xn − x = ξ1

(n)

− ξ1 +

+∞ ν =1

(n) − ξν ) < ε, ξν +1 − ξν +1 − (ξν

(n)

n

n0 ,

% 

),)+1

@

I 2HA

xn → x n → +∞ =J A X A *= =D X = Cn [a, b]

L FH IJ H FH IJ H AFHA E@ ED BK ?E = @ = IAC A JK 

$%

A = A

[a, b] HA= 
= ,

A FH=LA

AE = K

AFHA E@ A E L @A = GK

= =JE @= A FH IJ H

X

*= =D L =

IA K MA K KLA@A

n−J

C HA@= H =

f = |f (a)| + |f ′ (a)| + · · · + |f (n−1) (a)| + sup |f (n) (t)|.
a t b 
> 1IFEJ=JE IAF=H=>E
4A 5 AMA )

IJ

L C FH IJ H= HEIJE A I A@A E IJ=L

7 HA
A

=L=MK

L C =@=J = EI

ϕ ∈ C[a, b] E α0 , α1 , . . . , αn−1 ∈ R J=@= F IJ E J= y ∈ Cn [a, b] = =@ L G=L= KI LA y (n) (t) = ϕ(t) t ∈ [a, b] (k) (a) = α k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1 E y k , =<E = FHA @= FHAI E =L=MA f → f FHA@IJ=LG= H K = FH IJ HK X I >E A   E  ! H A IA A@ IJ=L @ = KK EC A@ A = IL= f ∈X f 0 ) A f = 0 J=@= A E f = 0 IJ= A I= @= @ =<A @= E f = 0 I A@E f = 0 1 f = 0 (k) (a) = 0 k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1 E f (n) (t) = 0 = ILA t ∈ [a, b] I A@E @= A f EC A@ A @= A A@ HA AMA FHAJD @ C FH > A = f = 0 A KJE
A@ = BK ?E =

6)8

=

I H K

LK

=LA@A ,=

C IJ=L= HA A L=<E E 

AMA J C FH > A = A A@E IJLA  F= FHAI E =L=MA

F=

H=

>EJE

f =0
A = A

= FH IJ HK

X
E L G= @= = ILA E AL

f → f

FHA@IJ=LG=

F IJ

E

(fn ) FH n0 ∈ N J=

m

p

E K X 6=@= = IL= n0 L=<E fm − fp < ε

ε > 0
@ I

′ ′ (n−1) (n−1) |fm (a) − fp (a)| + |fm (a) − fp (a)| + · · · + |fm (a) − fp (a)| (n) (n) (t) − fp (t)| < ε. + sup |fm a t b
IJE = GK K A @= A

1

FHAJD @ A

A A@ = E

k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1
@= A = IL=

a t b

|fm (a) − fp (a)| < ε (n) (n) sup |fm (t) − fp (t)| < ε = m p n0 6 = E
(k )
E AL K R E (fm FH IJ H= F AJ J=

(k)

(k)

m→+∞

k = 0, 1, . . . , n−1 E (fm (a)) m ∈ N m ∈ N E AL E K C[a, b] 1 F AJ IJE (k) lim fm (a) = αk ∈ R k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1 1 C[a, b] LE@AJE =@=J=  ## F IJ E ϕ ∈ C[a, b] (n) m → +∞ J lim sup |fm (t) − ϕ(t)| = 0
m→+∞ a t b

(n)

)
A

R

F IJ

IJE FH IJ H= @=

fm

(n)

→ ϕ

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

%

= @= A

I

LK

=LA@A E

C IJ=L= F IJ

E J=

A@ = BK

?E = f =

f (n) (t) = ϕ(t)

′ (a) − f ′ (a)| + · · · fm − f = |fm (a) − f (a)| + |fm a t b
=@

f (k) (a) = αk k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1

K A@ =

∈ X J=

L= IJE

(n−1) (n) + |fm (a) − f (n−1) (a)| + sup |fm (t) − f (n) (t)|
IJH= E JA<A K E J A

ILE I=>EH?E

= @AI

m → +∞ 
> 7

2 E

FH E L G K BK

f ∈X

FH IJ H

Q B = {Pν (t) = q0 + q1 t + · · · + qν tν | q0 , . . . , qν ∈ Q, ν ∈ N}.
5 KF IL=

X A ?E K f ∈ X

F AJ=

m → +∞
A = A

J

fm → f

B A FHA>H ε > 0 F IJ

EL E ILK@= CKIJ K EF E

C[a, b] LE@AJE p ∈ B J= =L @= A ε f (n) − p C[a,b] < . n+1

=@=J= 

## F=

=

= >H ALE

A I KF Q ILK@= CKIJ K R J = IL= ε > 0 F IJ A H=?E q0 , q1 , . . . , qn−1 J= LE @= L=<E ε |f (k) (a) − qk | < , k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1. n+1 E I=@= F E A

=

E

,ABE E

pk k = 1, . . . , n
t

= I A@A E

= E

p1 (t) =
a t

p(τ )dτ + qn−1 , p1 (τ )dτ + qn−2 ,
t

p2 (t) =
a

pn (t) =
a
@=L@A A@ IJ=L @ >E =

pn−1 (τ )dτ + q0 .

I A@A A

pn (a) = q0 ,
′ p′ n (t) = pn−1 (t) ⇒ pn (a) = q1 , ′′ p′′ n (t) = pn−2 (t) ⇒ pn (a) = q2 ,

(n−1) pn (t) = p1 (t) n) p( n (t) = p(t)

(n−1) ⇒ pn (a) = qn−1 , n) ⇒ f (n) (t) − p( n (t) C[a,b]

<

ε . n+1

% 

),)+1

2HA = J

A L=<E

f − pn = |f (a) − pn (a)| + |f ′ (a) − p′ n (a)| + · · ·
a t b

(n−1) n) (a)| + sup |f (n) (t) − p( + |f (n−1 (a) − pn n (t)|

n) + |f (n−1) (a) − qn−1 | + f (n) (t) − p( n (t) ε = ε. (n + 1) n+1
,= A I KF F EL J E =

= |f (a) − q0 | + |f (a) − q1 | + · · ·

C[a,b]

FHA>H

A FH IJ H = IL= E F @ABE E

{pn | p ∈ B } X IAF=H=>E
E A = C HA

A ILK@= CKIJ K = I= H=?E = E =

X
E

=

A J= I KF

)2
F A 
$&

- )
pn

E

A IA =

p∈B

ABE?E A JE = F E

FEI= E

2HE J

pn

H= E =JE H=?E ,ABE E E ,=

ABE?E A JA

FHAI E =L=MA E

1 2

sin x(t) + et
AMA

f

E = BE I K J=

f : C[0, π ] → C[0, π ]
K

I=

f (x)(t) =

4A

A = IK

x, y ∈ C[0, π ]

6=@= A

d(f (x), f (y )) = max

1 1 sin x(t) + et − sin y (t) − et 0 t π 2 2 1 = max (sin x(t) − sin y (t)) 0 t π 2 x(t) − y (t) x(t) + y (t) = max sin cos 0 t π 2 2 1 1 max |x(t) − y (t)| = d(x, y ), 20 t π 2
ABE?E A J

F= A

f
&

JH= ?E = I= =

?E K 

A FH IJ H BE I K

C[0, π ]
J=

λ = 1/2 ∈ [0, 1) LE@AJE @ABE
F AJ=  =@=J=  ## = I

E LK

*= =D LA JA HA A

E JA HA =  $  FHAI E =L=MA

f

E =

A@E IJLA K BE I K J= 
$'

A = A )

=L=MA J=

µ>1

f : X → X FHAI E L @= = ILA x, y ∈ X L=<E d(f (x), f (y )) µd(x, y ) = A A f IEH A JEL FHAI E =L=MA @ = =JE @= f E = A@E IJLA K (X, d)
F AJ= AJHE E FH IJ H E K

BE I K J=

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

%!

4A

A f (x) = f (y ) J=@= A d(f (x), f (y )) = 0 x = y ,= A FHAI E =L=MA f A >E A ?E = −1 : X → X J= A >E A ?E = 8=<E =L=MA f
AMA

)

F= A E

d(x, y ) = 0

@

I

6=@= A E FHAI E

d(f −1 (x), f −1 (y ))
= A

1 1 d f (f −1 (x)), f (f −1 (y )) = d(x, y ). µ µ

JH= ?E = F AJ C 1/µ ∈ (0, 1) F= A f −1 AJHE C FH IJ H= X = I LK *= =D LA JA HA A BE I J= E ∗ −1 (x∗ ) = x∗ 6=@= A E F IJ E A@E IJLA = J= = x ∈ X J= L= @= A f f (x∗ ) = f (f −1 (x∗ )) = x∗ F= FHAI E =L=MA f E = BE I K J= K

µ > 1

J

A

(X, d) AJHE E FH IJ H E f : X → X FHAI E =L=MA = q 0 q < 1 E BK ?E = g : X × X → R J= @= = n n ILA x, y ∈ X E ILA n ∈ N L=<E d(f (x), f (y )) q n g (x, y ) FHE A K A f 1 = f E f n+1 = f ◦ f n n ∈ N = , = =JE @= A = FH E L G K J= K x1 ∈ X E (xn ) @ABE EI= n E AL I= xn+1 = f (x1 ) n ∈ N > ) A FH IJ H (X, d) F AJ= E FHAI E =L=MA f : X → X = FHAI E AFHA E@ @ = =JE @= A lim xn A@E IJLA = BE I = J= n→+∞ =L=M= f 
%

A = A

A F IJ

E >H

4A

AMA 

=

A = A

6=@= A

x1 ∈ X

FH E L G = J=

=E

xn+1 = f n (x1 ) n ∈ N n ∈ N,

d(xn , xn+1 ) = d(f n−1 (x1 ), f n−1 (x2 ))
@= A > C A A@ = IJE C KC = = IL=

q n−1 g (x1 , x2 ), k∈N@
k
>E =

k

d(xn , xn+k )
ν =1

d(xn+ν −1 , xn+ν )
k −1 ν =0

q n+ν −2 g (x1 , x2 )
ν =1

= g (x1 , x2 ) q n−1
AH A =

q n−1 g (x1 , x2 ), 1−q

q ∈ (0, 1)
k−1 ν =0

qν =

1 − qk 1−q

1 , 1−q
E

k ∈ N. (xn )
E AL

=

q n → 0 n → +∞

I A@E @= A

%" 

),)+1 

> ) LAHCA J= J A J

A FH IJ H F IJ E

(X, d) F AJ= x∗ = lim xn 2
n→+∞

@= A J A

E AL

E

(xn )
?E =

f

AFHA E@ = BK

f (x∗ ) = f ( lim xn ) = lim f (xn ) = lim xn+1 = x∗ .
n→+∞ n→+∞ n→+∞
,= A

x∗

A BE I = J=

= FHAI E =L=M=

f

6=@= A E

f 2 (x∗ ) = f (f (x∗ )) = f (x∗ ) = x∗
E = IA <A F @= A = =JE @= A

y= n f (y ) = y = ILA n ∈ N
F IJ=LE

x∗ BE I = J=
F= L=<E

f n (x∗ ) = x∗

= IL=

= FHAI E =L=MA

f

6=@= A J=

n ∈ N

2HAJ A

d(x∗ , y ) = d(f n (x∗ ), f n (y ))
@= A I A@E @= A

q n g (x, y ) → 0, n → +∞, lim xn
A A@E IJLA = BE I = J= =

x∗ = y

,=

A

FHAI E =L=M= 
%

f (X, d) n∈N
F AJ= ) A =

n→+∞
AJHE A

A = A

E FH IJ H

n+1 Ef

=f

JH= ?E = J=@= F IJ

◦ fn

E A@ = E I=

n ∈ N FHAI

A@ = BE I = J=

f : X → X f1 = f n E =L=MA f : X → X

= FHAI E =L=M=

f
4A

,

= =JE ) = A

AMA

IJ H

@=

I

fn : X → X
=

JH= ?E = E FHAI E =L=M=

X fn
J

F AJ= J=

AJHE

E FH E A@E 6=@= A

LK *= =D LA JA HA A

BE I

E F IJ

IJLA = BE I = J=

= f (x0 ) 5 @HKCA IJH= A A > C =I ?E =JEL IJE F E?E A f (f n (x0 )) = f n (f (x0 )) 1 F I A@MA @LA A@ = IJE I=@= n @ >E = @= A f (f (x0 )) = f (x0 ) J = E @= A f (x0 ) BE I = J= = n = A x0 A@E IJLA = BE I = J= = FHAI E =L=M= FHAI E =L=M= f H= >EJE f (x0 ) = x0 J x0 A BE I = J= = FHAI E =L=M= f fn J ∗ , =<E @= A = A@E IJLA = 2HAJF IJ=LE @= A x = x0 BE ∗ ∗ n ∗ ∗ I = J= = FHAI E =L=M= f 6=@= A f (x ) = x F= A E f (x ) = x n ∈ N J x∗ BE I = J= = FHAI E =L=M= f n J A A CK A AH f n E = A@E IJLA K BE I K J= K x0 ,= A A@E IJLA = BE I = J= = x0 n A A@E IJLA = BE I = J= = E FHAI E =L=M= f FHAI E =L=M= f
FHAI E =L=M=

f (f n (x

0 ))

x0 ∈ X

f n (x0 ) = x0

f : [a, b] → [a, b] BK ?E = @EBAHA ?E =>E = = (a, b) AFHA E@ = = [a, b] = K F IJ E IJ= J= K ∈ (0, 1) J= L= @= ′ ILA x ∈ (a, b) L=<E |f (x)| K , = =JE @= A@ = E = f (x) = x E A@E IJLA HA AMA K [a, b] 
%

A = A

E = =

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

%#

4A

AMA

=

I J

LK

=CH= < LA JA HA A

IHA@M

LHA@

IJE

= ILA

x1 , x2 ∈ [a, b] ξ ∈ (x1 , x2 ) F @I KF @ R
D L J= 
%!

L=<E A

|f (x1 ) − f (x2 )| = |f ′ (ξ )||x1 − x2 | K |x1 − x2 | = E @= A f JH= ?E = = A [a, b] F= J=
F AJ= J= LE@AJE JA HA K  &  J FHA = *= = E FHAI E =L=MA

JA HA E K @ I E

BE I

f

E = A@E IJLA K BE I K HA AMA K

A@ = E =

f (x) = x E

= A@E IJLA

[a, b]

,=J A

(xn )

I=

*= =D LA JA HA A @HA@EJE
4A AMA

BE I

x1 = 1 xn+1 = 1/(1 + xn ) n ∈ N J= E @ = =JE @= E (xn )
= ILA

2HE A LAHCEH= E

n→+∞

lim xn
EC A@ A

xn > 0

xn+1 =
A = A I KFK

1 < 1 , n ∈ N, 1 + xn 1 1+x
H 2

n∈N
J

F= A

xn < 1 f

=

n

2.
= A

f (x) =

= = A

@= A

JH= ?E =

E I=@H<E I

ILA A A A JA @=J C

E =

(xn )

=

A

|f (x) − f (y )| =
E

1 1 1 − |x − y | = 1+x 1+y (1 + x)(1 + y ) max 1 = 1, (1 + x)(1 + y )
IJ @ IJE<A =

x,y ∈[0,1]
FHE A K IA L= = = IE = @= I KF

= LHA@

x=y=0
>E

= GK K A JH= ?E = A

A >E FHAI E =L=MA

f

ALA JK=

<A @= I=@H<E =

0 A xn < 1

=

n

2

J

A

xn+1 =
F= A

1 1 1 = , > 1 + xn 1+1 2 3
2 J A

1/2 < xn < 1 max

= ILA

n

1 1 4 = = , (1 + 1/2)(1 + 1/2) 9 x,y ∈[1/2,1] (1 + x)(1 + y )
J A

|f (x) − f (y )|
,= L A JA

4 |x − y |, 9

x, y ∈ [1/2, 1].

[1/2, 1]

f : [1/2, 1] → [1/2, 1] A JH= ?E = I= ABE?E A J 4/9 I KF 3 F= FHA = *= =D A F AJ= E xn ∈ [1/2, 1] = ILA n HA E BE I J= E f E = A@E IJLA K BE I K J= K K [1/2, 1]

%$ 

),)+1

2HA = J IJLA

A

CH= E J= K =

= LHA@ E

IJ

E =

BE I

x∗

FHAI E =L=M= E

(xn ) f

F IJ

E E A@ = = A A@E

= FHEF=@= I KFK

x∗

6K BE √I K J=

=

5−1 2

= = E

A@ =

IJE

1 x∗ = 1 + x∗

[1/2, 1]
AMA A

4A 

%"

2HE A

*= =D LA JA HA A

= E HA

AMA @EBAHA ?E =

A A@ =

E A

(∗)
A A
4A AMA

AFHA E@ 1 JACH=?E

1 f ′ (x) = (x + f (x)), 3 = [0, 1] E =@ L G=L= KI L f (0) = 0
A@ = IJE

E JACH=

A A@ = E A

(∗)
x

FH > A

IA IL @E

= HA

=L=MA

f (x) =
,ABE E E FHAI E =L=MA ?E K

1 3
=

(t + f (t))dt.
0

A
x

C[0, 1]

A BK

?E E

@HK<K A BK

Af

@=JK I=

f ∈ C[0, 1] FHE

(Af )(x) =
2HAI E =L=MA

1 3

(t + f (t))dt,
0
AH = =

x ∈ [0, 1].
A BK ?E = = A

A

A @ >H

@ABE EI=

AFHA E@ = F= E E JACH=>E

d dx
BK ?E =

x 0

[0, x] x ∈ [0, 1]

t → t + f (t)

(t + f (t))dt = x + f (x),

Af A @EBAHA ?E =>E = 1 ,= A A : C[0, 1] → C [0, 1] ⊂ C[0, 1] 2H IJ H C[0, 1] A F AJ=  =@=J= @= A A JH= ?E =
= A 

## F=

IJ= A

@= F

=<A

x 0
J A

x

(f (t) − g (t))dt

0 t 1

max |f (t) − g (t)|

dt = d(f, g )x,
0

d(A(f ), A(g )) = max |A(f )(x) − A(g )(x)|
0 x 1

= max

0 x 1

1 3

x 0

(f (t) − g (t))dt

1 1 d(f, g ) max x = d(f, g ), 0 x 1 3 3

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

%%

F= A A HA

A

JH= ?E = I= J=

ABE?E A J

1/3

=

I

LK *= =D LA JA HA A K

BE I

E FHAI E =L=MA

AE
=

= A@E IJLA K BE I K J=

f∗

=

AMA E A@ = E A

4A FHE AH

∗ AMA f

<A

(∗)

@ >EJE =

CH= E?K

E =

(fn ) E C[0, 1]

C@A A

=

f1 (x) = 0 x ∈ [0, 1] fn+1 (x) = 1 3

x

(t + fn (t))dt,
0

n ∈ N.

1 JACH=?E

IA @ >E =

f2 (x) =
1 @K ?E IA

x3 x2 x2 , f3 (x) = + , ... . 2·3 2·3 2·3·3·3
= =JE @= A @ = =JE

<A @

n

fn (x) = 3
k=2

1 x k! 3

k

,

n

2. 1 x k=2 k ! 3
k +∞ k

2 I =JH= 6=@= L=<E

BK

?E K f

∈ C[0, 1]
+∞ k=n+1

@ABE EI= K I=

f (x) = 3

d(fn , f ) = max <
J

0 x 1

3

1 x k! 3

k

=3 =

+∞ k=n+1

1 k!

1 3

1 3n

1+

1 1 + 2 + ··· 3 3

1 → 0, n → +∞, 2 · 3n−1 (∗)
A

fn → f n → +∞
2HA = J A HA

AMA @EBAHA ?E =

A A@ = E A

f (x) = 3

+∞ k=2 x/3

1 x k! 3

k

=3

+∞ k=0

1 x k! 3

k

−1−

x 3

= 3e

− 3 − x.
FH LA HA = = AMA E J= L= A = E HA AMA =@=J C FH *= =D LA A E K =FHA@ FHE A

)2
> A =

- )
= A L

7

L A J

I K =K I EA I K = FHE> E<

JA HA A =@=JE KI

= = E

=@ L G=L=

%& 

),)+1 

%#

2 I =JH=

>AI

=

E IEIJA

E A=H ED = CA>=HI ED A@ = E =

> E =

ξi =
J

+∞ j =1

cij ξj + bi , i ∈ N,

cij = δij − aij , δij =

1, i = j, 0, i = j,

a11 ξ1 + a12 ξ2 + · · · = b1 , a21 ξ1 + a22 ξ2 + · · · = b2 ,

) @

A

+∞ j =1

|cij |

q < 1 |bi |
= A

B i∈N M >0
,

C@A HA

IJ= JA AMA

q

E

B

A

=LEIA L

i

J=@= F I =JH= E IEIJA

E = A@E IJLA

∗ @= A |ξj |
4A AMA

∗ , ξ ∗ , . . .) J= (ξ1 2

M j∈N
2 I =JH= E

= =JE A E K

FHAI E =L=MA C@A A

f :m→s
+∞ j =1
J

x = (ξn ) ∈ m
= = ILA

FHE@HK<K A 2 A =<E

y = (ηn ) ∈ s
= FHA @= A = J F IJ E

ηi =

cij ξj + bi i ∈ N
@= L= @= A

x = (ξn ) ∈ m n ∈ N 6=@= A

x ∈ m E f (x) ∈ m IJ= J= M > 0 J=

f :m→m |ξn | M

|ηi |
J

+∞ j =1
,=

|cij ||ξj | + |bi |
A

M q + B,
2H IJ H

i ∈ N,
A F AJ= LE@AJE

=@=J= ,

y = f (x) ∈ m 
#! =<E

f :m→m

m

I=@= @= A E =E

@L= FH E L G =

f JH= ?E = A = IK x1 = (ξn ) E x2 = (ξn ) m E y1 = f (x1 ) y2 = f (x2 ) 6=@= A
(1)

(1)

(2)

d(y1 , y2 ) = sup ηi
i∈N

− ηi

(2)

= sup
i∈N (2)

+∞ j =1

cij ξj − ξj

(1)

(2)

sup sup ξj − ξj
i∈N j ∈N
= = I A

(1)

+∞ j =1

|cij |

qd(x1 , x2 ).
ABE?E A J E A@E IJLA E

q ∈ [0, 1)

FHAI E =L=MA

f

A

JH= ?E = I= J= E F IJ

q
E

LK *= =D LA JA HA A

BE I

/ )8) 

-641

11

4 14) 1 24 56 41

%'

∗) ∈ m x∗ = (ξn
F I =JH= 
%$

J= =L @= A

f (x∗ ) = x∗

6=

E

x∗

A A@E IJLA

HA

AMA

C IEIJA = A@ = E =

A = IK

¶ A@ = E =

K ∈ C([a, b] × [a, b]) E g ∈ C[a, b]
t

,

= =JE @= E JACH=

=

x(t) − λ
E = A@E IJLA
4A AMA

K (t, s)x(s)ds = g (t),
a

λ ∈ R,

HA E

AMA

x ∈ C[a, b]
= I KFK C[a, b] = I A@A E = E

,ABE E

FHAI E =L=MA A

t

(Ax)(t) = λ
a
6=@= A = IL=

K (t, s)x(s)ds + g (t).

x ∈ C[a, b] E Ax ∈ C[a, b] @ = =JE 2H IJ H C[a, b] A F AJ= , =<E @= A A IK x, y ∈ C[a, b] = A BK ?E = K AFHA E@ = = [a, b] × [a, b] J F IJ E HA= = IJ= J= M > 0 J= L= @= (x, s) ∈ [a, b] × [a, b] 6=@= A
t

JH= ?E = F= J A |K (t, s)|

A = I KFK

M

(Ax)(t) − (Ay )(t) = λ
,=GA

a

K (t, s)(x(s) − y (s))ds

|λ| M d(x, y )(t − a).

(A2 x)(t) − (A2 y )(t) = λ |λ|

t

t

K (t, s) λ
a t a a

K (s, u)(x(u) − y (u))du ds
s a

|K (t, s)| λ

K (s, u)(x(u) − y (u))du ds
t a

|λ| M |λ| M d(x, y ) = |λ|2 M 2 d(x, y )
1 @K ?E IA = @ = K A @

(s − a)ds

(t − a)2 . 2

= =JE @= A

(An x)(t) − (An y )(t)

1 n n |λ| M (t − a)n d(x, y ). n!
= λ F=H= AJ=H E JA

CH=

L A 8 JAH L= A@ = E = @HKCA LHIJA  K IA = EL= A CH A A@ = E A

& = At
b J 

),)+1

A
d(An x, An y ) 1 n |λ| M (b − a) d(x, y ). n!

1 n |λ| M (b − a) < 1 F= A = n = @ L G LA E n n n0  A q = n! JH= ?E = = I LK =@=J =  % @ L G LA E FHAI E =L=MA An I A@E @= FHAI E =L=MA A E = A@E IJLA K BE I K J= K @ I @=J= E JACH= = A@ = E = E = A@E IJLA HA AMA 
%%

A = A H FHA@0E >AHJ L FH IJ H I= I = =H E FH E L @ (x, y ) → x, y = BE IEH= y ∈ H I = =H E FH E L @ x, y A AFHA E@ = BK ?E = @ x K I EI K AJHE A FH IJ H= X ) = C JLH AMA L=<E =@= BE IEH= x , = =JE
4A AMA

E LAHCEH= = x ∈ H A = A (xn ) FH E L G= E E H 6=@= HE AMA E A=H IJE I = =H C FH E L @= F FHL =HCK A JK E A A@ = IJE E L=H?*KM= LI C A@ IJ=L @ >E =
| xn , y − x, y | = | xn − x, y | xn − x y → 0, n → +∞,

A I A@E JLH AMA LE@AJE JA HA K  !  IJ=LG= IA EJ= ?K @= F =<A AFHA E@ F @HKC =HCK A JK 
%&

@=

IJ I = =H

C FH E L @=

A = A H 0E >AHJ L FH IJ H x ∈ H E Y LA J HI E F JFH IJ H @ H 6=@= IK x⊥ E Y ⊥ 0E >AHJ LE F JFH IJ HE @ H , = =JE
AMA

2HE AJE = FHA @= A x⊥ LA J HI E F JFH IJ H @ H AH E A = A (yn ) y1 ⊥ x E y2 ⊥ x I A@E αy1 + βy2 ⊥ x = ILA I = =HA α E β ⊥ = A x, yn = 0 = ILA n ∈ N > C E E x E yn → y n → +∞ AFHA E@ IJE I = =H C FH E L @=  =@=J=  %% I A@E x, y = 0 F= A y ∈ x⊥ J = E @= A x⊥ =JL HA F JFH IJ H F AJ C FH IJ H= H F= A E I= F AJ= LE@AJE =@=J=  "' J 0E >AHJ L = I KF Y ⊥ <A =FEI=JE K > E K Y ⊥ = y∈Y y ⊥ J A A ?E A =JL HA ED I KF L= F= A Y ⊥ Y ⊥ =JL HA I KF = FHAIA 0E >AHJ L F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H
4A 

%'

=
(∗)

, = =JE @= A H EH= E FH IJ H H FHA@0E >AHJ L = = ILA x, y ∈ H L=<E A@ = IJ F=H= A CH= =
x+y
2

E I=

+ x−y

2

= 2( x

2

+ y 2 ).

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

&

4A

AMA

A = A H FHA@0E >AHJ L FH IJ H 6=@= L=<E
x+y
2

+ x−y

2

= x, x + y, y + x, y + y, x + x, x + y, y − x, y − y, x = 2( x
2

= x + y, x + y + x − y, x − y

+ y 2 ).

2HAJF IJ=LE I=@= @= L=<E A@ = IJ=L E E I K = K = R A = A
f (x, y ) = 1 4 x+y
2

IJ (∗) 4=

JHE

FHL

A@

− x−y

2

,

x, y ∈ H.

, = = A @= A FHAI E =L=MA f @ABE EI= A@= I = =H E FH E L @ K FH IJ HK H I=C =I= I= H FH IJ H= H 1 f (x, y ) = f (y, x) E f (x, x) = x 2 I A@E @= L=<A I >E A 52! 52" E 52# LE@AJE @ABE E?E K  !'  = ILA a, b, c ∈ H L=<E A@ =
(1)

IJ @

= =JE

f (a + c, b) + f (a − c, b) = 2f (a, b),

@= A = c = a @ >E = f (2a, b) = 2f (a, b) a, b ∈ H (x1 + x2 )/2 c = (x1 − x2 )/2 E b = y @ >E =
f (x1 , y ) + f (x2 , y ) = 2f

5=@= = a =

x1 + x2 , y = f (x1 + x2 , y ), 2

J L=<E 52  2HAJF IJ=LE @= = A n ∈ N E ILA a, b ∈ H L=<E f (na, b) = nf (a, b) E f ((n − 1)a, b) = (n − 1)f (a, b) = I LK JA FHAJF IJ=L A E A@ = IJE (1) I A@E
f ((n + 1)a, b) + f ((n − 1)a, b) = 2f (na, b) = 2nf (a, b),

@

I
f ((n + 1)a, b) = (2n − (n − 1))f (a, b) = (n + 1)f (a, b).

= I LK FHE ?EF= =JA =JE n∈N

A E @K ?E A A f (na, b) = nf (a, b) = ILA

& ,=GA = ILA m ∈ N = I LK @ABE E?E A BK 

),)+1

?E A f @ >E =

1 1 1 1 x , y = 2 f (x, my ) = 2 f (my, x) = 2 · mf (x, y ) = f (x, y ). m m m m m EC A@ A f (−x, y ) = −f (x, y ) F= I A@E @= L=<E f (αx, y ) = αf (x, y ) = ILA α ∈ Q A = A α ∈ R FH E L G 6=@= F IJ E E H=?E = ED >H AL= LAHCEH= = α =@= n → +∞ = A f AFHA E@ = BK ?E = (αn ) E = ILA x, y ∈ H A f f (αx, y ) = f = lim αn f (x, y ) = αf (x, y ),
n→+∞

lim αn x, y = lim f (αn x, y )
n→+∞

J L=<E E 52 2HA = J A f A I = =H E FH E L @ K FH IJ HK H I=C =I= I= H J C FH IJ H= J FH IJ H H A FHA@0E >AHJ L 4= JHE I=@= I K = K = C = FHAJD @ @ABE EI= FHAI E = L=MA f @ABE E E , == A @= A FHAI E =L=MA (x, y ) → x, y I = =H E FH E L @ = FH IJ HK H = IA @ >E = K I A@A A A@ = IJE
f (ix, iy ) = f (x, y ), f (ix, x) = f (ix, iix) = f (x, ix) = f (ix, x) = −f (ix, x), f (ix, y ) = f (ix, iiy ) = f (x, iy ) = f (iy, x) = −f (iy, x), x, y = f (x, y ) − if (ix, y ), x, y ∈ H.

n→+∞

@= A A f (ix, x) = 0 F= A x, x = f (x, x) − if (ix, x) = x 2 @=L@A @EHA J I A@E @= IK I >E A 52" E 52# I = =H C FH E L @= =@ L GA A I >E = 52  IA @ >E = A@ IJ=L = A
ix, y = f (ix, y ) − if (−x, y ) = f (ix, y ) + if (x, y ) = i f (x, y ) − if (ix, y ) = i x, y ,

J

A E I >E = 52 I = =H C FH E L @= =@ L GA = = =@ L GA = A E I >E = 52! AH A
y, x = f (y, x) − if (iy, x) = f (x, y ) − if (iy, iix) = x, y , = f (x, y ) − if (y, ix) = f (x, y ) − if (ix, y ) = f (x, y ) + if (ix, y )

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

&!

F= A

H EH= E FH IJ H H FHA@0E >AHJ L 

& A = A Y 0E >AHJ L F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H x ∈ H E δ = d(x, Y ) = inf { x − y | y ∈ Y } 6=@= K Y F IJ E A@E IJLA = J= = y ∗ J= L= @= A δ = x − y ∗ , = =JE
4A AMA

A = A (yn ) E J= = = E Y J= =L @= A
n→+∞

(1)

lim

x − yn = δ.

=

= I

LK A@ =
2

IJE F=H= A
2 2

CH= =  =@=J=  %' = m, n ∈ N @ >E
+ 2 yn − x + 2 yn − x
2 2

ym − yn

= 2 ym − x = 2 ym − x

− (ym − x) + (yn − x) −4 ym + yn −x 2
2

2

.

=

A (ym + yn )/2 ∈ Y J FHA = @ABE E?E E >H = δ L=<E
y m + yn −x 2 δ,

F= A
ym − y n

2

E AL E K Y > C F AJ IJE @=L@A > C (1) I A@E @= A (yn ) ∗ ∗ F JFH IJ H= Y F IJ E y ∈ Y J= @= A yn → y n → +∞ 1 (1) @= I A@E @= A x − y ∗ = δ , =<E I=@= @= A J= = y ∗ A@E IJLA = 2HAJF IJ=LE @= F IJ E = =@ L G=L= x − z = δ 6=@= A = I LK J= = z ∈ Y z = y ∗ A@ = IJE F=H= A CH= =
y∗ − z
2

2 ym − x

2

+ 2 yn − x

2

− 4δ 2 .

= 2 y∗ − x = 4δ 2 − 4

2

y∗ + z −x 2

+2 z−x

2

2

− y ∗ + z − 2x 0, δ 2 ,=

2

J z = y∗

AH A (y ∗ + z )/2 ∈ Y F= A

y∗ + z −x 2

2

A

y∗ − z

2

=0

)2 - ) 2HAJD @ E =@=J= JLH@E @= K 0E >AHJ L Y 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H F IJ E A@E IJLA = J= = K A J= E x ∈ H

F JFH IJ HK = A = > E<=

&" 

),)+1 

&

y ∈ Y J=
4A

A = A Y 0E >AHJ L F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H E = = > E<= J= E x ∈ H 6=@= x − y ∈ Y ⊥ , = =JE = Y F IJ = >E LA J H

AMA =@= LA J H x − y A >E >E HJ C = = LA J H y ′ ∈ Y J= =L @= A x − y, y ′ = r = 0 7 E

y ′′ = y +

r y′, y′

y ′ ∈ Y.

6=@= A
x − y ′′
2

=

x−y−

r y′, y′

y′, x − y −

r y′ , y′

y′

r y′, x − y y′, y′ |r|2 r − ′ ′ x − y, y ′ + ′ ′ 2 y ′ , y ′ y ,y y ,y 2 |r| = x−y 2− ′ ′ , y ,y = x − y, x − y −

)2 - ) 1 FHAJD @ C =@=J = E =@=J =  & I A@E @= IL= E LA J H x K 0E >AHJ L FH IJ HK H E = A@E IJLA K @A F E?E K x = y + z C@A A y ∈ Y E z ∈ Y ⊥ = Y 0E >AHJ L F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H = A Y ∩ Y ⊥ = {0} L=<E A@ = IJ H = Y ⊕ Y ⊥ 8A J H y = EL= IA HJ C = = FH A ?E = LA J H= x = 0E >AHJ L F JFH IJ H Y
) A Y FH=LE 0E >AHJ L F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H J=@= F IJ E LA J H H= E EJ @ K = LA J H= HJ C = = = Y , = =JE 
&

F= A x − y ′′ 2 < x − y 2 J A A CK A AH A y J= J= E x 2HA = J A LA J H x − y A HJ C = = = Y

= = > E<=

A = A x ∈ H \ Y E y ∈ Y J= = = > E<= J= E x EC A@ z = x − y E A K =LA J H 2HA = =@=J K  & LA J H z A HJ C = = =Y
4A AMA

) A Y =JL HA E F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= H J=@= A = FH E L G K J= K x ∈ H H=IJ =MA @ F JFH IJ H= Y @=J I= x 2 − y 2 FHE A K A y HJ C = = FH A ?E = J= A x d(x, Y ) = = F JFH IJ H Y , = =JE 
&!

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

&#

4A

AMA

2

J

A

Y

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= F F E?E K

A E I= A

0E >AHJ L FH IJ H LE@AJE =@=J= 

"' F= IL= E LA J H x C@A A @ >E =

E = A@E IJLA K @A

x = y+z
AF IHA@

y⊥zE

C HMA @A

E?E A

y∈Y
2

E

z ∈Y⊥

H ∈H
=

x
J

2

= y+z y
2
=

2

= y + z, y + z = y
A

+ z 2,
I A@E JH=<A =

z

2

= x
IJ

A@ = 
&"

2−

d(x, Y ) = x − y = z
E F A A J

,

= =JE @=

HJ C

=

Y⊥

FH E L G

C

AFH=

C I KF=

Y

K 0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK H FHA@IJ=LG= =JL HA E F JFH I

J H FH IJ H=
4A AMA

H
IK

E L=<E

Y ⊆ Y ⊥⊥
= ILA

)

F= = FH E L G

x1 , x2 ∈ Y ⊥ J=@= A x1 , y = x2 , y = 0 A I = =HA α, β ∈ K L=<E αx1 + βx2 , y = α x1 , y + β x2 , y = 0,

y∈Y

J , L G=

= E @= =<E E L=<E

αx1 + βx2 ∈ Y ⊥
I=@= =JL HA

,=

A

Y⊥

A F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

H
E ILA

IJ F JFH IJ H= E

A A A =J= I KF=

y∈Y

Y xn , y = 0 (n ∈ N)

⊥ E

Y A = A (xn ) FH xn → x ∈ H n → +∞ 6=@= = x − xn
,=

| x, y | = | x, y − xn , y | = | x − xn , y |
@= A A

y → 0, n → +∞,
A

x, y = 0 Y⊥
A

= IL=

F JFH IJ H FH IJ H= 5 KF J= A AF IHA@ 
&#

H

y∈Y
F=

J

x∈Y⊥ H
1

Y⊥

A =JL HA E

AFH= =

A KLA

@ABE EI=

E I KF K E=

=JL HA

F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

E @ABE E?E A I KF= = =JE @= IJ I =

Y ⊥⊥ Y

Y ⊥⊥ Y ⊆ Y ⊥⊥

A I A@E

,

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H

0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H=

H
4A

L=<E A@ =
AMA

Y = Y ⊥⊥
LK FHAJD @ C = =@=J = L=<E E K E= K EK

= E <A

A = A x ∈ Y x = y + z C@A y ⊥⊥ J A E z = x − y ∈ Y ⊥⊥ AH A Y ⊥⊥ F JFH IJ A y ∈ Y ⊥ ∩ Y ⊥⊥ = {0} A Y H ,= A z ∈ Y ⊥ E z ∈ Y ⊥⊥ = = z = 0 J x = y ∈ Y ,= A Y ⊥⊥ ⊆ Y @ I Y ⊥⊥ = Y , =<E >H KJK E J H C= FHA@IJ=LEJE

⊥⊥ FH E L G= ∈Y =z ∈Y⊥

Y ⊆ Y ⊥⊥
LA = H FH IJ H= I A@E @= A

&$ , = =JE @= A FH IJ H ℓ2 0E >AHJ L = @= E A@= 1 p = 2 c0 c m E A 0E >AHJ L
AMA 

),)+1 

&$

@ FH IJ H= ℓp I=

p
4A

7 FH IJ HK ℓ2 FHAI E =L=MA (x, y ) → x, y @ABE EI=
x, y =
+∞ ν =1

ξν η ν ,

x = (ξν ), y = (ην ),

A I = =H E FH E L @ I=C =I= I= H FH IJ H= ℓ2  IJ=LG= IA E F AJ=  = J= ?K @= J @ =<A = A H EH= E FH IJ H ℓ2 @=J=  #  J A ℓ2 0E >AHJ L FH IJ H
1 p = 2 EA 2 =<E I=@= @= E A@= @ FH IJ H= ℓp p 0E >AHJ L E LE e1 = (1, 0, 0, . . .) E e2 = (0, 1, 0, 0 . . .) FHEF=@= K p 1 E L=<E e1 = e2 = 1 √ e1 + e2 = FH IJ HK ℓp = ILA√ p p (1, 1, 0, 0, . . .) = 2 e1 − e2 = (1, −1, 0, 0, . . .) = 2 6=@= A 2( e1 2 + e2 2 ) = 4 E e1 + e2 2 + e1 − e2 2 = 2 · 22/p F= = p = 2 A L=<E A@ = IJ F=H= A CH= = LE@AJE =@=J=  %' J = E @= FH IJ H ℓp p 1 p = 2 E A FHA@0E >AHJ L F= A <A >EJE E 0E >AHJ L

H EH= 7 A E E LE e1 E e2 FHEF=@= K E FH IJ HK c0 7 FH IJ HK c0 A e1 = e2 = 1 e1 + e2 = e1 − e2 = 1 F= A 2( e1 2 + e2 2 ) = 4 E e1 + e2 2 + e1 − e2 2 = 2 F= FAJ A L=<E A@ = IJ F=H= A CH= = ,= A E FH IJ H c0 E A FHA@0E >AHJ L F= E A E 0E >AHJ L = A c0 F JFH IJ H H EH= C FH IJ H= c = c F JFH IJ H H EH= C FH IJ H= m J E FH IJ HE c E m EIK 0E >AHJ LE 
&%

,
AMA

= =JE @= FH IJ H C[a, b] E A FHA@0E >AHJ L 7 E BK ?E A
t−a , b−a t ∈ [a, b].

4A

f (t) = 1, g (t) =

EC A@

f, g ∈ C[a, b] E f = g = 1 6=@= A (f + g )(t) = 1 + t−a , b−a (f − g )(t) = 1 − t−a , b−a

E f +g =2

f −g =1
2

A@ =
2

IJ F=H= A

CH= = A L=<E AH A
2

f +g

+ f −g

= 5 = 4 = 2( f

+ g 2 ).

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

&%

2HA = J 
&&

A FH IJ H C[a, b] E A FHA@ 0E >AHJ L ?E =

, = =JE @= A LA J HI E FH IJ H C2 [−1, 1] AFHA E@ ED BK = [−1, 1] K A A I = =H E FH E L @ KLA@A I=
1

x, y =
−1

x(t)y (t) dt

FHA@0E >AHJ L = E E A 0E >AHJ L
4A AMA IJ=LGA IA EJ= ?K @= F =<A @= ·, · =EIJ= FHA@IJ=LG= I = =H E FH E L @ H = E @K L= = I = =H E FH E L @ A

1

1/2

x =
−1

|x(t)|2 dt

.

7

E

E AL K C2 [−1, 1] = E A LAHCEH= K C2 [−1, 1] E (xn ) A F AJ= K @ IK = H K F = =JE F= FH IJ H C2 [−1, 1] E A E @K L= K I = =H E FH E L @ J E A 0E >AHJ L 
&' ) >AHJ L

E (xn ) K FH IJ HK C2 [−1, 1] @ABE EI= I=   0, −1 t 0, nt, 0 < t 1/n, xn (t) =  1, 1/n < t 1.

IK x1 , x2 , . . . , xn K = = HJ C = E LA J HE K FHA@0E FH IJ HK @ = =JE @= L=<E A@ = IJ
x1 + x2 + · · · + xn
2

(1)

= x1

2

+ x2

2

+ · · · + xn 2 .

IE J C= @ = =JE @= IK LA J HE x, y = 0 K = = HJ C I= = = FH E L G A I = =HA α, β ∈ K L=<E A@ = IJ
(2)
4A

=

E=

E

αx

2

+ βy

2

= αx + βy 2 .

HJ C = E J=@= A AMA ) IK LA J HE x1 , x2 , . . . , xn K = = xν , xk = 0 = ν = k F= IA A@ = IJ (1) @ >E = @EHA J E H= K =MA
x1 + x2 + · · · + xn
2

= x1 + x2 + · · · + xn , x1 + x2 + · · · + xn
n n

=
ν =1

xν , xν +
ν =k

xν , xk =
ν =1

2

.

&& 

),)+1

2HAJF @= IK

IJ=LE

I=@= @= IK LA =HE

J

HE

α E β FH E L G E I = αβ x, y = 0 J αx ⊥ βy I A@E A@ = IJ (2)
2HAJF 6=@= A IJ=LE I=@= @=

6=@= = J

x, y = 0 K = = A x, y = 0
A E A@ =

HJ F= IJE A

C

=

E E

αx, βy =
@EHA J

2HA

(1)
IJ

= FH

E L

G

A

α, β ∈ K

A@

=

(2) L=<E

αx + βy

2

= αx + βy, αx + βy = αx, αx + βy, βy + 2 Re αx, βy = αx
2

+ βy

2

+ 2 Re αx, βy ,

Re αx, βy = 0 J Re(αβ x, y ) = 0 = ILA α, β ∈ K 5FA?E = = α = β = 1 @ >E = Re x, y = 0 = = α = 1 β = i @ >E = Im x, y = 0 F= A x, y = 0 J x ⊥ y
@= A > C A@ = IJE

(2)

I

A@E 

'
>AHJ K L

A

=

A

{eν | ν ∈ N}
IJ = HK

HJ

H

EH= J

E IEIJA HI

K IAF=H=>E

0E LAHCEH=

FH E I=

H
K

, AHE

= =JE @= LA E HA@

E HA@

+∞ n=1

H

=

+∞ n=1

αn en

|αn |2
HA@

LAHCEH=

4A I=

AMA =

> A

C E

F

AJ C@A

IJE FH A

IJ

n

H=

H

+∞ n=1

αn en
6=@=

LAHCEH= = =

E

(sn )
2

sn =
ν =1

αν eν

E AL

m

n L=<E

m

m

sm − sn
n
C@A A

= sm − sn , sm − sn =
m

αν eν ,
ν =n+1 ν =n+1

αν eν

=
ν =n+1

|αν |2 = sm − sn ,
A E =

sn =
ν =1

|αν |2

,=

(sn )

A =

E AL = HA@

E I=

=

A

E

(sn ) 
'
=H I = , E =H

E AL = J

A EIFKMA

E I=

+∞ n=1

|αn |2
IJ H

LAHCEH=

= =JE @= FH E E L FH @

A IL=

E EIJ

F

A

I= A

0E

>AHJ =

L FH

H

I= I IJ

=

x, y
@

LHA

E HA=

0E

>AHJ

L FH

H I=

E L

[x, y ] = Re x, y ,
4A AMA = FH E L G A

x, y ∈ H.

[αx + βy, z ] = Re αx + βy, z = Re α x, z + β y, z = α Re x, z + β Re y, z = α[x, z ] + β [y, z ],

x, y, z ∈ H

E

α, β ∈ R L=<E

/

)8) 

-641

1 1

4

14)

1 24

56

41

&'

@

I

L=<A

I >E A 52 E 52  I = =H

C FH E L @= ,=GA L=<E

E 52!

AH A =

x, y ∈ H
2 2 @EHA J

[y, x] = Re y, x = Re y, x = Re x, y = [x, y ].
= E

[x, x] = Re x, x = Re x

= x

@ >E =

@=

IK =@ L GA A E 
'

I >E A 52" E 52# I = =H

C FH E L @= ED E L=

,

= =JE @= IA K LA J HI E FH IJ H

X

HA=

x = (xn )

J= LED @= A

+∞ n=1

xn < +∞

<A KLAIJE I = =H E FH E L @ I=

x, y =
= IK

+∞ n=1

λn xn yn ,
E

E A @ >E A E FH IJ H 0E >AHJ L
4A AMA

λn ∈ R

J= LE @= A

0 < λn < 1 n ∈ N

+∞ n=1

λn

LAHCEH=

,=

IJ=LG= IA

EJ= ?K @= F

=<A @= A FHAI E =L=MA

FH E L @

= FH IJ HK E F IJ

1 =>AHE IL= 7 E

X (λn ) n0 ∈ N
E

·, ·
+∞

I = =H E

E J=

=@ L G=L= ILA KI @= = ILA

LA

=@=J =

6=@=

=

ε>0

E

N

n0

L=<E

λν < ε
@=J I=

ν =N +1
C@A A

K FH IJ HK

X

(xn ) n ∈ N
n
FKJ=

xn = (ξν ) ν ∈ N

(n)

xn = (1, 1, . . . , 1, 0, 0, . . . , 0, . . .).
6=@= =

m > n L=<E xm − xn , xm − xn =
m +∞ ν =1

xm − xn = =

λν ξν

(m)

− ξν

(n) 2

λν ,
ν =n+1
LA E A A A KJE K @ E AL K

F= A =

m, n @

L G

EC A@ AH A

+∞ n=1

12 = +∞

xm − xn < ε J E (xn ) xn → x = (1, 1, . . . , 1, . . .) n → +∞
2HA = J A FH IJ H FH E L @

X x∈X
IK =

X

EA

F AJ=

H K E @K

L= K I = =H E

F=

E A 0E >AHJ L

/ =L=

FAH=J HE 
2HAC A@ JA HE A

E A=H E E CH= E A E FAH=J HE
A = IK = E

X

E

Y
=

@L= E A A

H

EH=

= FH

IJ

H=

=@ EIJE

I

KF

I E

=

=H=

K A

E

A

A @=J

FHAI =L=

=L=MA I=

K J= E

x

A : X → Y 8HA@ y = A(x) E E y = Ax
E FAH=J H

IJ FHAI 7 AIJ

=L=M= E =

JAH

FHAI

=L=MA

HEIJE

JAH

,

-.1 1+1 )
FAH=J H 

FAH=J H

A:X→Y

A

=@EJEL=

=

A

A(x1 + x2 ) = Ax1 + Ax2 , A
A

x1 , x2 ∈ X.

D

CA

=

A

A(λx) = λAx,
FAH=J H

x ∈ X, λ ∈ K.
E D CA J = A

A

A

E A=H=

=

A =@EJEL=

A(λ1 x1 + λ2 x2 ) = λ1 Ax1 + λ2 Ax2 ,
,

x1 , x2 ∈ X, λ1 , λ2 ∈ K.
A

-.1 1+1 )
E A AC=JEL=

E A=H E >H

FAH=J H A

IJ

M

J= =L @=

A:X →Y x ∈ X.
A A@ =

CH= E A

=

F

Ax
1 BE K >H AL= K

M x ,
)

M

=

A L=<E FHAJD @ =

IJ

= EL= IA

FAH=J H= A A = +∞

H =

=?E

A

FAH=J H

A

E A

CH= E A

FEI= A

'

/

)8)

2-4)6

41

'

= E E

IL

LK FHAJD E A

@

A @ABE

E?E A L=<E @= A

Ax
H=

A x

FHA?E

Ax
E

Y
A ED

A |x
E =

X
A

x∈X
ED FAH=J

x∈X
= =L=

5 A

KF ILED I=

CH=

A=H

L(X, Y ) 

5FA?E =

X=Y

HEIJE

A:X→Y
=

K

L(X )

6

- 4- )

)

A FAH=J H A D
sup
x∈X \{0}

CA

= MAC LK

H K L=<E

A =
6

Ax = sup Ax = sup Ax . x x 1 x =1

- 4- ) E A=H E FAH=J H A : X → Y A CH= E A = IL= E CH= E A I KF K X FHAI E =L= K CH= E A I KF K Y
,

E I=

=

E A=H E FAH=J H A : X → Y E = E LAH E FAH= ! = F IJ E FHAI E =L=MA A−1 : A(X ) → X J= L @= A A−1 (Ax) = x x∈X
J H
6

-.1 1+1 )

- 4- ) ! E A=H E FAH=J H A : X → Y E = E LAH E FAH=J H = E Ax = 0 I A@E x = 0 ) E LAH E FAH=J H A−1 = E I= F IJ E J=@= A E A=H= = A(X ) - 4- )
"

E A=H E FAH=J H A : X → Y E = CH= E A E E LAH E = A(X ) = F IJ E m > 0 J= L @= A Ax m x FAH=J H 1/m x ∈ X 6=@= A A−1
6

A−1

A = A Y *= =D L FH IJ H 5 KF L(X, Y ) <A IA I = >@AJE IJHK JKH *= =D L C FH IJ H= = @ABE E A I=>EH=MA FA H=J H= E <AMA FAH=J H= I = =H = I A@A E = E
6 #

- 4- )

(A + B )x = Ax + Bx, (λA)x = λ(Ax);

A, B ∈ L(X, Y ), λ ∈ K,

=F @ H A A A J= A ∈ L(X, Y ) F @H= K AL= E A=H C FAH=J H=
7 FH A=H ED IJ HK

H K CH= E A C

FAH=J

AB

FHEF=@=

L(X ) <A IA @ABE EI=JE FH E L @ CH= E A ED E H= A, B ∈ L(X ) I= (AB )x = A(Bx) x ∈ X 2H E L @ FH IJ HK L(X ) 2HE AJE @= FAH=J HE AB E BA A

H= K >EJE EIJE

,

-.1 1+1 ) " 4= C E K =F JFH IJ H FAH=J H= A ∈ L(X, Y ) IK I KF LE R(A) = {Ax | x ∈ X } E N (A) = {x ∈ X | Ax = 0} HAIFA JEL

' 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

,

-.1 1+1 )
f (x)
Y
CHKA ?E =

#

*= =D LE FH IJ HE X E Y IK FHAI E =L=MA

CHKA J E

=

F IJ

E

>E A JEL L=<E

E A=H

=

x

X

2HAI E

f : X → Y =L=MA f I=

J= L LE

@=

= ILA

I >E = =

x ∈ X

LA IA

)2
E

- )
A=H

CHKA J A *= =D LA FH IJ HA

A

E@A JEBE

L=JE

= BK

?E

A

=

KC L=

E FH IJ HE

,

-.1 1+1 )
F A I F A I=

$

E A=H E K

FAH=J H =LEI LA IA

F GA I = =H=

IJE

A:X →K
E A=H = BK

C@A A E A
?E

@ J C= @=

K HA= X HA=

E E = E E

LA J HI E FH IJ H

A =

5 KF ILED L=

E A=H ED BK
@K=

?E

A =

= E

H EH= = =L= A

FH IJ HK X C= I=

= E

= CA>=HI E

FH IJ H=

X

X′
A =

,

-.1 1+1 )
E = =L= I=

%

2H IJ H @K=

CH= E A ED

E A=H ED BK FH IJ H

?E

L(X, K)

= EL= IA

KC L= E

E =@ K C L= E

H EH=

C FH IJ H=

X

X∗
EC A@ EIFKMA ?E

2HEJ

A

CH= E A K

E A=H K BK E A=H E

X∗ ⊂ X′
A K

= FH IJ HK

X

= =L= A 

I=

x∗

=

A

x∗

FAH=J H L=<E I A@A A LE@AJE JA HA K

x∗ (x) = |x∗ (x)| x∗ x , x ∈ X, |x∗ (x)| = sup |x∗ (x)| = sup |x∗ (x)|. x∗ = sup x x∈X \{0} x 1 x =1
2E AHE @K= ED FH IJ H=

∗ ∗ ℓ∗ 1 = m c0 = ℓ1 ℓp = ℓq 1/p + 1/q = 1
=

6

- 4- )
?E

$ 

0= ?E

*= =D L= JA HA

A = A

X

H EH= =

FH IJ H E CH= E A =

A = A BK

= LA J HI A =

F JFH IJ HK L A =

E A=H = BK

f

6=@=

=

x∗

J= L= @= L=<E

X F IJ E HA= = CH= E A = E A=H = x∗ (x) = f (x) x ∈ L E x∗ X = f L
= K H EH= FH IJ HK ?E A = E A=H = BK

⊆ X @ABE

EI= = HA=

6

- 4- )
6=@=

X

J= L= @=

x0 = 0 BE IEH= = J= = FH IJ HK X F IJ E CH= E A = ∗ ∗ =1 A x (x0 ) = x0 E x
%

A = A

x∗

/

)8)

2-4)6

41

'!

& A = A L LA J HI E F JFH IJ H @ H EH= C FH IJ H= x0 BE IEH= = J= = K X \ L = @IJ =MK d > 0 @ L 6=@= ∗ J= L= @= A x∗ (x) = 0 F IJ E = X CH= E A = E A=H = BK ?E A = x ∗ ∗ x ∈ L x (x0 ) = 1 E x = 1/d 6

- 4- )
E

X

A = A

6

- 4- )

'

= IL=

I= = I=

x(x∗ )

=

x∗ (x)
&

x∈X

F IJ

E BK CH= E A

?E

E A=H = E

x : X∗ → K = E L=<E x = x
A = = EL= IA

@ABE E

,

FH IJ H E
6

-.1 1+1 )
E

2H IJ H FH

@HKCE @K=

X ∗∗ = (X ∗ )∗ IJ H= X X
A

@HKCE

KC L= E

- 4- ) 

*= =D L FH IJ H

CHKA J=

A

F JFH IJ HK

FH IJ H=

X ∗∗ X H X A EHAB A IEL=
' 2H IJ H  FAH=J H A

,

-.1 1+1 )
FH IJ

HAB A IEL=

=

A

X ∗∗ = X

7 IKFH J

,

-.1 1+1 )

A∗ : Y ∗ → X ∗ @ABE f ∗ ∈ Y ∗,

EI=

I=

A∗ f ∗ = f ∗ ◦ A,
= EL= IA

KC L= E FAH=J H
KC L=

FAH=J H=

A ∈ L(X, Y )
@ = KK

5 A@A A I >E A

C FAH=J H= IA =

(kA)∗ = kA∗ , k ∈ K;
6

(A + B )∗ = A∗ + B ∗ . A∗
CH= E A C E A=H C FAH=

- 4- )
A 

KC L= E CH= E A

FAH=J H

J H=

A E I=

E A=H E

FAH=J H E

A∗
A

= A .
I= =@ K C L=
=

,

-.1 1+1 )
A = A∗  

CH= E A

E A=H E

FAH=J H

L=<E

6

- 4- )

CH= E A =

E A=H = BK

?E

A =

x∗

= FH IJ HK

ℓ1

E

=

HAFHA A J=?E K

x∗ (x) =
2HEJ J= =

+∞ ν =1

ξν ην ,
?E A E

y = (ην ) ∈ m. x∗
@C L=H= A@ = @HA A =

x∗ = y y∈m
A

m

E BK

'" 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

6

- 4- ) 

!

CH= E A =

E A=H = BK

?E

A =

x∗

= FH IJ HK

ℓp

(1 < p < +∞) E

= HAFHA A J=?E K

x∗ (x) =
2HEJ J= = A

+∞ ν =1

ξν ην ,
E BK

y = (ην ) ∈ ℓq , 1/p + 1/q = 1.
?E A E

x∗ = y

ℓq

x∗

@C L=H= A@

=

@HA A =

y ∈ ℓq 
" CH= E A = E A=H = BK ?E A =

6

- 4- )

x∗

= FH IJ HK

c0

E

=

HAFHA A J=?E K

x∗ (x) =
2HEJ J= = A

+∞ ν =1

ξν ην ,
?E A E

y = (ην ) ∈ ℓ1 . x∗
@C L=H= A@ = @HA A =

x∗ = y

ℓ1

E BK

y ∈ ℓ1 
# CH= E A = E A=H = BK ?E A =

6

- 4- )

x∗

= FH IJ HK

c

E

=

HAFHA A J=?E K

x∗ (x) = α lim xk +
k→+∞
2HEJ A

+∞ ν =1

ξν ην ,
?E

y = (ην ) ∈ ℓ1 .
A E

@HA A = J=

x∗ = |α| + y = y ∈ ℓ1 E A@
CH= E A =

ℓ1

E BK =

x∗ x∗

@C L=H=

A@

=

@HA A

I = =H

α
= FH IJ HK

6 E

- 4- ) 

$

E A=H = BK

?E

A =

Lp (a, b)

= HAFHA A J=?E K

x∗ (x) =
a
C@A BK A

b

α(x)x(t)dt,

x ∈ Lp (a, b),
?E A A@ A =

@HA A =

α ∈ Lq (a, b) 1/p + 1/q = 1 E x∗ = α Lq (a,b) .K q ?E = α ∈ L (a, b) = K L=<E C HM= HAFHA A J=?E =
A = A

x∗

H 
% =

0E >AHJ L FH IJ H 

6 =

- 4- )
E I=

4EI L= JA HA = HAFHA A J=?E E
E E LA

.K

?E

A =

F IJ

A

f

H∗

= y

H

y ∈ H J= J H y A A@

@=

A =

f (x) = x, y
@HA A BK

x∈H
?E A

2HEJ

f ∈ H∗ f

/

)8)

2-4)6

41

'#

,

-.1 1+1 )
A∗
A 

)@ K C L= E FAH=J H
E =@ L G=L= A = FAH=J H

=?E

FAH=J H

FAH=J H= A ∈ L(H ) Ax, y = x, A∗ y x, y ∈ H A

K

, A E

-.1 1+1 )

K EJ=H=

A=

A∗

I

=

A ∈ L(H ) A =@ K C L= = A A = −A∗ H = ∗ ∗ A A A = A A = I 
! )@ K C L= E FAH=J H

=

I= =@ K C L=
= A

=

A∗ A

= A∗ A

6

- 4- )
1◦ 3◦ 

&

A∗

FAH=J H=

@A A

I >E A

A ∈ L(H ) E

= I A

2◦ A∗∗ = A

A∗ ∈ L(H ) A∗ = A

6◦ (AB )∗ = B ∗ A∗

4◦ (A + B )∗ = A∗ + B ∗ ¯ ∗ λ∈K 5◦ (λA)∗ = λA

2HE ?EF
6

LAHCA ?E A E FHE ?EF K EB H A CH= E A IJE 

- 4- )
Y 

'

2HE ?EF

LAHCA ?E A
H

A =

A

(An )

E

CH= E A ED

E A=H ED FH IJ H

FAH=J H=

E FHAI E =L= K

EH= E FH IJ H

X

K *= =D L

J= =L @= L=<E

(1) An
KC E

(2) = IL= K⊆X
6=@= F IJ

M n∈N x ∈ D
F IJ E

n→+∞

lim An x
= IL=

C@A

A

D

ILK@= CKIJ I KF K

E

E A=H E

FAH=J H

n→+∞
E =

lim An x = Ax
A H =

A

M

x ∈ X

E

A

A

CH= E A

6

- 4- )
H EH= A E  

2HE ?EF K EB H A CH= E A IJE
FAH=J H= ) A

A =

A

(An )

E

CH= E A ED K

E A=H ED FH IJ H H E

E FHAI E =L= K *= =D L FH IJ H = = = IL=

Y

lim sup An x
n→+∞

X x ∈ X

J=@=

( An )

CH= E A

6

- 4- )
Y
= )  

2HE ?EF HA = ?E A
H E

A =

A

(An )

E

CH= E A ED H EH= E >=H

E

A=H ED J H J=

FAH=J H= E

E FHAI E =L= K *= =D L FH IJ H

XK

FH I A@ =

x∈X

J= L= @=

( An ) E A CH= E A A lim sup An x = +∞
n→+∞

J=@= F IJ

'$ 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

)2
6

- )

2HE ?EF K EB H

A

CH= E A

IJE E FHE ?EF HA

=

?E A IK A LEL= A J = JLH AM=

- 4- )
= IL= 

*= =D
A = E

J=

D=KI L= JA HA =

A = IK E

FH IJ HE E

FAH=J H= H A

Ax

x C@A A FAH=J (1) E ( An ) A CH= E (2) F IJ E lim An x
n→+∞ 
" A = A

An ∈ L(X, Y ) A ∈ L(X, Y ) =

X E Y *= =D (An x) LAHCEH=
= L=<E

LE =

E I=

= ILK@= CKIJ

I KFK

D⊆X
E A=H ED FAH=J H=

,

-.1 1+1 )
1◦

(An )

E

CH= E A ED

E (An ) K EB H LAHCEH= FAH=J HK A K =?E An ⇒ A An − A → 0 n → ∞ E (An ) = LAHCEH= FAH=J HK A K =?E An → A = 2◦ An x → Ax n → +∞ = IL= x ∈ X E (An ) I => LAHCEH= FAH=J HK A K =?E An ⇀ A = 3◦ lim y ∗ (An x) = y ∗ (Ax) = IL= x ∈ X E IL= y ∗ ∈ Y ∗ =

n→+∞
1

K EB H

A

LAHCA ?E A I A@E E =

= =

LAHCA ?E =

= E

= A

I A@E I =>=

LAHCA ?E =

FAH=J H=

An

JL HA = E =JL HA = FHAI E =L=M=
6

- 4- )

! 

*= =D L= JA HA =
=@ EIJE IJ H C

JL HA
F GA

FHAI E =L=MK
I = =H=

A = IK FAH=J H

X E Y *= =D LE FH IJ HE A ∈ L(X, Y ) FHAI E =L= FH
FHAI E =L=MA J I E = IL= I KF K FH IJ HK

KE

A = A

X

= FH IJ H

Y

6=@=

JL HA

C I KF= K FH IJ HK

A JL HA X A JL HA

Y
H EH= E FH IJ HE I F GA I = =H= K X = FH E L G E KF G(A) = {(x, Ax) | x ∈ D (A)} IA @ = K A @= A G(A) F JFH IJ H =@ EIJE

A = IK E A = A E A=H E FH IJ H=
, =

X EY D(A) BE

IEH= E F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

FAH=J H

= EL= IA CH=BE

A : D(A) → Y FAH=J H= A =

X ×Y 
# = FAH=J H =JL

-.1 1+1 ) )2 - )
=

A MAC L CH=BE

G(A)

A : D(A) → Y HA E K X × Y

=<A

@=

A

=JL HA

1 E

@ABE E?E A KI E L=

=JL HA I A@E @=

x ∈ D(A) 

# @EHA J I A@E @= A FAH=J H A xn ∈ D(A) xn → x Axn → y n → +∞ y = Ax

/

)8)

2-4)6

41

'%
A ∈ L(X, Y ) D(A) ⊆ X

6

- 4- ) - 4- )
1◦ 2◦
=

"

5L= E

CH= E A

E A=H E

FAH=J H

A

=

JL HA
6 #

)

AA

CH= E A

FAH=J H I= @

A

J=@=

L=<E A D (A) =JL HA A FAH=J H

F JFH IJ H FH IJ H= X J=@= A A =JL HA

FAH=J H =

A

=JL HA

E FH IJ H

Y

F AJ=

J=@= A

=JL HA
6

F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=
$

X A : D(A) → Y −1 J= FAH=J H A
E A=H= =JL HA =JL HA

D(A)
E

- 4- ) - 4- )

) IJ

A

FAH=J H

E E LAH

FAH=J H
6

A−1 F
%

E J=@= A E

A =JL HA A = IK X E Y = ?A A CH= E A 

*=

=D L= JA HA = =JL HA
A:X→Y FAH=J H A
=

CH=BE K
E I= =

*= =D LE FH IJ HE E FH IJ HK

FAH=J H @ABE EI=

X

6=@= A

HJ C = = FH A ?E = K 0E >AHJ L FH IJ HK
5= F HJ C = A FH A ?E A K 0E >AHJ L FH IJ HK I IA LA IHA E K C =LE  LE@AJE =@=J A  & &# E =F A A F I A A ED @ JED =@=J= = 
6

- 4- )
E

&

) =

A

E

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H= A ?E = = F JFH IJ H

H

P

HJ C

= FH

E

J=@=

A

P

E A=H

FHAI E =L=MA E L=<E

1◦ P 2 = P 2◦ P = 1, 0, E = {0}, E = {0}.
A

3◦ P ∗ = P
6

- 4- )
E

'

)

P

HJ C

=

= FH

A ?E = HJ C

= =

=JL HA E F JFH = FH A ?E = =

IJ H

0E >AHJ L C FH IJ H=

H

J=@= A

E⊥

@=J= I=

HJ
,

Q=I −P

H EH= E IEIJA E K 0E >AHJ L FH IJ HK 
$

-.1 1+1 )
H
= EL=

J HK

HJ

5 KF LA J H=

H EH= E IEIJA
1, 0,

{ei | i ∈ I } K FHA@ 

0E >AHJ L L=<E

FH I

5 =

ei , ej =

i = j, i = j.

'& 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

2

41 -4 

5 KF LA J H=

ℓ2
6

ei = (δiν ), ν ∈ N, {ei | i ∈ I }

>H= K A

5 K FH IJ HK

- 4- )

!

)

LA J HE

>H= K K

5 J=@= IK

E

E A

=H

A =LEI E

,

-.1 1+1 )
LK IA 5 

%

A = A E

J L

FH IJ HK

i∈I

.KHE A LE ABE?E A JE LA
) A

H

{ei | i ∈ I } FH E L x ∈ H FH E L G= LA J
J H=

G= H

5 K FHA@ 0E >AH 5 = =HE @ IK

xi = x, ei

xK

= F I =JH= E

6

- 4- )
n

!

x=
i=1
6

αi ei
!

{e1 , e2 , . . . , en }

5 K 0E >AHJ L E

J=@= L=<E

αj = xj j ∈ N
A

x

2

n

FH IJ HK

HE

=
i=1

|xi |2
FH I A ?E = LA J H=

{e1 , e2 , . . . , en } J HK H E E = L{e1 , e2 , . . . , en } J=@= x ∈ H = F JFH IJ H E @=J= I= y =
) A
6

- 4- )

5 K FHA@ 0E >AHJ L

n i=1 xi ei

HJ C

=

= FH

- 4- )

!!

)

H

J=@= = FH E L G=

A {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } LA J H

5 K FHA@ 0E >AHJ L L=<E

x∈H |x ˆi |2

*AIA L= A A@ = IJ

FH IJ HK

n

x 2.

i=1
6

{ej | j ∈ J } FH E L G= 5 K FHA@ 0E FH IJ HK H J=@= = IL= x ∈ H F IJ E = LE A FHA>H E IK H= E EJE @ K A ABE?E A =J= xi , i ∈ I ⊆ J
!"

- 4- )

)

A

>AHJ L EL C

= FH <A F

E L

G

HA =JE K

x ∈ H
E 7

ILA .KHE A L I K

LA

ABE?E A L= A A A@

JA =

= K *AIA J H=

{xi | i ∈ I }
IJ A > E

=

+∞ i=1
,

|xi |2

x

2

= .KHE A

L H= L

LA

x
K

x=

+∞ i=1

xi ei
0E >AH 5 J A

-.1 1+1 )
E LA J H 

&

HJ E A@

H EH= E IEIJA C @HKC C E A

J L = F IJ

FH IJ HK

H

= EL= IA

F JFK E HJ
HJ

{ei | i ∈ I } K FHA@

H EH= E IEIJA
= = = ILE 

2

E A FH=LE @A

H EH=

C IEIJA =

{ei | i ∈ I }

x ∈ H, x = 0

HJ C

LA J HE =

/

)8)

2-4)6

41

''

,

-.1 1+1 )
H 

'

2 JFK E

HJ

H

EH= E

IEIJA

K

0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK

= EL= IA

HJ

H EH= E >= EI

FH IJ H=

H X
A =

,

-.1 1+1 ) 

5 KF J= = =

B

K

H

EH=

FH IJ HK

BK @=
L=<E

A J= =

K FH IJ HK

X=

A

E A=

L(B )

ILK@= CKIJ K

X

J

L(B ) = X
6

- 4- )

!#

A =

A

xi = x, ei
@=JE

5 6=@= IK I A@A = JLH AM= A LEL= A J = A 2 5

i∈I

.KHE A LE

{ei | i ∈ I }

5 K 0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK K @

H

E =

ABE?E A JE LA J H=

x∈H

IK

(2) (∀x ∈ H ) x = (3) {ei | i ∈ I } (4) = IL= E LA

(1) {ei | i ∈ I }

xi ei
i∈I
A J= = L=<E I KF K

A BK @= J H

H
IJ

x∈H x

*AIA

L= A@ =

2

=
i∈I

|xi |2 ;
L=<E

(5)

= FH E L G A LA J HA

x, y ∈ H
i∈I

2=HIAL=

L= A@ =

IJ

x, y =
6

xi yi .
E L G= = = FH 5 K 0E >AHJ L A ?E = = I KF

{ei | i ∈ I } FH FH IJ HK H x ∈ H E y MAC L= HJ C L{ei | i ∈ I } 6=@= L=<E A@ = IJ y =
!$ A = A ,

- 4- )

E =

xi ei
i∈I

-.1 1+1 )
HJ H 

)

0E >AHJ L FH IJ H

H

F IA@K A >=H A

A@=

=

=

EH= E >= EI A@ = =

FH IJ H=

H

n

K

{e1 , e2 , . . . , en } J=@= =?E dim0 (H ) = n. H
J A =

HJ C

=

= @E A

E=

6

- 4- )
= A E =

!%

0E >AHJ L FH IJ H = = A HJ H

@E

A

E A

= = HJ C

= =

E =

I= @E

F IA@K A A@ = = @E

EH= E >= EI E J=@=

E E FH IJ H=

dim0 (H ) = dim(H ).

5FA J=H E A=H C FAH=J H=
A E = A A=H= FAH=J

X = {0}
C@A A

F

A A

I=

H

EH=

FH

IJ

H E E

H I= @

Aλ = A − λI

I

E@A

JE

E

D(A) ⊆ X
FAH=J

,ABE IJ H=

A : D(A) → X
E FAH=J

H

H FH

X

E

λ∈C  

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

,

FAH=J H
2HE

-.1 1+1 )
FAH=J H=

FAH=J H Rλ (A)

A

I= @

A

= (A−λI )−1 = EL= IA HA D(Rλ (A)) = R(A − λI )
= @HA A A

LA J E

AJE

@=

Rλ (A) F λ∈C
E A

IJ

E I=

λ∈C A=

,

-.1 1+1 )
(1) Rλ (A) F (2) Rλ (A)
A

!

HACK =H = J= =
= IL @ A K

FAH=J H=

IJ

CH= E A

(3) R(A − λI )
,

A CKIJ F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

R(A − λI ) X

-.1 1+1 )

"

4A LA J E I KF ρ(A)
FAH=J H= K

FAH=J H=

A

A I KF ILED HA C I KF= = EL=

CK =H ED J= = = IA

IFA J=H FAH=J H= A
#

A

F A A J HA

LA J

=?E

σ (A)
K =?E

,

-.1 1+1 )
= A LK IA

1◦

λ∈C

2◦ Rλ (A) F 3◦

I FIJLA A LHA@ IJE FAH=J H= A AFHA E@= IFA J=H K =?E σc(A)
IJ E

FAH=J H

Rλ (A)

6= =IJE IFA J=H
A F IJ

σp (A)

A I KF ILED

E - A A JE J=

=IJ C IFA JH=

A I KF ILED

CH= E A

D(Rλ (A))
F IJ

A CKIJ F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

λ ∈ C = X E Rλ (A)

A EA

4A E@K= E IFA J=H
Rλ (A)
E >E

K

=?E

σr (A)
E E

A I KF ILED A E

FAH=J H

CH= E A

F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

X
LK FHAJD @ ED @ABE

λ ∈ C = A D(Rλ (A)) E A CKIJ

)2

- )

=

I

E?E = @EHA FHE

J A

I

A@E @= KF

A LE

σ (A) = C \ ρ(A) E σ (A) = σp (A) ∪ σc (A) ∪ σr (A) σp (A) σc (A) σr (A) @EI K J E
,

K IK I

λ ∈ σp (A) J=@= F IJ E >=H A@= LA J H x = 0 F JFH IJ H= D (A) = E A (A − λI )x = 0 5L= E J= =L LA J H = EL= I FIJLA E LA J H FAH=J H= A E @C L=H= I FIJLA LHA @ IJE λ 5 KF ILED J= LED LA J H= K GK K K E E K K J N (A − λI ) = EL= IA I FIJLA E F JFH IJ H E @C L=H= I FIJLA LHA@ IJE λ
$

-.1 1+1 )

)

6

- 4- )

!&

)

FH IJ HK K

X

J=@=

A FH E L G= A σ (A) = σp (A)
A AIJHK

FAH=J H K ) A

=

@E A

E

=

dim(X ) = n

J=@= K E = K E IJE E = J=

> EH E = CA>=HI A LE

IJE I FIJLA ED LHA@

n

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

6

- 4- )

*= =D L J=

A : D(A) → X E A=H E X ) A FAH=J H A =JL K λ ∈ ρ(A) L=<E R(A − λI ) = X
!' A = A FH IJ HK " ) A A

FAH=J H K HA J=@=

F A I = FH E L G K

6

- 4- ) - 4- )
E

J=@=

σ (A)
"

=JL HA

X = {0} X |λ|
LHA@ EH=

F A I=

*= =D L FH IJ H E F A I H=L E

I KF J= = = K

C A

A ∈ L(X )
E I KF

6

)

A

F A I=

*= =D L FH IJ H E A

CH= E A F= J=

A=H E

FAH=J H K FH IJ HK HKC=

X

J=@=

σ (A)

AFH= =

A<E K KJ=H

A x1 , x2 , . . . , xn = 0 λ1 , λ2 , . . . , λn E A=H IJ HK X KLA >H= K K
= E C @C L=H= K FAH=J H= A =

6

- 4- )
E EJE I KF

"

5 FIJLA E LA J HE IJE FH

H=

I FIJLA E K H

LEI=

A : D(A) → X

E A=H

6

- 4- )

"!

A =

A

A I=
A =

=@ K C L= E A

FAH=J H K

F A I

0E

>AHJ L

FH IJ HK

H

E

M = sup{ Ax, x | x = 1}
6=@= L=<E

E

m = inf { Ax, x | x = 1}.

2◦ 3◦

1◦ M, m ∈ σ (A)

σ (A) ⊆ [m, M ]

A = max{|M |, |m|} A ∈ L(X )
I AC H= = I=

)2
=D L A KJE IFA J=H

- )
FH = CH= IJ

= FH HK FH E A

E L

G= J=H

FAH=J

H

K

F =

A

I

*= E IJ

X
IJ C

IFA H

σ (A)
C

A L

AFH= =

KF J= H

= K H=L FH

C
H

X

E A *=

=D

EH=

E

A=H

FAH=J

X

<A >EJE E FH= =

A ∈ L(X ) K *= =D L FH IJ HK X IFA JH= E H=@E KI FAH=J H= A I= rσ (A) = sup{|λ| | λ ∈ σ (A)}
, % = FH E L G= FAH=J H 6

-.1 1+1 )

F A I @ABE E A IA

- 4- )

""

)

A

X

F A I=

*= =D L FH IJ H E

A

rσ (A) = lim

n→+∞

An 1/n

A ∈ L(X )

J=@= 

),)+1

=@=?E 

)

A =@EJEL E AFHA E@= , =<E =

FAH=J H EJ=L

AFHA E@=

K A@ = =JE

J=

E FH IJ H=

@= A
4A AMA

FH IJ HK , = IL= E =@EJEL=

= FHA @=

FAH=J H

L=<E

A:X →Y

(∗)
= @ >E = A

A(−x) = −A(x),

x ∈ X.
5=@= A@ IJ=L

x∈X

A(0) = A(0 + 0) = 2A(0) J A A(0) = 0 0 = A(0) = A(x − x) = A(x) + A(−x) J A : X → Y
A = A =@EJEL E FAH=J H E = E

A(−x) = −A(x)
J= = K A E A@E

A = A

AFHA E@= J= = = K

x

FH E L G = J=

x0 ∈ X

FH IJ H= IJE

X

E E

n→+∞

X E LAHCEH= = x 1 lim A(xn − x + x0 ) = Ax0 @= A
n→+∞
J = E @= A

AFHA E@

IJE K J=

(xn ) x0 I

> C =@EJEL 5=@=

FAH=J H= @ >E = K J= E

A x

E I A@E

n→+∞

lim Axn = Ax

lim (Axn − Ax + Ax0 ) = Ax0

AF IHA@ AFHA E@=

FAH=J H

A 

LE@AJE JA HA K  !  A = IK

FAH=J H C@A A = >
4A AMA

X EY H EH= E FH IJ HE E A : D (A) → Y D(A) ⊆ X , = =JE I A@A = JLH AM= FAH=J H A A CH= E A = A AFHA E@= K A@ J= FAH=J H A A AFHA E@= = E I= = A CH= E A
@= A F IJ FAH=J H E

E A=H E

E 

= 2HAJF IJ=LE = IL=

A
L

AFHA E@= @= A

K J=

E

x0

E

D(A)

6=@= E

ε>0
A

= IL=

D(A) K
6=@= A

x ∈ D(A)

=@ L G=L=

δ > 0 J= x − x0

δ

=

Ax − Ax0 y = 0 E FH

ε
IJ H=

x = x0 + x − x0 = A@
>E =

δ y y

F= A

δ y. y x − x0 = δ δ y y

HEIJA E

E A=H

IJ

FAH=J H=

Ax − Ax0 = A(x − x0 ) = A
2 J A

=

δ y

Ay .

A

AFHA E@=

K J=

E

x0 J
J

A

δ y

Ay

ε,

Ay

ε y . δ

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!

=

c = ε/δ

A

Ay

c y

J

A

c

J

F

= K A @= A

FAH=J H

A

CH= E A > 2HAJF IJ=LE @= A AFHA E@= ) A = FHA @= A AA FAH=J H

A

CH= E A

E @

=<E AA

A =0 x ∈ D(A) = A
6=@= A

A = A

= 0 JLH AMA JHELE = L=<E A = x0 ∈ D(A) FH E L G = J= = E ε > 0 x − x0 < δ = δ = ε/ A @ >E =

=0

= IL=

Ax − Ax0 = A(x − x0 )
AH A FAH=J H

A x − x0 < A δ = ε,
A

A

E A=H= FAH=J H

=

x0

FH E L G = J= = EJ=L = = FH IJ

= E

= GK K A >H=J
!

@= A

A

AFHA E@=

JL@H AMA A F I A@E?= JLH AM= @ H EH= E A

C K @A K =

D(A) HK D (A)
*= =D L

E CKIJ F JFH IJ H FH IJ H E A : E → Y CH= E A FAH=J H A <A FH @K<EJE K CH= E FHE J A A = A
A = A
4A AMA

C FH IJ H= FAH=J H E A=H E

X
,

Y

E A=H E

= =JE @= IA

FAH=J H A

:X→Y

= E E

,ABE E E FAH=J H A I= A(x) = A(x), = IL= x ∈ E E CKIJ F JFH IJ H FH IJ H= X J=@= = IL= x ∈ X \ E F IJ E (en ) A A A =J= E E J= =L @= A x = lim en 6=@= (Aen ) FHA@IJ=LG= n→+∞ E Y = E L=<E A

Aem − Aen = A(em − en )
K A (en ) E AL E  AH Y 2H IJ H Y A *= =D L y = lim Aen = x ∈ E K = <A A F= E E

A em − en .
AE E E

LAHCA J=  J

(Aen )

E AL 5=@=

(Aen )
IJ= J= = EJ=L

LAHCEH=

A = A @=GA

n→+∞

en = x, n ∈ N X
I=

@= @ABE E

A

FAH=J H

A

FH IJ HK

A(x) = lim Aen ,
n→+∞
C@A A ,

(en )
=<E

E A A A =J= E @= A L=

E

J= =L @= A

KLA@A

FAH=J H @ >H

n→∞

lim en = x.
@ABE EI= 7 E

′ @L= E = (en ) E (en ) J= L= @= A lim en n→+∞ ′ E = (en − en ) FHEF=@= K FH IJ HK E E
AFHA E@ IJE E E A=H IJE

FAH=J H=

= lim e′ n→+∞ n en − e′ n → A@
J >E =

=x 0

6=@= A A A JE > C

n → +∞

′ A(en − e′ n ) = Aen − Aen → 0, n → +∞,

n→+∞

lim Aen = lim Ae′ n.
n→+∞ 

"

),)+1

,

=<E

@= A

A

E A=H=

FAH=J H E

A = IK

A A A JE E

X

J= LE @=

FH E L G E I = =HE 6=@=

n→+∞
> C

lim e′ n = x1
E A=H

IJE

n→+∞

x1 E x2 FH lim e′′ n = x2
FAH=J H=

E L G E =

α

E

β

A

L=<E

′′ ′ ′′ A(αx1 + βx2 ) = lim A(αe′ n + βen ) = lim A(αen ) + lim A(βen )

=
, A =<E

n→+∞

α lim A(e′ n) n→+∞
CH= E A

+

n→+∞ β lim A(e′′ n) n→+∞
FAH=J H=

= αA(x1 ) + βA(x2 ).
A = A

n→+∞

IJ

A

AFHA E@

n→+∞

lim en = x en ∈ E n ∈ N
IJE H A E @= A

6=@= A

Aen
@= A

FAH=J H=

A

FK

J= K E @= FAH=J H=

x ∈ X J= A en n ∈ N n → +∞ @

=L @= > C

>E =

A x x∈X A = E @= A A X = GK K A @= A A Ax
"

A = GK K A @K<AMA

FAH=J H A

CH= E A

A FH A A

= JE A E @= A

A = A = A

EJ=L FH IJ H

A = IK K =
AMA

X

E

Y X

H EH= E FH IJ HE E FAH=J H CH= E A AFHA E@= E K

J H 2 C
4A

= =JE @= A E =E A = A

A:X→Y
= E I=

E A=H E =

FAH=

A I E = >E

Y

A AFHA E@= FAH=J H E (xn ) FH E L G= K = E K X 6=@= L=<E Axn A xn → 0 n → +∞ @=L@A = GK K A E KY @= A (Axn ) CH= E A , =<E @= FAH=J H A E K = E (xn ) E X I E = K CH= E H= >EJE AFHA E@= 2HAJF IJ=LE IKFH J A E (Axn ) K Y @= A E A AFHA E@= 6=@= A E A E CH= E A = X LE@AJE =@=J=  J A = +∞ ,= A F IJ E E (xn ) J= =L @= A xn = 1 E A = A ρn = 1/ Axn 6=@= A lim ρn = 0 lim Axn = +∞
n→+∞
= A

n→+∞

n→+∞
J A

lim

ρn xn = lim
2 J A

xn Axn

n→+∞

= 0,

(ρn xn ) lim

K =

E K

X

n→+∞
@ >E =

A(ρn xn ) = lim |ρn | Axn = lim
n→+∞
K = E = E

n→+∞
E

Axn = +∞,
K

@= I E =

X

EA

CH= E A = GK K A

Y

J

A

JH=@E ?E = I= FHAJF IJ=L AFHA E@=
#

@=L@A

@= A

FAH=J H

A

K FH IJ HK

X
E H EH= E FH IJ HE E

A = IK

X

E

Y

HA= =

FAH=J H CH= E A

CH= E A E A=H E

KC E

x

1

FH IJ H=

A : X → Y =@EJEL= X , = =JE @= A A

FAH=J H

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

#

4A

AMA

,

=<E

FHL

@= A

FAH=J H

AD

CA IJE

J

@= = IL=

E

α ∈ R L=<E A(αx) = αA(x)
n− FKJ=

> C =@EJEL

FAH=J H=

A

A

x∈X

A(nx) = A(x + x + · · · + x) = nA(x), A(−x) = −A(x) x ∈ X A(−nx) = −nA(x) x ∈ X n ∈ N = A
= L=<E E

x ∈ X, n ∈ N.
=@=J=  J A 

LE@AJE

A(x) = A n ·
@ >E = @= A = ED A@ = IJE

x x = nA , n n
= J

A(x/n) = A(x)/n x ∈ X n ∈ N 1 FHA@D @ @ p p = GK K A @= A A( · x) = A(x) p ∈ Z q ∈ N q q A(sx) = sA(x) x ∈ X s ∈ Q
, = = A AFHA E@ E E IJ FAH=J H= J= L

A

K

K E

2

J

A

FAH=J H

A
7

CH= E A E A = A

J

F IJ

M

0

@= L=<E E

Ax

FH E L G=

J= = =

(xn )

X

J= =L @= A

M = x 1 lim xn = 0
n→+∞

ε > 0 FH E L G 7 E @=GA E @A I n0 ∈ N J= =L @= A ε 6=@= A xn 1/n0 n N (ε) @=L@A A n0 xn 1 M/n0 M @ I Axn M/n0 n N (ε) F= A A(n0 xn ) = n0 Axn ε n N (ε) ,= A lim Axn = 0 = A(0) 6E A I @ = = E
AFHA E@ AFHA E@ IJ IJ FAH=J H= = EJ=L

n→+∞

AK

K E

=

I

LK

=@=J = 

I A@E MAC L=

FH IJ HK

X
>H )

2 @IAJE >H E F
$

IA @=

= IL= E HA= =

r
A

F IJ

E

E

H=?E

=

ED J=@=

AL=

(rn ) J=

=L @= A FK

A(rn x) = rn A(x) FAH=J H= A @ >E =
= = E @= A A = A I= FAH=J

n → +∞ E HEIJA E AFHA E@ IJ A(rx) = rA(x) x ∈ X r ∈ R 6E A I H A E A=H= = FH IJ HK X
J= K E @= @= A =JE @= A C@A A FAH=J H

n→+∞

lim rn = r

xE X

FH E L G

@ABE EI=

a ∈ R E |a| < 1 2 = Ax = y = (yn ) x = (xn ) yn =
+∞ k=1

A : m → m

ak xn+k ,
H K A A A J

n ∈ N,

E A=H=
4A AMA

E ,

CH= E A =<E

E =

= E

K

@=

x∈m

y = Ax

J=

A FHEF=@= FH 

$

),)+1

IJ HK

m

A = A

x = (xn ) ∈ m
+∞

6=@= A

y = sup |yn | = sup
n∈ N

n∈N k=1

ak xn+k
+∞ k=1
A

sup |ak | =

+∞

n∈N k=1

|ak ||xn+k |

n∈ N
@=

sup |xn |

+∞ k=1

|ak | = x

|a| x < +∞, 1 − |a| A
CH= E A J @= A

A = GK K A

@=

y ∈ m E @= A

FAH=J H

(1)
E A=H @HA@E A = A = = E IJ IA IJ=LG=

|a| . 1 − |a|
IJ= L= A E H=@ @L= I K = = =

EJ= ?K = I=

H K

FAH=J H= 7 E

A

4=

E

0

@= A

a < 1 x0 = 1

A A A J

1 @ABE E?E A

FAH=J H=

x0 = (1, 1, . . .) ∈ m A @ >E =

Ax0 =
+∞ k=1 +∞ k=1

+∞ k=1

a ,

k

+∞ k=1

ak , . . . ,

F= A

Ax0

=

ak =

|ak | = 

LE@AJE JA HA K 

|a| 1 − |a| Ax0 =

=

A

x0

= 1

J

A

(2)
1

A = sup
x =1

Ax A =
7 E

(1) E (2) @EHA
A = A I=@=

J

I A@E

+∞ k=1

|a| . 1 − |a|

|ak | (−1)k ak ,
+∞ k=1

−1 < a < 0
+∞ k=1

A A

x0 = 1 E Ax0 =

(−1)k+1 ak ,
+∞ k=1

x0 +∞
k=1

= (−1, 1, −1, 1, . . .) ∈ m
+∞ k=1

6=@= F=

(−1)k+1 ak , . . .

Ax0 = max =
+∞ k=1

(−1) a ,
+∞ k=1

k k

(−1)k+1 ak

|a|k =

|a|k =

|a| , 1 − |a|

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

%

@=

A I A@E

(3) (1) E (3) @

A

|a| . 1 − |a| A = |a| 1 − |a|
A FAH=J H

=

I

LK

>E =

@= A

%

7 *= =D L

= E

FH IJ HK m @ABE Ax = y = (yn ) x = (xn ) C@A A

EI=

A

= I A@A E

yn =
+∞ k=1

+∞ k=1

akn xk ,

n ∈ N.
= =JE @= A

)

A

γ = sup
n∈N

|akn |
E = E

< +∞
K

@

A

CH= E A

E

E

A=H=
4A AMA

FAH=J H K A = A

m

H K

x = (xn ) ∈ m
+∞ k=1

6=@= A

|yn | =
F=

akn xk
J

+∞ k=1

|akn ||xk | γ x
= I ,=

x
A

+∞ k=1

|akn |, γ

y = sup |yn |
7 E E

γ x
@= A @=

Ax

A

n∈N

ε

J= L

0<ε<γ
A

LK @ABE E?E A IKFHA K = A = A @=GA

F IJ

n ∈ N

J= L

αn =

+∞ k=1

|akn | > γ − ε Ax0 = (yn )

x0 = ( sgn a1n , sgn a2n , . . .) ∈ m yn =
@= A I A@E

6=@= A

C@A A

+∞ k=1

akn sgn akn =
=

+∞ k=1

|akn | = αn > γ − ε,
A

JA HA K
& 

2

Ax0 > γ − ε J A A
FH IJ HK

A J A

γ m

x0 = 1 J A =γ
A

A > γ − ε LE@AJE Ax = y = (yn )

7 *= =D L FHE

@ABE EI=

FAH=J H

x = (xn )

A K A

yn =

+∞ k =n

1 xk , 2k+1−n

n ∈ N. 

&

),)+1

,

= =JE @= IK

A

E

A−1

CH= E A E

E A=H E

FAH=J HE K

L

FH

IJ HK

4A

AMA

=FEI= A

yn n ∈ N akn =

K

> E K

yn =

+∞ k=1

akn xk

C@A A

0, 1 2k+1−n

k < n, , k n. n∈N = 1.
E A=H E FAH=J H K F= A

,=GA A

+∞ k=1

|akn | =

1 =1 k+1−n 2 k =n γ = sup
n∈N

+∞

= IL=

+∞ k=1

|akn |

=

I

LK

=@=J = E @= A

% I A@E @= A

A

CH= E A

FH IJ HK

m

A =1
@C L=H= K E E LAH E FAH=J H = A@ = E = F F

,= >EI IJ 4A E

@HA@E E

F I =JH=

yn =

+∞ k=n
@ >E =

1 2k+1−n

xk

=

IEIJA

xk

=L= K E K

A E IEIJA

x1 = 2y1 − y2 , x2 = 2y2 − y3 , . . . , xk = 2yk − yk+1 ,
@=L@A F= A E AF IHA@ = I A@E @= 6=@= A FAH=J H A

k ∈ N.

−1 F IJ

E

FH E L G = J=

|xk | = |2yk − yk+1 | 3 y .
@=

y = (yn ) ∈ m 2|yk | + |yk+1 | 3 y
A = A

x = sup |xk |
k ∈N
1 F I A@MA A A@ = IJE = GK K A

A−1

3

x = A−1 y ∈ m
@= A

E @=

A

7 E J= K y = (1, −1, 0, 0, . . .) ∈ m = = E x = A−1 y = (3, −2, 0, 0, . . .) = − 1 3 A A ,= A

8E@E

@= A y = 1 E @= A x = A−1 y = 3 F=

A−1 = 3
FAH=J H =@=J K FHAJD @ =@=J K $ = IL= =@=J K A IFA?E = = I K =

)2
> E K

- )

FAH=J H= @=J C K

n ∈ N 1 2

<A

yn

=FEI=JE K

yn =

+∞ k=n

xk = 2k+1−n

1

+∞ k=0

2

x = k+1 n+k

1

+∞ k=0

1 xn+k . 2k

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

'

= @ EI

= EL=MA HEIJEJE

E

A=H $

IJE E

CH=

E

A

IJE

L

C

FAH=J

H=

<A IA

=@=J=

'

7 *=

=D FHE

L A

FH K A

IJ

HK

m
+∞ k=1

@ABE

EI=

A

FAH=J

H

Ax = y = (yn )

x = (xn )

yn =
E HA@ E

αk xn+k ,
,

n ∈ N,
= =JE @= A LK H

+∞ k=1

αk =FI
H K L

KJ FH IJ

LAHCEH= HK E =

A

CH=

E

A

E

A=H

FAH=J

E MAC

K

4A >

AMA E K

=

=

= E

@= IA

yn n ∈ N akn =

<A

=FEI=JE K I

A@A

A

yn =
A = A

+∞ k=1

akn xk ,

C@A

A

k 0, αk−n , k
+∞ k=1
E A

n, n + 1.

γ = sup
n∈N
HEIJA E

+∞ k=1

|akn |
% @

= sup
n∈N

+∞ k=1

|αk |
CH=

=

|αk | < +∞.
A=H E FAH=J H E

=@=J=

>E =

@= A

A

E

A =γ= 

7 FH

+∞ k=1
IJ

|αk |
HK

C[0, 1]

@=J

A A

FAH=J FAH=J

H

A LHA@ @ >E A

IJE F=H=

AJH=

α
?K

(Ax)(t) = x(tα ) = α > 0 H A E A=H= E CH= E A
=JE MAC LK H K E H=@

= =

A LHA@

IJE F=H=

AJH=

αE
= I=

H=

K

4A

AMA

IJ=LG=

EJ=

IJ= 

CH=

= E A

A BK E E

?E A A=H=

α(t) (0
K FH IJ ?K

t 1) A HK C[0, 1]
= I= IJ=

FAH=J =

H

(Ax)(t) = α(t)x(t)
LK H K

E MAC

4A

AMA

IJ=LG=

EJ=

E H=@ 

7 *=

=D

L

FH

IJ

HK

ℓ2 @=J

A

FAH=J

H

Aα x = (α1 x1 , α2 x2 , . . .),
C@A A

x = (x1 , x2 , . . .),
= H K A E LA

(αn )
E A

E E A=H

F E

A

I

ED >H H E

AL= =

1IFEJ=JE E MAC LK

(αn )

A

A

CH=

FAH=J 

),)+1

4A

AMA

IJ=LG=

EJ=

?K

= I=

IJ=

E H=@ 

!

A

=

A

FAH=J

H

T : ℓ2 → ℓ2 @ABE
CH= E A IJ

EI=

I=

T (x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .) = (xn+1 , xn+2 , . . .),
1IFEJ=JE = E MAC E LK A=H H K IJ E

x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) ∈ ℓ2 .
H=

FAH=J

T

E =

A

CH=

E

A

4A

AMA

A

= IK

x, y ∈ ℓ2

E

α, β ∈ K

6=@=

A

T (αx + βy ) = T (αx1 + βy1 , αx2 + βy2 , αx3 + βy3 , . . .) = (αxn+1 + βyn+1 , αxn+2 + βyn+2 , . . .) = (αxn+1 , αxn+2 , . . .) + (βyn+1 , βyn+2 , . . .) = αT x + βT y,
J

,=

T A E A=H= = IL= x ∈ ℓ2 EC A@ L=<E @= A T x x F= A T 1 A FAH=J H T A CH= E A K FH IJ HK ℓ2 7 E @= = en+1 = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .) ∈ ℓ2 L=<E en+1 = 1 E
FAH=J H

n

T (en+1 ) = (1, 0, . . .) = e1 T = sup
x =1
= GK K A @= A

=

A

T (x)

T (en+1 )

e1 = 1,

T =1
FAH=J A H 

"

A

= A @=J= HA= I=

T : Rn → Rr

= =JHE?= A = [αjk ]r ×n ,ABE E E T x = y = (y1 , . . . , yr ) x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) C@A

n

y = Ax,
1IFEJ=JE @= E A L=

yj =
k=1
@ABE EI=

αjk xk ,
FAH=J

j = 1, . . . , r.
H

T

E

A=H=

E

CH=

E

A

4A ,

AMA =<E

T

A @=

E A

A=H=

FAH=J E A

H

AH

A H

=JHE HEIJA E

<AMA A A@ =

E IJ

A=H E

T

CH= C @

FAH=J

L=H? *KM=

LI

>E =

r

r 2 yj

n

2

y

2

=
j =1 r j =1

=
j =1 n 2 αjk k=1 k=1

αjk xk
1/2 n

 

x2 m
m=1

 1/2 2

r 2

n 2 αjk ,

 = x

j =1 k=1

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

@

I

Tx
A CH=

2
E A

M x
J

2

r
C@A A

n

M=
j =1k=1

2 < +∞ αjk

,=

A

FAH=

J

H

T

L=<E

T

M
?E = AFHA E@ = = L=@H=JK 

#

A

= A

K (s, t) HA=
A J=@= I=

= BK

0

s, t

1

,

= =JE @=

1

(Ax)(s) =
0
@ABE EI= CH= E A E A=H

K (s, t) x(t) dt,
E FAH=J H K FH

0
IJ

s
HK

1 C[0, 1]
>E = ?E = @=

4A

AMA

)

BK FH

?E = IJ

FHEF=@= EIJ

HK J

x FHEF=@= FH IJ HK C[0, 1] = @ @= A : C[0, 1] → C[0, 1] .K
1

Ax

z (s) =
0
A AFHA J E@ = = A F= I= E JE E

|K (s, t)| dt
E A = = =JL HA = A E JAHL= K

CH=

[0, 1]

M

0 L=<E z (s)
1

M 0

s
1

1

|(Ax)(s)| =

K (s, t) x(t) dt
0 1 0

|K (s, t)| |x(t)| dt

x
0
J A

|K (s, t)| dt M x

M x ,
,= A

Ax = max |(Ax)(s)|
0 s 1
E A=H IJ FAH=J H=

x ∈ C[0, 1]
EJ=

A
= I=

M
IJ=

A IA

IJ=LG=

?K @= @

=<A

E H=@ 

$

FAH=J

H

A : C[0, 1] → C[0, 1]
t

A @ABE

EI=

I=

(Ax)(t) =
0
, = =JE @= A L= FAH=J H E

x(u) du,
A=H= E

0
CH= E

t
A

1.
E = E MAC LK H K

4A

AMA = FH

IJ=LG= E L G K BK

EJ=

?K @= F

=<A

E BK

A=H

IJ

FAH=J

H=

A

?E K

x ∈ C[0, 1]
t

?E =

y (t) =
0

x(u)du,

0

t

1, 

),)+1

A = F

AFHA I E

E@ LK A

= F= =CH=

A <

FAH=J LA JA

H HA

A @ABE
A A

EI=

= LHA@

EJ=L IJE

FH

IJ

HK

IHA@M

= IL= 5=@= A

IJ

t0 ∈ [0, t] J=
t∈[0,1]

L

@=

y (t) = (t − 0)x(t0 )

C[0, 1] t ∈ [0, 1]

Ax = max |y (t)| = max |t||x(t0 )| = |x(t0 )|
t∈[0,1]
@= E A A=H A = E GK K A @= H K FH A IJ F=

t∈[0,1]

max |x(t)| = x ,
A @= A CH= E A

A
HK A

FAH=J

1 C[0, 1]
EC A@

FAH=J ) K

H A

A

J=@=

x =1E y =1
IJ HK

A =1
JACH= E

x(u) ≡ 1 u ∈ [0, 1]
FAH=J H 

%

7 FH

C[0, 1] @ABE

EI=

A E

A I=

1

(Ax)(t) = x(t) −
, FH = =JE @= IJ J= HK A = CH= A E E FAH=J @C A H

tsx(s) ds,
0
E LAH A E >E A

0
JEL= H

t
E

1.
E A=H= K L A

A

CH= E E

L=H= K

FAH=J

A−1

E @

= =JE @=

4A

AMA 7

E

BK

?E K

1

(1)
C@A A J

y (t) = x(t) − cx =
IJ

0

sx(s)ds t = x(t) − cx t,
A BK

0

t y J=

1,
AA A A J

1 0 s x(s) ds
H= F= A

C FH 2 =

) x ∈ C[0, 1] J=@= D(A) = C[0, 1] A

?E =

= =JE A

= LA<>K @=

A

E

A=H=

FAH=J

H

J

A

|cx | =

1 0 s x(s) ds

1 0 s |x(s)| ds

x t x , 2

1 0 s ds

=

1 x 2

|y (t)|
@= A @ >E =

|x(t)| + |cx |t 3 x , 2
A CH= E >

x +

y = sup |y (t)|
t∈[0,1]
,= <A = IL= A@

J

Ax
FAH=J K

3 x , 2
H E L=<E

x ∈ C[0, 1]
= IJ

A

A

A E

A

(1)

3 2

=FEI=JE K

(2)

x(t) = y (t) + cx t,

0

t

1,

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!

@=

A

=

@ >E =

@= A <A

HEIJA E

LK LA K

(2)

cx = cy + 1 3 cx
=FEI=JE K

C@A A

cy =

1 0 ty (t) dt

> E K

(3)
)

x(t) = y (t) +

3 2

1

ty (t) dt t,
0

y ∈ C[0, 1].

t ∈ [0, 1] J=@= E A@ = IJE (3) I A@E A y1 (t) = y2 (t) = IL= ) A x1 (t) = x2 (t) t ∈ [0, 1] ,= A FAH=J H A A E A JEL= y ∈ C[0, 1] FH E L G = BK ?E = J=@= BK ?E = x @ABE EI= = I= (3) FHEF=@= FH IJ HK C[0, 1] E L=<E y (t) = (Ax)(t) 0 t 1 J A A IEH A JEL E FAH=J H 6E A I F = = E @= A FAH=J H A >E A JEL= = FH IJ HK C[0, 1] 1 ! I A@E @= A x
2HA = J A

y + 7 y 4
A

3 7 y = y . 4 4 A−1
CH= E A FAH=J H E L=<E

A−1 
&

A−1 y

F= A

7/4
7 FH IJ HK

C[0, 1] @=J

FAH=J H

1

(Ax)(t) = x(t) − 3
, A
4A

t3 s2 x(s) ds. C[0, 1] E @=
K I A@A A

0
FAH=J H K FH IJ HK

= =JE @= A JL HA
AMA

A
C

E A=H E

CH= E A

) =

FHA@D @

=@=J K

=FE

E

y = Ax

> E K

(1)
FHE A K A IJ A

y (t) = x(t) − 3 cx t3 , cx =
1 2 0 s x(s) ds
FAH=J H=

x ∈ C[0, 1],
A

EC A@

E A=H =

A

IJ=LG=

EJ= ?K = I=

D(A) = C[0, 1]
IJ=

,

=

E H=@

|y (t)|

|x(t)| + 3 t3 = x + 3t
3

1 0

s2 x(s)ds

x + 3t3 x
0

1

s2 ds

1 x , 3 2 x
F= A

@ >E = FAH=J H

@=

A A

Ax

= sup |y (t)|
E

A

2

,=

A

A

CH= E A

t∈[0,1]

E A=H=

K FH IJ HK

C[0, 1] 

"

),)+1

, @ L G BK

=<E A@

I=@= @= A = =JE @= A

FAH=J H FAH=J H

A JL HA A IEH A JEL=
>E =

=

I 7

LK JA HA A E

!

FH E L G K

?E K

y ∈ C[0, 1]

6=@= E

(1) @

x(t) = y (t) + 3 t3 cx ,
,=GA

0

t

1.

1

cx =
0
@ FH A I

t2 x(t) dt =
0

1

t2 y (t) dt + 3 cx
0

1

t5 dt = cy +

1 cx , 2 1
FHEF=@= = = E @=

cx = 2cy 6=@= BK ?E = x(t) = y (t)+6t3 cy 0 t IJ HK C[0, 1] E = IA @ = K A @= A Ax = y 6E A I FAH=J H A IEH A JEL= 2HA = J A FAH=J H A A JL
, = =JE @= IK I A@A E E MED LA FAH=J HE H A CH= E A E E

F HA 

'

E A=H E K FH

IJ HK

C[0, 1] E = = (Ax)(t) = 
> L

(Ax)(t) = (Ax)(t) =
= = IA @ A

1 0 sin π (t − s) x(s) ds 1 t−s x(s) ds 0 e 1 n m 0 t s x(s) ds
= K A @= IK @=JE FAH=J HE E A=H E @ = =JE

4A

AMA 

=

1

|(Ax)(t)| =

0 1 0

sin π (t − s)x(s) ds
1

| sin π (t − s)||x(s)| ds
t 1 0

x
0

| sin π (t − s)| ds = 2/π 2 x , π
) A

= x
J A

sin π (t − s)ds +

t

sin π (s − t) ds
F= A

Ax

= sup |(Ax)(t)|
t∈[0,1]
J A

2 x /π
E

A

x0 (t) = 1 t ∈ [0, 1]

x0 = 1
1

|(Ax0 )(t)| =
,=GA A

0

sin π (t − s)ds =
F= A

2| cos πt| . π Ax0 = 2/π

Ax0 = sup
= =

2| cos πt| = 2/π π t∈[0,1]
C @ >E = @= A

A

1 ILAC= @

A = 2/π

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

# 

> 2

J

A

1

|(Ax)(t)| =

et−s x(s) ds
0 1

1

et−s x(s) ds

0

x
0
J A 7

et−s ds = et x (1 − 1/e),
F= A 6=@= A

Ax = sup |(Ax)(t)|
t∈[0,1]
E BK ?E K

(e − 1) x

A

e−1

x0 (t) = 1 t ∈ [0, 1]
1 0

x0 = 1 E

|(Ax0 )(t)| =
F= A @ I L

et−s ds = et (1 − 1/e),
,= A

Ax0 = sup et (1 − 1/e) = e − 1
@ = = = EI IA @

A

t∈[0,1]

Ax0 = e − 1
FAH=J H E @= A

1 A = m+1 

= K A @= A

A =e−1 A

CH= E A

E A=H E

,

= =JE @= A I=

akn xk n ∈ N @ABE EI= k=1 FH IJ H= ℓp K FH IJ H ℓq 1/p + 1/q
A

yn =

+∞

Ax = y = (yn ) x = (xn ) ∈ ℓp p > 1
CH= E A E A=H E

FHE

A K

FAH=J H E

=1
q

E @= A

A

β

C@A A

β=

+∞ k,n=1

1/q

|akn |

< +∞.

4A

AMA

E A=H

IJ

L C

FAH=J H= IA

= =

@

= KA FHE A

A = A 0A @AH LA

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓp p > 1
A A@ = IJE E =

6=@=

1/p + 1/q = 1

|yn | =

+∞ k=1

|akn ||xk |
1/q

+∞ k=1

1/q

|akn |

q

+∞ k=1

1/p

|xk |

p

+∞ k=1

|akn |

q

x ,

n ∈ N, 

$

),)+1

@=

A

A

+∞ n=1
J

1/q

|yn |q
ℓp
F= A

+∞ +∞ n=1 k=1

1/q

|akn |q

x =β x ,

Ax 

,

ℓq

β x

A

β
C@A A

= =JE @=

A I=

Ax = y = (yn ) x = (xn ) ∈ ℓp p > 1 yn = 1 n
+∞ k=1

xk , k

n ∈ N,
H E FH IJ H=

@ABE

EI=

CH=

E

A

E

A=H

E

FAH=J

ℓp

K FH

IJ

H

ℓq

1/p + 1/q = 1
4A AMA ) =FE A

yn n ∈ N akn xk ,
C@A

K

>

E

K

yn =
J=@= E =

+∞ k=1

A

akn =

1 , kn

k, n ∈ N, 1/q

β= =
FHE = FH A K K A H A

+∞

k,n=1

+∞

k=1

1 kq

|akn |q 
+∞ n=1

1/q

1 nq

1/q

=

+∞ k,n=1 2 ℓq

1  k q nq

= a
= E

< +∞,
LK FHAJD H E @ C IJ =@=J H= = K

a = (1,

GK IJ

@= A A CH= E A ℓq 1/p + 1/q = 1 E FHEJ

1 1 2 , 3 , . . .)

∈ ℓq q > 1
E A

I

A=H

FAH=J

FH

ℓp

A

β=

+∞ n=1

1 nq

2/q

.

,ABE

E

E A

FAH=J K A

H

A : ℓp → ℓp p > 1 akn xk k=1  p/q 1/p 
+∞

I=

Ax = y = (yn )

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓp FHE  α=
+∞ n=1

yn =

n∈N
=

E

+∞ k=1

|akn |q

< +∞

1 1 + = 1. p q

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

%

,

= =JE @=

A

A

CH=

E

A

E

A=H

E

FAH=J

H K

L

FH

IJ

HK E @=

L=<E

A
E A

α
A=H IJ L C FAH=J H= IA = = F = K A FHE A

4A

AMA A =

0A

@AH

LA

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓp p > 1
A A@ = IJE E =

6=@=

1/p + 1/q = 1
+∞ k=1

|yn | =
@= A @ >E =

+∞ k=1

|akn ||xk |
1/q

+∞ k=1

1/q

1/p

|akn |

q

|xk |

p

+∞ k=1

|akn |q

x ,

n ∈ N,

+∞ k=1
J

1/p

|yn |p α x
ℓp
F=


A

Ax
!

+∞ n=1

+∞ k=1

p/q

|akn |q

1/p 

x =α x ,

ℓp

A
H

α A : ℓ 2 → ℓ2
+∞ k=1
I=

,ABE A K A

E

E

FAH=J

Ax = y = (yn ) x = (xn )

FHE

yn =
, H = =JE @= K A

1 2n
E

1 xk , 2k
E

n ∈ N.
H K FH IJ HK

A

CH=

E

A

A=H

FAH=J

ℓ2 E

=

E

K

4A

AMA

=FE

E

yn n ∈ N akn , xk
=

K

>

E

K

yn =
A = A

+∞ k=1

n ∈ N,
K =@=J

C@A

A

akn =
=

1 2k+n

,

k ∈ N.

α @ABE

EI=

K

p=q=2
1/2

J

α=
+∞ k,n=1
A FAH=J H

+∞ n=1

+∞ k=1
A

|akn |

2

.

=

A

1/4k+n = 1/9
CH= E A

J

α = 1/3
A

2HA

=

=@=J

K

I

A@E @=

A

E FHEJ

A

α = 1/3 

&

),)+1

7

E

@=GA

x0 = (1/2n ) x0 =

=

@ >E =

@= A

1 1 =√ , 22n 3 n=1
@= A @ >E =

+∞

F=

x0 ∈ ℓ2

6=@= A

yn =
+∞

1 n∈N 3 · 2n

Ax0 =
,
"

1 |yn |2 = √ , 3 3 n=1 A
1 3
J I= LA

J

Ax0 =
= = E @= A

1 x0 . 3 A =
1 3

= = EI A = A

@= A

@

A

CH= E A

E A=H E

FAH=J H K *= =D L

FH IJ HK

X

,

= =JE @= A

sin(A) =
J= A CH= E A FAH=J H K

+∞ n=0
L

(−1)n

A2n+1 (2n + 1)!
L=<E

FH IJ HK E @= FHEJ

sin(A)
4A AMA

sh A .

=

A

(−1)n
E = I LK ,= = >AH L C

A2n+1 (2n + 1)!
HEJAHE K =

A 2n+1 , (2n + 1)!
∗ HA@

I A@E @= HA@

A 2n+1 n=0 (2n + 1)!
+∞

LAHCEH=

(1)
=FI >E

6

+∞ n=0
KJ

(−1)n

A2n+1 (2n + 1)!
FH IJ HK

LAHCEH= K *= =D L LAHCEH= K EIJ

L(X )

5J C= HA@

(1)

E

FH IJ HK LE@AJE =@=J=
LAHCA ?E A HA@= ) EA A 

$! 1 = K E J
+∞

- 4- )
= 

,= = >AH L

HEJAHE K

JEL E A

LE = =

E L=<E =

n→+∞

lim

d > 1 @=JE HA@ @ELAHCEH=

d=1

an+1 =d an
L= JAIJ

A = A A

d < 1 HA@

an HA@ I= F E n=1 LAHCA J= = =

@ K EL

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

'

K LE@K @ >E =

sin(A) =

+∞ n=0 +∞ n=0

A2n+1 (−1) (2n + 1)!
n 2n+1

+∞ n=0

(−1)n

A2n+1 (2n + 1)!

A = sh A . (2n + 1)!
E

X = {x ∈ C[0, 1] | x ∈ C2 [0, 1] ∧ x(0) = x(1) = 0} ′′ Y = C[0, 1] ,ABE E E FAH=J H A : X → Y I= Ax = x = , = =JE @= A FAH=J H A E A JEL= 1 > = FH E L G y ∈ Y A = A x(s) = 0 K(s, t) y (t) dt C@A A
#

A = A

K(s, t) =
, = =JE @=

−t(1 − s), 0 −s(1 − t), s
FAH=J H FAH=J H

t t

s, 1. 

L , C , @
4A AMA

= =JE @= F IJ = =JE @= A

x∈X

E @= A E

A−1
A

1/8

A IEH A JEL= A−1 : Y → X A

= E ILA BE I A J= = IA LE@E @= A

FAH=J H=

A E A=H= 6=@= A = 2HAJF IJ=LE @= = x1 , x2 ∈ X L=<E Ax1 = Ax2 ′′ ′′ x1 = x2 F= A x1 (s) = x2 (s) + c1 s + c2 = IL= s ∈ [0, 1] = x1 E x2 FHEF=@= K FH IJ HK X J A x1 (0) = x2 (0) = 0 E x1 (1) = x2 (1) = 0 F= s ∈ [0, 1] 2HA = J A A c1 = c2 = 0 = JE A E x1 (s) = x2 (s) = IL= FAH=J H A A E A JEL=
FAH=J H > = A

1

s

1

x(s) =
0

K(s, t) y (t) dt =
s 0

0

(−t(1 − s))y (t) dt +
1 s

s

(−s(1 − t)) y (t)dt s 1,

= (s − 1)
J A

t y (t)dt − s

(1 − t) y (t)dt,
1

0

x′ (s) =
0

s

t y (t) dt + (s − 1)s y (s) −
s 1

s

(1 − t) y (t) dt + s(1 − s) y (s) 0 s 1.

=
0

t y (t) dt −

s

(1 − t) y (t) dt, 



),)+1

x′′ (s) = sy (s) + (1 − s)y (s) = y (s) = ILA ∈ C[0, 1] F= x ∈ C2 [0, 1] = IA LE@E @= L=<E E y ∈ C[0, 1] ,= x(0) = x(1) = 0 L= JHE KI L= >A >A K K @= x ∈ X 1 2 = = E I @= = IL= y ∈ Y F IJ E x(s) = 0 K(s, t) y (t) dt ′′ J = E @= A FAH=J H A IEH A J= L @= A (Ax)(s) = x (s) = y (s)
@=L@A = @ >E = @= A

′′ A x

JEL= L @ = = = A FAH=J H

A

E

A JEL= I= 

@

= = JE

K = E IEH A JEL= F IJ E E LAH E FAH

K >

A >E A JEL= @ABE EI=

F= I= E

−1 =J H A

:Y →X

(A−1 y )(s) = x(s) =
0 
C = A

1

K(s, t)y (t)dt,

0

s

1.

A−1 y = x = max y max

1 0 s

1

0 s 1

K(s, t)y (t)dt

0 s 1 0 1 s

max

K(s, t)y (t) dt

0 s 1

0

| − t(1 − s)|dt +

| − s(1 − t)|dt

= y max (1 − s)
0 s 1

= y max
F= A

0 s 1

s2 1 s2 + s(1 − ) − s(s − ) 2 2 2 2 s s y = − , 2 2 8
J

A−1
A 

@ ) J A HA

1/8 Ax = x

J=@= F

x /8 @= A = GK K A @= x = A−1 x F= A x = A−1 x x = 0 F= A E x = 0 ,= A A@ = E = Ax = x E = A@E IJLA AMA x = 0 J K = A A@E = BE I = J= = FAH=J H= A
$

A−1

F IJ

E L=<E

A−1 Ax = A−1 x

A =

P
E
4A

AP (t) = P ′ (t) 0
CH= E A
AMA

A X H EH= E FH IJ H = max |P (t)| ,ABE E E

ILED F

E

=

=

[0, 1]

I=

H I= A

t∈[0,1]

FAH=J H

A

= FH IJ HK

X
= E

t

1

,

= =JE @= A

FAH=J H

A

E A=H=

, A

=<E

@= A

FAH=J H =

F

E

= ILA

0

P1 E P2 @ABE t 1 L=<E

EI= A

A E A=H= [0, 1] E FH E L G

7

E

FH E L G A

A I = =HA

αEβ

6=@=

′ ′ (t) + βP2 (t) A αP1 (t) + βP2 (t) = αP1 (t) + βP2 (t) = αP1

= αA P1 (t) + βA P2 (t) ,

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 



@=

A

=

GK

K A

@=

A

FAH=J

H

A
E A

E

A=H= E A 7 A E E F E =

, =<E I=@= @= FAH=J H A (Pn ) @=J I= Pn (t) = tn n ∈ N 0 = IL= = A

CH=

t

1

6=@=

Pn = max |tn | = 1 APn = n n ∈ N
t∈[0,1]

n∈N

E

′ (t) = n tn−1 APn (t) = Pn

F=

A

A = sup
P =1
= IL= GK K A @= 6E A F A I IJ @ E HA= >E =

AP
>H

n∈N

sup APn
J= =L @= E A A

M
H

APn
E A H CH= FAH=J

M

=

)2
AIJ 6 I = >E

n∈N

E @=

FAH=J

A

CH=

- )
K A

FAH=J

H @EBAHA @ A

?EH=M= =@=J K I A ED

A LH LE@A

L=<= E @= H= A

E IA E A LA

HEIJE = K A A

7 FHAJD = = =

A A KJE

CH= =

E

FAH=J

MED

A

@AJ=G

E A =

E EH=JE

%
IJ = HK

,

= =JE @= E = A = F = IJ

CH=

E

A A J

E E HE

A=H = =

E

FAH=J H= C J E

H

@E A LA

E I= J=

a1 , a2 , . . . , an
n

A K 0E >AHJ L FH L=<E dim R(A) < +∞ b1 , b2 , . . . , bn E FH IJ H=
H

H

LE @=

Ax =
i=1 n
4A F= AMA ) A A

x, ai bi .

Ax =
i=1

x, ai bi
FAH=J H

EC

A@

A

R(A) ⊆ L{b1 , b2 , . . . , bn }
E = A = C H= C=

dim R(A)
>H=J E HJ

n
H

J

FHAJF

IJ=LE EH= E

>E L G

x

E

H
2

EIFKMA J A

Ax =

A A = @E A @= A dim R(A) = n A >= EI F JFH IJ H= R(A)
n

6=@= A I

{b1 , b2 , . . . , bn }
A = FH E = =HA

αi (x)bi

= E LAI

αi (x)

i = 1, . . . , n

i=1 n

Ax, bj =
i=1 n
J A

αi (x)bi , bj = αj (x),

j = 1, . . . , n,

Ax =
i=1
= A A

Ax, bi bi Ax, bi = x, A∗ (bi )
n
K E = K E

A∗ (bi ) = ai i = 1, . . . , n

I

A@E @=

Ax =
i=1

x, ai bi ,

x ∈ H. 

),)+1

&
@ I=

)

IK

X

E

Y
E

H E

EH= A=H A E

E FH

IJ

HE H

=@ EIJE

F

GA CH=

I E

= A

=H= =

K
E

= =JE @= = A

A IL= =

FAH=J =

X
A

@E

E

E FH

A : X → Y
IJ H E E FAH=J = E L E I K H

A

Y = {0}
K = E FAH=J = = IJ @= H F= A E @= H=

4A

AMA

)

JLH AMA L=<E

2HAJF A =

Y = {0}
A

J=@=

A @=

A@E A

E

IJ=LE

dim(X ) = n
6=@= IA LA FH A E L G= J H

x∈X
A=H E

X {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } FH
<A FHE FAH=J H = =JE K >

@E G=

A

>= EI FH

n

X
= F=

x=
k=1
A@E

xk ek
n k=1

A

E

A:X →Y
n

Ax =
Y.
A EC

xk Aek

n

Ax
) = E

Y

=
k=1

xk Aek
Y k=1 Y , . . . , Aen n

|xk | Aek
Y}
J=@=

M = max{ Ae1 Ax
Y

A@

M
k=1

|xk |

7 FH

IJ

HK

X

KLA@E

H

K I=

n

n

x =
k=1
H @= A A

xk =
k=1
A A J

|xk |.
E IJ= = IL= J=

x

·

X

· M1 x
E

IK A

LEL=

F= F A

IJ

X Y

EIFKMA

x∈X M x
E A A

5J

C=

EC

A@

E LA

M1 > 0 J= L= J H x ∈ X

Ax
J FAH=J 2HAJF H

M M1 x
= @E

X

= M0 x
E E = A

X,

A

A

CH= @=

IJ=LE =<E = FH

X

>AI

A

E FH E E

IJ A=H

H E @= E

A

X K FH IJ H Y 7 E FH E L G= BE IEH= E A A A J e0 E FH IJ H= Y J= =L @= A e0 = 1 A = A @=GA {eα | α ∈ I } BE IEH= E >= EI FH IJ H= X 2 J A X >AI = @E A E = = I A@E @= A E E @A I E I KF I >AI = = A = A eα = 1 = IL= α ∈ I 1 =>AHE >AI = = E (αn ) E I J= =L @= A αi = αj = i = j ,ABE E E FAH=J H A I=
J H E I E IJ H

Y = {0}

,

@= F

IJ

E >=H A@=

A

CH=

FAH=

6

- 4- )

A(eαn ) = ne0 , n ∈ N;
*E A @LA H A =

A(eα ) = 0, α ∈ I \ {αn | n ∈ N}.
= @E A E = LA J HI FH IJ HK

X

IK A LEL= A J A

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!

2 I =JH= >= ED LA J H= A FHEJ

FAH=J H = ?A

A

= FH IJ HK

X

= A

E A=H

FH

EHAMA I= FAH=J H E

FH IJ H

X

EC A@

A

E A=H=

A(eαn ) = ne0 = n,
@= A I A@E E FH IJ H=
'

n ∈ N,
A CH= E A E FAH=J H

X

A = +∞

,=

A

A

A

E A=H E

K FH IJ H

Y
=@ F GA @ I = =H= K E FAH=J H JEL=

A = IK X E Y *= =D LE FH IJ HE ) A A FAH=J H

A ∈ L(X, Y )
4A AMA

A

JL HA E

= =JE @= A JL HA

A E IEH A X
! 2

= JL HA

FAH=J H

A
A A

JL HA C

X

I KF K

I A@E @= A J A

R(A)

JL HA

F JFH IJ H FH IJ H= F JFH IJ H ,=

Y 

LE@AJE JA HA K C FH IJ H= ?A A IEH A JEL= E L G

A@E E

H EH=

J= FH IJ H

I A@E @= A
!

R(A) = Y
= =JE @= A

FAH=J H

A

,

K = F JFH IJ H

A ∈ L(X, Y )
4A AMA

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

N (A) FH X
=

C

FAH=J H=

A = A

(xn )
= IL=

E

J= = = E

6=@= A @ >E =

Axn = 0

n∈N

N (A)

E A

HEIJA E

AFHA E@

n→+∞
IJ

lim xn = x ∈ X
FAH=J H=

A

0 = lim Axn = A
n→+∞
J

n→+∞

lim xn = Ax,
F= A F JFH IJ H

Ax = 0

@=J A

= GK K A

@=

=JL HA
!

x ∈ N (A)

N (A)

IK X E Y H EH= E FH IJ HE FAH=J H A ∈ L(X, Y ) E FA B : D → Y =JL HA FAH=J H @ABE EI= = CKIJ F JFH IJ HK D ⊆ X @ = =JE @= A FAH=J H A + B : D → Y J= A =JL HA ) H=J H
4A AMA

A = A

(xn )

E E

D J=
E

=L @= A

n→+∞
= A

lim xn = x ∈ X A
AFHA E@=

n→+∞
J A

lim (A + B )xn = y ∈ Y.
n→+∞

FAH=J H @= A

lim Axn = Ax

HEIJA E J

@ >E =

n→+∞
1 =JL HA

lim Bxn = lim
IJE @=

n→+∞

(A + B )xn − Axn = y − Ax ∈ Y. 
# E =F ,= A KF I A A = E J

FAH=J H= B LE@AJE @ABE E?E K E

MA E =

x∈D

Bx = y − Ax

(A + B )x = y 

"

),)+1

(xn )

J=

=L @=

A

n→+∞
L=<E F JFH

lim xn = x ∈ X
E

E

n→+∞
A

lim (A + B )xn = y ∈ Y,
H

x∈D
IJ

HK

(A + B )x = y D
HK

F=

FAH=J

A+B

=JL

HA

= CKIJ

!

7 FH

IJ

R3 @ABE

EI=

=

A BK

?E

A

=

f : R3 → R

I=

f (x) = x · a = x1 a1 + x2 a2 + x3 a3 ,
FHE CH= A E K A A =

x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ),
= J= HK = , = =JE @= A

a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ) ∈ R3
E A=H = BK ?E A = E A=H IJ

BE

IEH= IJ

f

= K FH

R3
= I= >E = IJ= @= A E H=@

4A

AMA , = A

IJ=LG=

EJ=

?K @

5 @HKCA IJH=

|f (x)| = |x · a|
A = K A

@=

x a x∈ A x = a @

R3

f

a

>E =

f = sup
x∈R3 x=0

|f (x)| x

|f (a)| a 2 = = a , a a

F=

A

f = a
A E >H = IK ALE

!!
HA=

=

tk BE IEH= A J= A IAC k = 1, . . . , n n ∈ N ,
n

A

J=

[a, b]

E A

ck

FH

E L

G

E

= =JE @=

f (x) =
k=1
CH= E A = E A=H = BK ?E A =

ck x(tk ) C[a, b] E E
E

=

H=

K

=JE

f

4A

AMA

= FH

E L

G

A

x, y ∈ C[a, b]

α, β ∈ K
n

L=<E

n

f (αx + βy ) = =α

ck (α x + β y )(tk ) =
k=1 n k=1 n

ck (α x(tk ) + β y (tk ))

ck x(tk ) + β
k=1 k=1
A = =

ck y (tk ) = αf (x) + βf (y ),

F=

A

f

E

A=H

= BK

?E

C[a, b]

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

#

2

J

A

n

n

|f (x)| =

ck x(tk )
k=1 n a t b k=1

|ck | |x(tk )|
n

max |x(t)|

k=1

|ck | = x

k=1

|ck |,

n
J A

f
k=1
A = A BK

|ck |
?E = E A = JK

x0

J= IJ=

L= @= J

[a, t0 ] E [tn , b] K
= = IL= AFHA = E@ A IAC =

x0 (tk ) = sgn ck k = 1, 2, . . . , n A LHA@ IJE sgn c0 E sgn cn HAIFA JEL
A = = IA LE@E @= A BK

=

x0

x0

[tk , tk+1 ] A E A=H = IAC A JK [a, b] = max |x0 (t)| = 1 E
a t b n

?E =

n

n

|f (x0 )| =
J A

ck sgn ck =
k=1 k=1

|ck | =
n

k=1

|ck |,

f = sup |f (x)|
n
2HA = J A

x =1

|f (x0 )| =

k=1

|ck |.

f =
k=1

|ck |
?E A A

!"

,

= =JE @= IK BK

ϕ, ψ : C[0, 1] → R
1

@=JA I=

ϕ(f ) =
C@A I= A A

+∞ k=1

ck f

1 k

E

ψ (f ) =
0
A K AC=JEL

φ(x)f (x)dx,
= BK ?E = @ >H @ABE E

+∞ k=1
E

|ck | < +∞
A=H A E = A

E

φ ∈ C[0, 1]
H

@HA@EJE E

4A

AMA

n

Sn =
HA@ ?E BK

+∞ k=1
A ?E

k=1

|ck | f

1 k

f
F= A

+∞ k=1

|ck |,
>H @ABE IJ E EI= E = BK A IJ

ck f (1/k ) =FI
= A A = I LK A

KJ =@=J =

LAHCEH= !! I

ϕ@

A@E

E

A=H

CH=

ϕ E @=

ϕ =

+∞ n=1

|cn | 

$

),)+1

, >H= @ABE EI= JACH=>E E JACH= = = A

IJ BK

?E A BK

A A

ψ

I A@E E E A=H

AFHA E@ IJ E

IJE E E E A=H IJE

IJE F @E JACH=

?E A =

1

1

1

|ψ (f )| =
BK ?E A =

φ(x)f (x)dx
0 0

|φ(x)||f (x)|dx ψ
E L=<E

f
0

|φ(x)|dx, f (x) = 1

ψ A = ILA x ∈ [0, 1] 1 ψ = 0 φ(x)dx
!#

AFHA E@ = E L=<E 6=@= A

1 0 φ(x)dx

A = A

f

= 1

|ψ (f )| =

1 0 φ(x)dx F= A

A = A 

= ) A BK ?E

Rn @=J= H = · ∞ IK α1 , α2 , . . . , αn FH E L G E HA= n A = f : R → R @ABE EI= = I=
= FH IJ HK

E >H

ALE @

= =JE @=

n

(∗)
E A=H = E > ,

f (x) =
k=1
AFHA E@ = E = =JE @=

αk xk ,
@HA@EJE

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), f
E A=H K AFHA E@ K BK J= LE @= L=<E = =@=J= ?E A K

= FH E L G K ALE

f

F IJ
AMA

A A@E IJLA E >H = IJ=LG=

α1 , . . . , αn ∈ R
KC A@K

(∗)
L=

4A

EJ= ?K @= F

!! KH=@E

@A

=@=J = > A =

>= E

E LA J HE FH IJ H= R

f ∈ (Rn )∗
n k=1

)

IK

n

@= = FH E L G= E A=H

e1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , en = (0, 0, . . . , 1) LA J H x = (x1 , . . . , xn )
IJE BK ?E A A

Rn L=<E x =

xk ek

F= > C

f

I A@E

n

f (x) =
k=1
) @ABE E ALE A

xk f (ek ). n
@ >E =

αk = f (ek ) k

IK >H

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ Rn HAFHA A J=?E = (∗) A A@E
!$

β1 , . . . , βn ∈ R

n

J= LE @= A 6=@= A

f (x) =

(∗)

2HAJF IJ=LE

@=

βk xk

= IL= E A A A J ,= A

k=1

f (ek ) = βk f : R2 → R

F= A

βk = αk

IJLA = ?E A = @=J= I=

,

= =JE @= A BK E A=H = E

x = (x1 , x2 )
H =

AFHA E@ = E

@HA@EJE

f

=

f (x) = x1 − x2 2 A = R @=J=

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

% 

=
4A AMA

·

1 

>

·

2 

L

·


E L G E LA J HE E

A = IK

x = (x1 , x2 ), y = (y1 , y2 ) FH

R2

E

α, β ∈ R FH

E L G E I = =HE 6=@= A

f (αx + βy ) = f ((αx1 + βy1 , αx2 + βy2 )) = α(x1 − x2 ) + β (y1 − y2 ) = αf (x) + βf (y ),
FHAI E =L=MA F= A

f

E A=H = A 

= A

f x0

AFHA E@ = BK

|f (x)| = |x1 − x2 |
?E A = E @= AI H =

= 1 E |f (x0 )| = 1 2 > ) A = R @=J=
1

|x1 | + |x2 | = x 1 = GK 1 A = A x0 = (1, 0) A@E @= A f = 1. · 2 @= A FHA = JA HA E f

KA

@=

6=@= A 

2 f = max |x1 − x2 | | x2 1 + x2 = 1 .
2H > A IA IL @E = = =<AMA KI L C A IJHA = BK F ?E A

(x1 −
K J=

x2 )2 K
= =

f =

2

KI √ 1/ 2, −1/ 2

2 L x1 + √

x2 2
E

= 1√ = √ IA −1/ 2, 1/ 2

= = E @= A = =JE

= ϕ(x1 , x2 ) √ = IE K 2
A

2HA = J 

L 8=<E @= A

|f (x)|
F= A @=
!%

|x1 | + |x2 |
K x0 1 ILAC= @ ?E

2 max {|x1 |, |x2 |} = 2 x
= @= A

∞,

f
A A 2

2 f

= J=

2

= (1, −1) E
= = A A

x0

C @ >E =

@= A

= 1 E |f (x0 )| = 2 f =2

= =JE @= IK BK 

= > @ >H
4A

f (x) = 2x1 − x3 + 6x4 g (x) =
+∞ n=1
@ABE EI= A =

f, g : ℓ1 → R x = (xn ) ∈ ℓ1

@=JA I=

x2n x = (xn ) ∈ ℓ1
E A=H A E AFHA E@ A E IJ A @HA@EJE E = = E A=H A H K IJ IA = EC A@ = =<A

AMA

, >H= @ABE EI= L IJ=LG=

FH LAH=L= F=

EJ= ?K @= @

|f (x)|

2|x1 | + |x3 | + 6|x4 | f 6 7 E = 1 E |f (e4 )| = 6 F=
E A

6(|x1 | + |x3 | + |x4 |)

6

+∞ k=1

|xk | = 6 x ,
= = E @=

I A@E @= A A

e4

e4 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0 . . .) = f 6 ,= A f = 6 

&

),)+1 

>

= FH E L G=

LA J H

x ∈ ℓ1 L=<E
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1
F= HA@ BK ?E = IJE E =

|x2n |

|xn | < +∞,
,= A

+∞ n=1

x2n

=FI

KJ IJ

LAHCEH= IJ=LG=

g

A @ >H =<A

@ABE EI= =

A = F IJ

E A=H E

EJ= ?K @= F AFHA E@

n n→+∞ k=1 n

lim

x2k

> C

IJE =FI

KJ A LHA@

n n→+∞ k=1 n

n→+∞ k=1

lim

x2k =

lim

x2k

F= A

|g (x)| =

+∞ n=1

n

x2n =
n

n→+∞

lim

x2k = lim |x2k |
A = E

n→+∞

lim

k=1

|x2k | =

k=1 +∞

n→+∞

x2k
k=1

+∞ k=1

k=1

|xk | = x . 1
7 E A A A J ,= A

g A AFHA e2 = (0, 1, 0, . . .) ∈ ℓ1 g =1
2HA = J A
!&

E@ = BK =

?E

g

IA @ >E = @= A

e2 = 1 E g (e2 ) = 1

, H K

= =JE @= IK I A@A A BK

?E

A A

E A=H A E

AFHA E@ A E

= E

E 

= >

f (x) = x1 + x2 x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) ∈ ℓ2 +∞ x n x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) ∈ ℓ1 f (x) = n n=1
, = EI E A=H HEIJE ALA IJ IJ=LG= A A@ = IJ E EJ= ?K = I= IJ= E H=@ A E L=@H=J A A K =HEJ AJE

4A

AMA 

= )

IHA@E A = >H

|x1 | E |x2 | @

>E =

|f (x)| = |x1 + x2 | = √

|x1 | + |x2 | √ 2

2

|x1 |2 + |x2 |2 2 |xk |2 =
E

2 |x1 |2 + |x2 |2 √ f
F= A

+∞ k=1
E =

2 x

ℓ2 .

6E A I 8E@E

F @= A

= = E @= A

x0 =

2

2 7 x0 ∈ ℓ2

x0 = (1, 1, 0, 0, . . .) A |f (x0 )| = |1 + 1| = 2 J

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

'

A

f =
2HA = J > 2 A J

f =
A

|f (x)| x x∈ℓ2 \{0} sup

√ 2 √ = 2. 2

2
+∞ n=1 +∞ n=1
A = K

|f (x)| =
J

xn n

xn n
E =

+∞ n=1
E

|xn | = x ,

@=

A f 1 5 @HKCA IJH= x0 ∈ ℓ1 E |f (x0 )| = 1 f =1
!'

@=J A IA

LE@E @= A

x0 = (1, 0, 0, . . .) E = f 1 F=

A

A = A @=J= BK

?E

A =

x∗ : L(0, 1) → R I= f ∈ L(0, 1).
E A=H = BK ?E

x∗ (f ) =
0
@HA@EJE LHA@ A =K
4A

1

f (x)(ex + λf (x))dx,
= A A

IJE = E

L(0, 1) E
= A

λ∈R

H K

∗ @ x

x∗

CH= E A =

AMA

x∗ (f + f ) =
0
E > C E A=H IJE

1

2f (x)(ex + 2λf (x))dx

x∗ (f + f ) = 2x∗ (f ) = 2
0
= GK K A @ I

1

f (x)(ex + λf (x))dx,

1 1 x x @= A 0 2f (x)(e + 2λf (x))dx = 2 0 f (x)(e + λf (x))dx 1 ∗ A >EJE 0 λf (x)dx = 0 F= A λ = 0 ,= A BK ?E A = x
=

E A=H = I=

λ=0

6=@= A

x∗ (f ) =
0
= A

1

ex f (x)dx,

f ∈ L(0, 1).

|x∗ (f )| =

1 0

ex f (x)dx

1

e
0

|f (x)|dx = e f

L(0,1) , 

!

),)+1

@

>E =

@=

A

(1)
7 E E BK

x∗ =
?E =

|x∗ (f )| f f ∈L(0,1)\{0} sup

e.

fn (x) =
2 J A

1, 1 − 1/n < x 1, 0, 0 x < 1 − 1/n.
1

1

fn =
0
= GK K A @=

|fn (x)|dx =
= IL=

dx =
1−1/n

1 < +∞, n
=

fn ∈ L(0, 1)
1 1−1/n
@=

n∈N

,=GA E

|x∗ (fn )| =
F= I= E JE @ >E =

ex dx = e1 − e1− n = e 1 − e− n ,
A

1

1

x
= J A

|x∗ (f )| = sup f f ∈L(0,1)\{0}
ex −1 x
I=

|x∗ (fn )| e(1 − e− n ) =− . 1 fn −n
HA K  ! @ >E = @= A

1

= A@

x→0

lim

=1

HEIJA

E JA

x∗

e

(1) @= A
K E

x∗

=e
A BK ?E A A

"
I=

=

E

H

A=H

f : C[−1, 1] → R @ABE
1

EI=

A

0

f (x) =
−1
4A AMA = A

x(t)dt −

x(t)dt.
0

0

1

|f (x)| =

−1 0 −1

x(t)dt −

x(t)dt
0 1 0
E

|x(t)|dt +
7 E

|x(t)|dt
BK ?E =

x + x =2 x ,

E

=

@=

A

f

2

(n) x0 (t)

1, −nt, =  −1,

 

−1 t −1/n, −1/n t 1/n, 1/n t −1,

n ∈ N.

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!

=

= GK K A = A

@=

x0

(n)

n∈N
(n)

∈ C[−1, 1]
1 0 (n)

E @= A

x0 = max |x0 (t)| = 1
−1 t 1

0 −1 1 −n −1

f (x0 ) = =
@ >E =

x0 (t) dt −
0

(n)

x0 (t) dt
1 n

1

dt +

1 −n

(−nt)dt −

0

(−nt)dt −

1 n

(−1)dt = 2 −

2 , n

f =
@=
"

sup
x∈C[−1,1]\{0} x =1

|f (x)|

f (x0 ) → 2, n → +∞,

(n)

A

> C

(1)

I A@E

f =2
?E A A LA E A=H A E H A CH= E A A K

1IFEJ=JE @=

E IK I A@A A BK

FH IJ HK = > L C @
4A

C[0, 1] E = AIK @HA@EJE MED 1 f (x) = 0 x(t) sin t dt
1

f (x) = 0 x(t)eit dt f (x) = x′ (t0 ) 1 f (x) = 0 t−1/3 x(t) dt 1√ f (x) = 0 t x(t2 ) dt
EC A@ = ?A A F I =JH= = BK = A ?E A =

AMA

f

E A=H = E @ABE

EI= =

C[0, 1]
1

1

|f (t)| =

x(t) sin t dt
0 1 0

|x(t)|| sin t| dt

x
0
J A

| sin t| dt = x (1 − cos 1), f = 1 − cos 1

f 1 − cos 1 = x(t) = 1 t ∈ [0, 1] > .K ?E A =f A
1

AF IHA@ E A=H = @

@ >E =

@= A

= =JE E L=<E

|f (x)| =
F= A

x(t)eit dt
0
E BK ?E K

1

0
7

|x(t)||eit |dt =

1 0

|x(t)|dt = x ,
= IA @ >E =

f

f 1

1

F= = GK K A

@= A

x0 (t) = e−it t ∈ [0, 1] f =1 

!

),)+1 

L C @ E @= A
"

IJ=LG= IJ=LG= = IA @

EJ= ?K = I= EJ= ?K = I=

IJ= IJ=

E H=@ E H=@ ?E A = E A=H = E CH= E A =

= K A @= A @=J= BK

f = 2/3
E IK I A@A A BK AIK ?E A A CH= E A A E H A E A=H A K

1IFEJ=JE @=

=LA@A E =

FH IJ HE = E =

= E MED LA

X = c0 , X = c0 , X = c, X = c, X = ℓ1 , X = ℓ1 , X = ℓ2 , X = ℓ3/2 ,
=

f (x) = f (x) =

+∞ n=1 +∞

1−

1 xn n α∈R x0 = lim xn
n→+∞ 

>

xn , α n=1 n
+∞ 

L

f (x) = x0 +

xn , n=1 n xn , α n=1 n
+∞ 

C

f (x) = 2x0 + f (x) = f (x) = f (x) =
+∞ n=1 +∞ n=1 +∞

x0 = lim xn ,
n→+∞

α∈R 

@

n xn 2 + (−1)n xn 

 

A

(−1)n √ xn n n=1
+∞ n=1 

<

f (x) =

1 n4/9

xn
?E A A E A=H A @ = = =JE

4A

AMA

IA @

= K A @= IK @=JA BK @= A @=J= BK " ?E 

= 2HAJF IJ=LE

A = 2

CH= E A =

ℓ1
E

J=@= E

=

I

LK JA HA A

I A@E @= A

FH IJ H= ?E

ℓ1

J= =L @= A

f

= y
A

y = 1−
J I J

1 n

A c0 = A@E IJLA E

FHAJF IJ=LE E HA@

@= A BK

A =

f

CH= E A = J

f < +∞

+∞ n=1

1−
,=

1 n
A

LAHCEH= @=J= BK = EJ=L ?E

A KJE A = EA

HA@

+∞ n=1

1−
=

1 n

@ELAHCEH= @ =FH=L = EA E

= =JE

CH= E A = FH

E @ABE EI= =

FH IJ HK A

c0

xn =

+∞

1 n

n ∈ N
?E

FH IJ H=

c0

HA@

n=1

1 1 (1 − n )n

LAHCEH= @= A 

> 2HAJF IJ=LE

f

CH= E A = BK

A = 6=@= A = =

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!!

C

=

K =

E

y=

1 nα

E FH IJ H= ℓ1 E

(∗)
4A@ K IHA@

f = y = (∗)
LAHCEH= @= A = IL= = IL=

+∞ n=1

1 . nα
LK JA HA A ?E A = " AF

@ >E =

α > 1 F= = I α > 1 @=J= BK
+∞ n=1
F= @=J= BK BK

CH= E A = K

F I =JH= L =

FH IJ HK IA = = E @= A

f = 1+
+∞

1 n E =
?E

HA@ A =

+∞ n=1

1 n @ELAHCEH=

= GK K A C 2 = E I= @

@= A J = A

f = +∞

EA

CH= E A = CH= E A =

1 f =2+ nα n =1 Aα > 1
IA @= A =

?E

A =

f

A >EJE

2 @IAJE E I=

ℓ∗ 1 = m

.K

?E

A =

f =
HA K E A

+∞ n=1 
E

nxn 
2

>E A J

CH= E A = = A JE

y = sup |n| = +∞
E BK  

= GK K A EA

y = (n) ∈ m LE@AJE JA @= y E A CH=
CH= E A = FHE AHK BK ?E

F= I= E

n∈N

?E C

A =

f

) = =

FHA@D @

A =

f
=

A

CH= E A = A

=

E I=

y = (2 + (−1)n )

FHEF=@= FH IJ HK

m

y = sup |2 + (−1)n | = 3,
n∈N
= GK K A L=<E A BK = ?E E I=

y∈m f = y =3
@= ,K= A = >E A =

,=

A

f

A

CH= E A =

E A=H = BK

?E

A =E

E FH IJ H FH IJ H= CH= E A =

ℓ2

A J=

EIJE FH IJ H ?E A =

ℓ2
J A

=@=J=

E A=H = BK

= FH IJ HK

y=

(−1)n √ n +∞ n=1

ℓ2

∈ ℓ2 

LE@AJE JA HA K 

!  2

(−1)n √ n
EA

2

=

+∞ n=1

1 = +∞, n

I A@E @= @=J= BK < = A

?E

A =

CH= E A = @=

A A A J FH IJ JA HA K

(ℓ3/2 )∗ = ℓ3 = GK K A H= ℓ3 @= >E @=J= BK ?E
+∞ n=1 3 1/3

y =

1 n4/9

H= >EJE

A = >E =

CH= E A = LE@AJE 

!  8=<E

y =

1 n4/9

=

+∞

1

1/3

n4/3 n=1

< +∞, 

!"

),)+1

AH HA@

+∞ n=1

1 n4/3
?E

LAHCEH= 1 ILAC= @ A = E L=<E

= =

C I A@E @= A f

CH= E A =

E A=H = BK

f =

+∞ n=1

1 n4/3

1/3

.

"!

) A FH IJ
AMA

A

=
4A

X HX
K

H EH= E FH IJ H @ = =@=J K @E A & EI = E

= =JE @= A

X∗ = X′

=

E I=

= = HEIJE @= = = A IEL= = E I= = A A ?E

)

AF IHA@ E I=
""

@ >E = A FH IJ H

@= A IL= =

E A=H = BK @E A E

Y = K, K = {0}
A = CH= E A = =

= ,

X

= =JE @= A *= =D L FH IJ H @C L=H= K E @K= ) A FH IJ H E FH IJ H

MAC L
4A AMA

X HAB X ∗ J=

A HAB A IEL=

X

HAB A IEL=

J=@= A

X ∗∗ = X

F= A

(X ∗∗ )∗ = X ∗ ,
J FH IJ H >H=J

X∗

A J=

A HAB A IEL= @= A

FHAJF IJ=LE

X ∗ = (X ∗ )∗∗ = X ∗∗∗

6=@= A

X ∗∗ = X ∗∗∗∗ ,
F= A FH IJ H

X ∗∗ X

HAB A IEL=

=

A

IJ=LG= F JFH IJ H HAB A IEL IJ C= E FH IJ H
"#

C FH IJ H=

X *= X ∗∗

=D L FH IJ H E FHA@ @= A =JL HA F=

H= >EJE HAB A IEL= FH E L G = FH IJ HK CH= E A = E A=H = BK ?E A = K

) =

A

f = 0

HA= A@ = J=
4A AMA

0E >AHJ L

H

@

= =JE @= F IJ

E A@ = E I=

xE

FH IJ H= A

H

I=

I >E = = @= A AH >E K FH JEL ?E A =K

x = 1 E f (x) = f
L=<E F IJ HA K @= A = 2

EC A@

=

A

f

CH= E A =

H = {0}
E

E A=H = BK

H

E J= % 

f =0 yE H
J A

J= L= @= A

f =0
E @= A

J

f (x) = x, y A y = 0 7 E

f = y LE@AJE JA y = J= K x0 = y y, y = y y
2

IA LE@E @= A

x0 = 1

f (x0 ) =

1 y ,y = y y

= y = f .

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!#

, FH

=<E IJ H= =

A@E

IJLA L= @= E

IJ J= A

A

H
IJE

J=

x1

x0 = 1

2HAJF E LI

IJ=LE

@=

A

x1

J=

= E A

f (x1 ) =
C @ >E =

f

6=@=

FHE

A A@

L=H? *KM=

f = f (x1 ) = x1 , y
2 >E = J K FHAJD @= A @ A A@ = = A

| x1 , y |
IJE ILK@= HA= A

x1 · y = y = f .
H= L=<EJE A@ = IJ A ) @

x1 = ry
GK A K A

= x1 = |r| y r = −1/ y J=@=

@=

r E x1 , y = 0 = r = 1/ y E E r = −1/ y

1 =
A

f (x1 ) = f (ry ) =
,= A H= >EJE


J

y ,y = − y = − f = f . y x1 = y/ y = x0
= IAC E A=H A J=

r = 1/ y

"$ ) A t0 BE IEH= = J= x(t0 ) x ∈ C[a, b] CH= E A = E FHEJ A f =1
4A AMA = FH E L G A BK

[a, b]
?E

@ A

= =JE @= = = FH IJ

A

= BK

HK

f (x) = C[a, b]

?E A

x, y ∈ C[a, b] E I

=

=HA

α, β ∈ K L=<E

f (αx + βy ) = (αx + βy )(t0 ) = αx(t0 ) + βy (t0 ) = αf (x) + βf (y ).
,=

C[a, b] = A |f (x)| = |x(t0 )| x = IL= x ∈ C[a, b] = GK A f 1 7 E BK ?E K x0 (t) = 1 = IL= t ∈ [a, b] x0 (t0 ) = 1 F= A E f (x0 ) = 1 = IA LE@E @= A x0 = 1 F= A
A

f

A

E

A=H

= BK

?E

A

=

= FH

IJ

HK

K A 6=@= =J

@= A

f = sup |f (x)|
x =1
@= A > C

|f (x0 )| = 1,

(1)
A

I

A@E @=

A

f =1
IJ E H E CH= E

"%
FH IJ

A H= IJ

=

X
, J=

H

EH=

E FH IJ

x0 = y0
E A = E

FH A=H

E L

G

E LA ?E

J A

HE =

X
HK

= =JE @= F L= @= A

= BK

f

= FH

X
= E

f =1

f (x0 ) = f (y0 )
= I LK JA HK K A HA A A % F IJ E

4A

AMA E A

A = =

A

CH=

A=H A

z0 = x0 − y0 = 0

6=@=

f =1

I= A A@ = =

= BK ?E A =f = FH IJ f (z0 ) = f (x0 ) − f (y0 ) = GK
= IJE E A=H E L=H? *KM= =LEI E J = LI A

X @=

@= A

f (z0 ) = z0 E f (x0 ) = f (y0 )
L=<E = E E =

IJ K J

A A@ HE

IK LA

xEy

C | x, y | x y x=0E Ey =0E

y = αx

α∈K 

!$

),)+1

"&
LEI J

,

= =JE @= = J

H

EH= IJ H

E FH

IJ

H

ED LA H=

H= J=@= E FH

X∗

I=@H<E

X I=@H<E n n E A=H

E

A=H

A = ED LA

A =LEI

4A

AMA

A

= IK

e1 , e2 , . . . , en

E

A=H

A =LEI

E LA

J

HE K

X

7

E

L{e1 } = {x | x = λe1 , λ ∈ K}
E

n

L{e2 , e3 , . . . , en } =
A BK = A ?E

x x=
i=2
=

λi ei , λi ∈ K .
I LK JA HA A & F IJ E

x0 = e1 ∈ X \ L{e2 , e3 , . . . , en } ∗ J= L= @= A A = x 1 x∗ 1 (e1 ) = 1, x∗ 1 (x) = 0,

x ∈ L{e2 , e3 , . . . , en }.
F IJ E E A

) =H

=

C

= ?E

= BK

x0 = ek ∈ X \ L{e1 , . . . , ek−1 , ek+1 , . . . , en } ∗ J= L= @= A A = x k x∗ k (x) = 0,
?E A A

x∗ k (ek ) = 1,
,= A F IJ A BK

x ∈ L{e1 , . . . , ek−1 , ek+1 , . . . , en }.
J= LA @= A

∗ ∗ ∗ x∗ 1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∈ X

x∗ i (ej ) =
= A

1, i = j, 0, i = j, i=j
J E

1
A@ =

i, j
IJE

n.
n

x∗ i (ej ) = 0
@ >E = @

= IL=

x = e1
F 6E K FH IJ

IJKF=

A I HK

X∗
A

λ1 = 0 = x = e2 @ >E = λ2 = 0 λn = 0 H= = = x = en @ >E = ∗ ∗ ∗ E A=H F = = E @= IK x , x , . . . , xn A 1 2

i=1

λi x∗ i (x) = 0
E =IJ=LG= K

= E

=LEI

E LA

J

HE

"'
FH = IJ

) HK

(Tn )
@ E

E

CH=

E E H=

A

ED

E

A=H

ED

FAH=J = =

H= K 0E HK HK

>AHJ

L

H
=

= =JE @= FAH=J

E I=

(Tn ) ∗) (Tn
HA L E E

LAHCEH= LAHCEH=

FAH=J FAH=J

T ∈ L(H ) T∗
E

4A

AMA

= FH

E L

G

A

FAH=J HEIJA

(A +

B )∗

=

A∗

+

B∗

A, B ∈ L(H )
= @= A

L=<E

A∗ = A

∗ Tn − T = (Tn − T )∗ = Tn − T∗ .
@=L@A = E AF IHA@ @ >E = = @= E

∗) (Tn

LAHCEH=

T∗

(Tn )

LAHCEH=

=

T

=

E I=

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!%

#

A = IK @

FH IJ H E A=H E
4A AMA

X EY H EH= E FH IJ HE L =JL HA LA J HI E F X, a ∈ X \ L E b ∈ Y 2 = =JE @= F IJ E CH= E FAH=J H A : X → Y J= =L @= A A↾L ≡ 0 E A(a) = b
& F IJ E E A=H = BK @= L= ?E A = E

J A

2HA = JA HA E

∗ J= L= @= A x (a)

A : X → Y I= A =@ L G=L= JH=<A 
1   ) E A=H

= 1 Ax = x∗ (x) · b
A KI IJE BK J=@= A

∗ E x (x)
, LA ?E

= 0 x ∈ L
=<E A A

,ABE E

x∗ : X → R

FAH=J H FAH=J H

@ABE EI=

x∗ I

A@E

E A=H

IJ

FAH=J H=

A 

! 8=<E
#

x∈L

Ax =

x∗ (x)

A(a) = x∗ (a) · b = 1 · b = b
E EJE LHA@

·b=0·b=0
> E =

,

= =JE @= IK ILE FH IJ HE

C[a, b]
ED >H

=@ EIJE AL=

F GA =

I = =H= A KI >
4A AMA

K
7

FHE H=

IJE = HA=

aEb

a<b

CHKA J E *= =D LE FH IJ HE E A = @ C[a, b] E C[a′ , b′ ] = a < b E a′ < b′ ′ ′ ′ K BK ?E K ω : [a , b ] → [a, b] J= LK @= A ω (a ) = a E ′ ′ A ω (u) = α u + β u ∈ [a , b ] 1 IEIJA = FH IJ HA

HA@E

E A=H

ω (b′ )

=b

α a′ + β = a,
IA A@ IJ=L @ >E =

α b′ + β = b

ω (u) =
2HAI E =L=MA 7 BK E

b−a ab′ − ba′ u + , b′ − a′ b′ − a′
E AFHA E@ ?E K

u ∈ [a′ , b′ ].
F= A J= L E

ω

A >E A JEL

ω −1
A

?E K

EC A@

x ∈ C[a, b] = t = ω (u) @ABE E E y (u) = x(ω (u)) = x(αu + β ) u ∈ [a′ , b′ ] .K ?E = y ′ ′ A A A A J FH IJ H= C[a , b ] 2HEJ
FH E L G K BK

y
,ABE E

C[a′ ,b′ ]

= max ′ |y (u)| = max |x(t)| = x
a u b a t b

C[a,b] .

E

FAH=J H J

V : C[a, b] → C[a′ , b′ ] I= (V x)(t) = x(ω (u)), t ∈ [a, b].
A IEH A JE J=@= BK L=<E ?E =

V x = y,
EC A@ L= AH = A

V

E A=H= E

EE

AJHE =

FAH=J H 2HEJ

K

FH E L G K BK

?E K

x(t) =

y (ω −1 (t))

=

β y ( t− α ) FHEF=@= FH

y ∈ C[a′ , b′ ] IJ HK C[a, b] E

Vx = y 

!&

),)+1

,=

A FHA

= @ABE

E?E E

#

V

A

A@

=

CHKA

?E = FH

IJ

H=

C[a′ , b′ ]
#
, = =JE @= IK FHE H= H E = BE EJE IEH=

C[a, b] E

p
A KI E@ AFHA

1
>

ILE

H CHKA ?E A

EH= J E

E FH

IJ

HE

Cp [a, +∞)
2H IJ =

[a, +∞)

Cp [a, +∞)
A A

a∈R
+∞

I=@H<E

A BK

f

= E

JAHL=

K

a
E FHEJ A

|f (u)|p du < +∞,

f =
E A FH FH IJ E

1/p +∞ p dt | f ( t ) | a
E L G A HA= A >H ALA

4A @C

AMA

7

a, b

J=

LA @= E L G

A

a < b

E

L=H= K

HA

f ∈ Cp [a, +∞) K

Cp [a, +∞), Cp [b, +∞)
BK ?E K

= FH

K BK

?E K

g (u) = f (u + a − b),
.K ?E =

u

b.
E FHEJ A

g

A

AFHA

E@

=

= E

JAHL=

K

[b, +∞)

(∗)
F= =

+∞ b
GK

|g (u)|p du =
K A E E A @=

+∞ b

|f (u + a − b)|p du =

+∞ a

|f (t)|p dt < +∞,

g ∈ Cp [b, +∞)
FAH=J H CHKA

,ABE , =<E

@= A = IK

A

1◦
A@ =

f1 E f2 FH

A : Cp [a, +∞) → Cp [b, +∞) I= Af = g ?E = FH IJ H= Cp [a, +∞) E Cp [b, +∞)
G A BK ?E A E FH IJ H=

E L

IJE

Cp [a, +∞)

1

A(f1 + f2 )(u) = (f1 + f2 )(u + a − b) = f1 (u + a − b) + f2 (u + a − b) = (Af1 )(u) + (Af2 )(u),
E A=H= FAH=J J=@= A A H

a

u < +∞,

@

>E =

@=

A

A

) A Af1 = Af2 f1 (t) = f2 (t) t a ,=

2◦ 3◦

FAH=J JEL=

f1 (u + a − b) = f2 (u + a − b) u H A A E A JEL=
AH = IL= K BK ?E K

b

J

FAH=J E AFHA

H E@

A

A IEH A

F

IJ

= BK

?E =

f (t) = g (t − a + b) t

a

J=

g ∈ Cp [b, +∞)
L= @= A

(Af )(u) = f (u + a − b) = g (u + a − b − a + b) = g (u),

a

u < +∞.

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

!'

4◦

1

A@

=

IJE

(∗) @

>E =

@=

A

Af

Cp [b,+∞)

= g =

Cp [b,+∞) +∞ a

=

+∞ b 1/p

1/p

|g (u)|p du
Cp [a,+∞) ,

|f (t)|p dt

= f

J

A

A E = I H=

AJHE

=

FAH=J HA @

H = = C = GK K A @= A

LK ILAC= C

A

CHKA

?E =

FH

IJ

Cp [a, +∞) E Cp [b, +∞)
= =JE @= @ BK A FH IJ A H

#!
L=

2 E

C[0, 1]
=@ L

CHKA

J= L

F

JFH

IJ

HK

C∗

>H=

?E =

f

G=L= K KI

(∗)
4A AMA A = A FHAI

f (x) = f (1 − x),
E =L=MA

x ∈ [0, 1].

F : C[0, 1] → C ∗ @=J I= F (f ) = f ◦ ϕ C@A A f ∈ C[0, 1] E ϕ : [0, 1] → [0, 1] >E = AFHA E@ = IEH A ?E = J= L= @= A ϕ(x) = ϕ(1 − x) = FHE AH BK ?E = ϕ(x) = sin πx =@ L G=L=
@=JA KI = LA A

(f ◦ ϕ)(x) = f (ϕ(x)) = f (ϕ(1 − x)) = (f ◦ ϕ)(1 − x),
= GK , E A =<E 1 A@ = @=

(∗)

@=

f ◦ ϕ FHEF=@= F A F CHKA
IJE

JFH ?E =

IJ

HK FH

IJ

H=

C[0, 1] I=

I

>E

1◦

F αf + βg (x) = (αf + βg ) ◦ ϕ (x) = αf (ϕ(x)) + βg (ϕ(x)) = αF (f ) + βF (g ),
FHAI E =L=MA

α, β ∈ K,

I

A@E @=

A

F

E

A=H

A F (f1 ) = F (f2 ) J=@= A (f1 ◦ ϕ)(x) = (f2 ◦ ϕ)(x) x ∈ [0, 1] ϕ IEH A JEL FHAI E =L=MA @ >E = f1 (y ) = f2 (y ) y ∈ [0, 1] ,= A FHAI E =L=MA F A E A ?E = 3◦ A = A g FH E L G = BK ?E = J= L= @= A g (x) = g (1 − x) = x ∈ [0, 1] E ϕ(x) = sin πx ,ABE E E BK ?E K ) = A

2◦

f (x) = g ◦

1 1 arcsin (x) = g arcsin x , π π

x ∈ [0, 1]. 

"

),)+1

6=@=

A

F (f ) = f ◦ ϕ (x) = =
LE I 1 @ A@

1 1 arcsin ◦ ϕ (x) = g arcsin sin πx π π g (x), x ∈ [0, 1/2] = g (x). g (1 − x), x ∈ [1/2, 1] g
= = = E @= IJE A

F

IEH A

?E =

4◦

F (f ) =

f ◦ ϕ (x)
0 y 1

C[0,1]

= max f ϕ(x)
0 x 1 C[0,1]
=L=MA K A @= ?E = A FH A IJ =@ H L

= max |f (y )| = f
= GK = CHKA KI L K A I J= @= A

F

E

AJHE HA @ HK = = >H=

FHAI C L= = E

E

LK ILAC= C F JFH IJ

GK

C[0, 1]
G=L= K

@ BK

(∗)
A E =

#"
A ED

Y *= =D L FH L= y = (yn ) I= A
A = =JE @= IK FH

IJ A IJ

H E A

ℓ∞ Y

LA

J

HI

E FH

IJ

H ILED H J E

CH=

E

n∈N
4A

sup yn

,

Y I =>@ALA ∞ HE L(ℓ1 , Y ) E ℓ CHKA Y
JE = E

y =

AMA 7

E

E

LA

J

H=

en = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .) ∈ ℓ1 ,
n−1
= IA LE@E @= A

n ∈ N.
J=@= A

en = 1, n ∈ N Aen
Y
<A

)

A

A ∈ L(ℓ1 , Y )

A en = A < +∞,
@ABE EI=JE FHAI E =L=MA

F=

(Aen ) ∈ ℓ∞ Y

,=

A

u : L(ℓ1 , Y ) → ℓ∞ Y
, =<E @= A

I=

u(A) = (Aen ),

A ∈ L(ℓ1 , Y ).
A=H FHAI E =L=MA

u

CHKA EJ=

?E = =<A @= A

1◦ 2◦ (∗)

IJ=LG= = @ >E =

?K @= @

u

E

u(A) = sup Aen
n∈N

A .

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

"

)

A

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓ1 xn en
ℓ1

J=@= A

x=

+∞ n=1

xn en
ℓ1

2

J

A

+∞ n=1

=

+∞ n=1

(0, . . . , 0, xn , 0, . . .)
n−1

=

+∞ n=1

|xn | = x

ℓ1

< +∞,
=

= GK K A A

@= HA@

+∞ n=1

xn en =FI
+∞ n=1

KJ

LAHCEH= K FH IJ HK ℓ1

+∞

xn Aen

(∗∗)

n=1

|xn | Aen
+∞ n=1

n∈N

sup Aen

+∞ n=1

|xn | < +∞,

= u(A)
+∞ n=1 p

|xn | = u(A)
LAHCEH= K

x

ℓ1

E =

@= HA@

xn Aen =FI

KJ

Y

F= L=<E

p

A
n=1
J =@=

xn en

=
n=1

xn Aen ,

p → +∞

A

Ax =
HEIJA E A A@ = IJE

+∞ n=1

xn Aen .

(∗∗) Ax

@ >E =

u(A)
A A@ =

x

ℓ1 ,
GK K A H ℓY @= A

J E

A
AJHE

u(A)

1

F I A@MA

FHAI E =L=MA FH IJ H=

IJE E (∗) = L(ℓ1 , Y ) K FH IJ

u

A J

3◦ 1 A@ = IJE u(A1 ) = u(A2 ) @ >E = AJHE = u(A1 − A2 ) = 0 2 J A u E A1 = A2 , = = E I @= A u E A JEL 4◦
A = A

I

FHAI E =L=MA 6=@= A A

u(A1 − A2 ) = 0 @= A A@E @= A A1 − A2 = 0
+∞

y = (yn ) ∈
HA@ K

ℓ∞ Y E Y 
@

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓ1
= =JE 2 J

xn yn

=FI

KJ IL= E =FI

LAHCA J= KJ

Y

n=1
*= =D L FH IJ H =@=J= L C= E

LAHCA J=

HA@ K MA K LAHCA J= I=

LAHCEH= LE@AJE HA@ K 

$! F= I A@E @= A FAH=J H

+∞ n=1

xn yn
@ABE EI=

Y xn yn

=

I A

LK

A : ℓ1 → Y

Ax =

+∞ n=1

E A=H= 

"

),)+1

CH=

E

A

,=

A

= IL= 6E A

u(A) = (Aen ) = (yn ) = y
1

y ∈ ℓ∞ Y
A I

F

IJ = =

E

@

E @=

A ∈ L(ℓ1 , Y ) J= L A u IEH A ?E =
IJ H=

@=

A

1◦ − 4◦ E
A IJ = IK H

=

@=

u A∗

CHKA

?E = FH

L(ℓ1 , Y )
?E = FH H=

E

ℓ∞ Y
H=

##
= FH

X EY
2

H

EH= A

E FH

IJ

HE E

A

CHKA IJ

IJ

X S
A

Y

= =JE @=

CHKA

?E = FH

Y

=

X∗
A = A AH

4A A@E

AMA

A

A∗ A E A=H AH A A E E = IBAH= K X = T A@E E = IBAH= K Y 6=@= CHKA ?E = = IL= y ∗ ∈ Y ∗ L=<E
2HAI E =L=MA

A=H A

A(S ) = T

A∗ y ∗ = y ∗ A = sup |y ∗ Ax| = sup |y ∗ y | = y ∗ ,
x∈S y ∈T
J ) AJHE FHAI E =L=MA 2 =<E A∗ A E ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ − 1 x ∈X @= y = x A FHEF=@= FH IJ @= A HK

Y ∗ E L=<E

A∗ (Y ∗ ) = X ∗

A∗ y ∗ = y ∗ A = x∗ A−1 A = x∗ .
2HA = J A

A∗

A

CHKA

?E = FH

IJ

H=

Y∗

=

X∗
F GA E I= I = = =H=

#$
,

A

= IK

H1 E H2 K
FAH=J H = >E

EJ=H

E FH

IJ

HE

=@ EIJE AJHE = =

K

= =JE @= A

V x, V y = x, y
4A AMA 2HAJF = A E

V : H 1 → H2 E
E F=H LA J @= = IL=

L=<E

H=

x, y ∈ H1

IJ=LE A

5FA?E = ,= A

x=y@
= IJ=LE = IL=

>E = FAH=J H

@=

x, y ∈ H1 L=<E V x, V y = x, y A Vx 2 = x 2 J Vx = x
FH E L G= E AJHE

V

AJHE FHAJF

>H=J = FAH=J H

6=@=

@= A V : H1 → H2 x, y ∈ H1 L=<E

Vx = x ,
= A

Vy = y ,

V x + V y, V x + V y = x + y, x + y .

x + y, x + y = x, x + y + y, x + y = x, x + x, y + y, x + y, y = x
@ I

2

+ x, y + x, y + y 2 ,

(∗)

x + y, x + y = x

2

+ 2 Re x, y + y 2 ,

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

"!

@

>E =

@=

A

Vx
1 F I

2

+ 2 Re V x, V y + V y
A@ = IJE = GK K A

2

= x

2

+ 2 Re x, y + y 2 .

A@MA

(1)
= )

Re V x, V y = Re x, y ,

x, y ∈ H1 .
J E @ A JHA>= >E = @ = =JE

K = R @ >E = @= A V x, V y = x, y A K = C J=@= K (∗) IJ=LE ix K AIJ x Im V x, V y = Im x, y , (1) E (2)
, HK = GK K A @= A

(2)
1

x, y ∈ H1 . x, y ∈ H1
H =

V x, V y = x, y
A E I= E A=H= =

#%
FH IJ

= =JE @=

A

CH= = =

E

FAH=J A@

V
IJ

K 0E

>AHJ

L

H

E

AJHE

L=<E

V

∗V
=

=I
I LK =

4A @=J

AMA =

2HAJF #$ E =

IJ=LE @= A

@=

A

V

E

AJHE

=

FAH=J

H

(1)
F= A

V x, V y = x, y ,

x, y ∈ H,

(2)
@= ) A I A@E

x, V ∗ (V y ) = x, y , V ∗ (V y ) = y y ∈ H
IJ=LE F= = @= I A J

x, y ∈ H,
AF #$ E IHA@ = @ @= >E = A

V ∗V = I (2)
= E = =

FHAJF >E = H

V ∗V = I
=@=J

(2) @

(1)

LK

V

E

AJHE

FAH=J

#&
IJ

,

= =JE @= AJHE A E =

A IL= E

E K

EJ=H= E E

FAH=J LAH K E

H

U

K 0E H

>AHJ

L

FH A

HK E E

@C

L=H= K

FAH=J

U −1
LK

A J=

CH=

A=H=

FAH=J

H E FHEJ

EJ=H=

4A I

AMA

) A

A

U

K

EJ=H= = I

J=@=

A

U ∗U = I
IJ A@ E E =

=

I

=@=J

=

#%

A@E @= =

U

E

AJHE

A

U =

U∗

U ∗U
E =

= I
@=

A@E @=

U −1

U −1 F ∈ L(H ) 1

U −1 = U ∗

2

J

A

IJE

U −1 · (U −1 )∗ = U ∗ · (U ∗ )∗ = U ∗ · U = I 

""

),)+1

E

(U −1 )∗ · U −1 = (U ∗ )∗ · U ∗ = U · U ∗ = I
= GK K A @= A

U −1 K

EJ=H=

FAH=J

H

#'

,

= =JE @= A E = E I= =

AJHE A

=

FAH=J

H

V

K 0E

>AHJ

L

FH

IJ

HK

H
4A

K

EJ=H=

R(V ) = H
FAH=J H J=@= E

AMA

)

A

V

K

EJ=H=

= y = IL= y ∈ H ) IJ=LE = JE A E R(V ) = H A = A I=@= V FH E L G= E AJHE = FAH=J H K FH IJ HK H E ∗ A = A R(V ) = H = I LK =@=J = #% E = @= A V V = I E A ∗ F JHA> @ = =JE @= A V V =I = A R(V ) = H = GK K A @= = IL= x ∈ H F IJ E y ∈ H J= L @= A x = V y ,= A V (V V (V ∗ x) = V V ∗ (V y ) = V y = x,
J FAH=J H

∗y)

V V ∗ = I I A@E @= A x = V ∗ y @ >E = Vx = y

x ∈ H,

V

A K

EJ=H=

$
=

,

= =JE @= @E A E

A FH =

E L 0E

G= >AHJ

E L

A=H= FH

E IJ

AJHE HK

=

FAH=J

H

V

K

H

K

EJ=H=

4A

AMA 2

J

A

V

E

AJHE

=

FAH=J

H K FH

IJ

HK

H

A

EC

A@

E CH= E A F= F IJ E @C L=H= K E =@ K C L= E FAH=J H V A = A H EH= E >= EI dim(H ) = n E A = A {e1 , . . . , en } FH E L G= HJ FH IJ H= H A = A @=GA V (e1 ) = b1 , . . . , V (en ) = bn 2 J A V E AJHE = FAH=J H E ei = 1 = IL= i = 1, . . . , n @ >E = @= A V ei = 1 i = 1, . . . , n 1 ei , ej = 0 i = j E = @= A V ei , V ej = 0 i = j =J A bi ⊥ bj i = j F= = GK K A @= LA J HE H EH= E >= EI FH IJ H= H E I= E JE {b1 , . . . , bn } >H= K K HJ IK E A=H A =LEI E AF IHA@ @ >E = @= A R(V ) = H F= = I LK =@=J = #' @ >E = @= A V K EJ=H= FAH=J H

$
@ IJE

)

IK

= =JE @=

A

AEB K AB J=
FAH=J H

EJ=H A K

E

FAH=J

HE K 0E H

>AHJ

L =

FH

IJ

HK

H

EJ=H= EJ=H=

FAH=J

1IFEJ=JE

A LHA@

λ∈K
AMA )

A

λA K

4A

AA∗
F IJ

=

A∗ A

E E

B K EJ=H E FAH=J HE = I E BB ∗ = B ∗ B = I 2 J ∗ ∗ ∗ FAH=J H (AB ) = B A ∈ L(H )
IK E

A

J=@=

=

A, B ∈ L(H ) E L=<E A AB ∈ L(H ) @ABE EI=
A

I = AA∗ = AIA∗ = ABB ∗ A∗ = (AB )(B ∗ A∗ ) = (AB )(AB )∗

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

"#

E

I = B ∗ B = B ∗ IB = B ∗ A∗ AB = (AB )∗ (AB ),
= I LK FAH=J @= L=<E =@=J H = #% E = A @= CH= A E FAH=J A H

AB K

EJ=H= = JHA>=

λA λ ∈ K

AH A

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(λA)(λA)∗ = (λA)∗ (λA) = I,
J A

J

|λ|2 AA∗ = |λ|2 A∗ A = I,
E I= = A

|λ|2 = 1
A

@

I H

,=

FAH=J

λA

|λ| = 1
A K EJ=H= = IJ FAH=J H=

|λ| = 1
E A @ABE EI= I=

$

1IFEJ=JE K

EJ=H

U : ℓ2 → ℓ2

U (x1 , x2 , . . .) = (0, x1 , x2 , . . .),

x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) ∈ ℓ2 .

4A AMA = @ >E = @= A U x = x = ILA x ∈ ℓ2 F= A FAH=J H U E AJHE = = FH E L G= LA J H x ∈ ℓ2 L=<E @= A U (x) = e1 = (1, 0, . . .) @=L@A I A@E @= A R(U ) = ℓ2 5J C= = I LK =@=J = #' I A@E @= FAH=J H U E A K EJ=H=

$!

)

IK

A E B I=
IJ HK

=@ K HE

C

L=

E

FAH=J

HE K 0E J= = K A

>AHJ A I=

L

FH =@ K H C

IJ L=

HK E

H
I=

@

= =JE @= IK HE K FH C L=

FAH=J

A+B

n EA

FAH=J

H

1IFEJ=JE K

n∈N
I K

FAH=J

AB >EJE

=@ K

4A

AMA

=

IK

A E B I=

=@ K

C

L=

E

FAH=J

HE J

A

(A + B )∗ = A∗ + B ∗ = A + B,
E

(An )∗ = (A · · · A)∗ = A∗ · · · A∗ = A · · · A = An .
@=L@A L= E = = E I= A = GK K A @= IK E FAH=J HE

A+B
A >

E

An J=
H

A I=

=@ K

C

(AB )∗ = B ∗ A∗ = BA = FAH=J HE A E B A
= I= H =@ K A J= C L=

J KI

FAH=J

AB

I=

=@ K

C

L=

KJEH= K

$"
FH I =

, HK

= =JE @=

FAH=J =@ K

H C

A = 0
L= =

K 0E E I=

>AHJ =

L A

IJ =H

H

FAH=J =

λA

A I=

λ HA= 

"$

),)+1

4A K FH

AMA IJ

= FH HK

E L =

G= A

I

=

=H

H

FAH=J

H

λ E K FAH=J H λA A = 0 I= =@ K C

A L=

E

A=H= A@ =

FAH=J IJ

H

(λA)∗ = λA∗ = λA = λA
A L=<EJE = K FH IJ HK E I= = E I= A =

H
A

=

λ = λ ,= A λ HA=
0E ED

A =

λA
>H

A I=

=@ K

C

L=

FAH=J

H

$#
CH= E

A A

=

H
HA=

F =@ K

A C

I= L=

>AHJ

ED I= HA

FAH=J H FH

Sa (H )

=JL

E F

JFH

IJ

Sa (H ) I H= K FH IJ HK H , = IJ H= L(H ) E @= L=<E
L FH IJ H E

KF ILED =JE @= A

L(H ) = Sa (H ) + iSa (H ).
CH= E A E = FAH=J HA A E B E FH IJ H= Sa (H ) L=<E @= IK A∗ = A E B ∗ = B = FH E L G A α, β ∈ R E = @= A ∗ ∗ ∗ αA + βB ∈ L(H ) E L=<E (αA + βB ) = αA + βB = αA + βB 6 = E @= FAH=J H αA + βB FHEF=@= FH IJ HK Sa (H ) F= A Sa (H ) HA= E F JFH IJ H FH IJ H= L(H ) 7 E E FAH=J H= (An ) E FH IJ H= Sa (H ) E FHAJF IJ=LE @= ∗ ∗ = I LK =@=J = "' I A@E An = An → A An → A n → +∞ ∗ n → +∞ @= A AF IHA@ @ >E = @= A A = A 5J C= A ∈ Sa (H ) F= A FH IJ H Sa (H ) =JL HA 7 E FH E L G= FAH=J H T ∈ L(H ) 6=@= A 4A AMA A E @=

T =
FHE A K A

T − T∗ T + T∗ +i = A1 + iA2 , 2 2i T + T∗ 2 A2 = T − T∗ . 2i

A1 =
= A

E

A∗ 1 =
E

T∗ + T T ∗ + T ∗∗ = = A1 2 2

A∗ 2 =
= GK = K A IA @ @= IK >E =

T∗ − T T ∗ − T ∗∗ = = A2 , −2i −2i =@ K C L= FAH=J HE A1 E A2 I= 2 T T + T∗ = 2 2

E

A1

= T

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

"%

E

A2
F= L=<E

2 T T + T∗ = 2 2
,= A F FAH=J HE E?E = H EH=

= T ,
E

Sa (H )
$$

6E A A @ A = A

A1 , A2 ∈ L(H ) (xn )
E E

A1

A2

FHEF=@= K FH IJ HK

= = = @A

LA J H= K = IL= K

FH IJ HK ?E A K

X

J= =L @= A

E ,
4A

(f (xn ))

CH= E A

E A=H K BK CH= E A

f

= FH IJ HK

X X∗

= =JE @= A J=@=
AMA

( xn )

= BE IEH= A = E = A

@ABE EI= K I= BK ?E =@=J =

n ∈ N K E BK ?E Fn (f ) = f (xn ) f ∈ X ∗ X ∗∗ E L=<E Fn = xn Mf > 0 L=<E @= A |Fn (f )| = |f (xn )| Mf ,

A K =

Fn
I

= FH IJ HK A

EC A@

Fn

E A=H =

LK FHAJF IJ=L A

n ∈ N,
CH= E A A = FH IJ HK A = I= E LK FHE ?EF= K EB H

J

@= A @= IK BK 2 E J

?E

A A

X∗
JE

A FH IJ H

X∗

*= =D L ,=

Fn , n ∈ N,
=   L=<E A E

I

CH= E A

IJE LE@AJE JA HA K

xn = Fn

)2
A J= E A

- )
(xn )
CH= E A

<A IA CH= E A J

M, n ∈ N
= J

M n∈N Fn ( xn ) A CH= E A
>H KJ J=@= A E E

LE@AJE @= L=<E E

JLH AMA J ?E

= A K

xn

f ∈ X∗
$%

|f (xn )|

M n ∈ N M1 n ∈ N = FH

(f (xn ))

E L G K BK

A = IK E

X

E

Y

*= =D L LE FH IJ HE E A=H ED

=@ EIJE

F GA

I = =H=

K

E

(Tn ) 
= > L

CH= E A ED

FAH=J H= E

X

K

Y

,

= =JE @= IK

I A@A E KI E E E A

LE A LEL= A J E

( Tn )

A

CH= E A A CH= E A A A = IL=

( Tn (x) )

xE X x
E

BK
4A

?E
AMA

|f (Tn (x))| A f @ABE EI=

CH= E A = FH IJ HK E

= IL=

X

E ILA

E A=H A

Y
L @= A

A A@ = 

=⇒> IJE

A = F IJ

M > 0 J=

Tn

M, n ∈ N

1

Tn (x)
EC A@ L=<E EI = >

Tn

x

M x ,

n ∈ N, 

"&

),)+1 

>⇒=

=

A

=

A

Mx > 0 Mx ,

EIFKMA

Tn (x)
J=@= = I

n ∈ N, x ∈ X,
A ,= A CH= E A A E IJ LE@AJE JA HA K A CH= E A

LK FHE ?EF= K EB H 

 I A@E @= A

Tn 

>⇒L 2HAJF IJ=LE

M, n ∈ N
@= =

( Tn )

Mx > 0 L=<E n ∈ N, x ∈ X.
= FH IJ HK

Tn (x)
6=@= A = FH E L G K BK ?E

Mx ,
A K

Y

EIFKMA

|f (Tn (x))|
@= A = GK K A L⇒>
$&

f

Tn (x)

f Mx ,

n ∈ N, x ∈ X,
$$

@= L=<E EI = L = I LK =@=J =

L

JLH AMA L=<E

A = A

X

*= =D L FH IJ H

A@ = B= E E = K FH IJ HK A LEL= A J E = > L

Y L(X, Y )

H EH= E FH IJ H E 2

= =JE @= IK I A@A E KI

{Aα | α ∈ I }

LE

sup Aα < +∞
α∈ I

sup Aα x < +∞,
α∈I

x∈X x ∈ X, y ∗ ∈ Y ∗ .
J A

sup y ∗ Aα x < +∞,
α∈ I 
=⇒L = A

4A

AMA

sup Aα < +∞
α∈I

|y ∗ Aα x|
F= A

y ∗ · Aα · x < +∞,

x ∈ X, y ∗ ∈ Y ∗ ,

sup |y ∗ Aα x| < +∞
α∈ I
2HAJF IJ=LE I KF AH = = E IKFH J >E J @= = = IJE =  AH A 

>⇒= A >AI = = = = @= A I = =

sup Aα
α∈I

= +∞

I
=

I

>E

J=@= >E IKFHA K

I KFK I= 2 IJ

LHA@

E FHA>H

EL I KF

J ⊆I
A

J= =L @= A

Aα ∈ L(X, Y )) >E sup Aα = +∞
α∈J
E

LK FHE ?EF= HA

= ?E A JA HA = 2 J 

 F IJ

= GK K A F IJ=L

α∈J

sup Aα x = +∞
@= > A

+∞ = sup Aα x
J A

sup Aα x = +∞
α∈I

α∈J

x ∈ X J= sup Aα x
α∈I

JH=@E ?E = I= FHAJ

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

"' 

L⇒>

=

I

LK JA HA A

' K

E E

Aα x : Y ∗ → R

J= L

@= A

Aα x(y ∗ ) = y ∗ (Aα x),
6=@= = ILA

x ∈ X,

Aα x = Aα x .

x∈X
α∈I

L=<E

sup Aα x = sup Aα x = sup sup
α∈I α∈I y ∗ =1

= sup sup |y ∗ (Aα x)| < +∞,
6E A I @ = = E @= IK @=JE KI LE

α∈I y ∗ =1

(Aα x)(y ∗ )

J

sup Aα x < +∞ x ∈ X
A KI >
$'

α∈I

A LEL= A J E = =JE @= IA @ FHE ?EF= K EB H F AJ A CH= E A IJE A <A

,

E
4A

IJ=LEJE FHAJF IJ=L =
AMA

IJE FH IJ H=

X
@ ILED E L=

7

E

F JFH IJ H

X

FH IJ H=

ℓ2

I=IJ=LGA

= C H@E =J= H= E EJED @ K A E E x = (xn ) I= I= FAH=J H= Tn : X → K @ABE EI= I= Tn (x) = fn (x) = nxn n ∈ N = IA LE@E @= A X F JFH IJ H *= =D L C FH IJ H= ℓ2 E @= IK E A=H A = H EH= FH IJ HK BK ?E A A fn : X → K n ∈ N X 7 E FH E L G= BE IEH= E LA J H x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xp , 0, 0, . . .)

p

E

FH IJ H= =

X

6=@= A

x =
n=1

|xn |2

1/2
=

n > p

A

EC A@

= n p A |fn (x)| = n |xn | p x ,= A = IL= n ∈ N p x = Mx 5 @HKCA IJH= A L=<E |fn (x)| = n|xn | n x x ∈ X @= A A n n ∈ N = A = E en = (δnk ) E FH IJ H= X = K GEL fn @= A fn = n n ∈ N @=L@A @= A en = 1 E fn (en ) = n = GK K A A EC A@ sup fn = +∞

fn (x) = 0 A |fn (x)|

n∈N

%

, E

= =JE @= K 0E >AHJ L H E

FH IJ HK E I= = IJ= EI= =

H

E LA J H= E

(xn )

LAH LAHCEH=

CEH= = A A A JK =
4A

xE
AMA

x FH IJ ( xn )

H= H =

(xn ) I

=>

LAHCEH=

x
E H=@ A E CH= E A ED E A=H ED

IJ=LG= IA E

EJ= ?K = I=

%

=

FAH=J H=

x = (xn ) E ℓ1 @ABE An (x) = (xn , xn+1 , . . .). 

= 1IFEJ=JE I =>K

= K E K EB H

K

LAHCA ?E K

E =

FAH=J H=

An 

#

),)+1 

>
4A AMA

@HA@EJE

KC L= A

FAH=J HA

A∗ n
= A E K EB H A LAHCA ?E A

2 @IAJEJE IA @ABE E?E = I =>A

E = =

FAH=J H= LE@AJE @ABE E?E K A = A 

" 

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓ1 J An x
ℓ1

HA@

+∞ n=1

|xn |

LAHCEH= F= L=<E

=

+∞ k =n

|xk | → 0, n → +∞,
=J

=

IJ=J=

LAHCA J

C HA@=

An → 0 n → +∞
5 > EH

An x − 0x

ℓ1

→ 0 n → +∞

J

@= A

y ∗ (An x) − y ∗ (0x)
= GK K A 1IFEJ= @= @=GA K EB H

y ∗ · An x − 0x
K

ℓ1

→ 0, n → +∞,
@= E L=<E

An ⇀ 0 n → +∞

LAHCA ?E K J

An − 0 = An → 0, n → +∞.
7 E K FH IJ HK ℓ1 = @ >E = E

en = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .) = (1, 0, . . .) An x
@

8E@E JE

@= A E

en = 1

n∈N
,=

@= A An en

n−1

= I= E

An en = 1

A

An = sup
x =1
J @

An en = 1,
= = E @=

An
I > @=

1 n ∈ N E (An ) A
= E

6E A I

LAHCEH= K EB H ?E  A K  = FH

CH= E A K = I A@A E

E A=H K BK

0 n → +∞ K E =@= n → +∞ <A FHA@ IJ HK ℓ1 An

IJ=LEJE 

JA HA =

y (x) =
= FH E L G

+∞ n=1

yn xn ,

x = (xn ) ∈ ℓ1 , y = (yn ) ∈ m.
E =

y = (yn ) ∈ m
+∞ k=1

∗ ∗ ∗ (A∗ n y )(x) = y (An x) = y (xn , xn+1 , . . .)

=

yk xn−1+k =

+∞ k =n

yk−n+1 xk ,

n ∈ N.

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

#

%

2 JHA>=

E @ L G= = IL= E

KI

L @= HA@ LAHCA J=

+∞ n=1
E

xn yn (xn )

K FH IJ HK AIJA @= HA@

ℓ1

=FI

KJ

LAHCEH= LAHCEH=

+∞

n=1 +∞ n=1 +∞ n=1

|yn |
A

4A

AMA

)

HA@

|yn |

LAHCEH=

@= A

y

ℓ1

=

|yn |

=J

+∞ n=1
>H=J FH IJ HK

|xn yn |
A = A E

n∈N +∞

sup |xn | ·

+∞ n=1

|yn | = x
KJ

c

· y

ℓ1

< +∞.
HA@ 7 E K = ED

ℓ1

z=
?E

xn yn =FI n=1 (zn ) @=J I= zn
E A = I=

LAHCA J=

FH IJ HK ILED E A=H ED BK

LAHCA J ED

= (y1 , y2 , . . . , yn , 0, 0, . . .) n ∈ N L= c @ABE E E E CH= E A

n

fn (x) =
k=1
EK E @= A

xk yk ,

n ∈ N, x = (xn ),

(∗)
= A

fn = zn lim fn (x) =
A

ℓ1 ,

n ∈ N.
= IL=  1

+∞ n=1

?EF= K EB H J = A

n→+∞

xn yn < +∞
n

x∈c
E

=

I

LK FHE CH= E A >E = @= IJE

CH= E A A

IJE JA HA =

M >0
+∞

= IL=

n ∈ N L=<E zn
n=1

fn < M n ∈ N
ℓ1

A@ = 1

=

I A@E @= A HA@
%!

|yn |
A

k=1

|yk |

M

( fn ) A IJE (∗) @

F I A@MA

A A@ =

LAHCA J=

A = =

A

H

0E >AHJ L FH IJ H E

P

CH= E A

I=

=@ K C L= E

FAH=J H J= =L @= HJ C
4A AMA

P2 = P

,

= =JE @=

FAH=J H

P

FHA@IJ=LG=

K FH A = A

A ?E K

= E LAIJ=

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

H

E = N (I − P ) = {x | P x = x}
2 J IK FAH=J HE

E

F = N (P ) = {y | P y = 0}.
= I LK =@=J = ! A = = = A @= A

P

E

F JFH IJ HE

E

E

F

IK

=JL HA E

I−P

CH= E A E ,

E⊕F = H 

#

),)+1

A ,

x∈H
=<E

FH E L G @= A

6=@= A E

Px ∈ E

x = P x + (x − P x) = P x + (I − P )x x − Px ∈ F = A

(I − P )P x = P x − P 2 x = P x − P x = 0,
J

Px ∈ E

6=

A A

P (I − P )x = P x − P 2 x = P x − P x = 0,
F=

x − Px ∈ F
7 E >E J

6E A I

@

= = E @= A

E+F =H
E @ =<E @= A

= @L= LA J H= 6=@= A

x⊥y

x, y = 0

x ∈ E E y ∈ F P x = x E P y = 0 F= A

x, y = P x, y = x, P y = x, 0 = 0.
2HA = J 2 J A

IA IL= E A A A =J

E⊕F =H

x∈H

<A =FEI=JE K

> E K

x = P x + (x − P x),
E FH
%"

P x ∈ E, x − P x ∈ F,
@= IA

L=<E A ?E

F = E⊥
FH IJ H=

= GK K A

P

F

=F= I=

HJ C

=

H

= F JFH IJ H HJ C =

E
A ?E = K 0E >AHJ L ) = J FH

A = A

IJ HK @
4A

H

=

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H

Pn n ∈ N Pn = I
E

= FH LA E

= =JE @= A
AMA

=

n@

L G

En n ∈ N

n

Pn → I n → +∞ n0 

7 = 'E

E = FH

FAH=J H=

HJ C HA K

A ?E =

= =JL HA E F JFH IJ H

Qn = I − Pn , n ∈ N 6=@= A Qn ⊥ LE@AJE JA Fn = En Fn = {0}, Fn = {0}.

Qn =
=

1, 0,

Pn → I n → +∞ J=@= Qn = I − Pn → 0 n → +∞ @ I Qn → 0 n → +∞ =J A EC A@ Qn = 0 = n n0 J Qn = 0 = n n0 = @=J A @ >E = @= A Pn = I = n n0
%#

A = A FH IJ

J L

A FH E HK H , =

L G=

CH= E A

E A=H E

FAH=J H K 0E >AH

= =JE @= K FH IJ HK > C

H

L=<A I A@A = JLH AM=

⊥ = R(A) 
L

N (A) = R(A∗ )

N (A∗ )

R(A∗ ) = N (A)⊥

R(A) =

N (A∗ )⊥

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

#!

4A

y ∈ R(A)⊥ = E I= = Ax, y = 0 = IL= x∈H ∗ ∗ E I= = A A y = 0 A@ = IJ x, A y = Ax, y = 0 x ∈ H = = y ∈ N (A∗ ) F= A J y ∈ N (A∗ ) ,= A y ∈ R(A)⊥ = E I= ⊥ ∗ R(A) = N (A )
AMA 

= 

> 1 J A

JLH AM= @

= =

C K @A K = @ >E =

2

=@=J A  &" E  &# 6=@= A

R(A) F

JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

H

J

A

R(A)⊥⊥ = N (A∗ )⊥ R(A)⊥⊥ = R(A) LE@AJE

R(A) = R(A)⊥⊥ = N (A∗ )⊥ . 
L L= A@ = IJ IA @ >E = E = = IA K AIJ FAH=J H= A F I =JH=

∗ FAH=J H A E EI 
C L= A@ =

∗∗ HEIJE @= A A
IJ IA @ >E = E

=A 
> = FAH=J H

A∗∗
%$

A∗

E EI

HEIJE @= A

=A
, = =JE @= IL= E E =@ L G=L= AJHE = FAH=J H

V

K 0E >AHJ L

FH

IJ HK

H 

= > L
4A

N (V ) = {0} R(V ) 
= F= A

A =JL HA E F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

H

H = R(V ) ⊕ N (V
=

∗)

AMA

A

x=0 

> 2HAJF IJ=LE = y ∈ H n∈N 2 E J E

A Vx = x N (V ) = {0} @= A E E

x∈H
E

I A@E @= =

A

Vx =0
E

J=@=

(yn )

J= = = E

6=@= F IJ E AL F= E

J= = =

(xn )

E

H

J= =L @= A

R(V )

LAHCEH=

(yn )

LAHCEH= K 0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK

yn = V (xn ) H J=@= A

ym − yn = V (xm ) − V (xn ) = xm − xn ,
= GK K A F= E @= A E

(xn )

J=

A

E AL

2H IJ H

(xn )
IJE ,= A

LAHCEH= K FH IJ HK FAH=J H=

H

A = A

H A 0E >AHJ x = lim xn >
n→+∞

L C

AFHA E@

y = Vx H 
L

V I y ∈ R(V ) F=
IJ=LE

A@E @= A

V xn = yn → V x n → +∞ F= A R(V ) =JL HA E F JFH IJ H FH IJ H= E FH
IJ H=

= FH E L G= )

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H @= A

H

A EIFKMA

E ⊕ E⊥ = H

E = R(V )

I A@E @= A

H = R(V ) ⊕ R(V )⊥ . 

#"

),)+1

=

A

R(V )⊥ = N (V ∗ ) @

= =

K =@=J K

%#= @ >E =

@= A

H = R(V ) ⊕ N (V ∗ ).
%%

A = A E >E

E A@

@E A

E ,

=

E F JFH IJ H 0E >AHJ L C

FH IJ H=

H

E LA J H

x∈H

EIFKMA

a ∈ E, a = 0

= =JE @= A J=@= = IL= E LA J H

d(x, E ⊥ ) =
)

| x, a | . a
K FH A ?E K LA J H= F= A

4A

AMA

⊥ E I= FH IJ H E

E

J=@= A

y = E z HJ C = x = y + z z = λa
I=

HJ C K FH = A

=

x

= F J

A ?E K J C LA J H=

= F JFH IJ H

λ∈K

x, a = y + λa, a = y, a + λ a
@= A @ >E =

2

= λ a 2,

λ=

x, a a 2

6=@= A

d(x, E ⊥ ) = x − y =
%&

| x, a | | x, a | x, a . a = a = a 2 a 2 a
F A I

,

= =JE @=

*= =D L )
4A AMA

FH IJ HK A FHEJ = 2 A

= IL= E E AJHE = FAH=J H V K X = {0} L=<E @= A σ (V ) ⊆ {λ ∈ C | |λ| λ ∈ σp (V ) @ = =JE @= A |λ| = 1 E A AJHE = FAH=J H L=<E @= A FHA = JA HA E J

1}.
=

V

Vx = x
@= A

IL=

x∈X

V =1

" E =

σ (V ) ⊆ {λ ∈ C | |λ|
A = A = @=
%'

V = 1} = {λ ∈ C | |λ|

1}.

A

V

E

λ ∈ σp (V )

6=@= F IJ J A ,=

AJHE =

A I A@E @= A ,

|λ| = 1
LHA@

E LA J H x = 0 J= =L @= A V x = λx V x = λx = |λ| x = x x = 0 A σp (V ) ⊆ {λ ∈ C | |λ| = 1} E C E IJE FAH=J H= @C @= @C L=H= K @LA = H= FAH=J H= V K 0E >AH

= =JE @= IK I FIJLA E F JFH IJ HE I FIJLA E IJE = E AJHE HJ C =

E EJE J L
4A

FH IJ HK
AMA

H

KLA

A KI >

V

5=

L=H= K A I FIJLA A F JFH IJ HA

A = IK λ1 E λ2 @LA H= E EJA I FIJLA A LHA@ E (λ1 ) = N (V − λ1 I ) E E (λ2 ) = N (V − λ2 I ) = I LK =@=J =

= E = GK K A

%&

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

##

|λ1 | = |λ2 | = 1 7 E (λ2 ) HAIFA JEL E V x2 = λ2 x2 J A
A E

E E @

FH E L G A A A A JA =<E @= A

x1 E x2 FH IJ H= E (λ1 ) x1 ⊥ x2 . 2 J A V x1 = λ1 x1

x1 , x2 = V x1 , V x2 = λ1 x1 , λ2 x2 = λ1 λ2 x1 , x2 ,
A @ >E = (λ1 λ2 − 1) x1 , x2 = 0 ) A x1 , x2 = 0 J=@= λ1 λ2 = 1 1 |λ2 | = 1 I A@E λ2 λ2 = 1 F= A λ1 λ2 = 1 = λ2 λ2 @=L@A = GK K A @= A λ1 = λ2 = J A JH=@E ?E = I= λ2 = 0 @= A FHAJF IJ=L @= IK E =>H= A I FIJLA A LHA@ J @ IJE H= E EJA ,= A x1 , x2 = 0 x2 ∈ E (λ2 ) 6E A I
&

E

x1 ⊥ x2

= >E

= @L= LA J H=

= = E @= A

E (λ1 ) ⊥ E (λ2 )
= IL=

x1 ∈ E (λ1 )

A = A

A 

CH= E A  I= =L @= A

=@ K C L= E

FAH=J H K 0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK H J= σ (A) ⊆ [0, +∞)
4A AMA

Ax, x

0

x ∈ H

,

= =JE @= A

A = A E

M = sup{ Ax, x | x = 1}
= IJ HK A

m = inf { Ax, x | x = 1}.
FAH=J H K 0E >AHJ L FH

A
J 

CH= E A  I= IK

=@ K C L= E E >H ALE E

H

mEM
8=<E I @

JA HA K

"! 

x∈H
J
&

AF IHA@

A =JL HA E E JAHL= A E JHA>= A = A

= =JE =

max{|m|, |M |} = A LE@AJE = A Ax, x 0 = IL= A@E @= IK >H ALE m E M A AC=JEL E J [m, M ] F K IA [0, +∞) F= A σ (A) ⊆ [m, M ] ⊆ [0, +∞)
HA=

σ (A) ⊆ [m, M ]

P

HJ C

= FH C@A A

A ?E = K 0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK ,

H

= =

=JL HA E F JFH IJ H IFA J=H
4A AMA

E

FAH=J H= =

P

L=<E @= A

E = {0} E E = H σ (P ) = {0, 1}

= =JE @=

I A@E @= IK K E F A = E

?E K  %  7 E

A E = {x | P x = x} E F = {x | P x = 0} E, F = {0} λ = 1 E λ = 0 I FIJLA A LHA@ IJE FAH=J H= P 7 E I H=L E FH E L G K J= K λ0 H= E EJK @ J= = = 0 E 1 I= d H=IJ =MA J= A λ0 @ I KF= {0, 1} LE@AJE @ABE E −1 ∈ L(H ) , = = A @= A R(P − λ0 I ) = H E (P − λ0 I ) >E E LA J H y ∈ H E A@ = E K F x

(P − λ0 I )x = y.
5J=LG= K E

y1 = P y

E

x = x1 + x2 E y = y1 + y2 = x1 = P x x2 = (I − P )x y2 = (I − P )y @ >E = x1 − λ0 (x1 + x2 ) = y1 + y2 J 

#$

),)+1

(1 − λ0 )x1 = y1 −λ0 x2 = y2
A@ = E = E = HA AMA

=

A

λ0 = 0, 1 1 y2 , λ0

FHAJD

@

E IEIJA

x1 =
@ I

1 y1 , 1 − λ0

x2 = −

x=
,= A

R(P − λ0 I ) = H

1 1 Py − (y − P y ) . 1 − λ0 λ0
,=GA A

(P − λ0 I )x = x1 − λ0 (x1 + x2 ) = (1 − λ0 )x1 − λ0 x2 ,
=

x ∈ H.
2

x1 ∈ E x2 ∈ F
2

E L=<E

E⊥F
2

I

A@E @=

A

(P − λ0 I )x
2 J A

= (1 − λ0 )x1 − λ0 x2 = |1 − λ0 |2 x1 d |λ0 |
2

2

+ |λ0 |2 x2 2 .
>E = @=

= (1 − λ0 )x1
A

2

+ − λ0 x2

|1 − λ0 |

d

@

(P − λ0 I )x
@ J I

d2 x1

2

+ d 2 x2
2HA =J

2

= d2 x 2 , (P −λ0 I )−1 ∈ L(H ) A@E @= A σ (P ) = {0, 1}
A F A I *= =D L

λ0
&

A HACK

(P −λ0 I )x
=H

d x
=

= J=

x∈H FAH=J H= P
E A=H E

@=L@A I

FH

IJ

A CH= E A HK X E 0 ∈ ρ(A) ,
A = A 2 J

FAH=J A

HK

= =JE @=

σ (A−1 )

= {1/λ | λ ∈ σ (A)}
H F IJ = FH E E @= E L G A K

4A E J=

0 ∈ ρ(A) E = A=H= E CH= E A K X 6= K λ ∈ C λ = 0 A EIFKMA
AMA

A

@= A L=<E

FAH=J

A−1 0 ∈ ρ(A−1 )

A−1 − λI = A−1 − λA−1 A = A−1 (I − λA) = −λA−1 A −
@=L@A E E AF IHA@ K FH IJ @ >E = @= = A A FAH=J H

1 I . λ
CH= E A

A=H=

HK

X

J=@=

1 A− λ I −1

−1

A−1 − λI
1 F I =I A@MA A@ = = F IJE A A = FHA J=H

−1

=−
KF

1 1 A− I λ λ
@= A

A.
=

GK

K A

A I

LA

ρ(A−1 ) = {1/λ | λ ∈ ρ(A)}

σ (A−1 ) = C \ ρ(A−1 ) = {1/λ | λ ∈ σ (A)} .

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

#%

&!

A = A

FH IJ HK FAH=J H=

A CH= X )
@

E A A

E A=H=

FAH=J H K

F A I HA

H EH= LA J=

A

= =JE @=

Rλ (A) = (A − λI )−1 λ ∈ ρ(A) A J=@= lim Rλ (A) = 0
λ→∞
K

4A

AMA

= IL= K HACK =H K J= = E E A KLA HA K

λ

HA =

LA J E EJ=L

FAH=J H A

CH= E A CKIJ

@ABE EI= "  F= A

FH IJ HK )

F JFH IJ HK

λ ∈ ρ(A) LE@AJE JA

R(A − λI )

FH IJ H=

X

Rλ (A) A X LA = |λ| > A J=@= 1 A λ
k

1 1 Rλ (A) = (A − λI )−1 = − (I − λ−1 A)−1 = − λ λ
@=L@A @ >E = @= A

+∞ k=0

.

Rλ (A) =

1 |λ| 1 |λ|

+∞ k=0 +∞ k=0
=

1 A λ

k

1 |λ| =

+∞ k=0

1 A λ
A |λ|
A

k

1 A |λ|k
A A

k

1 1 |λ| 1 −
@=

=

1 , |λ| − A
@ >E =

= @= A

A LHA@

λ→∞

IJE λ ∈ C lim Rλ (A) = 0

|λ| > A

AF IHA@

&"

A = A A FH E L G= H EH= FH IJ HK E I=
AMA

E A=H E

FAH=J H K IFA JHK

=

@E A

E

=

X

,

= =JE @= A =IJ

FAH=J H

=
4A

=

λ

A FHEF=@= J= IA @= L=<E

FAH=J H=

A − λI A

JL HA

2 @IAJE

(∗)
= A F= @EHA J GK

dim N (A − λI ) + dim R(A − λI ) = dim(X ).
IJ FAH=J H= A J A N (A − λI ) = {0} (∗) @ >E = dim R(A − λI ) < dim(X ) = KA @= FAH=J H A − λI E A JL HA AH FHAI E =L= JL HA I KF FH IJ H R(A − λI ) E FHA@IJ=LG= FH=LE F JFH IJ H FH IJ H=

λI
E

FIJLA = LHA@ A@ = IJE

X X

K

) F= E

λ

E A I FIJLA = LHA@ IJE

IJ

FAH=J H= A J=@= A

A@ = &

A IEH A JEL= =@=J =

(∗)
=

I A@E @= A A

FAH=J

R(A − λI ) = X J X = @E A E = = FH H A − λI ∈ L(X ) HEIJA E *=

N (A − λI ) = {0} FAH=J H A − λI
IJ H = I =D LK JA HA K

LK 

#&

),)+1

JL HA JL HA
&#

FHAI E =L=MK JA HA =

!  @ >E =

@= A

FAH=J H A − λI

A = A

A

FAH=J H @AI I=

C F

AH= = K

F A I

0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK ℓ2 @ABE EI=

A(x1 , x2 , . . .) = (0, x1 , x2 , . . .),
, = =JE @= FAH=J H

x = (x1 , x2 , . . .).
IJ J @= A

A

A =

E A@ K I FIJLA K LHA@

σp (A) = ∅
4A

A E A

AMA A = A λ >E = I FIJLA = LHA@ IJ FAH=J H= A E A = x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) = 0 @C L=H= K E I FIJLA E LA J H 1 Ax = λx = @= A (0, x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .) = λ(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , . . .) @=L@A LE@E @= λx1 = 0 λx2 = x1 λx3 = x2

)

A

λ = 0 λ = 0

@ >E =

@= A

JH=@E ?E = ) A E E FHLA A@ =

x1 = x2 = · · · = 0
IJE @ >E = J @= A

J

x = 0
E

J

A

x1 = 0

@HKCA

x2 = 0 x=0

JHA A A

x3 = 0 A

EJ@

FAJ @ L @E @

JH=@E ?E A

2HA = J
&$

A

FAH=J H

A = I FIJLA ED LHA@

IJE J IJ HK

σp (A) = ∅ m @ABE
EI=

A I=

FAH=J H AL C F AH= = A K *= =D L FH A(x1 , x2 , . . .) = (x2 , x3 , . . .) x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) , = =JE @= IL= 

=

ρ(A) 
> , IFA JHK = =JE @= IL= L C

λ ∈ C λ ∈ C I=

I=

I >E

|λ| > 1 |λ|

FHEF=@= I KFK

I >E

1 FHEF=@= J=
E@K=

=IJ

σp (A)

FAH=J H= 

L ,

= =JE @= IK

AFHA E@= E A EC A@

IFA J=H

σc (A) E HA
=

E IFA J=H

σr (A)
4A

FAH=J H= =

A FH= A

AMA

FAH=J H

E A=H=

A = FH E L G

x ∈ m EIFKMA Ax = (x2 , x3 , . . .) = sup |xn |
n 2
I A@E @= CH= E A @= A A FAH=J H EC A@ F= = JA K HKCK

n∈N

sup |xn | = x ,
FH IJ HK

A

@ABE EI= A EIFKMA = GK K A

=

EJ=L

m

E @=

A

A
@= A

A(e2 ) = e1

1 = x = e2 A = 1 5FA J=H

@ >E = FAH=J H= ,= A

A

A I A

{λ ∈ C | |λ|

1} 

LE@AJE JA HA K

" 

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

#'

IL= = J=

=

λ ∈ C J= @= A |λ| 1 E A@ = E = Ax = λx E = HA AMA x = 0 x ∈ m 6=@= A (x2 , x3 , . . .) = λ(x1 , x2 , . . .) 1 FHAJD @ C IEI E E A LEL= A J x2 = λx1 x3 = λx2 2 3 @= A A JA = @ >E = @= A x2 = λx1 x3 = λ x1 x4 = λ x1 2 2 x = (x1 , λx1 , λ x1 , . . .) = x1 (1, λ, λ , . . .) , >E A E LA J H x FHEF=@= FH IJ HK m AH A 
> 7 E J= K

λ ∈ ρ(A)

λ ∈ C J=

L= @= A

|λ| > 1

A HACK =H = J=

=

FAH=J H=

A

J

x = |x1 | sup |λ|n−1
n∈N
= = = GK K A @= J=

|x1 | < +∞,
=IJ

x1 ∈ C, |λ|

1. A E @=
A

x = t(1, λ, λ2 , . . .)
= LA J H I FIJLA IA <A @

= =JE E

λ FHEF=@= J= A t ∈ C @C
>H=J 5J C= L=<E

IFA JHK

FAH=J H=

L=H= K E I FIJLA E LA J H JLH AMA J = A

x=

t(1, λ, λ2 , . . .) A I FIJLA E LA J H FAH=J H= A
IJE

t ∈ C \ {0}
E

@C L=H=

LHA@

λ

{λ ∈ C | |λ|
@= A AF IHA@ L 2 @IAJE @ = = E @= A
&%

1} ⊆ σp (A) ⊆ σ (A) ⊆ {λ ∈ C | |λ| σ (A) = σp (A) = {λ | |λ|
J

1},
= I

@ >E = IA @= L=<E

σ (A) = σp (A)

σ (A) = σp (A) ∪ σc (A) ∪ σr (A) A σc (A) = σr (A) = ∅
A

1}

7

A

I=

F A I 0E >AHJ L FH IJ HK ℓ2 @ABE EI= A(x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .) = (x3 , x4 , . . .) x = (x1 , x2 , . . .) IJE E F IJKF = K =@=J K &$ @ >E =

FAH=J H

= E MAC LA

I FIJLA A LHA@
4A AMA

5 E

@= A

σp (A) = {λ ∈ C | |λ| < 1}.
&&

,

= =JE @= IL= E K EJ=H=

FAH=J H

U

K 0E >AHJ L

FH IJ HK

H

=@ L G=L= HA =?E K

U x − λx = U ∗ x − λx
= FH E L G= 6= FH= = A @ LA J H = =JE @= A HA E@K=

x∈H

E FH E L G=

I = =H

E IFA J=H J= L C

λ∈C

FAH=J H= KLA 

$

),)+1

4A

AMA L

FAH=J

H

U

AK

EJ=H=

=

A

E

A=H= 7

E E

CH= FH

E

A

K FH G=

IJ LA J

HK H

H E =@ x∈HE

G=L= HA F A I=

=?E K >H

U ∗U = U U ∗ = I λ 8=<E

E L

U x − λx

2

= U x − λx, U x − λx = x = x
2 2

= U x, U x − 2Re λ U x, x − 2Re λ U x, x + |λ|2 x
2

− 2Re λ U x, x

+ |λ|2 x

+ |λ|2 x
2

2

E

U ∗ x − λx

2

= U ∗ x − λx, U ∗ x − λx = x
2

= U U ∗ x, x − 2Re λ x, U ∗ x + |λ|2 x
2
>E =

− 2Re λ U x, x ,

+ |λ|2 x

2

U x − λx = U ∗ x − λx ∗ 2HAJF IJ=LE @= λ ∈ σr (U ) 6=@= J= = λ ∈ σp (U ) ∗ @ = = A LA J H x = 0 J= =L @= A U x − λx = 0 2HE A AF IHA@ @ >E = @= A U x = λx J λ ∈ σp (U ) J A = 5J C= A =EIJ= σr (U ) = ∅
@= A AF IHA@ @

F= F A@ =

IJ

E

IJE ?E

JH=@E

&'
J L I=

, FH >H

= =JE @= IJ HK

= IL= = FH =

E

H

= G=

= LA

FAH=J J H

H
A@

E L IJ

λ L=<E

HAK F A I x ∈ H E FH E L G=

0E

>AH F A

Ax − λx = A∗ x − λx .
6= A F = =JE @= A HA E@K= E IFA J=H IL= C H = C FAH=J H=

A KLA
4A D @

FH= =

AMA C

IJ=LG= =@=J =

EJ=

?K @=

L=

=@=J=

KH=@E I=

=

I

LK FHAJ

'

)

A H J=

X
=L @=

F A

A

I=

*= =

=D A

L FH

IJ

H E @

A

CH=

E

A

E

A=H

E E

FAH=J H=@E KI

An = I

r(A) = 1
=

n∈N
IEH=

= =JE @=

A IFA

JH=

4A

AMA

A2n

=I

A3n

An = I = =I F= A
A

A EC

BE A@

n∈N

I

A@E @=

A

An = I

Akn

1/kn

= I

1/kn

= 11/kn = 1,

k ∈ N,

/

)8)

2-4)6

41 

$

@=

A @

>E =

(∗)
1 JA HA IJ A "" E = = E?E

k→+∞
@= A =

lim

Akn

1/kn

= 1. Am
E E

r(A) =
= A L=

LHA@

A >E >E = A@E

m→+∞
E =

lim

1/m
C=

)

L= CH= = F GK @ K A E

E

= E

A >E

@= E

LAHCEH=

,=

r

A

r(A) = 1
'
E @= A A E A = E A

(∗)

=

@=

A

X
E

F

A

I=

*=

=D

L FH HK

IJ

H )

A=H

FAH=J

HE K FH

IJ

X

σ (AB ) = {0}
= FH E L G= FAH=J H

AEB KJ=JEL A σ (A) = {0} @

E

CH= = =JE

4A

AMA

C ∈ L(X ) L=<E

r(C ) = sup{|λ| | λ ∈ σ (C )}.
= , A =<E FAH=J @ >E =

σ (A) = {0}
@= HE A

=

= E

@=

A

r(A) = 0
A

J

r(AB ) = 0
KJEH= K F=

n→+∞

lim

An

1/n

=0
A

AEB

(AB )n = An B n n ∈ N
1/n

@=

(AB )n
= IL=

1/n

= An B n
= A

1/n

An An
1/n

Bn
AF

1/n

B
@

An
>E =

1/n

n∈N

n→+∞ n→+∞

lim

=0
1/n

IHA@

@=

A

lim

(AB )n
= =

= 0, σ (AB ) = {0}.

J

L=<E

r(AB ) = 0

6E

A

A @

@=

A

/ =L= !

6A HE = AHA
!  2HAC A@ JA HE A

AH= = FHIJA K
,

-.1 1+1 ) ! 

AFH=

= B=

E E =

L=<E

P ⊆ P(X ) X = ∅

A

FHIJA

= 

! 

(∀A, B ) A, B ∈ P ⇒ A ∪ B ∈ P , A \ B ∈ P .

)2
=JL HA
, E

- )

- LEL= A J = @ABE E?E = FHIJA = IA @ >E = =

=DJAL=

IJ B= E E A

P

K

@

IK
A

=

∩E△ ∪E△ \E△
= = IL= E E

-.1 1+1 ) !
P
)
L=<E

2HIJA

+∞

P

σ

FHIJA

(An )

I KF L=

n=1
IL=

An ∈ P
I KFK =<A @= A
.K

>H
,

E E

+∞

A∈P

C@A A

=

P

@ABE EI= =

P

FHIJA

@C L=H=

= =

HA= =

BK

?E = I KF= Φ

I KF=

?E = I KF= Φ A =@EJEL = = = IL= = @L= P A ∩ B = ∅ L=<E Φ(A ∪ B ) = Φ(A) + Φ(B ) 2◦ .K ?E = I KF= Φ A σ =@EJEL = = = IL= E E (An ) I KF L= E σ FHIJA = P Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ i = j L=<E

-.1 1+1 ) ! ! 1◦
A, B E

FHIJA =

Φ

+∞ n=1

An =

+∞ n=1

Φ(An ). 

$

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

$!

6

- 4- ) ! 

)

A

Φ

=@EJEL = BK

?E = I KF=

= FHIJA K

L=<E

P

J=@=

1◦ Φ(∅) = 0 2◦ Φ
n n

Ai =
i=1 i=1

Φ(Ai ) Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ i = j n ∈ N

3◦ Φ(A ∪ B ) + Φ(A ∩ B ) = Φ(A) + Φ(B ) 4◦ = A A ⊆ B E Φ(A) < +∞ J=@= A Φ(B \ A) = Φ(B ) − Φ(A) 5◦ = A Φ 0 J=@= A Φ(A ∪ B ) Φ(A) + Φ(B ) 6◦ = A Φ 0 E A ⊆ B J=@= A Φ(A) Φ(B )
6

- 4- ) !
+∞

A = A

A E

Φ σ

=@EJEL = BK FHIJA =

?E = I KF=

= FHIJA K

1◦

)

(An )

I KF L= E

P P

J= =L @=

P A A1 ⊆ A2 ⊆ · · · A1 ⊇ A2 ⊇ · · ·
J=@=

E

n=1 2◦ +∞ n=1

An = A ∈ P
) A

J=@= L=<E @=

Φ(An ) → Φ(A) n → +∞
J= =L @= A

(An )

E

I KF L= E = A

FHIJA =

An = A ∈ P E =

BE IEH=

k ∈ N L=<E Φ(Ak ) < +∞

Φ(An ) → Φ(A) n → +∞

,

-.1 1+1 ) ! "
P
BK = BK A ,= A

A AC=JEL =

σ

=@EJEL = BK FHIJA =

?E = I KF= @ABE EI= = IK

= FHIJA K

AH=

=

P

5 KF LE E

P

AHGELE I KF LE
A

?E = I ?E =

σ

=@EJEL

KF= µ : P → R ∪ {+∞} A AH= = P = µ(∅) = 0 E = IL= E I KF A ∈ P L=<E µ(A)

µ

0

A>AC L= AH=
7 @=GA 1 JAHL= H= =JH=MK IJ HK CH= E E A E A IA I= I= =I KF LA E K FH

Rk

Rk k ∈ N

@ABE

I = [a1 , b1 ) × [a2 , b2 ) × · · · × [ak , bk ),

AH= E JAHL= = I
C E JAHL= =

k

ai , bi ∈ R, ai < bi , i = 1, 2, . . . , k. (bi − ai )
AK E = =

@=J=

A I=

m(I ) =
i=1
A

,

-.1 1+1 ) ! #
.= E

5 KF

E ⊆ Rk
J=H

A A A J=H= I KF =

E K ILED A = E E A

A

A

ED I

KF

L=

=

=L=

A

I=

E

A FHIJA

σ

FHIJA

E

.=

E

E = 

$"

! 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

6

- 4- ) ! !
A

)

n

E∈E

J=@= F IJ

E

=

C

E JAHL= =

Ij

J=

LED @=

E= E∈E
5=

j =1
A = A E JAHL= A EE AH=

Ij Ij ∩ Ik = ∅ j = k
p
E A = A

Ij
j =1
= E

A@ BK

H=

=C=MA I KF=

E

= @EI K

J A

Ij

m(E )
p j =1

?E K I KF= @ABE EI= K @ABE EI= = BK

= B= E

E

I=

m(E ) = E
A =

m(Ij )

6=

?E = I KF=

m

A

= FHIJA K

,

-.1 1+1 ) ! $
A@ = LE AH=

A

{In }n∈N
= A I=

A FHA>H

A ⊆ Rk
EL F L= =

FH E L G=

I KF E

A =

A =

A ?E = 5F G

HEL=MA I KF= AH

AE

JAHL= E

m∗ (A)

I KF=

A

E @K

m

= FHIJA K

m∗ (A) = inf
C@A A E BE K = K AJ F ILE = LE

+∞ n=1

E

@ABE EI= =

m(In ),
ELE F HEL=ME = I KF=

A FHA>H

A

E JAHL= E

6

- 4- ) ! "
1◦ 2◦ 3◦ (∀A ∈

)

A∈E ⇒

m∗ (A)

A, B, An ⊆ Rk n = 1, 2, . . . = m(A) 0 m∗ (B )
+∞ n=1
A FHE AHE A K E =

J=@= L=<E

Rk ) m∗ (A) m∗ (A)

A⊆B⇒
+∞ n=1

4◦ A =

An ⇒ m∗ (A)

m∗ (An )
=@= L=<E IJH C= =@=J= = ! !# A A@

)2
= IF G =

- )
IJ K

2HE AJE E

@= F IJ =F

4◦

JA HA A ! " EA

E K I K =K

=@= IK I KF LE

A KI >

@EI K

J E LE@AJE AH=

An n ∈ N 3.4.
E E

> C J C=

∗ AH= m (A)

k = P(R ) K I EI K @ABE E?E A

I KF L= E

A = A Mk (m) B= E E = I KF L= A A FHIJA

Mk (m)

E

I=

I >E = E

@=

EA

σ

FHIJA

⊆ Rk J= LED @= F IJ m∗ (A△En ) → 0 n → +∞
4AIJHE ?E = IF G A ?E = I KF=

(En ) m∗
=

.= E E = AHA

B= E E K

Mk (m)
E

A =@EJEL = BK

,ABE E

I=@= B= E E K A = LE A FHA>H EL= K E = I KF L= E

M(m) = {A ⊆ Rk | A

Mk (m)}.

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

$#

.=

E

E = A

M(m)

M(m) A σ FHIJA 4AIJHE ?E = IF G A σ =@EJEL = BK ?E = I KF= 8=<E I A@A E ⊂ Mk (m) ⊂ M(m) ⊂ P(Rk ),

AHA A

m∗

= B=

E

E K

Rk ∈ M(m).

,

-.1 1+1 ) ! %
M(m) A A@

5 KF A

E E

AHGEL = = = A IF G

I KF=

⊆ Rk A AHGEL K A>AC L A ∈ M(m) 7 J I K = K ∗ AHE m (A) Rk

I EI K m A>AC L= AH=
IK

AHGEL

m(A)

6

- 4- ) ! # - 4- ) ! $
)

JL HA E E =JL HA E I KF LE K

m

AHGELE

6

I KF

F E JL HA m(G \ A) < ε
AMK K E A =J= =

I KF

A ∈ M(m) J=@= = IL= ε > 0 F IJ A =JL HA G J= LE @= L=<E F ⊆ A ⊆ G E m(A \ F ) < ε
A IL= E I KF A FHA>H EL E IA <A @ >EJE FHE F A

,

-.1 1+1 ) ! & * HA L I KF
JL HA A I KF LA

= LE

K E = FHAIA = E

.=

E

E K * E L=<E

HA

LED I

KF

L=

=

=L=

A

I=

σ
6

FHIJA

B ⊂ M(m) A ∈ M(m) J=@= F IJ A I m(A \ B ) = 0 m(C \ A) = 0
) A = = I KFK I >E = >H= K A I KF KF LE

B

.=

E

E =

B

A

- 4- ) ! %
B⊆A⊆C
A

) E

A

B, C ∈ B A

J= LE @=

,

-.1 1+1 ) ! '
L=<E

J=

E E J J= EJAJ

P

I H ILK@=
) L K K A>AC I EI

A

H=

P L=<E = m− AHA K A II = A
E A HA I= A

I KFK =

E K E =K E @= I >E =

=<A

)2
IA H=@E A>AC

- )
L

=@=?E AHE

= K

E A @HKC= = =L=

F @ I

@H= K

AL=

@= IJE K

m

AHGEL

AHGELA BK ?E A
,

−1 (O ) L=<E f

AHGEL= K A>AC L

-.1 1+1 ) ! 

.K

I EI K

?E =

f : E → T (T ∈ {R∗ , Rp }, p ≥ 1) A = E = = IL= E JL HA E I KF O K T

∈ M(m) 

$$

! 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

)2
L= A 6

- )

7>K@K

A

=@= C

@

=<A A>AC

AHGEL= BK L I EI K

?E =

F

@H= K

A

@= IA H=@E

AHGEL

IJE K

- 4- ) ! &
E
= A I

=

f : E → R∗ = [−∞, +∞] E ⊆ Rk KF E (f > c) = {x ∈ E | f (x) > c} AHGEL = IL=
.K ?E = 7 AIJ L= KI L=

A

AHGEL=

c∈R
E A@=

)2
@ I ) AH IL=

- )
A@A A

ED KI

f (x)

f (x) > c K JA HA c f (x) < c f (x)
?E = JL HA =

E ! &

<A @= IJ

c
J=@= E A

A I

f AFHA E@ = HA= = BK E (f > c) = f −1 (c, +∞) c∈R
KF A = A

E

f
JE

AHGEL= E

=

E
=

F= I=

AHGEL

6

- 4- ) ! '
A

(fn )

E

AHGELED BK

?E =

6=@= IK I A@A A BK

?E A J=

AHGELA

g (x) = sup fn (x) h(x) = inf fn (x) l(x) = lim inf fn (x) L(x) = lim sup fn (x)
n→+∞ n→+∞
A 6

n∈N

n∈N

- 4- ) ! 

A = IK

f

E

F AFHA E@ = BK x ∈ E AHGEL=
A 5FA?E = I A@E @= IK BK = ?E A

?E =

g 2 = R

=

AHGELA BK

6=@= A E BK

E ⊆ Rk E A = ?E = h(x) = F (f (x), g (x))
?E A =

IK

f Eg = f ±g f ·g

A E

AHGELA BK

?E A E AHGELA

JA

HA

A ! 

f /g (g = 0)

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

$%

!

=@=?E

! 

,

= =JE @= A B= E E = AL= FHIJA ,= >E @ J=@= IK E = E

=
4A

ED >H
AMA

AE

P ILED CH= σ FHIJA P
FHIJA IK

E A ED F @I KF L= I KF= HA

= = E @= A

F JHA>

A @= F

=<A

@= J=

B= E E = =@ L G=L= KI I KF= FHIJA , =<E 2HEJ

L !  ) E

AEB

CH= E A E F @I KF LE

R

A∪B

A\B
+∞ i=1

CH= E A E F @I KF LE

R

F=

P

AIJA

I=@= @= P

E A σ −FHIJA = E

7

E

E JAHL= A Ai F=

= [i, i +1] σ
FHIJA

i∈N
!

Ai ∈ P

Ai = [1, +∞) ∈ /P
EL I KF = EL E E

P

EA

A = A X FH E L G= P = {A ⊆ X | A A = LE , = =JE @= A P σ FHIJA
4A AMA

AFHA>H A FHA>H

CA

P

A B= E E = =@=J= I= = LE A FHA>H EL}

A

,

=<E

= FHA @=

= ILA

FHEF=@=

=@= A I KF

P

A, B ∈ P

H=

E =

A\B

J=

A

A

= LE

A FHA>H

EL J=@= A

A\B ∈P
= LE

A \ B = A ∩ CB ⊆ A
A FHA>H 4= EL 6=@= A E KA

F=

2HAJF IJ=LE A FHA>H EL

I=@= @= I KF

(i) )
@ I

(ii)
= LE ,=

)

A B = LE C(A \ B ) A A

A E A = LE 8=<E C(A \ B ) = CA ∪ B
A FHA>H EL J=@= A = LE A FHA>H A FHA>H EL F=

CA
EL

@L= I K = = A FHA>H

CB

= LE

EL J=@= A

CA ∪ B = LE A\B ∈P

A FHA>H A

EL F=

= ILA

IJ= A

@= @

A, B ∈ P
=<A

A\B ∈P
L=<E @= =

A \ B = A ∩ CB ⊆ CB
+∞ n=1

2HAJF IJ=LE EL 6=@= A E ) F IJ = LE

= FHA @= A = IL=

An ∈ P n = 1, 2, . . . L=<E n∈NI
EA KF EL= F=

A\B ∈P

+∞ n=1
E

An
A

= LE

A FHA>H A I KF = I

+∞

An

= LE

A FHA>H

An ∈ P

n=1

An ∈ P
A FHA>H EL J=@= A

n0

=

An0
LK

= LE

CAn0

A FHA>H

EL F=

C
EL

+∞ n=1

An =
I

+∞

I A@E @= A ,=

C

+∞ n=1

An P

= LE A

A FHA>H

@

n=1 +∞ n=1

CAn ⊆ CAn0

An ∈ P

A B= E E =

σ

FHIJA 

$&

!

),)+1

! !

A =

A = IK A E B B= f : A → B 6=@=

E E A F @I KF L= I KF L= =

AEB
A

HAIFA JEL

E

X ∈ A E Y ∈ B @ABE
E

E

f (X ) = {f (x) | x ∈ X }
@ A

f −1 (Y ) = {x | f (x) ∈ Y }, f −1 (B ) = {f −1 (Y ) | Y ∈ B}.
E

f (A) = {f (X ) | X ∈ A}, 
= ) > )
4A AMA

=

A B= E E = A B= E = 2 J

B FHIJA E = A FHIJA
A B= E E = E

J=@= A E @=

f −1 (B ) FHIJA A f (A) FHIJA

,

= =JE

L=<E

Y1 ∪ Y2 ∈ B Y1 \ Y2 ∈ B

B FHIJA J=@= = I KF LA Y1 , Y2 ∈ B f −1 (Y1 ), f −1 (Y2 ) ∈ f −1 (B) 5=@= > C

f −1 (Y1 ) ∪ f −1 (Y2 ) = f −1 (Y1 ∪ Y2 ),
I A@E

f −1 (Y1 ) ∪ f −1 (Y2 ) ∈ f −1 (B )

= > C

f −1 (Y1 ) \ f −1 (Y2 ) = f −1 (Y1 ) ∩ C(f −1 (Y2 )) = f −1 (Y1 ) ∩ f −1 (CY2 ) = f −1 (Y1 ∩ CY2 ) = f −1 (Y1 \ Y2 ), f −1 (Y1 ) \ f −1 (Y2 ) ∈ f −1 (B ) −1 (B ) FHIJA ,= A = A B FHIJA J=@= A E f > .= E E = f (A) A H= >EJE FHIJA J F = K A I A@A A = A A = {a, b, c, d} E A = {∅, {a, b}, {c, d}, {a, b, c, d}} A = FHAI E =L=MA f A @=J I=
I A@E

E FHE AH A FHIJA 

f:
6=@= A E FHIJA
! "

a b c d a1 b1 b1 c1

.

f (A) = {∅, {a1 , b1 }, {b1 , c1 }, {a1 , b1 , c1 }} = I KF LA {a1 , b1 , c1 } {b1 , c1 } E f (A) L=<E {a1 , b1 , c1 } \ {b1 , c1 } = {a1 } ∈ / f (A) F= f (A) E A
A = A

J= =L @= A

X αn

FH E L G=

0

E

αn
an ∈ A
4A AMA

@ABE EI= = 6HA>= @

(an ) E A A E αn = +∞ n ∈ N , AH= = P(X )
I KF L=

A =J= E

X

= =JE @= A

(αn ) E I= µ(A) =
= A AC=JEL =

= =JE @= A

@ABE EI= = BK

?E = µ

σ

=@EJEL = E @= A

(i)

EC A@

µ(∅) = 0 A µ(∅) =

an ∈∅

αn = 0

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

$'

(ii) (iii)

= IL= E I KF A = A

A=

+∞

A ∈ P(X )

EC A@

L=<E

µ(A) =
an ∈A
6=@= A

αn

0

k=1

Ak Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ i = j αn =
+∞ k=1 an ∈Ak
= GK K A @= A

µ(A) =
an ∈A
=
! #

αn =

+∞ k=1

µ(Ak ).

I

LK

(i) (ii) E (iii)
AH= =

µ

AH=

=

P(X ) P
, = =JE

A = A IJE

µ

σ

FHIJA K

A A@ = = > A

P

E

(An )

E I KF L= E

µ(lim inf An )
n→+∞

lim inf µ(An )
n→+∞

µ(lim sup An )
n→+∞

lim sup µ(An )
n→+∞

=

A

µ

+∞ n=m

An

< +∞

=

)2
IA

m∈N

- ) Limes superior
= = E C C E

E = I KF L= = L= J C

(An )
E =

A I KF =

E E A A A JE E = E = LE = J C

= = A K >AI

Limes inferior

I KF L= I E K AJ
4A AMA

(An )

A I KF

E E A A A JE FHEF=@= K ILE

MED 

= ,ABE E

(Bn )

I=

Bn =

+∞ k =n

Ak

E

(Bn )

A

J

H=IJK E E J=@= A

B = lim inf An =
n→+∞
= A

+∞ +∞ n=1 k=n

Ak =

+∞ n=1

Bn . µ(Ak )

k
!

n

Bn ⊆ Ak = k @= A µ(Bn )

k n

n = I inf µ(Ak )

LK JA HA A

3.1. L=<E µ(Bn )
= I A

5= @HKCA IJH= A ,=

LK JA HA A

I A@E @=

µ(Bn ) → µ(B ) n → +∞
n→+∞

µ(B ) = lim µ(Bn )
J

n→+∞ k n

lim inf µ(Ak ) = lim inf µ(An ),
n→+∞

µ(lim inf An )
n→+∞ 
> 7LA@E E A

lim inf µ(An )
n→+∞
J E I KF L=

(Cn )

= I A@A E

= E

Cn =

+∞ k=n

Ak

L=

@ABE EI=

F=@= K E 6=@= A

C = lim sup An =
n→+∞

+∞ +∞ n=1 k=n

Ak =

+∞ n=1

Cn . 

%

!

),)+1

= IJH= A

A

Cn ⊇ Ak k
= A I

n

L=<E

µ(Cn )
@ >E =

sup µ(Ak ) k
k n

n

5 @HKCA

LK JA HA A !

2HA = J

µ(Cn ) → µ(C ) n → +∞

µ(C ) = lim µ(Cn )
n→+∞
J

n→+∞ k n

lim sup µ(Ak ) = lim sup µ(An ),
n→+∞

µ(lim sup An )
n→+∞
A = A

lim sup µ(An )
n→+∞
=

! $

µ
L

AH=

σ

FHIJA K

L G=L= KI =

+∞ n=1

P

E

(Xn )

E

I KF L= E

P

E

=@

µ(Xn ) < +∞

,

= =JE @= A

µ(lim sup Xn ) = 0
n→+∞

4A

AMA

A

lim sup Xn =
n→+∞
I A@E

+∞ +∞ n=1 k=n

Xk ⊆
+∞ k =n

+∞ k=n

Xk ,

n ∈ N,

0
=

µ(lim sup Xn )
n→+∞

µ

Xk

+∞ k=n
@= A

µ(Xk ).

+∞ k=n

µ(Xk ) → 0 n → +∞
AH= =

= GK K A

µ(lim sup Xn ) = 0
n→+∞

! %

,
AMA

= =JE @= A = A

σ
=

FHIJA K @ IJE<A IL

IKFHA K 7 E E

4A

µ P

AH=

σ

FHIJA K

P

E

a = sup µ(X )
X ∈P 
= LE I E

I KF L=

(Xn )
I=

E

J= =L @= A E F IJ

IKFHA K = @ABE EI= H=IJK E AH A @

L= =L

E

n→+∞
7

lim µ(Xn ) = a
E L= I=@=

LK @ABE E?E A I KF L= E

(Yn )

Yn =
j n
= IL= = = I @=

Xj n ∈ N

@ABE EI=

I KF L= A

> C

Yn ∈ P P σ −FHIJA

n ∈ N E Yn → Y n → +∞ 2HEJ Y ∈ P I LK JA HA A ! L=<E µ(Y ) = lim µ(Yn )
LK JA HA A !   E @ABE E?E A >H A @ >E = @= AH= =

µ(Xn )
=
! &

Xn ⊆ Yn  µ(Yn ) a
@

n→+∞
=

Y ∈P
A = A A K A

= = EI

σ

n→+∞

lim µ(Yn ) = a

J

a L=<E µ(Y ) = a
IKFHA K

FHIJA K @ IJE<A IL E A =

FHE

3 1 3 S = [0, 1) F = ∅, [0, 1 2 ), [0, 4 ), [ 4 , 4 ), S

ϕ:F →R = 2.

ϕ(∅) = 0, ϕ(S ) = 4, ϕ

0,

1 2

= 2, ϕ

0,

3 4

= 4, ϕ

1 3 , 4 4

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

%

,=

E F IJ

E A IJA

E = BK

?E A

ϕ@

AHA

= FHIJA K

B= E E
4A AMA

F
7 E I KF LA

P

CA AHEI=

1 3 1 3 = 0, \ , , 4 4 4 4 1 3 3 1 = 0, \ 0, , , 2 4 4 2 0,
2HE AJE IA ILE K EA = A L= E @= IK IJ= E I KF LE J C FHIJA = IA AJEHE I KF= ,= AHK LK @= A A = = =

1 1 1 1 = 0, \ 0, , 4 2 2 4 3 3 , 1 = S \ 0, . 4 4 ∅
CK @ >EJE AHK I >E A = L= AHA

LE I KF LE A A A JE FHIJA =

P

@= IK @EI K =

J E E @=

@C L=H= K A AHK

AJEHE E JAHL= = @HA@E

P → R J= µ

P

5=@=

HEIJA E

µ :

µ↾F = ϕ

IA @ >E =

3 ,1 4 1 3 , 2 4 1 4

= µ S \ 0, = ϕ(S ) − ϕ =µ =ϕ

3 4 0,

µ

µ

0,

=µ =ϕ

µ

1 1 , 4 2

=µ =ϕ

3 4 3 1 0, \ 0, 4 2 3 0, −ϕ 4 3 1 3 0, \ , 4 4 4 3 0, −ϕ 4 1 1 0, \ 0, 2 4 1 0, −µ 2
AFHA>H

= µ(S ) − µ

0,

3 4 1 2

= 4 − 4 = 0, =µ 0, 1 2 =µ 1 1 , 4 2 =µ 0, 1 4 0, 3 4 −µ 0,

= 4 − 2 = 2, 0, 3 4 −µ

1 3 , 4 4 1 4

= 4 − 2 = 2, 0, 1 2 −µ 0,

= 2 − 2 = 0.
A = A

! '

A = A

X

>AI

= =

EL I KF E

P = {E ⊆ X | card(E )
=

ℵ0 ⊻ card(X \ E )
= E

ℵ0 }.

P

A =@=J= BK

?E =

µ

= I A@A E

µ(E ) =
, = =JE =

0, card(E ) ℵ0 , 1, card(X \ E ) ℵ0 . µ
A AH= =

P

A

σ

FHIJA 

>

P 

%

!

),)+1

4A

AMA 

= 8E@AJE =@=J= @=

! ?E = E = ?E A I >E A E AHA 

> 1IFEJ= = I KF I

E @=J= BK

LK @ABE E?E A BK

µ

A

µ(∅) = 0

µ(E )

0

= IL= E

,

E∈P

=<E

@= A BK 6=@=

?E =

µσ

=@EJEL =

A = A

Ei ∩ Ej = ∅ i = j
2HAJF IJ=LE A

+∞ n=1
=

En ∈ P n ∈ N n ∈ N
+∞ n=1
6=@=

En ∈ P card(En ) En
L=<E A FHA>H EL= K E = FHA>H

= FHA @= A

µ(En ) = 0 n ∈ N
EL I KF AE ) J A =

ℵ0
@

= IL=

ELED I KF L=

FHA>H

card
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1

ℵ0 µ

I

µ
+∞ n=1

En

= 0

µ(En ) =

0=0

+∞

En =

µ(En )

n=1

J=@= A >H F= E A

E A E FHEH @= >H n0 J= =L @= A card(X \ En0 ) ℵ0 n0 A@E IJLA AH = IL= @HKC n ∈ N L=<E En ∩ En0 = ∅ En ⊆ X \ En0 I A@E @= A card(En ) ℵ0 = IL= n = n0 = F IJ

X\ µ

+∞

En =

+∞

F= A

n=1 +∞ n=1

n=1

X \ En ⊆ X \ En0
5 @HKCA IJH= A

J

A

card X \

+∞

En

n=1

ℵ0

En = 1

+∞ n=1
F= E K ,=
! 

µ(En ) = µ(En0 ) +
n=n0 +∞ n=1
AIJA

µ(En ) = 1 +
n=n0 +∞ n=1
AH= =

0 = 1,

L

I K = K L=<E ?E =

µ µ

En =

µ(En )
FHIJA K

A @=J= BK A = A

σ

P
?E = J= L=

@= A

µ : P(N) → R ∪ {+∞} µ(A) = 0, A 1, A
A

= = =

=@EJEL = BK

, .

A >AI

= =

,=
4A

E A
AMA

µ

AH= A = A

=

P(N)

FH E L G

k∈N
A

5L=

n

A=
k=1

Ak

A = {a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . } >AI = = F @I KF I KF= N = n ∈ N @ABE E E I KF LA Ak = {ak , an+k , a2n+k , . . .} = = F= A µ(Ak ) 1 k∈N EC A@ E I KF Ak A >AI
E

Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ i = j 1

i, j

n

=

A

µ

=

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

%!

=@EJEL = BK

?E = L=<E

n

n

µ(A) = µ
k=1
2 @= A J F I A@M= A A@ =

Ak =
k=1
IJ L=<E

µ(Ak )

n · 1 = n. n∈N
= GK K A ?E =

= FH E L G = = A A >AI I KF = =

@=J= I=

µ(A) = +∞

=@ C @ A

A

>AI

,=

A BK

µ

A

µ(A) =
,= A

µ(N) = +∞

0, A +∞, A
>E

, .

= =

)

µ

>E =

AH= J=@= >E L=<E

µ(N) = µ
J AH=
! 

+∞

n=1

{n} =

+∞ n=1

µ({n}) =

+∞ n=1

0 = 0,
A BK ?E =

A = )

JH=@E ?E = I=

P(N)
AA I KF J

µ(N) = +∞
I KF @

2HA = J

µ

EA

A A A J=H=
4A AMA

⊆ RA

A A J=H=

= =JE @= A E

B = {x2 | x ∈ A}
C E JAHL= =

2

A A A A A J=H= LED @= A A

I KF F IJ

I1 , I2 , . . . , In ⊆ R J=
I KF LE K JA HA K 

n

E =

=

=


ν =1 x2 A
J=

IK E JAHL= E Iν F LA = E I A@E @= IK I KF LE

R = FHAI E =L=MA x → Jν = {x2 | x ∈ Iν } ν = 1, 2 . . . , n
" E =@=J=  !& 5J C= A

AFHA E@

A E JAHL= E K

R 

LE@AJE

B = {x2 | x ∈ A} = {x2 | x ∈
=
! 

n ν =1

Iν } =

n

ν =1

{x2 | x ∈ Iν } = BA

n


ν =1
I KF

= K E = E JAHL= = ) AA

J1 , J2 , . . . , Jn ⊆ R
I KF @

F= A

A A J=H=

J=
4A

A A A A J=H=
AMA

⊆ RA

A A J=H= I KF

= =JE @= A

B = {cos x | x ∈ A}
! 

IJ=LG= IA A

EJ= ?K = I= I KF K

IJ=

E H=@ F C A@=JE =@=J= = =JE @= A I KF

! !

)

AA

A A J=H=

Rk

@

B = λA = {λx | x ∈ A}
J= A A A A J=H= E @= FHEJ L=<E

m(λA) = |λ|k m(A) 

%"

!

),)+1

4A

AMA

=

A

AA

A A J=H=

I1 , . . . , In ⊆
n

Rk

J= LED @= A EC A@

Rk F IJ E = C E Int(Iα ) ∩ Int(Iβ ) = ∅ α = β
K

JAHL= = E

A =

n


ν =1

6=@= A

λA =
ν =1

λIν

2HE AJE

@= A = FH E L G=

E JAHL=

E L=<E

k A E JAHL= K R I ⊆ Rk E FH E L G λ ∈ R I KF λI J= k = =JE L JLH AMA H= E K K E E FHEJ L=<E m(λI ) = |λ| m(I ) @ I K = ALA λ < 0 λ = 0 λ > 0 = A Int(λI ) = λInt(I ) = GK K A @= L=<E Int(λIα ) ∩ Int(λIβ ) = ∅ α = β 5J C= A I KF λA A A A J=H= n n n

m(λA) =
ν =1
! "

m(λIν ) =
ν =1

|λ|k m(Iν ) = |λ|k

ν =1

m(Iν ) = |λ|k m(A). Rk
@ = =JE @=

AI
4A

P E Q FH E L G E A A A J=H KF P + Q = {x + y | x ∈ P, y ∈ Q} J=
) IK
AMA

E I KF LE K

A A A A J=H= F IJ A E JAHL= E

2

J

IK

P

E

Q

A A A J=H E I KF LE J

I1 , . . . , Im , J1 , . . . Jn ⊆ Rk P +Q=

m

n

J= LE @= A

P =
p=1

Ip

E

Q=
q =1

Jq

6=@= A

m

n

Ip +
p=1 q =1

Jq =

p,q

(Ip + Jq ) .
I KF

,

=<E

@= A = FH E L G A E JAHL= A

I, J ⊆ Rk

I + J = {x + y | x ∈ I, y ∈ J }
J= L=<E A E JAHL= KR

k

= FH E L G A

=

A E JAHL= A [a, b), [c, d)

⊆R

[a, b) = {a + t(b − a) | 0
= I LK J C= E =

t < 1},

[c, d) = {c + u(d − c) | 0

u < 1}.

@= A

[a, b) + [c, d) = {a + t(b − a) + c + u(d − c) | 0
= A

t, u < 1} = [a + c, b + d).

I = [a1 , b1 ) × · · · × [ak , bk ),
= I LK FHAJD @ @ = =

J = [c1 , d1 ) × · · · × [ck , dk ),

C I A@E @= A

I + J = [a1 + c1 , b1 + d1 ) × · · · × [ak + ck , bk + dk ),

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

%#

J

k ,= I + J A J= A E JAHL= K R = p = 1, . . . , m q = 1, . . . , n F= A m

A

Ip + Jq = Ipq Ipq

A E JAHL=

K

Rk

n

P +Q=
p=1 q =1
A A A J=H=
! #

I KF K

Rk
FH E L G= I KF , = =JE @= IK J=@= I KF LE

A = A

Int(A) E ∂A
4A AMA

A ⊆ Rk
AHGELE

IJ=LG= IA A

EJ= ?K = I= AHGEL I KF @

IJ=

E H=@

! $

) A
AMA

J=
4A

AHGEL

A⊆R

= =JE @= A I KF

B = {|x| | x ∈ A} A+ =

IJ=LG= IA

EJ= ?K

= I=

IJ=

E H=@ K

EJE I KF LA

A ∩ [0, +∞]
! %

− EA

= A ∩ [−∞, 0]
J=@= A

,

= =JE I A@A = JLH AM= A 

= ) 

> .= E E =

A ⊆ Rk N

m(A) = 0 = Rk

E I= AHA

= K = A

A

m∗ (A) = 0
) A

ILED I KF L= E

σ

FHIJA

A∈N

E

B⊆A

J=@= A

B∈N

4A AMA = ) A m(A) = 0 J=@= = I LK @ABE E?E A AHA E = ∗ IJ= A @= F =<A @= E m (A) = 0 I A@E m(A) = m∗ (A) = 0 ∗ ∗ m(A) = 0 ) A m (A) = 0 I A@E m (A△∅) = 0 @= A A ∈ Mk (m) F I =JH= I KF A E E FH= ED I KF L= = @=J A E A ∈ M(m) F= ∗ = GK K A @= A m(A) = m (A) = 0 

> 7

E

I KF LA

∗ AHA m E JLH AMA @

= =

An ∈ N n ∈ N
+∞ i=1

HEIJA E

I >E A IF G A

K @A K = @ >E =

0
@ J I

m∗

Ai

+∞ i=1

m∗ (Ai ) = 0, m
+∞ i=1

m∗ Ai ∈ N

+∞ i=1

Ai = 0

@=

A FHA = @A K = I A@E

Ai = 0

+∞ i=1

HEIJA E F @A K = = I KF LA

L

I >E A IF G A @ >E =

AHA

m∗

E JLH AMA @

= =

K

A, B ∈ N

0

m∗ (A \ B )

m∗ (A) = m(A) = 0, 

%$

!

),)+1

m∗ (A \ B ) = 0 @ I m(A \ B ) = 0 J = E @= A \ B ∈ N ,= A N AIJA σ FHIJA = I KF B E A F @I KF I KF= A ∈ N L=<E 0 m∗ (B ) m∗ (A) = ∗ m(A) = 0 F= = GK K A @= A m (B ) = 0 5=@= = I LK = I A@E m(B ) = 0 J B ∈ N
@= A I A@E
! &
4A

,
AMA

= =JE @= A ) A

AH= FHA>H

EL C I KF= A@ = = <A C= E

K E > E K

A FHA>H {a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .} = FH
+∞ n=1

EL I KF E L G

=FEI=JE K E JAHL= A

A =

ε>0K

In = an − In 0
= = I

6=@= A

A⊆

ε ε , an + n+1 . 2n+1 2 ∗ = IL= LK @ABE E?E A m
+∞ n=1

ε>0E

=

m∗ (A)
F= = I

m(In ) =

+∞ n=1

ε = ε. 2n m(A) = 0
AH= I KF= A E

,=

A

)2

m∗ (A) = 0

LK =@=J = ! % I A@E

- )

AF IHA@ = F I A@E?= FHAJD @ = C = L= A@ = = @= A

C =@=J = A @= 6=

E E =

K E

x ∈ R = I LK J C= = GK K A m((a, b]) = m([a, b]) a, b ∈ R ) = k L=H= K A E JAHL= A K R
! '

m({x}) = 0 m((a, b)) = m([a, b)) =
IJE L=<E E = @C

C A A@ =

,

= =JE @= A K E 6= C

AH= I KF= ILED H=?E A @ = =JE @= A AHGEL C I KF= IJ=

=

ED >H A@ = =

AL=

Q

K I KFK = ED

R
>H
4A

A@ = =

AH= I KF= ILED EH=?E

AL= E FH E L G
AMA

E⊆R
E H=@ AHA

AHE I KF=

E

IJ=LG= IA = =JE @= A 7 E

EJ= ?K = I= = J H L I KF

!
4A 

,
AMA

F

K =

I KF

@EI K

J ED

JL HA ED E JAHL= = LE@AJE

F ′ = [0, 1] \ F 2n−1 @K<E A

5 KF

F′

A FHA>H  &

EL= K K = @K<E A

=@=J=

1/3 2

2 @K<E A 1/3

...

1/3n EJ@

4◦  1

2HA = J

A I KF

F′

A

AHGEL E

m(F ′ ) =
= A

1 1 1 1 + 2 · 2 + 4 · 3 + · · · + 2n−1 · n + · · · = 1. 3 3 3 3
E

F ∩ F′ = ∅

m(F ) = m([0, 1]) − m(F ′ ) = 1 − 1 = 0.

F ∪ F ′ = [0, 1]

I A@E

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

%%

)2
! 

- )
,

= J H L I KF A FHE AH F= J=

AFHA>H

EL C I KF=

AHA

K =

= =JE @= IL= E A = E A

I KF K R FHEF=@= B= E E E Mk (m) F= J= I KF 6=@= = A A = AHA

k

4A

AMA

=JL HA GK K A @= A =

CH= E A

A ⊆ Rk

FH E L G= IK ILE ) IJ= A A I KF @= F

=

=JL HA E I KF LE

AHGELE AH= I KF=

@= A A ∈ M(m) A ∈ Mk (m) ,= A = = A A CH= E A

A ∈ M(m)
=<A E >H

@= A

A

I A@E @= F IJ

M > 0 J=

=L @= A

A ⊆ {x ∈ Rk | x
= A =

M }.

x = (ξ1 , ξ2 , . . . , ξk ) ∈ Rk x = |ξ1 |2 + |ξ2 |2 + · · · + |ξk |2 ,
A@E @= A K

E I

x < M AF IHA@ I KF A I=@H<= K E JAHL=

|ξν | < M

= IL=

ν = 1, . . . , k

F= A

[−M, M ]k = [−M, M ] × · · · × [−M, M ] .
k
= =
!

A

AH= IL=

C E JAHL= = K

Rk

=

= I A@E @= A E

AH= I KF=

A

= J

A ∈ Mk (m) (An )
>H E AHGELED F @I KF L= IAC A J=

A = A

IL= E F ,
4A

EJEL=

ε

F IJ

E I KF An I=

I >E

@= A

= =JE @= A
AMA

m

+∞ n=1

[0, 1] J= LED @= = m(An ) > 1−ε m(A) 1

An = 1
+∞ n=1

A = A

A =

An

6=@= A

A ⊆ [0, 1]

F= A

E

1  AH m(A) m(An ) = IL= n ∈ N 5 @HKCA IJH= A A m(An ) = I LK J C= E KI L= m(An ) > 1 − ε @ >E = A An ⊆ [0, 1] sup m(An ) sup(1 − ε) = 1 @= A = GK K A @= A sup m(An ) = 1
n∈N
,=

ε>0

A

1

m(A)

n∈N
! ! A = IK A E B m(A) + m(B ) > 1 ,

sup m(An ) = 1

J

m(A) = 1

n∈N

AHGELE F @I KF LE E JAHL= = = =JE @= A J=@= AHA E

[0, 1]

J= LE @= A

m(A ∩ B ) > 0 A ∩ B = C(CA ∪ CB )

4A

AMA

=

I

LK

I >E =

EMA E?A @= A 

%&

!

),)+1 

F A A J IA K E = K

@

IK

= E JAHL=

[0, 1] L=<E

m(A ∩ B ) = m(C(CA ∪ CB )) = 1 − m(CA ∪ CB ) = m(A) + m(B ) − 1.
=
! "

1 − (m(CA) + m(CB )) = 1 − (1 − m(A) + 1 − m(B ))
I A@E @= A

A

m(A) + m(B ) > 1
A = A

m(A ∩ B ) > 0 Rk
J= =L @= A

(En )

E

AHGELED I KF L= E

(∗)
, = =JE @= J=@= I H

+∞ n=1
ILA J=

m(En ) < +∞.
A

I KF L=
4A AMA

En n ∈ N
= E I=

x ∈ Rk

A<A K

= LE

A

=

C

AI

KF ILED J= = = 6=@= A

C

I KF L=

En n ∈ N m(A)

A=

+∞ +∞

x ∈ Rk Eν

A

A<A K >AI @= A I A@E

=

m

+∞ ν =n

n=1 ν =n

Eν ,

n ∈ N.

=

I

LK

(∗)

L=<E

m
F= I A@E @= A J
!

+∞ ν =n


,= C

+∞ ν =n

m(Eν ) → 0, n → +∞,
H ILA J= A

m(A) = 0
= E E

A I

K
#

= LE

A

I KF L=

En n ∈ N Rk

x ∈ Rk
,

A<A K

Rk \ A
@=

A = A

I KF LE

(En ) lim inf En
n→+∞

AHGELED I KF L= E

= =JE @= IK

lim sup En
n→+∞

AHGELE E L=<E

lim inf m(En )
) A

m

+∞ ν =n

n→+∞

m(lim inf En ).
n→+∞
@

Eν < +∞
n→+∞

=

A

n∈N

= =JE @= L=<E

lim sup m(En )
) @ F IJ E

m(lim sup En ).
n→+∞ +∞ ν =n En )
A

= =JE @= A

n→+∞

lim En
n→+∞

E EIFKMA

m

Eν < +∞

=

A

n∈N

lim m(En ) = m( lim

n→+∞

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

%'

4A

AMA

IJ=LG= IA A I KF E >= A

EJ= ?K = I= @ >E A

IJ= J=

E H=@ LE@AJE =@=J= J = A E =JE L=@H=J= IK E

! #

!

$

A = FHL

[0, 1]

A ⊆ R2
L=@H=J =

1 2 3, 3
E IJ

L=@H=J= E >= A E ?A JH= FH ?AI
4A AMA

JL HA E

×

1 2 3, 3

FHA IJ= ED

[0, 1] × 8
E L=

L=@H=JE IJH= E?A AHK I KF=

1/9

=IJ=LGA @HA@E

K >AI

@HA@EJE

A
EL= JL HA ED

AHK I KF= B

K E = ILED E >= A ED I KF L= LE@AJE I E K & @EI K L=@H=J= F= A IJ C= I KF

= [0, 1] × [0, 1] \ A
L = I= E JE

5 KF B A FHA>H J ED E AHGEL I KF

B*

HA

5 E =& = I LK

1 3 1 m(A2i ) = 9 m(A1 ) =

1 1 = , 3 9 1 1 · = 2, 9 9 ·

i = 1, . . . , 8,

m(Ani ) =

1 1 1 · n = n, n 3 3 9

i = 1, . . . , 8n−1 ,

I A@E

m(B ) = m A1 ∪ (A21 ∪ A22 ∪ · · · ∪ A28 =
=
! %

∪ · · · ∪ (An1 ∪ An2 ∪ · · · ∪ An8n−1 ) ∪ · · · ) 1+ 8 + ··· + 9 8 9
n−1

1 9

+ ···

= 1.
@= A

AE

m(A ∪ B ) = m(A) + m(B ) = 1
=FEIK K AIJLK A ?EBH=

= GK K A

m(A) = 0
K EA

- A A JE I KF=

@A?E =

A⊆R

IK ILE >H

ALE E = E

E JAHL= = AHK I KF=

[0, 1]

3

A 

&

!

),)+1

A1 I KF ILED >H AL= E JAHL= = [0, 1] @ ED A FHL= A1 = [0.3, 0.4) A2 I KF ILED >H AL= E JAHL= = [0, 1] A2 = [0.03, 0.04) ∪ @ ED A @HKC= @A?E = = 3 E A1 ∩ A2 = ∅ J [0.13, 0.14) ∪ [0.23, 0.24) ∪ [0.43, 0.44) ∪ · · · ∪ [0.93, 0.94) A3 I KF ILED >H AL= E JAHL= = [0, 1] @ ED A JHA = @A?E = = 3 E A3 ∩ A1 = ED A A3 ∩ A2 = ∅ EJ@ An n > 3 n ∈ N I KF ILED >H AL= @ n−J= @A?E = = A@ = = 3 E An A @EI K J= I= ILE Ak k = 1, . . . , n − 1
4A AMA

A = A J

@A?E = =

3

6=@= A A

A=

+∞

An
=

@= A

A FHA>H

EL= K E = @EI K

J ED E JAHL= = F=

n=1
AHGEL I KF

m(A1 ) =
I A@E

1 1 1 , m(A2 ) = 9 · 2 , . . . , m(An ) = 9n−1 · n , . . . , 10 10 10

m(A) = m(A1 ) + m(A2 ) + · · · + m(An ) + · · · = 1.
! &

A =

A

,

= =JE @=

S = {(x, y ) | x2 + y 2 = 1} A m(S ) = 0

A@E E

=

HK< E?= K

R2

5 E ='
4A

n ∈ N K E F @A K E JAHL= = [−1, 1] = 2n A@ = ED @A L= @K<E A 1/n E K F @A E J= = = IJHKE E =JE K FHAIA E J= = = JED FH=LA F=H= A A A IE Oy I E = ' LE I FH=LED E HK< E?A S IJHKE A FH=LA F=H= A A Ox IE IJHKEI= E A@ F HEL=MA I KF= S I= 4(n−1) FH=L KC= E = E= A K KF = F LH E = 4/n =@= n → +∞ K KF = F LH E = FH=L KC= E = JA<E K E F= = GK K A @= A m(S ) = 0
AMA

= FH E L G

!

f : R → R AFHA G = {(x, y ) ∈ R2 | y = f (x)}
'

A = A

E@ = BK

?E = 1 H= K =JE

AHK I KF=

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

&

4A

AMA

5 KF =

G

A

=JL HA ED

K

R2
=

F=

A IJ C=

AHGEL

<A

C=

FHA@IJ=LEJE FHE 2 =JL HA A K A J

K E K IL

ED F @I KF L= J E = 

G=

+∞ n=−∞
= IL=

Gn

A BK

Gn = G ∩ ([n, n + 1] × R) I
?E = E JAHL= K

JED E JAHL= = K EB H

f AFHA E@ = [n, n + 1] n ∈ Z

=

R
@=

AFHA E@ = A E A I A@E @= A

= IL=

@

AFHA E@ = J

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ (ε) > 0)(∀x1 , x2 ∈ [n, n+1]) |x1 −x2 | < δ (ε) ⇒ |f (x1 )−f (x2 )| < ε.
6=@= = IL=

ε>0F

IJ

E

= = =MAC

F

HEL= @ δ (ε) F=

F= J <A K

C I KF= EJE

[n, n +
=

1]

E E IK A A A JE @E = AJH=

C J= = = Ai (xi , f (xi )) ∈ Gn i = 0, 1, . . . , sn J= LED @= = ILA i = A = A 0, 1, . . . , sn − 1 L=<E |f (xi+1 ) − f (xi )| < ε LE@AJE I E K  Bi = G∩([xi , xi+1 ]×R]) i = 0, 1, . . . , sn −1 6=@= A m(Bi ) < ε(xi+1 −xi )

i = 0, 1, . . . , sn − 1 m(Gn ) =
,= A

=

A

Gn =

sn −1 i=0

Bi @

>E =

@= A

sn −1 i=0

m(Bi ) < ε

sn −1 i=0

(xi+1 − xi ) = ε(n + 1 − n) = ε.
F= = GK K A @=

A = IL= ε > 0 E IL= m(Gn ) = 0 n ∈ Z

n ∈ Z L=<E m(Gn ) < ε

5 E = 

5 E = 

2HA = J

A

m(G) = m

+∞ n=−∞

Gn =

+∞ n=−∞

m(Gn ) = 0

! ! 

=

A = A

,

= =JE @= A

f

f : [a, b] → R
AFHA E@ = = IL= E >H J= =L @=

@ABE EI= = I=

A F=@= K = BK

f (x) = m ([a, x] ∩ E ) ?E = = [a, b] =@= A E
F IJ E CH= E A

CH= E A > ,

AHGEL F @I KF E JAHL= = = =JE @=

[a, b]

AHGEL I KF

A⊆E

p 0 p < m(E ) A m(A) = p 

&

!

),)+1 

L ,
4A AMA

= =JE JLH AMA > = = I

=@= A I KF

E

A CH= E A

LK @ABE E?E A BK

?E A I

f (b) = m(E ) < +∞ = I A@E @= A J=@= f (x1 ) , =<E @= A f E AFHA
6=@= A

x1 < x2 f (x2 ) @
= E@ = BK

L=<E

?E =

f I A@E @= A f (a) = 0 E ([a, x1 ] ∩ E ) ⊆ ([a, x2 ] ∩ E ) f A A F=@= K = BK ?E = A = x, x + h ∈ [a, b] E h > 0

f (x + h) − f (x) = m([a, x + h] ∩ E ) − m([a, x] ∩ E ) = m((x, x + h] ∩ E )
@= A I A@E @=

= m(([a, x + h] \ [a, x]) ∩ E )

m((x, x + h]) = h,

f (x + h) − f (x) → 0 h → 0+ J f A AFHA E@ = I@AI = = ILA x ∈ [a, b) ) = C IA @ = K A @= A f AFHA E@ = I AL= ,= A f A AFHA E@ = A F=@= K = BK ?E = = [a, b] > = I LK @A = = L=<E 0 = f (a) f (x) f (b) = m(E ) = IL= x ∈ [a, b] E = A 0 p < m(E ) F IJ E x ∈ [a, b) J= L @= A I KF A = [a, x] ∩ E A AHGEL E A f (x) = m([a, x] ∩ E ) = p ,= CH= E A F @I KF I KF= E E = A AH= A@ = = p L 5 KF E A A CH= E A F= A m(E ) = p1 +∞ 7 E I KF LA En = E ∩ [−n, n]
6=@= A J F IJ E EC A@ A E1

⊆ E2 ⊆ · · · ⊆ En ⊆ · · ·
= A F KI LK 5=@= E A

E

+∞

En = E p < p1
<A

n=1
=@=J = =

p1 = m(E ) = lim m(En ) n0 ∈ N
J= =L @= A @A =

n→+∞

FHE A EJE JLH AMA E

m(En0 ) = r > p CH= > AH A En0
?E = A =

En0

AHGEL I KF E

m(En0 ) > p
! !

,

= =JE @= F IJ

E

AFHA E@ = BK = A J=

IJ= J = K
4A

E E IL= A H=?E

f : [0, 1] → R
E A ILK@=

= A

IJ= J =

AMA A = IK q1 , q2 , . . . , qn , . . . ILE H=?E = E >H ALE E E JAHL= = [0, 1] 6=@= = IL= n ∈ N F IJ A HA= E >H ALE an E bn J= LE @= qn ∈ (an , bn ) (an , bn ) ⊆ [0, 1] E bn − an = 1/2n+1  = 0 E 1 K E =

I AL=

@

I

I@AI =

=JL HA A E JAHL= A

A = A

E =

+∞

(an , bn )

6=@= L=<E

n=1

0 < m(E )
,ABE E C@A A KI LA E I=@= BK ,

D = [0, 1] \ E

1 1 1 1 + 3 + · · · + n+1 + · · · = < 1. 2 2 2 2 2 ?E K f : [0, 1] → R I= f (x) = m([0, x] ∩ D )
= = A @= L= BK ?E =

=@ L G=L= JH=<A A

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

&!

A = A

x < x0

J

A = [0, x] ∩ D
A K =MK A F

=

J IJ 6=@= A

B = [0, x0 ] ∩ D

2HAJF IJ=LE A

@= A

|f (x) − f (x0 )| = |m(A) − m(B )| = m(B \ A) = m([x, x0 ] ∩ D) m([x, x0 ]) = |x − x0 | < ε
E = J BK ?E =

|x − x0 | < δ = ε,

x0 = A x0 FH E L G E [0, 1] I A@E @= A BK ?E = f AFHA E@ = = [0, 1] = x ∈ (a, b) ⊆ E L=<E [0, x] ∩ D = [0, α] ∩ D = IL= α ∈ (a, b) 2HA = J A m([0, x] ∩ D ) = m([0, α] ∩ D ) = IL= α ∈ (a, b) @= A I A@E @= A f (x) = f (α) = IL= α ∈ (a, b) ,= A f ↾(a,b) = c c ∈ R 1 @ABE E?E A BK ?E A f = IA @ >E = @= A f (0) = 0 @ A f (1) = m(D) = 1 − m(E ) > 0 ,= A f (0) = f (1) F= BK ?E = f E A IJ= J = = [0, 1]
A AFHA E@ = K J=
! !

f

= IL= E I KF A = =JE
AMA

FHAIA ,
4A

JL HA ED I KF L= J

⊆ Rk F

IJ

E

=@I KF B

E A

= LE

A FHA>H

EL

B ∈ Gδ 

J= =L @= L=<E

m(B ) =

m∗ (A)
=@= A

4=

=JH= A

F IA>

I K = ALA

=@= A

m∗ (A)

< +∞ ∗ ) A m (A) = +∞ m(B ) = +∞ = m∗ (A) ∗ A = A m (A) < +∞
J= =L @= A

m∗ (A) = +∞ E
F= L=<E

J=@= K E =

B = Rk ε>0

A ⊆ B

E

6=@= E

= IL=

F IJ

E 7

E

E JAHL= = E @=GA

(In )

A⊆ Jn

+∞

In

+∞ n=1

m(In )
+∞

m∗ (A) + ε
E

n=1

JL HA A I KF LA 6=@= A E

J= LA @= L=<E I KF

+∞ n=1

In ⊆ Jn

m(Jn ) < m(In ) + ε/2n

Jn

JL HA

A⊆ ε 2n

+∞ n=1
F= A

m(Jn ) <

+∞ n=1

m(In ) +

=

Jn E n=1 +∞
n=1

m(In ) + ε < m∗ (A) + 2ε,

inf {m(G) | G
=@= K F I A@M

A

JL HA

I KF

A ⊆ G}
@=

m∗ (A) + ε.
>E =

A A@ = A

IJE FKIJE JL HA

ε→0@

inf {m(G) | G
1

I KF

A ⊆ G}
I KF

m∗ (A).
@= A

A⊆GI

A@E

m∗ (A)

m∗ (G) = m(G)
A

F= = GK K A

m∗ (A) = inf {m(G) | G

JL HA

A ⊆ G}. 

&"

!

),)+1

1

F I A@MA A@ =

IJE I A@E @= F IJ

E

E

JL HA ED I KF L= ,ABE E E

J= LED @= A

I KF L= (Bn ) I= Bn E FHEJ A

A ⊆ Gn m(Gn ) < m∗ (A) + 1/n
n

(Gn )
E

I=@=

=

Gk

5L= E

L=

@ABE EI=

I KF Bn A

JL HA F=

Bn ⊇
J A

k=1 Bn+1

n∈N

F= E = = A

B ∈ Gδ 

LE@AJE =@=J= 

' L

AHGEL 2

A ⊆ B L=<E m(Bn )

Gδ ⊆ B ⊆ M(m)

n→+∞

lim Bn =

+∞

Gk = B
J A I KF

k=1

B

m∗ (A) m∗ (A)
! !!

m∗ (B ) = m(B )
A A@ =

m(Gn ) < m∗ (A) + n → +∞ @
>E =

1 . n m(B ) =

=@= K F I A@M

IJE FKIJE

@=

A = A

A

AHGEL I KF E

Rk

E

EI=JE
4A

AHGEL I KF ,ABE E

B ⊆ A J=
BK

=L @=

m(A) = α E 0 < β < α A m(B ) = β

IJHK

AMA

E

?E K

ϕ : [0, +∞) → R I=

ϕ(λ) = m([−λ, λ]k ∩ A).
L= E @= A @ABE EI= = BK AFHA E@ = ?E = A A AC=JEL = E A F=@= K = = @ = = = A = E JAHL= K

[0, +∞)

=EIJ=

h>0

E =

0

ϕ(λ + h) − ϕ(λ) = m([−λ − h, λ + h]k ∩ A) − m([−λ, λ]k ∩ A)
C @ >E =

= m(([−λ − h, λ + h]k \ [−λ, λ]k ) ∩ A) → 0, h → 0+ .
2HA = J = A A BK ?E =

) =

ϕ

A

AFHA E@

ϕ(λ + h) → ϕ(λ) h → 0− = H=IJK = BK ?E = = [0, +∞) E
λ→+∞

ϕ(0) = 0,
I A@E @= F IJ

lim ϕ(λ) = m(A) = α,

0 < β < α,
5J C= A = I KF

E λ0 ∈ (0, +∞) J= =L @= A ϕ(λ0 ) = β B = ([−λ0 , λ0 ]k ) ∩ A EIFKMA B ⊆ A E m(B ) = β A = >H A

! !"

A

AHGEL F @I KF E JAHL= =

I = [0, 1]
= IL= E E

E

HA= = ,
4A

J= =L @= A

= =JE @= A J=@=
AMA

m(A ∩ J ) m(A) = 1
I KF

αm(J )

0 < α < 1 JAHL= J ⊆ I J ⊆I

2 I =JH=

L=<E

B = [0, 1] \ A

6=@= = IL= E E JAHL=

m(B ∩ J ) = m(J ) − m(A ∩ J )

m(J ) − αm(J ) = βm(J ),

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

&#

C@A A F

HEL=

0 < β = 1−α < 1 B L=<E m(B ) = m
+∞ n=1

= IL= E

E

(Jn )

F @E JAHL= =

@

I

E

(B ∩ Jn ) (Jn ) K F

+∞ n=1
I A@M

m(B ∩ Jn )
A A@ =

β

+∞ n=1

m(Jn ).

7 E =K E

inf

F

ILE

IJE @ >E =

m(B )
@=
! !#

βm∗ (B ) = βm(B ),
=

A I A@E

m(B ) = 0 I = [0, 1]

m(A) = 1 − m(B ) = 1 ρ
I=

= I KFK = =JE

KLA@A = A HA =?E =

,

xρy ⇔ x − y ∈ Q 

=

ρ

A HA =?E = A LEL= A ?E A 

> I KF

A

K EA

E K = E F

A@ = J=

= E

IL= A

@ @ >E A ED

=I=

A LEL= A ?E A
4A AMA

AHGEL I KF L=<E 

4 5 6

x ρ y ∧ y ρ z ⇔ x − y ∈ Q ∧ y − z ∈ Q ⇒ (x − y ) + (y − z ) = x − z ∈ Q ⇔ xρz HA =?E = ρ AIJA HA =?E = A LEL= A ?E A E I= = A x − y ∈ Q ∩ [−1, 1] > 2HE AJE FHL @= A Cx = Cy = = H=?E = = >H r @ABE E A I KF Ar = A + r = {a + r | a ∈ A}.
, = = A J E @= A J=@= @EI K

x ρ y ⇔ x − y ∈ Q ⇔ −(y − x) ∈ Q ⇔ y − x ∈ Q ⇔ y ρ x

x, y, z ∈ I x − x = 0 ∈ Q ⇔ xρx 
= = = IL=

I⊆

Ar
r ∈Q∩[−1,1]
L

E @= IK =

p=qI

KF LE

Ap E Aq

= IL=

Q ∩ [−1, 1]
, =<E F IJ=LE

F= A

x ∈ I F IJ E a ∈ A J= x = a + r J x ∈ Ar
@= IK =

@= @=

A I A@E @=

x ∈ Ca

6=@= A

x∈

x−a=r ∈ Ar

Ap E Aq @EI K J E 2HAJ p, q p = q J= LE @= A Ap ∩ Aq = ∅ J F IJ E A x J= L @= x ∈ Ap ∩ Aq 6=@= F IJ A a, b ∈ A J= LE @= A x = a + p E x = b + q = A p = q I A@E @= A a = b J F L = E @= a E A K HA =?E E I= b 5 @HKCA IJH= A E a + p = b + q I A@E a − b = q − p ∈ Q @= A A a ρ b JH=@E ?E =
I KF LE A IKFH J J @= F IJ

p = q

r ∈Q∩[−1,1] 

&$

!

),)+1

A = IK r1 , r2 , . . . , rn , . . . ILE H=?E E @ABE E E I KF LA

=

E >H

An

I=

I KF L= E L=<E FHAJF IJ=LE E L=<E

I⊆

+∞ n=1

An = Arn

6=@= A A

ALE E E JAHL= = [−1, 1]

(An )
=

E

@EI K

J ED )

An ⊆ [−1, 2]  AH
=

a ∈ [0, 1] Ar

r ∈ [−1, 1]

@= A I KF A AHGEL m(Ar ) = m(A) E L=<E A A@

J=@= A E I KF IJ

AHGEL = IL=

r

1 = m(I )
7 A

+∞ n=1

m(An ) =

+∞ n=1

m(A) 1

3. 0 3
IJE @ AJ= = A

E A m(A) = 0 F I A@M= A A@ = m(A) > 0 E = 1 +∞ 3 = = GK K A @= I KF A E A AHGEL

IJ C =IE IK >A

A A@ =

)2

- )

=

A

I ⊆
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1

An ⊆ [−1, 2] A
@ I

J

A

1 A

m∗ (
F=

+∞
A

An )

3

n=1
I KF= I KF L= A

5LE I KF LE

m∗ (A) = α
L=<E

An An

IK @ >E A E JH= I =?E AH= I KF=

m∗ (An ) =
K = AH F= A

5F G =

An

EA

m∗

+∞ n=1

m∗ (An )
,=

2HA = J

m∗ (An ) = α > 0
J A I KF LA

+∞ n=1

m∗ (An ) =

+∞ n=1

L=<E

α = +∞ m∗
+∞ n=1

A

= @EI K

An n ∈ N

An <

+∞ n=1

m∗ (An ).

! !$

)

A IL= E F @I KF , = =JE E =

AHGEL C I KF=

m(E ) = 0
4A AMA

E ⊆ R ∼ I=

AHGEL

J=@=

A

,ABE E

R HA

=?E K A LEL= A ?E A

x ∼ y ⇔ x − y = q ∈ Q.
5 KF EA

A

E I=@H<E F

A@=

A A A J E ! !#

IL= A

@

=I= A LEL= A ?E A

AHGEL LE@AJE =@=J= A F

5=@=

= =JE @= IL= E A = IK = I LK

AHGEL I KF F

EJEL A =

AHA I=@H<E E >H ALE E

A AHGEL F @I KF

q1 , q2 , . . . , qn , . . .
+∞ n=1

ILE H=?E

An = A + qn n ∈ N

E =E∩R=E∩

An =

+∞ n=1

(E ∩ An ),

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

&%

I A@E

0 < m∗ (E )
2 = E I= J

+∞ n=1

m∗ (E ∩ An ) =

+∞ n=1

m∗ (E ∩ (A + qn )).
@ I KF L=

A AHGEL

A A A AHGEL I KF E ∩ An ⊆ An I A@E @= AH >E K IKFH J

A AHGEL A E IL= E E IL= E @ I KF L= AHK

A + qn
H= >EJE IJE

ILE E = E

K = =J

E ∩ An

A K IKFH J

m(E ) =
,= AHA

m∗ (E )

>0
A E IL= E MAC L F @I KF A A AHGEL = <A >EJE

A =

A IL= E F @I KF I KF=

>EJE
! !%

K = = J=

E⊆R

AHGEL J=@= I KF AHA AHA K = K = ,

E

H=

A = I KF

@= J=@= I
4A AMA

E ⊆ Rn KF E ∩ CA A
= A m(A) @ I

AHGEL J

A ⊆ Rn

I KF

= =JE

H= J

E K A IA F KI

E ∩ CA >E
! !&

AHGEL I KF LK =@=J =

= 0 E A∩E ⊆ A KF= E = I KF E ∩ A
E A J= ,=

E A

A m(A ∩ E ) AHA

=0

K =

5J C= = EA

5 KF E ∩ CA

>E

AHGEL >E >E

A I KF ,

E I KF (E ∩ CA) ∪ (E ∩ A)

=E

E ∩ CA
E F IJ

AHGEL A

A = A AK

E

AHGEL I KF E

m(E ) > 0
= = = = >H

= =JE @= F IJ ,=

A @LA J=

I KF= E J=
4A

E A A H=IJ

=MA EH=?E =MA H=?E = GK K A

A @LA H=

E EJA

E
1

E A A H=IJ

>H

AMA

A K J= AFHA>H  AH H=?E

EL = =

m(E ) > 0 K x0 ∈ E
ED >H

@= A I KF

6=@= A I KF H=IJ A EL = =

@=J A I A@E @=

CK IL= H=IJ >H

E AFHA>H EL 1 =>AHE =M= {d(x0 , x) | x ∈ E } J= A
=M= >EJE H=?E ,= A F IJ = C  E J=

= =

AL= E = FHA>H EH=?E A H=

x1 ∈ E
, H=?E AE

J= L= @= A =<E = = >H A

d(x0 , x1 )
AE

I=@= @= F IJ ) 2 I =JH=

E EJA J= @= F IJ

A K

E

EA

A H=IJ

=MA

CH= E A

E IAC A J [a, b] J= =L @=

EC A@

⊆ [a, b]

=@= >E I KF

I KF LA E + qi C@A A [0, 1] ∩ Q = {q1 , q2 , . . . } E + qi ⊆ [a, b + 1] E m(E + qi ) = m(E ) = IL= i ∈ N LE E + qi i ∈ N >E E @EI K J E L=<E >E

m(E ) =
i∈N
2 I A@MA A

m(E + qi )
i∈N

m([a, b + 1]) = b + 1 − a.

CK A I= = A m(E ) = 0 A KJE F KI LK =@=J = A m(E ) > 0 F= = GK K A @= I KF LE E + qi , i ∈ N EIK @EI K J E J F IJE E z ∈ (E + qi ) ∩ (E + qj ) 6=@= A z = x + qi = y + qj x, y ∈ E 

&&

!

),)+1

@=

A I A@E

A H=IJ

=MA H=?E

|x − y | = |qi − qj | ∈ Q
= 7 E

J

F IJ

A @LA J=

A K

E

EA

A I KF

E

A CH= E A

I=@H<E

CH= E A E F @I KF =
! !'

E L=<E FHAJD @ = = = E =

A = A IE

A
KF

=

IE

Ox  FH

E L G=

F @I KF HA= 

= AHA
4A

Oy  I

AHA

K = ,

= =JE @= A J=@= I KF

K = A = A

A FH=LA = B ⊆ R A × B ⊆ R2 J= A

AMA

ε

F

EJEL=

HA= = A

>H

E

A = IK

=

Oy

E I=@H<A

B

E FHEJ

m(Bn ) <

+∞

ε n·2n+1

Bn

JL HA E I KF LE 6=@= E

A×B ⊆

n=1

((−n, n) × Bn ) I m (A × B ) <

A@E

m
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1

((−n, n) × Bn ) ε = ε. n · 2n+1
AF IHA@

+∞ n=1

m((−n, n) × Bn )

2n ·

1 F I A@MA
! "

A A@ =

IJE E

I A@E @= A @

m(A × B ) = 0
J= =L @= A MAC L=

,

= =JE @= F IJ = =

AHGEL F @I KF

R2

FH
4A

A ?E =
AMA

R
I

A AHGEL= LK =@=J = ! !' I A@E @= A I KF E

A AHGEL C I KF= I= J= I KF A
! "

Ox

IA E I KF=

AHA =

K

R2 = I= Oy
IK A E I=

E A FH E L @ AHA K = ,= A

AHGEL = MAC L= FH = =JE @= A I KF

A ?E =

Ox

A AHGEL I KF = A

, ?E =
AMA

BK
4A

A ⊆ Rk

AHGEL =

χA

AHGEL=

.K

?E =

χA

A

AHGEL= =

E I=

=

A I KF

{x ∈ Rk | χA (x) > c}
AHGEL = IL=

E I KF LE = E I=

∅ E Rk
=

 k  R , c < 0, k A, 0 c < 1, {x ∈ R | χA (x) > c} =  ∅, c 1,
IK AHGELE = GK K A @= A BK A I KF

c∈R

=

A

?E =

A

χA

AHGEL=

AHGEL

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

&'

! " ) IK f E g AHGELA BK ?E A = I KFK E @ = =JE @= IK I E (f < g ) = {x ∈ E | f (x) < g (x)} E (f g ) E (f > g ) E (f E (f = g ) AHGELE
4A AMA

KF

LE E

g)

@= A

= IL= x∈E = A L=<E f (x) < g (x) F IJ E q ∈ Q J= f (x) < q < g (x) 1 AHGEL IJE BK ?E = f E g I A@E @= IK I KF E (f < q ) E E (q < g ) AHGELE = = A

=L LE

E (f < g ) =
q ∈Q
I A@E @= ) IJ= = A C

(E (f < q ) ∩ E (g > q ))

E (f < g )
IA @ KF= I

AHGEL I A

KF

= K A @= A@E E

E (f > g )
E?= @= A

AHGEL I

KF

@

AHGEL

IJ

= JHE I

EMA

E (f

E (f = g ) = E (f

g ) = E \ E (f > g ),

E (f g ).

g ) ∩ E (f

g ) = E \ E (f < g ),

! "!

A

= IK

+∞ n=1
, I

Sn = Rk
= =JE @= LE

Sn ⊆ Rk n ∈ N
=

@EI K

J

E I

KF

LE J= A

LE @= L=<E

(cn )

E ?E =

HA=

ED >H

AL= J=

=L @=

A BK AHGELE

f =

+∞ n=1

ci = cj i = j
E I= = IK

KF

Sn

cn χS

n

AHGEL= =

4A

AMA 2HAJF

IJ=LE

@= A BK

?E =

f

AHGEL=

6=@=

= IL=

L=<E

n∈N

Sn = {x | f (x) = cn } = {x | f (x)
= IK I KF LE @= IK E I KF LE

cn } ∩ {x | f (x)

cn }.
GK K A

FH

{x | f (x) cn } {x | f (x) cn } AHGELE = Sn AHGELE n ∈ N AHGELE 2HAJF IJ=LE I=@= @= IK I KF LE Sn E L G= HA= = >H c 6=@= A Ec = {x | f (x) > c} =
cn >c

E K

E

Sn .
E = AHGELED I K

5J F

C=

A

= IL=

L=

AHGEL

c∈R
A BK >H

I

KF

Ec

=

FHA>H

EL= K

! ""
IL=

,

= =JE @= = =

?E =

E H=?E

c

I

f : X → R∗ AHGEL= = E I= KF {x ∈ X | f (x) > c} AHGEL

=

A

= 

'

!

),)+1

4A AMA ) A BK ?E = f AHGEL= J=@= A = IL= E HA= = >H r I KF {x ∈ X | f (x) > r} AHGEL F= = A Q ⊂ R E IL= E @ I KF L= {x ∈ X | f (x) > c} c ∈ Q >E A AHGEL A = A I=@= = IL= E H=?E = = >H c I KF {x ∈ X | f (x) > c} AHGEL = IL= E HA= = >H r F IJ E H=IJK E E H=?E = ED >H AL= (cn ) J= =L @= cn → r n → +∞ F= L=<E

{x ∈ X | f (x) > r} =
= A FHA>H EL FHAIA >H ?E = A @= A = IL= E HA= = AHGEL= BK
! "#

+∞

n=1

{x ∈ X | f (x) > cn }.
AHGEL I KF = GK K A @= A AHGEL J

AHGELED I KF L=

r

I KF

{x ∈ X | f (x) > r}
?E = 2 I

f

A =

f −1 (E )
4A AMA

AHGEL =

f : X → R∗
A I KF

AHGEL= BK

= =JE @=

A I KF

E ⊆ R∗
JEF=

JEF=

Gδ E=
+∞ n=1

@


C@A A En JL HA

A = A I KF = IL=

I KF K

R∗

E ⊆ R∗

J

+∞ n=1

En

n∈N

6=@= A

f −1 (E ) = f −1
> C AHGEL IJE BK ?E A

+∞ n=1

En =

f −1 (En ). f −1 (En )
A AHGEL F=

f

IL= E

@ I KF L=

I A@E E @= A I KF

f −1 (E ) =
C F

+∞ n=1

f −1 (En )

AHGEL

6LH AMA IA = =
! "$
4A

= K A E = I KF J = BK

JEF= AHGEL= C IA @ = KA =

,
AMA

= =JE @= A IL= = A = A BK ?E =

?E =

A = {x | f (x) > c} C@A A c FH E L G= HA= = >H ) A A = ∅ J=@= A A AHGEL A = A A = ∅ 6=@= F IJ A x1 , x2 ∈ A x1 = x2 E = IL= x ∈ (x1 , x2 ) L=<E f (x2 ) f (x) f (x1 ) > c J x ∈ A F= = GK K A @= A A > E = (a, +∞) E E [a, +∞) = IK >= L= E JAHL= = AHGELE I KF LE I A@E @= A E K L I K = K I KF A AHGEL
A BK ?E = F=@= K = 2 I =JH= I KF ,=
! "%

f : R → R H=IJK

= = =

A IL= = A = A

J

= BK

?E = AIJA

AHGEL= L= K =

Rk
=

A = A E I= =

{Eα } = LE A FHA>H EL= B= E E = AHGELED I KF E = Eα E f : E → R∗ , = =JE @= A f AHGEL=
A

E

f

α

AHGEL=

=

= IL=

α

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

'

4A

AMA

A = A

fα = f ↾Eα
@= A BK ?E = fα AHGEL= = {x ∈ Eα | fα (x) > c} AHGEL IL= =

2HAJF IJ=LE IL= L=<E

α

6=@= A

=

c∈R

I KF

= IL=

c∈R

{x ∈ E | f (x) > c} =
I A@E @= BK ?E = ) GEL A = IL= A

α

{x ∈ Eα | f (x) > c} =
I KF

α

{x ∈ Eα | fα (x) > c},
AHGEL @ I

c

f A f

AHGEL= AHGEL= BK

{x ∈ E | f (x) > c}

= IL=

α

=

=

A

= GK K A
! "&

@= A = IL=

?E = @= A I KF {x ∈ Eα | f (x) > c} AH {x ∈ Eα | fα (x) > c} = {x ∈ Eα | f (x) > c} α BK ?E = fα AHGEL= = Eα A FHA>H EL= B= E E = AHGELED I KF L= K AE

A = A

Rk ,
= =
4A

E A >=H K p p ∈ N ∪ {+∞}
= =JE @= A J=@= I KF = E I= χ

{Eα }

= LE

E E IK A A A JE ILA J= I KF L=

Rk

A IA


K BK

AHGEL ?E K I KF= Eα .K E E BK ?E A IK ?E = ?E A

AMA

χE

=H= JAHEIJE

α

IK

AHGELA AH IK I KF LE


L=

AHGELE 7

(fn )

n

@=J I=

fn (x) =
α=1

χE (x)
α

@ABE EI= A BK

AHGELA 

JA HA = !   E @=JE

E

A H=IJK E F=

fn → f =
E FHEJ A BK ?E =

+∞ α=1

χE (x), n → +∞,
α

f

AHGEL=

=

I

LK JA HA A ! '

=

A

E = {x ∈ Rk | f (x)
=
! "'

p},
@= A =

I ) =

LK

AHGEL IJE BK

?E A

f

= GK K A ?E =

E

AHGEL I KF ?E =

>E

=

A f : [a, b] → R AFHA (a, b) @ = =JE @= A f ′

E@ = BK

AHGEL= BK

?E =

[a, b] E @EBAHA = (a, b)

4A AMA 2H @K<E = FHA BK ?E K f I= E JAHL= = [a, b] = E JAHL= [a, b + 1] = I A@A E = E f (x) = f ′ (b)(x − b) + f (b) b < x b+1 f (b)−f (b−h) ′ 6=@= A BK ?E = f : [a, b + 1] → R C@A A f (b) = lim h

@EBAHA ?E =>E = JE A E

h→0+
=

=

(a, b + 1)
E

F= A

@= ?E =

=E

AFHA E@ =

=

(a, b + 1)

AHGEL= 7

E BK

(fn ) @=J I= x ∈ [a, b].

fn (x) =

f (x + 1/n) − f (x) , 1/n 

'

!

),)+1

> C @EBAHA ?E =>E IJ E

IJE BK

?E A

f

I A@E @=

= IL=

x ∈ (a, b)

F

f ′ (x) = lim
@ I

n→+∞

f (x + 1/n) − f (x) , 1/n
= IK FHEJ ILA BK ?E A

f ′ (x) =

GELA I A@E @= A E BK
! #

n→+∞

lim fn (x)
?E =

fn

AH

f′

AHGEL= ?E = = ?E =

A = A

FH E L G = B= E E = @= A
4A

g : Rk → R

AHGEL= BK ?E =

AFHA E@ ED BK

{fα } C@A fα : R → R∗ = =JE E f = sup fα ,
α
AHGEL = IL= E JL HA

f ◦g E

AHGEL= BK

AMA

6HA>= F

= =JE @= A I KF E @= L=<E

I KF

∗ 7 E R

(f ◦ g )−1 (E )

−1 ((c, +∞]) ⇔ x ∈ x ∈ f −1 ((c, +∞]) ⇔ (∃α) x ∈ fα
= I LK AFHA E@ IJE BK

α

−1 ((c, +∞]). fα −1 ((c, +∞]) fα
A

JL HA E K

R

F= A E I KF

α

fα I A@E @= IK I − 1 fα ((c, +∞]) JL HA
?E =

KF LE K

R

=

(f ◦ g )−1 ((c, +∞]) = g −1 f −1 ((c, +∞]) = g −1
= BK = IL=
! #

α

−1 ((c, +∞]) , fα
AHGEL

?E =

g

A

AHGEL= I A@E @= A I KF ,= A BK ?E = ?E =

g −1

c ∈ R∗
E E H )

f ◦g

α

−1 ((c, +∞]) fα

A

AHGEL= AHGEL= = = E I= E =

, I
AMA

= =JE @= A BK

F IJ =
4A

(fn )
ILK@= A

AFHA E@ ED HA= =

f : R k → R∗
ED BK

?E =

f

Rk
E I= @=JE IL IJL @= A

Rk

LAHCEH=

(fn )

m ({x | fn (x) → f (x), n → +∞}) = 0
E ILA BK !' ?E A

fn

IK

AHGELA  AH IK ?E =

AFHA E@ A F=

=

I

LK JA HA A

I A@E @= A E BK , = @=

f

AHGEL= AHGELK BK H= = F ?E K F IJ = A E E E I= @=JE = @= = KA

= FH E L G K A K AJEHE

IL I

IJL <A E E

E LA BK

@ A@

IJ=L E ED

?E = = E FHEJ

= IL= E JEF BK

?E = @

L=<E

(∗)

(∀ε > 0)(∃h ∈ C(Rk )) m Rk (f = h) < ε.

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

'!

(i)
= =JL E I= HA

A

= A =

I

KF

h I=

f = χE 2HA = =@=J K ! " BK ?E = f A AHGEL= E AHGEL 6=@= F IJ A JL HA I KF B ⊇ E E A ⊆ E J= LE @= A m(B \ A) < ε ,ABE E E BK ?E K
= FHA A I KF

h(x) =
EC A@ A

d(x, CB ) . d(x, A) + d(x, CB )

h(x) = 1 = x ∈ A E h(x) = 0 = x ∈ CB .K ?E = h A k A d(x, A) + d(x, CB ) = 0 EC A@ A R (f = h) ⊆ B \ A @= A I A@E m(Rk (f = h)) < m(B \ A) < ε LE A @ = = JLH AMA (∗) ,= A <A @= K E E BK ?E = (hn ) J= =L @= k hn → f n → +∞ I I = R F= JLH AMA L=<E = =H= JAHEIJE K
AFHA E@ = AH BK ?E K

n

(ii)
= I

A LK

=

A

f =j=
j =1

(i) L=<E

cj χE

j

0

cj < +∞

A@

IJ=L

= BK

?E =

(∀ε > 0)(∃hj ∈ C (Rk )) m Rk (χE = hj ) <
j

ε . n
= BK ?E =

n
,ABE E E I=@=

h

I=

h =
j =1
= A

cj hj

L=

@ABE

EI=

h

FHEF=@= FH

IJ

HK

C(Rk )

Rk (f = h) ⊆
L=<E

n j =1

Rk (χE = hj ),
j

m Rk (f = h)

n

n

m
j =1

Rk (χE = hj )
j

m Rk (χE = hj ) < ε.
j =1
j
?E K ?E = 6=@= F = IJ = E H=IJK = LA @= E I A

,=

A L=<E JLH AMA

(iii)
E LK A@

A

= A

f
A

(∗)

=

A@ =

IJ=L

K BK

A

AC=JEL ?E = E@

AHGEL= BK E ?E A A@

IJ=L F IJ

ED BK

(jn )
A BK

LAHCEH=

f
=

1 m Rk (hn = jn ) < n(n + 1) k A = K An = R (hn = jn )
A

(ii)

AFHA

hn n ∈ N
IJ=L E AC

Rk

Rk
J=

4=@E = A

=FEI= KLA@E

A = lim sup An =
n∈N +∞ j =n

+∞ +∞ n=1 j =n

Aj

6=@=

0

m(A)

m

+∞ j =n

Aj

1 → 0, n → +∞, n(n + 1) 

'"

!

),)+1

A = GK K A @= A m(A) = 0 = x ∈ / A = (hn (x)) H= E K A @ E = (jn (x)) I= K m(A) = 0 E jn (x) → f (x) n → +∞ I A@E @= @= AL=

= >H

IA K

E =

>H L=

hn (x) → f (x), n → +∞
?E A

I I

=

Rk .

(iv ) = FH E L G K BK ?E K f F IJ A A AC=JEL A AHGELA BK f + E f − C@A A f + = max{f, 0} E f − = max{−f, 0} J= LA @= + − f − F= = I LK (iii) E K L L=<E f = f I K = K L=<E JLH AMA
LE A @ = =LH A

! #

A

= KF

A

A J=@= I

(fn ) fn : X → R∗ E AHGELED BK ?E = L = {x ∈ X | lim fn (x) < +∞} AHGEL
n→+∞
= A

,

= =JE @=

4A 1

AMA

A

f (x) = lim inf fn (x)
n→+∞
?E =

E

F (x) = lim sup fn (x) x ∈ X
AHGEL = A

AHGEL

IJE BK E

sup( inf fn (x))
k∈N n k

fn n ∈ N I A@E F (x) = inf (sup fn (x)) E
k∈N n k

n→+∞

IJ BK

?E =

f (x) =

L = {x ∈ X | f (x) = F (x) < +∞}
= GK K A @= A I KF

= {x ∈ X | f (x) = F (x)} ∩ {x ∈ X | f (x) < +∞}, L
AHGEL

! #!

,

= =JE @=

AHGEL=

f : Rk → R∗ =@=J= I=  1  , x1 · · · xk = 0, f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = x ···x  1+∞, k x · · · x = 0, 1 k
A BK ?E = I A@A A F @I KF LA @

4A

AMA 7

E

Rk ν = 1, . . . , k,

Sν = {x = (x1 , . . . , xk ) | xν = 0},
EC A@ A

S = {x = (x1 , . . . , xk ) | x1 , . . . , xk = 0}. S∪
k ν =1

Sν = Rk
HK

5

KF

LE

S1 , . . . , Sk

FHA@IJ=LG= K

H

@E A

=J

A H=L

E K FH

IJ

Rk

E FHEJ

A

m(S1 ) = · · · = m(Sk ) = 0

F=

k

k

m
ν =1


ν =1

m(Sν ) = 0,

/

)8) !

6-

41 )

-4- 

'#

k
@= BK A I A@E @= A ?E = A =

m
ν =1
E

Sν = 0 m(Rk \ S ) = 0

=

A I KF

S

EC A@ AHGEL= @= A =

JL HA

= A

f

A

= MA K =

AFHA E@ = I A@E @= A F=

f

S

,=

f

AHGEL=

S

= GK K A

f

AHGEL=

Rk
) A BK ?E =

! #"

g (x) = 1/f (x)
4A AMA

f : Rk → R∗ AHGEL= @ = =JE @= k AHGEL= = I KFK S = {x ∈ R | f (x) = 0}
A

A BK

?E =

=

I KF

A = A

c FH

S = Rk \ {x ∈ Rk | f (x) = 0}
E L G= HA= = >H

I A@E @= A = =JE

S

AHGEL

6=@= A @

F= = GK K A
! ##

 −1 c > 0,  f (0, 1/c) , c = 0, f −1 (0, +∞), Ec = {x ∈ Rk | g (x) > c} =  −1 f (0, +∞] ∪ f −1 [−∞, 1/c) , c < 0,
@= A

g

AHGEL= BK

?E =

=

S

A =

A

,

= =JE @= =I 7 E

AHGEL=
4A AMA

f : Rk → R∗ AHGEL= BK ?E = E g (x) = tg(f (x)) A @ A S BK ?E A g AHGEL I KF E @= A BK ?E = g KFK S
I KF LA

D− = {x ∈ Rk | f (x) = −∞},
5 KF LE

D+ = {x ∈ Rk | f (x) = +∞}, Dn = {x ∈ Rk | f (x) = π/2 + nπ }, n ∈ Z.

D+ D− Dn n ∈ Z IK

AHGELE F= A E I KF

S = Dg = Rk \ D+ ∪ D− ∪
AHGEL A = A I=@=

Dn
n∈Z
E

c

FH E L G=

HA= =

>H

6=@= A I KF

π π arctg c ∈ − , 2 2 π 2

Ec = {x ∈ Rk | g (x) > c} =
AHGEL = IL=
! #$

x nπ + arctg c < f (x) < nπ +
n∈Z

HA= ?E =

c f3 =E

F= A IJ C= AHGEL=

g

AHGEL= BK

?E =

=

S

) ?E =

A BK

= I KFK

E

@

= =JE @= A J=@= E

BK

f

AHGEL= 

'$

!

),)+1

4A

) A BK ?E = f 3 A AHGEL= J=@= A = IL= c ∈ R I KF = A {x ∈ E | (f (x))3 > c} AHGEL >H=J √ {x ∈ E | (f (x))3 > c} = {x ∈ E | f (x) > 3 c},
AMA

I A@E @= A BK
! #%

?E = f AHGEL= A f2 AHGEL= BK ?E = BK ?E = f A H=

2 = =JE @= = >EJE AHGEL=
4A AMA

=LA A FHE AH BK ?E A = E A AHGEL= @ MA L=@ H=J AIJA AHGEL= BK ?E = A = A A A E A AHGEL F @I KF @ R J= =L I KF F IJ E  LE@AJE =@=J= ! !# ,ABE E E BK ?E K f I=
f (x) = 1, x ∈ A, −1, x ∈ CA.

= A {x ∈ R | f (x) > 0} = A A AHGEL I KF I A@E @= f E A AHGEL= BK ?E = @ A (f (x))2 = 1 = IL= x ∈ R F= A BK ?E = f 2 EC A@ AHGEL=
! #&

2 = =JE @= F IJ E BK AHGEL=
AMA

?E = f IJ=

= E A AHGEL= = E |f | AIJA E H=@ F C A@=JE =@=J= ! #%

4A

IJ=LG= IA EJ= ?K = I=

! #'

= CKIJ
4A

= E FHE AH AHGELED BK ?E = f, g : R → R J= LED @= A f = g F @I KFK @ R = E A f = g I I = R 7 E BK ?E A
1, x ∈ Q, 2, x ∈ I, g (x) = 1, x ∈ Q, 3, x ∈ I.

AMA

f (x) =

6=@= A f = g = Q = I KF H=?E = ED >H AL= A ILK@= CKIJ K I KFK HA= ED >H AL= @ A f = g = I KFK EH=?E = ED >H AL= E FHEJ A m(I) = m(R) > 0 ,= A f = g I I = R

/ =L= "

A>AC L E JACH=
"  2HAC A@ JA HE A

A>AC L E JACH=
,

-.1 1+1 ) " 
=K E =

n
.K ?E = ?E =

j (x) =
=

IJ=

m−

AHGEL= BK = AHGELE

Rk

ν =1

cν χE (x)
ν

A

A@ IJ=L =
LHA@ 

FH A

I KF LE =

C@A IK 0 cν < +∞ Eν ν = 1, 2, . . . , n

IJE

,

-.1 1+1 ) "
E ⊆ Rk

A>AC L E JACH=
A I=

A@

IJ=L A BK

?E A

j

=

AHGEL

I KFK

@ABE EI=

n

j (x) dm =
E ν =1

cν m(Eν ∩ E ).
AHGEL I KF E BK A = A

,

-.1 1+1 ) " !
@ABE EI=

A = A

JEL =

E

m−

AHGEL= BK A I=

E ⊆ Rk m− ?E = = E A>AC

L E JACH=

f ?E A f

A AC= = I KFK

f (x) dm = sup
E
C@A IA IKFHA K L G=L= K KI L K E = FHA

j (x) dm,
E
IJ=L ED BK ?E =

j f
ILED A@

j (x)

A

=@

0

j (x)

f (x)

= IL=

x∈E 

'% 

'&

" 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

.K >E = = = = =L=

?E =

f

A E JACH=>E

= K

A>AC L

I EI K  BK ?E A ED BK I EI K

A>AC E JACH=

= I KFK

E

=

A

A>AC L E JACH= A>AC E JACH=>E =@= IJ K =<A A>AC L

f

= I KFK = I KFK

.= E E K ILED E JACH=>E

?E =

E E
=

F @H= K AL= A

I= L(E ) 7>K@K A

@= A BK

?E = E JACH=>E

6

- 4- ) " 

A = IK

f

E

g

A AC=JEL A

AHGELE I KF LE

6=@= L=<A I A@A = JLH AM=

m−

AHGELA BK

?E A E

A, B, E

1◦ ) A f (x) g (x) = E J=@= A E f (x) dm E g (x) dm ◦ 2 A ⊆ B ⇒ A f (x) dm B f (x) dm 3◦ E cf (x) dm = c E f (x) dm 0 c < +∞ 4◦ ) A f (x) ≡ 0 = E J=@= A = E E f (x) dm = 0 m(E ) = +∞ 5◦ E f (x) dm = Rk f (x)χE (x) dm 6◦ )
6 A

=@=

A

f ∈ L(Rk )
) IK

J=@=

A

f

=

= I I

=

Rk
?E A J=@= A

- 4- ) "
Rk

j1

E

j2

A@

IJ=L A

AHGELA BK

(j1 (x) + j2 (x)) dm = 
*AF ALE AL IJ=L

Rk

j1 (x) dm +
A

Rk

j2 (x) dm.
E

6

- 4- ) " !
···

A AC=JEL ED

f2 (x)

m− AHGELED BK +∞ x ∈ Rk )
n→+∞ Rk

(fn ) J H=IJK E k ?E = = R J A = A 0 f1 (x) A f (x) = lim fn (x) J=@= A
A =

n→+∞

lim
A

fn (x) dm =
E A

f (x) dm.
Rk
?E = AHGELED =

6 )

- 4- ) " "
A

A =

(fn )

A AC=JEL ED BK

f (x) =

+∞ n=1

Rk

fn (x)

J=@=

f (x) dm =
Rk

+∞
k n=1 R

fn (x) dm.

- )"
GELED A = 

.=JK L=

A =

Rk

)

= IL=

A = A (fn ) E A AC=JEL ED BK ?E = AH x ∈ Rk L=<E f (x) = lim inf fn (x) J=@=

n→+∞

lim inf

n→+∞

Rk

fn (x) dm

f (x) dm.
Rk

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

''

6

- 4- ) " #
?E = I KF=

BK

f Φ(E ) =
A = A

A AC=JEL =

AHGEL= BK

?E =

=

Rk
=

6=@= AH=

A =

M(m)
= A BK ?E =

E f (x) dm E ∈ M(m)
AH= = A

A@ = HA=

Φ

σ

=@EJEL = J

L=<E

f (x) dm =
E
A = A ,ABE E E

+∞ n=1 En

f (x) dm,
AHGEL= BK

E=
?E =

+∞ n=1
=

En , Ei ∩ Ej = ∅, i = j.
AHGEL I KFK

f

HA= BK

= ?E A

E ⊆ Rk

f + (x) = max{f (x), 0}, f − (x) = − min{f (x), 0},
A JE
,

x ∈ E,
2HE A

LA @= A

F

EJEL E

@

I

AC=JEL E

@A

BK

f = f+ − f−
) >=H A@=

E @= A

f + (x)
=

0 f − (x)
+ E f dm ?E A f = I

?E A f 0 x∈E
= AHGEL = E

E ⊆ Rk
LHA@

-.1 1+1 ) " "
IJ J=@=

A = A

f

HA=

AHGEL= BK

?E =

I KFK = A K I=

@ E JACH= = BK

A>AC L E JACH=

− E f dm E KFK E @ABE

f (x) dm =
E
) A A>AC L E JACH= BK

E

f + (x) dm − f
=

f − (x) dm.
E
= = =<A @= A

?E A

E

f

E JA

CH=>E
6

=K

A>AC L
) A

I EI K

Rk

- 4- ) " $

f

HA=

=

AHGEL= BK

?E =

=

AHGEL

I KFK

J=@= L=<E

E⊆

1◦ f ∈ L(E ) ⇔ |f | ∈ L(E ) 2◦ E f (x) dm E |f (x)| dm
6

- 4- ) " %

)

L=<E

f, g ∈ L(Rk )

E

c1 , c2 ∈ R

J=@=

c1 f + c2 g ∈ L(Rk ) g (x) dm.
Rk
LAHCA ?E E
LAHCEH= K = ILA A = = BK

E

Rk
6

(c1 f (x) + c2 g (x)) dm = c1 
A>AC L= JA HA =
?E = A

Rk
@

f (x) dm + c2
E = J

- 4- ) " &
E

A

(fn )
?E E

AHGELED BK

f (x) ) F IJ n ∈ N L=<E |fn (x)|
n→+∞ Rk

x ∈ Rk k E BK ?E = g ∈ L(R ) J= L= @= g (x) J=@= f ∈ L(Rk ) E L=<E
= IL=

x ∈ Rk

E ILA

lim

fn (x) dm =

Rk n→+∞

lim fn (x) dm =

f (x) dm.
Rk 

" 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

6

- 4- ) " '
A = 

A

A>AC L= JA HA =
(fn )
E K EB H

A =

A

AHA E

CH= E A ED BK L=<E

E ⊆ Rk

AHGEL I KF ?E = J

= F IJ )

A E A

M > 0 J= L @= = ILA x ∈ E E ILA n ∈ N lim fn (x) = f (x) x ∈ E J=@= A
n→+∞ n→+∞ E
6

|fn (x)| < M f (x) dm.
E

lim

fn (x) dm = f ∈ L(Rk )

E n→+∞
J=@= A =

lim fn (x) dm = Φ(E ) = M(m)

- 4- ) " 
σ

)

E

A@ =

=@EJEL = BK

?E = I KF=

f (x) dm E ∈ M(m)

6

- 4- ) " 

)

f ∈ R[a, b]
[a,b]

J=@=

f ∈ L[a, b] E L=<E
b

f (x) dm =
a
>H KJ JLH AMA A L=<E

f (x) dx.

6 )

- 4- ) " 
A A@=

A = A @ E H= =

(fn )

E

AHGELED BK

?E =

=

AHGEL

I KFK

E

+∞ n=1 E
= = = =

|fn (x)| dm,

+∞ E n=1

|fn (x)| dm,

A E @HKCE E L=<E

+∞ n=1 E

fn (x) dm =

+∞ E n=1

fn (x) dm.

2H IJ H Lp(a, b)
A = A

p

1

E

F JFH IJ H

AHGELED BK

−∞

a < b
?E =

+∞

,ABE E

E

=

(a, b)

Lp (a, b) = x(t)
= BK ?E A

(a,b)

|x(t)|p dm < +∞ .
= A

x(t) = y (t)
A LEL= A

@= A x ∼ y = E I= x, y ∈ Lp (a, b) =<A = (a, b) L= @ABE EI= = HA =?E = ∼ A ?E A 2H IJ H Lp (a, b) @ABE E A = Lp (a, b) ∼ II

HA =?E =

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

H = K FH IJ HK

Lp (a, b) @=J= =

A I=

1/p

x
=LA@E A E

Lp (a,b)

(a,b)

|x(t)| dm Lp (a, b)

p

.

I >E = FH IJ H=

1◦ 2◦

Lp (a, b) Lp (a, b)

A IAF=H=>E = A F AJ= ?E = A ILK@= CKIJ K

4◦ 5 KF F

Lp (a, b) b − a < +∞ E = A ILK@= CKIJ K Lp (a, b) b − a < +∞ ◦ 5 x+y x + y x, y ∈ Lp (a, b) p 1 ◦ 6 ) x ∈ Lp (a, b) y ∈ Lq (a, b) p > 1 1/p + 1/q = 1 J=@= A
AFHA E@ ED BK

3◦ 5 KF

(a,b)
,

|x(t)y (t)| dm

x y . f

-.1 1+1 ) " #

I KFK

E BK ?E = (fn ) E ⊆ Rk (fn → f n → +∞ I I

LAHCEH= =

= BK =

?E E A

I I

=

E) =
=

E I=

m ({x ∈ E | fn (x)
,

A

LAHCEH=

f (x)}) = 0.
AHE E I=

-.1 1+1 ) " $
= I KFK

f

E BK ?E = (fn ) m E ⊆ Rk (fn −→ f n → +∞

LAHCEH= F =

m
=

= BK

?E E

E) =

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 )(∀n > n0 ) m {x ∈ E | |fn (x) − f (x)|
J A A LEL= A J I=

ε} < ε,

(∀ε > 0) lim m {x ∈ E | |fn (x) − f (x)|
n→+∞
E E I= ,

ε} = 0.
?E E

-.1 1+1 ) " %
Lp (a, b) =

BK =

?E =

(fn )
1/p

LAHCEH=

= BK

f

K FH I

J HK

(a,b)
6

|fn − f |p dm
)

→ 0, n → +∞.
E AHGELED BK ?E = AHA

- 4- ) " !
= 

A>AC L= JA HA =
BK ?E E ?E E

(fn )
J=@= E

LAHCEH=

AHGEL

f

I I AHE

= I KFK

E

=

A

(fn )

LAHCEH= BK

f

F

m 

" 

24-/

-, 6-

41 -

)2

- )
A A

2HAJF IJ=L = @= <A IA E H= >EJE J= IJ=LEJE

A I KF

E

=

A E=

AHA K FHAJD @ AH= EA = =

JA HA E JLH AMA

= I KF LA

6

- 4- ) " "
AHGEL E 

4EI L= JA HA = ) BK ?E E

E

AHGELED BK

?E =

LAHCEH=

f

F

AHE I H

m

J=@= F IJ

E F @ E

(fn ) (fnk )

E =

(fn )
6

LAHCEH= BK

?E E

f

ILK@=

- 4- ) " # 
E E 

A>AC L= JA HA = H ILK@= E =

@

E = J F IJ

LAHCA ?E E = BK

F

JE E AHE ?E = ?E =

> E )

E E JACH=>E ED BK LAHCEH= I = E L=<E

?E = (fn )

LAHCEH= BK E E JACH=>E

?E E f F

m

J= L= @= L=<E E JACH=>E

|fn (x)|

|g (x)| I H ILK@= n ∈ N |fn − f |dm → 0 n → +∞

J=@= A BK

g f

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

!

"

=@=?E

" 

1 H= K =JE E JACH= = f (x) = > f (x) =
1, x ∈ / Q, 0, x ∈ Q;

[0,1] f

dm =

A BK

?E = f @=J= I=

FHE A K A

∞ n=1

sin x, x ∈ F (F A = J H L I KF), cn , x A E E >= A C E JAHL= = @K<E A 1/3n , n ∈ N, cn < +∞ 0, x ∈ F (F A = J H L I KF), n, x A E E >= A C E JAHL= = @K<E A 1/3n , n ∈ N. 

L f (x) =
4A AMA 

=

=

A m(Q ∩ [0, 1]) = 0  =@=J= ! ' E Q ∩ I = ∅ I A@E
f dm =
[0,1]

[0,1]

χI dm = m(I ∩ [0, 1]) = 1.

F 

> = I LK [0,1] f dm = F f dm + CF f dm E EMA E?A @= A f dm = 0  AH A m(F ) = 0  =@=J= !  I A@E @= A
f dm =
[0,1] CF

f dm =

+∞ CF n=1

cn χE dm,
n

C@A A En K E = E >= A ED E JAHL= = @K<E A 1/3n 2HA = J
f dm =
[0,1] +∞ n=1

A
cn 2n−1 . 3n

cn m(CF ∩ En ) =

+∞ n=1

cn m(En ) =

+∞ n=1 

L

HEIJA E HA K J=J E @A = > = cn = n @ >E =
f dm =
+∞ n=1

[0,1]

2n−1 1 n· n = 3 3 xn

+∞ n=1

n

2 3

n−1

=

1 1 · 3 1− 2 3

2

= 3.

)2

- ) 4A@
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1

LAHCEH= = |x| < 1 E J=@= A
+∞ n=1

nxn−1 =

+∞ n=1

(xn )′ =

xn

=

x 1−x

=

1 . (1 − x)2 

"

"

),)+1

"

A = A @=J= BK

?E =

f

I= = J H L I KF), A C E JAHL= = @K<E A

f (x) =
1 H= K =JE
4A AMA

x ∈ F (F A x2 , n 1/2 , x A E E >=
[0,1] f

1/3n , n ∈ N.

dm
EJ= ?K = I= IJ= E H=@ F C A@=JE =@=J= @ABE EI= A I= " 

IJ=LG= IA

" !

A = IK BK

?E A

fp : [0, 1] → R p > 0
A

fp (x) =

−1, x ∈ F (F A np , x A E E >=

= J H L I KF), C E JAHL= = @K<E A

1/3n , n ∈ N.

1 H= K =JE E JACH=
4A AMA

[0,1] f2 dm
= K =@=J K "  = GK K A @= A BK ?E =

5 E =

E

F IJKF E @= A

fp (∗)

AHGEL=

[0, 1]

fp dm =
[0,1]
LAHCEH= = = IL=

1 3

+∞ n=1

2 3

n−1

np .
HEJAHE K = F= @= A

4A@ E

(∗) fp ∈ L(0, 1)

p>0 = I p > 0 5FA?E = f2 dm =
[0,1]

LK ,= = >AH L C =

p=2E
n−1

=

1 3

+∞ n=1

2 3

n2 .

=

A F

= =JE

+∞ n=1
AF IHA@
" "

tn−1 n2 =

1 + t3 , 1−t

0 < t < 1,

@ >E =

@= A

[0,1] f2 dm

= 15

E JAHL= = I KF AHK
4A

E1 , . . . , En  = BE IEH= n ∈ N AHGELE F @I KF LE I = (0, 1) ) IL= = J= = E JAHL= = I A<E >=H K r @ LED L= 1 r n @ = =JE @= >=H A@= @ I KF L= E1 , . . . , En E = = E A =M= @ r/n
A = IK 7LA@E BK ?E K

AMA

ϕ I=
n

ϕ(x) = χE (x) + · · · + χE (x)
1

r,

x ∈ (0, 1).

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

#

6=@=

A

(0,1)
@= A I A@E = >=H

ϕ dm = m(E1 ) + · · · + m(En )
A@= @ I KF L=

r,
L=<E @= A

Ei i = 1, 2, . . . , n

m(Ei )
" #
E A A = K

r/n
= A IL= A E >H x ∈ [0, 1) FHA@IJ=LGA K > E K x = 0, x1 x2 x3 . . . f (x) = n =@= A x1 = x2 = · · · = xn = 0 xn+1 = 0 n ∈ N0 =JE [0,1) f dm E I KF LA

1 H=

4A

AMA 7

K0 = [0.1, 1), K1 = [0.01, 0.1), K2 = [0.001, 0.01), . . . .
2HE AJE = @= A

m(Kn ) =
5J C= A

9 10n+1
+∞

n ∈ N

[0, 1) =

+∞ n=0

Kn

E @=

A

f (x) = n

x ∈ Kn
+∞

f dm =
[0,1)

f dm =

n dm =

+∞ n=0

n=0 Kn

n=0 Kn

1 n · m(Kn ) = . 9

" $

.K

?E =

f

A @ABE

EI=

=

= E

JAHL=

K

[0, 1] I= 1 , 3 1,

1 H=

K

=JE

[0,1] f

x∈ / Q, 0 x 1 f (x) = 2 <x / Q,  x , x∈  3  −5, x ∈ Q ∩ [0, 1]. dm
I A@A A = A

 3    x ,

4A

AMA 7LA@E

A = 0,
5 KF LE

1 ∩ I, 3

B=

1 , 1 ∩ I, 3
J E = F= IJ A

C = [0, 1] ∩ Q.
E L=<E C= E AHGEL=

.K

A, B, C IK AHGELE E ?E = f A EC A@ AFHA
KF L= @= I A = GK A

@EI K E@

A ∪ B ∪ C = [0, 1]
= IL= L = MED A K

@

LED I =

K A A

@=

AHGEL= E C@A

E E

m(C ) = 0

A@E @=

f = g I I = [0, 1]    x3 , 0 x 1 , 3 g (x) = 1  2  x , < x 1. 3 

$

"

),)+1

5J C= A

f dm =
[0,1] [0,1]

g dm =
1 3

[0, 1 3]
1
1 3

g dm +

,1 [1 3 ]

g dm

=
0

x3 dx +

x2 dx =

35 . 108
+∞ n=1

" %

1 H= K =JE 7 E

E x dm

FHE

A K A

E = [0, 1] \

1 1 , 4n2 + 1 4n2

4A

AMA

E E JAHL= =

Jn =
E IK A KI > @EI K

1 1 ⊆ [0, 1]. , 4n2 + 1 4n2
AH = IL=

J E

n ∈ N L=<E

1 1 . < 2 4(n + 1)2 4n + 1
5 KF .K

J=
?E =

+∞ n=1

Jn

A

EC A@ A A

AHGEL F= A E I KF = E JAHL= K

E = [0, 1] \ J
F= A @ >E =

AHGEL =

f (x) = x
=

AHGEL=

[0, 1]

AHGEL= E

I KFK

E ⊆ [0, 1]

[0, 1] = E ∪
E

+∞ n=1

Jn
+∞

AF IHA@

@= A

xdm =
[0,1]
@= A A

x dm +

x dm,

n=1 Jn

x dm =
E [0,1]

x dm −
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1 Jn

x dm =
[0,1]

x dx −

+∞ n=1 Jn +∞ n=1

x dx 8n2 + 1 . 16n4 (4n2 + 1)2

1 1 = − 2 2
A =

1 1 1 1 − = − 4 2 2 16n (4n + 1) 2 2
= IL=

" &

+∞ |f (x)| dx 0
AMA

f ∈ R[0, b]
E = E

b > 0

E

A =

AIL

IJLA E E JACH=

LAHCEH= , BK ?E =

= =JE @= A J=@=

f ∈ L(R+ )

4A

7

R

E JACH=>E

= [0, n] F=

(fn ) fn (x) = |f (x)|χ[0, n] .K ?E = f A A E L E JACH=>E = = [0, n] JA HA = "  

/

)8) "

-*-/

81

6-/4) 

%

2HA = J ALE AL

A

(fn )

A H=IJK E

E

IJ=LK JA HA = " !  L=<E

L

E JACH=>E

ED BK

?E = F= F

*AF

R+

|f (x)| dm = lim = lim

n→+∞ R+ n n→+∞ 0

|fn (x)| dm |f (x)| dx =
+∞ 0

|f (x)| dx < +∞,

@=
" '

A I A@E @= A A = A

|f | ∈ L(R+ )
= IL=

J 

JA HA = " $ 

f ∈ L(R+ )
AIL IJLA E E JACH=

1 0 |f (x)| dx
AMA

f ∈ R[ε, 1]

0<ε<1
= I= IJ=

E

A =

LAHCEH= , EJ= ?K

= =JE @= A J=@=

f ∈ L[0, 1]
C HA AMK =

4A

IJ=LG= IA

E H=@ = =

@=J = " &
" 

A = A

E

AHGEL I KF K FH IJ HK CH= E A ED BK E I= = A

LED AIA ?E =

∗ ?E =

Rk

=

= I KFK

M (E ) I E ,

KF ILED

AHGE

= =JE @= L=<E

M (E ) ⊆ L(E ) =
4A AMA

m(E ) < +∞
AIA ?E = = CH= E A = BK ?E = =

A = A

E

6=@= A

m(E ) < +∞ E f |f (x)| M < +∞ I I
E

E

F= A

|f | dm
,=

E

M dm = M m(E ) < +∞,
K E=

M (E ) ⊆ L(E ) 2HAJF IJ=LE I=@= @= A M (E ) ⊆ L(E ) .K ?E = f (x) ≡ 1 x ∈ E A EC A@ AHGEL= E CH= E A = = I KFK E F= I A@E @= f ∈ M (E ) 2HA = FHAJF IJ=L?E A E f ∈ L(E ) = = A
@= A I A@E A L=<E E

f ∈ L(E )

E
AF IHA@
" 

|f | dm =

1 dm = m(E ),
E

I A@E @= A ?E =

m(E ) < +∞   1 , x∈ / Q, 1 + x2  0, x ∈ Q.
= I KFK

,=J= A BK

f (x) =

= AHGELK BK = ?E K F IJ

f

@ABE EI= K IJ= J=

E

=<A

@= A AIA ?E = 

>EJ 

CH= E A =

E

=

E

M

J= L= @= A

|f (x)|

M

II

=

E 

&

"

),)+1

,

= =JE @= BK

?E =

f

EA

E H= K =JE
4A AMA

R f dm
J A IL= = J= H

R

E JACH=>E

=

E

= A@

E JAHL= K E

2

=

E

= A@

E JAHL= K I

5 @HKCA IJH= A A

1 f (x) = 1 + x2 f dm =
R

ILK@=

x∈R
II

J=

= FHA E@= BK EA

?E A f

=

EA =

AFHA E@ = F= =

R

R

E JACH=>E

F= A

+∞ −∞

1 dx = π. 1 + x2
IJ BK ?E A f @ABE

" 

EI= A I=

1IFEJ=JE R E JACH=>E

IJ E L E JACH=>E

f (x) =
= E JAHL= K
4A AMA

1, x ∈ Q, x5 , x ∈ / Q,
IJ= E H=@ F C A@=JE =@=J= " 

[0, 1]
EJ= ?K = I=

IJ=LG= IA ?E =

" !

.K

f : R2 → R @ABE f (x, y ) =

EI= = A I=

1, x + y ∈ Q, 2, x + y ∈ / Q.
= =JE @= BK ?E =

) =
4A

A A

E AHGEL I KF E R2 m(E ) < +∞
A = A A IL= E @ I KF L= !

@

f ∈ L(E )
E

=

E I=

AMA

Sq = {(x, y ) ∈ R2 | x + y = q } q ∈ Q Sq
A@ = FH=L= K

S =
q ∈Q

Sq

=

R2 E

I A@E @= A E =

Q LE@AJE 2 II =R

=@=J=

' F= A E

m(S ) = 0

5J C= A

F= = FH E L G=

AHGEL I KF

m(Sq ) = 0 q ∈ f (x, y ) = g (x, y ) ≡ 2
@= A

E
@=
" "

|f (x, y )| dm =
I A@E @=

E

|g (x, y )| dm = 2m(E ),
E I= = II A

A

AF IHA@ A = A

f ∈ L(E ) =

m(E ) < +∞
=

f

0

E

E

f dm = 0

6=@= A

f =0

E

,

= =JE

4A

AMA

A = A

En = {x ∈ E | f (x) > 1/n} 1 m(En ) < n f dm
En

6=@= L=<E

0

f dm = 0,
E

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

'

@=

A I A@E @= A

J=@= A

E0 =

+∞ n=1

m(En ) = 0 n ∈ N
F= A

)

A

E0 = {x ∈ E | f (x) > 0}

En

0
J

m(E0 )
A

+∞ n=1

m(En ) = 0,
=

m(E0 ) = 0
A = A

2HA = J

f =0

II E =

E A
AHGEL C I KF=

" #

E
4A

Af

,

= =JE @= A J=@= IJ=LG= IA

dm = 0 = IL= f =0 II
EJ= ?K

AHGEL F @I KF

E
IJ= E H=@ K E EI EJE I KF LA HEIJEJE

AMA

= I=

E1 =

" "
" $

{x ∈ E | f (x)
A = Af

0} E2 = {x ∈ E | f (x) < 0} ∈ L(E ) E σ > 0
, = =JE @= L=<E

=@=J=

A A@ =

IJ

A>E

AL=

m{x ∈ E | |f (x)|
4A AMA

σ}

1 σ σ}

E

|f (x)| dm.
6=@= A

A = A IJ

A A@ =

Eσ = {x ∈ E | |f (x)| σ

Eσ ⊆ E

F= L=<E

dm

|f | dm

E

|f | dm,

@

I

σ

= A

dm
E
I A@E

|f | dm.

dm = m(Eσ )

m(Eσ ) f 0 0
E

1 σ 1

E

|f | dm.
A BK ?E A =

" %

A = IK

E

g
=

E JACH=>E

[0, a]
J= L= @= A 

= ,

= =JE @= F IJ

=M=

IJ= J=

c 0

c

a

f g dm =
[0,a] 
> )

f dm.
[0,c]

gn → g n → +∞
[0,a]

II

=

[0, a] E f dm
[0,cn ]

f gn dm = 

"

),)+1

F
4A

= =JE @=
AMA

cn → c n → +∞
?E = 

= .K

ϕ(x) =
[0,x]
A H=IJK = E AFHA E@ = 2 J

f (t) dm,
A

x ∈ [0, a],

ϕ(0) = 0
[0,a]
F IJ E

f g dm
[0,a]
@= A

f dm = ϕ(a),

c ∈ [0, a] J=

L

f g dm = ϕ(c) =
[0,a]
) F IJ E LE A J= LED

f dm.
[0,c]

c

E IK ILE K I KFK

ϕ−1
[0,a]
E A =JL HA > 2 J A F= E = =

f g dm
=ME A A A J

⊆ [0, a]

|gn − g |
[0,c]
LAHCEH=

|gn | + |g |
[0,a]
=

2

L=<E

[0,cn ]
)

f dm −
= @=

f dm =

f (gn − g )dm → 0, n → +∞.
IJ E = @ F @ E

(cn )

A >E

@= IK I K =

K ILE

2HAJF IJ=LE

cnk > c + ε 0

c J=@= >E F LE =ME @ c − ε E E LA A cnk < c − ε  IJ=LG= IA
6=@= L=<E

c+ε

=

(cnk ) J= =L A ε > 0
IJ= = H=@

EJ= ?K = I=

f dm
[c−ε,c]
@= A =

k→+∞ [cn ,c] k

lim

f dm = 0,
I LK =@=J = " " I A@E KI L

@= @= A

A @ >E =

f =0

II

E E =

IJE AH >E L=<E

[c − ε, c]

[c−ε,c] f

dm = 0
A KJE

= J=@=

c

A >E EIFKM=L=

f dm =
[0,c−ε]
,= A

f dm.
[0,c]

cn → c n → +∞

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

" &

A = IK f E g

A AC=JEL A

AHGELA BK

?E A

=E

J= LA @= A

f (x)g (x)

1

II

=

E

,

= =JE @= A J=@=

⊆ Rk m(E ) = 1

E
4A AMA

f dm ·

g dm
E

1. f dm = 0
= =

2HAJF IJ=LE = K IKFH J

@= IK =

>= E JACH= = A >=H

0

E

E

gdm =
IJ A

=

EC A@ = 6=@= = IL=

α > 0 L=<E 1 α g dm
E
IJ I=

1 αf + g α
E

A@=

>AI

A A@ = @=

2

A I A@E

α
E

f dm +

2 α@

dm = 2m(E ) = 2.
>E =

<A E F I A@MK

A A@ =

α2
E
= A F I A@M= A A@ =

f dm − 2α +

g dm
E

0. α>0 0,
I A@E @= A

IJ EIFKMA = = IL=

D =4−4
@= A @ >E =

f dm
E E

g dm

E
" '

f dm ·

g dm
E

1.
K BK ?E K ,

A = A BK

?E = ?E =

ϕf
II

E JACH=>E = = J

= = IL= K E JACH=>E

f
4A

6=@= A BK = =JE
AMA

ϕ

m({x | |ϕ(x)| = +∞}) = 0
= = BK

2HAJF IJ=LE E = I KFK

IKFH J

@=

A = F IJ IL=

AHGEL I KF

n∈N
E

E

2HA = KI

E ⊆

Rk

ϕ EAII m(E ) > 0 J=

?E = J =

=L @= A

LE = =@=J = L=<E E

|ϕ| > n

|f ϕ| dm

Rk

|f ϕ| dm < +∞

Rk
J

|f | dm < +∞.
=

2HAJF IJ=LE

E @= A

E

|f | dm = M |f ϕ| dm =
=

f (x) = 0 = x ∈ E 0 < M < +∞ 6=@= A |f ϕ| dm +
I LK A A@ =

|f ϕ| > 0 |f | dm +
A E CA

E

A = A

Rk

L=<E

E
=

CE

|f ϕ| dm > n
A K =HEJ

E
AJE

CE

|f ϕ| dm,
A IHA@E A

s, t, α > 0
1 s α

IJE E

AJHE I

αt +

2

αt ·

1 s α

2 

"

),)+1

F= A J ,=
" 

Rk
A K A

|f ϕ| dm > nM
AII

=@

JH=@E ?E E I=

EMA E?

n → +∞
?E =

@ >E =

Rk
?E =

@= A BK

|f ϕ| dm > +∞ f ϕ E JACH=>E =

ϕ

CH= E A = BK

A = A

AHGEL= BK

E ⊆ Rk
?E =

AHGEL I KF FHE EJEL = I I IJ

A K A =E ,

= AF

0 < m(E ) < +∞

E

f

= =JE @= J=@= = IL=

α ∈ (0, m(E )] L=<E

A A@ =

A⊆E m(A) α

inf

f dm > 0.
A

4A

(En ) @ABE EI= I= En = E (f 1/n) L= E A J H=IJK E E En → E (f > 0) n → +∞ F= L=<E n → +∞ = α J= L @= A α/2 < m(E ) F IJ E E m(En ) → m(E ) FHEH @= >H p J= =L @= A m(Ep ) > m(E ) − α/2 J m(E \ Ep ) < α/2 A = A A ⊆ E m(A) α 6=@= L=<E
AMA

7

E

E

I KF L=

m(A) = m(A ∩ Ep ) + m(A ∩ (E \ Ep ))
@ I

α,

m(A ∩ Ep )
= I LK FHAJD @

α − m(A ∩ (E \ Ep ))
C I A@E

α − m(E \ Ep ) >

α . 2

f dm
A
@= A A

f dm
A∩Ep A∩Ep

m(A ∩ Ep ) 1 1 α dm = > · > 0, p p p 2

A⊆E m(A) α

inf

f dm > 0.
A

" 

A = A

J= =L I KF @= A @ = =JE @= A =

(En ) E x∈G

AHGELED I KF L= E = E I= = A

p FHEH @= >H ) x ∈ En = >=H p LHA@ m(En )

A IJE

G n

G

AHGEL I KF 

>

pm(G)

+∞ n=1

4A

AMA 

=

J= LED @= A

A ?E = F @I KF L= I KF= FHEH @ ED >H (Ij ) card(Ij ) = p j ∈ N J= LED I KF L= E = FHA>H EL A = A

AL= C 

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

!

6=@= A

G=

+∞ j =1 k∈Ij

Ek

F= E

AHGEL IJE I KF L=

En

I A@E @= A I KF

G

AHGEL 

> 1 @ABE E?E A I KF=

GI

A@E @= = IL=

x ∈ G L=<E

pχG (x)
@= A A

+∞ n=1

χE (x),
n

pχG (x) dm
J

+∞ n=1

χE (x) dm,
n

pm(G)
A = A

+∞ n=1

m(En )
= BK ?E = = E JAHL= K

"

f

E JACH=>E

[1, 2]

)

(∗)
J=@= A
4A

sup
n∈N [1,2]
,

|f (x)|xn dm < +∞,
= =JE =

f =0

II

=

[1, 2]

AMA

2HAJF IJ=LE E I KF

I

@= F IJ

k∈N
[1,2]

6=@= A

@= BK ?E = f E A A@ = E ⊆ [1, 2] m(E ) > 0 =

0II
A A

= [1, 2] @ |f (x)| > 1/k

|f (x)|xn dx

E

|f (x)|xn dx > xn dx
E0

1 k

xn dx
E

1 k
C@A A I KF A
"

1 (1 + δ )n m(E0 ) → +∞, n → +∞, k
= L IJE I= KI

2 I A@ME HA K J=J A K IKFH J

E0 = [1 + δ, 2] ∩ E
=

=@ L G

f =0
!

II

[1, 2]
E AHGELED I KF L= K

δ E I= F (∗) F= =
E

EJEL A GK K A

AHA @=

A = A

(En )

Rk

Ax = {n ∈ N | m(En ) > x}.
,=J= A BK ?E =

f : [0, +∞) → [0, +∞] I= card (Ax ) , +∞,
= = A I KF A I KF

f (x) =

Ax = Ax >AI

=

, .

= = 

"

"

),)+1

1 H= K =JE
4A AMA

R+

f dm
E BK ?E A

,ABE E

ϕn

I=

ϕn (x) =
J

1, x < m(En ), 0, x m(En ), f (x) =
+∞ n=1

ϕn (x) = χ[0, m(E

n

(x) ))

6=@= A

ϕn (x) E

=

I

LK JA HA A

" " L=<E

f dm =
R+

+∞ R+ n=1 +∞
+ n=1 R

ϕn (x) = χ[0, m(E

+∞
+ n=1 R

ϕn (x) dm
+∞ n=1

=

n ))

(x) dm =

m(En ).

"

"

A

@ I A@A ED BK

?E = IK E JACH=>E

A 

= >
4A

sin x f (x) = x ∈ [0, +∞) x sin x x ∈ [0, +∞) g (x) = 1 + x2 
= = A

AMA

+∞ π

sin x dm = x

+∞ k=1 +∞ k=1

(k+1)π kπ

sin x dx x
(k+1)π kπ
@=

1 (k + 1)π

| sin x| dx =

+∞ k=1

1 · 2, (k + 1)π
@= A I A@E

E @ >E A E HA@ @ELAHCEH= @=

= GK K A

|f | ∈ / L[0, +∞) 
> = A

F= E

f∈ / L[0, +∞)
+∞ 0
= I

|f | ∈ / L[π, +∞)

+∞ 0
E

sin x dx 1 + x2 b > 0

1 π dx = , 2 1+x 2
LK =@=J = " & I A@E @= A E

g ∈ R[0, b] g ∈ L[0, +∞)
" #

= IL=

1 H= K =JE

n 0 n→+∞

lim

1+

x n

n

e−2x dx

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

#

4A K

AMA E ALA

E A A@

(ϕn )
=

ϕn (x) = 1 +
IJE L=<E

x n

n
A H=IJK E AH = I LK *AH

x 1+ n+1
A = A

n+1 n

1+

x . n

fn (x) = 1 +
E (fn ) A J fn → e−x n → +∞ H=IJK F= A E = E I

x n
A

n

e−2x χ[0, n] .
ED BK ALE AL ?E = C IJ=L= =

AC=JEL

LK *AF

[0, +∞) E

n→+∞ [0,n]

lim

1+

x n

n

e−2x dm = lim

n→+∞ [0,+∞)

fn (x) dm
+∞ 0

=

[0,+∞) n→+∞

lim fn (x) dm =

e−x dx = 1.

"

$

A

= IL=

f E JACH=>E = BK ?E = = I KFK E ⊆ Rk E A = A En ⊂ E f dm = 0 n∈N ) A lim m(En ) = 0 J=@= A lim
= A

n→+∞

n→+∞ E

n

4A

AMA 7

E

@=

A

{x ∈ E | |f χE | > 0} ⊆ {x ∈ E | χE = 1} = En .
n n
5J C= A

0 0

m(E (|f χE | > 0))
n

m(En )
n

@

I

n→+∞
I A A@MA

lim m(E (|f χE | > 0))
A A@ = IJE = GK = =

n→+∞
K A =

lim m(En ) = 0.
@= A

= I I =

I = I

LK F

E

E @=

LK

A>AC

n→+∞
LA JA

lim f χE = 0 I I
n
HA A @ E

E

|f χE | < |f | ∈ L(E )
n
?E E @ >E =

n→+∞

lim f χE

n

F

IJ

E

J

LAHCA

n→+∞ En

lim

f dm = lim

n→+∞

f χE dm =
n

E

E

n→+∞

lim f χE dm = 0.
n

"
E

%
A = A

A

n → +∞

f A AC=JEL = E JACH=>E En = {x ∈ E | f (x) n} ,
= A

= BK

?E =

= I

= =JE @= J=@=

E ⊆ Rk n · m(En ) → 0
KFK 

$

"

),)+1

4A

AMA

2HE AJE

@= A

E

>H

AL=

(m(En ))
E = =EIJ=

J

F=@= K E E

n L=<E m(En ) c = lim m(En ) 2 = = A
= = IL=

0

I A@E @= F IJ

c

0

J= L

@= A IJ

n→+∞

@= A

c=0

A A@ =

f dm
E
L=<E = IL=

f dm
En
I A@E @= A

n · m(En ) > n · c
J A K IKFH J IJE I=

n

E

c>0

FHAJF IJ=L

=@=J = ,=

f ∈ / L(E ) c=0 J

(1)
,ABE E E BK ?E A

m(En ) → 0, n → +∞. [f ]n 
J L I=IA A A BK ?E A I=

[f ]n (x) =
2HE AJE

f (x), f (x) n, n, f (x) > n.
J H=IJK E ALE AL E AHGELED BK ?E = E IJ=LK L=<E

n→∞

([f ]n ) lim [f ]n (x) = f (x) F= F
@= A

*AF

(2)
A = A

n→+∞ E

lim

[f ]n dm =

E n→+∞

lim [f ]n dm =
E

f dm.

E0,n = {x ∈ E | f (x) f dm +
E En

n}

6=@= A

E

[f ]n dm − =
E0,n

f dm [f ]n dm − f dm − f dm +
En En

[f ]n dm +
En

f dm

E0,n

=
En
= = E

[f ]n dm = n · m(En ),
A@E

(1) E (2) I

E
@ >E =
"

[f ]n dm −

f dm +
E En

f dm → 0, n → +∞,

@=

n · m(En ) → 0 n → +∞
= E AHGEL= BK ?E =

& A = A f A AC=JEL En = {x ∈ E | f (x) n}

n

n

Fn = {x ∈ E | n

= I KFK E m(E ) < +∞ f (x) < n +1} , = =JE 

=

m(Ek ) =
k=1 k=1

k · m(Fk ) + n · m(En+1 )

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

% 

>

f ∈ L(E ) ⇔ 
= A = A

+∞ n=1

m(En ) < +∞
6=@= A

4A

AMA

E0 = E

E0 = E1 ∪ F0 , E1 = E2 ∪ F1 , . . . , Ek = Ek+1 ∪ Fk ,
J

Ek = En+1 ∪ Fk ∪ Fk+1 ∪ · · · ∪ Fn

@=

A I A@E

m(Ek ) = m(En+1 ) + m(Fk ) + m(Fk+1 ) + · · · + m(Fn ).
5K EH= K E F

k@

>E =

n k=1
@ I

n

m(Ek ) = n · m(En+1 ) +

k=1

(m(Fk ) + · · · + m(Fn )) ,

n

n

(∗)

k=1

m(Ek ) = n · m(En+1 ) +

k=1

k · m(Fk ).
= I LK =@=J = " % 

> 2HAJF IJ=LE I A@E @=

@= A f ∈ L(E ) 6=@= n · m(En ) → 0 n → +∞ ,=GA = IL=

n L=<E f dm +
F0 En+1

n k=1

n

n

k · m(Fk ) =

f dm
k=1 Fk k=1 Fk

f dm +

f dm

E
=@

f dm < +∞.

n → +∞ @

>E =

+∞ k=1

k · m(Fk )
+∞ n=1

E

f dm < +∞,

@=

A

> C

(∗)

I A@E

m(En ) < +∞
+∞ k=1

2HAJF IJ=LE

I=@= @= A

m(Ek ) < +∞

6=@= L=<E

+∞ k=1

m(Ek ) < +∞ ⇒

+∞ k=1

k · m(Fk ) < +∞ ⇒

+∞ k=1

(k + 1)m(Fk ) < +∞. 

&

"

),)+1

=

A

+∞ >

+∞ k=1

(k + 1)m(Fk ) =

+∞ k=1 +∞ k=1

(k + 1)
Fk

dm f dm
E \F0

f dm =
Fk

E

f dm
F0
I A@E

dm = m(F0 )
F0

m(E ) < +∞, f dm < +∞,

f dm =
E
@ I @=

f dm +
E \F0 F0

f ∈ L(E )
A = AHGEL= BK ?E = E A = A

f : [a, b] → R∗ F EJEL En = {x | f (x) n} , = =JE @=
" '
A =

[a,b]
= E I= =

[f ]2n dm −

[a,b]

[f ]n dm → 0, n → +∞,

n · m(En ) → 0 n → ∞
IJ=LE FHL @=

4A

AMA = A

2HAJF

n · m(En ) → 0 n → ∞ gn dm,
[a,b]
A

7LA@E

An =
[a,b]
C@A A

([f ]2n − [f ]n ) dm =
EC A@

gn (x) = [f ]2n (x) − [f ]n (x) gn (x) = 0, gn (x) = n,

= =

f (x)

n,

f (x) > 2n, 2n
=J A

E

gn (x) = f (x)−n = IL= x ∈ [a, b] An =
[a,b]

@=

2 n −n = n
A I

=

n < f (x)
A

0

gn (x)

n

A@E @=

gn dm =
{f >n}

gn dm =
{f n}

gn dm
{f n}

n dm

= n · m(En ) → 0, n → +∞,
F=

An → 0 n → ∞

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

'

2HAJF IJ=LE

I=@= @=

An → 0 n → ∞

6=@= A

An
{f 2n}
F=

gn dm =
{f 2n}

n dm = n · m(E2n ) =

1 · 2n · m(E2n ), 2

2n · m(E2n ) → 0 n → ∞ (2n + 1)m({x | f (x)

,=GA A

2n + 1})

(2n + 1)m({x | f (x) 2 · 2n · m({x | f (x)

2n}),

2n})
A L=<E

@= A I A@E @= E (2n + 1)m(E2n+1 ) → 0 n → ∞ n · m(En ) → 0 n → ∞

2HA = J

n
" !

1 H= K =JE 7 E

n→+∞ 0
E BK

lim

xα−1 1 − (fn )

x n

n

dx α > 0

4A

AMA

?E =

C@A A

fn (x) = xα−1 1 − (fn )
A J H=IJK E E

x n

n

χ[0, n] (x).
?E = E L=<E

AHGELED BK

n R+
F= = I LK *AF

fn (x) dm =
0

xα−1 1 −

x n

n

dx,

ALE AL C IJ=L= I A@E

n→+∞ R+

lim

fn dm =

R+

n→+∞

lim fn dm =
0

+∞

xα−1 e−x dx = Γ(α).
n

" !

)

A

f ∈ L(E )
E E

E H= K =JE

n→+∞ E
C@A A

lim

f 1 + |f |

dm
n
L=

4A

AMA

7

BK

?E =

(fn )
=

fn =

@ABE EI= A BK

?E A IK

AHGELA

E

E L=<E FH ?A =

f 1 + |f |

|fn | =
= I KFK E ,= = I LK A

|f | 1 + |f |
= IL=

n

|f | < |f |, 1 + |f |
E = J

n ∈ N,
E

A>AC LA JA HA A @= A

n L=<E |fn | < |f | ∈ L(E )
@

LAHCA ?E E JA HA = " & 

n→+∞

lim fn = 0

F=

= GK K A

n→+∞ E

lim

f 1 + |f |

n

dm =

E n→+∞

lim

f 1 + |f |

n

dm =
E

0 dm = 0. 

"

),)+1

" !

A = A

A

AHGEL F @I KF 

= 1 H= K =JE > ) A

m(A) < +∞
A

n→+∞

lim n
A
@

Rk E f ∈ L(A) f − 1 dm 1+ n
@

= =JE @= J=@= = IL=

α∈R

L=<E

f dm = 0 ⇔
E BK

A

|1 + αf | dm (fn )
C@A A

m(A).
f n
1

4A

AMA 

= 7

E J=@=

?E =

) @ =

f ∈ L(A)
IJE

fn ∈ L(A) 1− |f | n
E

E L=<E

n→+∞

fn (x) = n 1 + lim fn (x) = f (x) |f | , n
LK

−1

AA

1+

f n

1+
= I

I A@E @

E = J

|fn | lim n

|f |

=

LAHCA ?E E I A@E @= A

|f | ∈ L(A)

A>AC LA JA HA A

n→+∞

1+
A

f −1 n

dm = lim =

n→+∞ A A n→+∞

fn dm f dm.
A
L=<E

lim fn dm = 

> 2HAJF IJ=LE

@= A

Af

dm = 0

6=@= = IL=

α∈R

A

|1 + αf | dm

(1 + αf ) dm =
A
I=@= @= A L=<E

dm + α
A A

f dm = m(A).
= ILA

2HAJF IJ=LE 6=@= = IL=

α/n n ∈ N 1+
A

A |1

+ αf | dm m(A) =
A

m(A)

α ∈ R

αf dm n 1+

dm,

@

I

A
@= A AE

αf − 1 dm n αf − 1 dm n
@= A

0,

n
A
5=@= = I

1+

0. dm
=

LK @A = = = GK K A =

5FA?E =

α = 1

E =

Af

dm

0

A f dm
A A@ =

0

A αf
@

1 F I A@MA @LA

IJE I A@E

0 = IL= α ∈ R α = −1 @ >E = A f dm = 0

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4) 

" !!

,

= =JE @= A

n→+∞ [0,1]
C@A A

lim

fn (x) dx = 1 + x2

[0,1]

ln(1 + x) dx, 1 + x2

fn (x) = x −
4A AMA

xn x2 + · · · + (−1)n−1 , 2 n
= I= IJ= LAHCA ?E E

x ∈ [0, 1].
A>AC LK

IJ=LG= IA @ E = J

EJ= ?K

E H=@ FHE A EJE

JA HA K
" !"

1 H= K =JE 

= > 

L 

C 

@

x ∈ [0, 1] 1 + n2 x3 nx x ∈ [0, 1] fn (x) = 1 + n2 x2 n3 x1/2 fn (x) = x ∈ [0, 1] 1 + n4 x n3 x3/4 fn (x) = x ∈ [0, 1] 1 + n4 x2 n3/2 x sin nx x ∈ [0, π ] fn (x) = 1 + n2 x2 fn (x) = 
= 2HE AJE A = IL= @= A

n→+∞ nx2

lim

fn (x) dm =

A

4A

AMA

2HA = J

x ∈ [0, 1] L=<E 1 3
3

n→+∞

lim fn (x) = 0

E

fnmax

3

2 n2

=

1 3

3

4 n

|fn (x)|
= I

4 n

1√ 3 4 = M < +∞, 3

LK JA HA A " ' L=<E

n→+∞ [0,1]
IJ= E FHE AHE IA

lim

fn dm =

[0,1] n→+∞

lim fn dm = 0.
IJ= E H=@

IJ=LG= K

EJ= ?K = I=

" !#

1 H= K =JE

n→+∞ R+
E BK

lim

dm 2xn + 3 (fn )
C@A A

4A

AMA

7

E ?E A

?E = IK

fn (x) =
=

x

0

.K

fn n ∈ N

AFHA E@ A

R+

2xn

1 n ∈ N +3
=J

F= IK

AHGELA

"

),)+1

E

JAHL=

K

2HE

AJE

E @= L=<E

fn (x)
J

1 , 0 3 g (x)

x < 1, n ∈ N
= IL=

E

fn (x) 2

1 , x 2x2 + 3
C@A A

1, n

2,

fn (x)

2

J

A

x 0 E IL= n  1  , 0  3 g (x) = 1   , x 2 2x + 3
1

x < 1, 1.

g (x) dm =
R+
J

0
A E A @

1 dx + 3
= @

+∞ 1
E =

1 dx < +∞, 2x2 + 3
J= E =

A>AC

g ∈ L(R+ ) g
LA JA HA

JACH=>E E = J

(fn )
EMA

5=@= E?A @=

= A

I

LK

LAHCA

?E E E

@

>E =

  1/3, 0 x < 1, 1/5, x = 1, lim fn (x) = n→+∞  0, x > 1,
n→+∞ [0,+∞)

lim

dm = 2xn + 3
IJ E

1 dm = . n 3 [0,+∞) n→+∞ 2x + 3 lim
L= @= A = IL=

" !$

,

= =JE @=

A F

EIFKMA

f (x)

nxn
IJ=LE

I I

= E

f ∈ L(0, 1) J= JAHL= K [0, 1]
@= J= L= BK

n ∈ N
7 E

4A E

AMA 2HAJF BK ?E =

IKFH EI=

J I=

?E =

fF

IJ

E

(fn ) @ABE

fn (x) = nxn ,
.K ?E A

0

x < 1;
=

fn (1) = 0,
n→+∞

n ∈ N. f (x)
HA I I @ = F E = I J =

fn n ∈ N
A = IL= K JAHL=

IK

AHGELA

[0, 1]

E FHEJ JH= E LAHCA

5J

n ∈ N
C=

EIFKMA I LK

fn (x)
A>AC

lim fn (x) = 0 x ∈ [0, 1]
LA JA A

=

?E E L=<E

(∗)

n→+∞ [0,1]

lim

fn dm =

[0,1] n→+∞

lim fn dm =
[0,1]

0 dm = 0.

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

!

A KJE

fn dm =
[0,1]
A K JH=@E ?E E I=

nxn dm =
[0,1]
,= A

n → 1, n → +∞, n+1
E BK ?E =

I >E = =
" !%

(∗)

A F IJ

f

I=

=LA@A E

A = A AHGEL

(fn )

K EB H

LAHCA J=

E E JACH=>E

ED BK

?E

=

=

I KFK

E

FHE A 

= ,

= =JE @= =

A K A m(E ) = = f (x) = lim fn (x) J=@=

n→+∞

f ∈ L(E ) 
> =LAIJE FHE AH JLH AMK @=J
4A AMA

E

E
EF

|fn − f | dm → 0, n → +∞.
= K A @= A FHAJF IJ=L =

K @A K = >EJ = = I LK @ABE E?E A K EB H A

m(E ) < +∞

K 

=

LAHCA ?E A L=<E

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀n > n0 )(∀x ∈ E ) |fn (x) − f (x)| < ε,
@= A I A@E

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀n > n0 )(∀x ∈ E ) |f (x)|−|fn (x)|
J

|f (x)−fn (x)| < ε, |fn (x)| + ε,

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀n > n0 )(∀x ∈ E ) |f (x)|
F= = 6=

fn ∈ L(E )
A L=<E

J=@= E

f ∈ L(E )

(∀ε> 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀n > n0 )
= FHAJD @ = A A@ =

E

|fn − f | dm

ε dm = εm(E ).
E
FHAJF IJ=L?E A

m(E ) < +∞ fn ∈ L(E )
)

I A@E @= E

IJ L=<E = IL= ε>0EF | f − f | dm → 0 n → +∞ E n BK ?E = E 

> 2 I =JH= C@A A

>E L=<E

JLH AMA E @A = = J=@= >E E = E @= A

E = [1, +∞)

1 χ x [1, n] 1 = f (x) n → +∞ fn (x) ⇒ x (fn )
C@A A

fn (x) =

6=@= =

E

f (x) dm =
E

E n→+∞ n n→+∞ 1

lim f (x)χ[1, n] (x) dm = lim

n→+∞ [1,n]

fn (x) dm

= lim

1 dx = lim ln n = +∞, n→+∞ x

"

"

),)+1

J

A K IKFH J

IJE I= FHAJF IJ=L

m(E ) < +∞ A A FD @ =

f ∈ L ,=

A FHAJF IJ=L =

2HAJD @ E =@=J= = @= A A@= KI L =@= E AI E E JACH=
CK @= = A A AIJ= =E A = E E JACH=>E ED BK ?E = (fn ) K EB H LAHCEH= = f = I KFK E FHE A K A m(E ) < +∞ L=<E
E

)2

- )

fn dm − lim

f dm
E E

|fn − f | dm → 0, n → +∞, lim fn dm =
E
2 2

@

I
n→+∞ E

fn dm =
+∞

E n→+∞

f dm.

" !&

1 H= K =JE
AMA

n→+∞ a

lim

n2 xe−n x dm a 1 + x2

0
I A K nx = t

4A

2HAJF IJ=LE
+∞

= FHA @= A a > 0
2

=@= KLA@A

@ >E =

n→+∞ na

lim

te−t 1+

t 2 n

dt = lim

te−t 1+

2

n→+∞ [0,+∞)
2

χ (t) dt. t 2 [na, +∞) n

A = A

fn (t) =
2HE AJE

te−t 1+

χ (t), t 2 [na, +∞) n
2

n ∈ N.

@= L=<E |fn (t)| te−t = g (t) n ∈ N g ∈ L[0, +∞) E fn → 0 n → +∞ @= A = I LK A>AC LA JA HA K @ E = J LAHCA ?E E L=<E
n→+∞ [0,+∞)

lim

fn dm =

[0,+∞) n→+∞

lim fn dm = 0.
FAJ EIJK I A K E F I =

2HAJF IJ=LE JH= BK ?E A

I=@= @= A a = 0 7LA@E

fn (t) =
2

te−t 1+

2

, t 2 n

n ∈ N.

te−t = g (t) n ∈ N g ∈ L[0, +∞) E fn → g n → +∞ 8=<E |fn (t)| F= K L I K =KE =
n→+∞ 0

lim

+∞

fn dm =
0

+∞

n→+∞

lim fn dm =
0

+∞

1 2 te−t dt = . 2

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

#

,=

A

n→+∞ a

lim

+∞

n2 xe−n x dx = 1 + x2

2 2

0, a > 0, 1 , a = 0. 2
I=

" !'

A = A

(fn )

E BK

?E = @ABE EI=

fn (x) =

    n(n + 1), x ∈   
E

0,

1 1 , , n+1 n 1 1 x ∈ [0, 1] \ , , n+1 n
K@ ?E K E = JK 

= , > ,

= =JE @=

(fn )
1

A =

E A@ K E JACH=>E AHGELK BK

= =JE @= = IL= K

A AC=JEL K

g L=<E

n→+∞ 0
4A AMA

lim

fn (x)g (x) dm = 0. 1 + fn (x)g (x) 

=

=

A

n→+∞ [0,1]
E

lim

fn (x) dm = lim

n→+∞

1 1 ,n [ n+1 ]

n(n + 1) dm = 1

n→+∞

lim fn (x) = 0 lim

I A@E

n→+∞ [0,1]
F= = I LK

fn dm = 1 = 0 =
@

[0,1] n→+∞

lim fn dm,
LAHCA ?E E E

A>AC LA JA HA A K@ E = JK

E = J

(fn )

A = E JACH=>E > =

fn → 0 n → +∞

I A@E

fn (x)g (x) =0 n→+∞ 1 + fn (x)g (x) lim

,=GA

fn (x)g (x) < 1 ∈ L[0, 1]. 1 + fn (x)g (x)
= I LK A>AC LA JA HA A @ E = J LAHCA ?E E I A@E

n→+∞ [0,1]

lim

fn (x)g (x) dm = 1 + fn (x)g (x)

fn (x)g (x) dm = 0. [0,1] n→+∞ 1 + fn (x)g (x) lim

$

"

),)+1

" "
E E

,=J A

E K @

BK E

?E = = J= JK

(fn ) fn (x) = ne−nx
= IL= E = J= E JAHL= A F IJ K

2

= =JE @= J=

E @

E

= =

JACH=>E JAHL= K

[0, +∞)
A =

L= @

E

[ε, +∞] ε > 0 enx >
1 2 2 2n x

4A I

AMA

A@E

x ∈ [ε, +∞) ε > 0 fn (x) < n
1 2 2 2n x

6=@= L=<E

@=

A

=

2 1 · n x2
JACH=>E

2 . x2
K @ E = JK = IL=

= E

2/x2 ∈ L[ε, +∞] E (fn ) E JAHL= K [ε, +∞] ε > 0
A = = J

= E

FHA

x ∈ [0, +∞)
A

6=@=

fn (x) → 0 n → +∞ lim fn (x) dm = 0.

I I

=

[0, +∞)

F=

A

[0,+∞) n→+∞
= A I @HKCA IJH= A

n→+∞ [0,+∞)
= E GK = K A JK @= = E JAHL= K

lim

fn (x) dm = 1,
E

[0, +∞)

(fn )

A

= E

JACH=>E

K @

" "
L=<E

,=J

A

E

BK

?E =

(fn ) I= fn (x) =

n2 x x∈R n4 + x4

,

= =JE @=

(∗)
= @= FHEJ E

n→+∞ R

lim

fn dm =
E A@ K E

R n→+∞

lim fn dm,
K @ E = JK

(fn )
@=

A

=

JACH=>E

4A =

AMA 2HE

AJE

= IL= A@ =

fn → 0 n → +∞
5 @HKCA IJH= A = IL=

IJ

n∈N

n ∈ N L=<E fn ∈ L(R) (∗) A J= =
L=<E

E

R fn dm

=0

R
@

|fn | dm = 2
F= =

+∞ 0
K A

n2 x π dx = , 4 4 n +x 2
@= A

|fn | → 0 n → +∞ π = lim 2 n→+∞

GK

R

|fn | dm =

R n→+∞

lim |fn | dm = 0,

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

%

J

= E @= J

A F IJ @=JE

E E JACH=>E E

= BK

?E = K@

g

J= L= @= A

g (x) x ∈ R
" "

A = E JACH=>E

E = JK

|fn (x)|

1 H= K =JE = 

>

dm n→+∞ R+ (1 + x)(2 + x) · · · (n + x) dm lim (n + 1)! n→+∞ R+ (1 + x)(2 + x) · · · (n + x) lim n! 
= A = A

4A

AMA

(fn )

E BK

?E = @=J I=

1 n! = x . x (1 + x)(2 + x) · · · (n + x) ··· 1 + (1 + x) 1 + 2 n 1 + ∈ L[0, +∞) = A II = R = n 2 L=<E fn (x) (1 + x)(1 + x ) 2 IA = x = 0 fn (x) =
n

ln fn (x) = −
I A@E @= F IJ E HA= =

ln 1 +
k=1

x ∼− k

n k=1

x , k

IJ= J=

M > 0 J=
n

L= @= A

n→+∞
= @= A I LK

lim ln fn (x) = −M lim
A>AC LA JA HA A @

n→+∞

k=1

x = −M k

+∞ k=1

x = −∞. k

E = J

LAHCA ?E E = GK K A

n→+∞ R+
J

lim

fn dm =

R+ n→+∞

lim fn dm =

0 dm = 0,
R+ 

>

n→+∞

lim n!
R+
I =

LK

dm =0 (1 + x)(2 + x) · · · (n + x) dm (1 + x)(2 + x) · · · (n + x) 3 n+1 2 · · ··· · dm 1+x 2+x n+x

n→+∞

lim (n + 1)!
R+

= lim lim

n→+∞ R+ 1/2 n→+∞ 0

3 n+1 2 · · ··· · dm 1+x 2+x n+x 2 1 3 n+1 · lim · · ··· · dm n→+∞ 2 1 + 1 2 + 1 n+ 1 2 2 2

&

"

),)+1

= lim

1 2 1 lim n→+∞ 2 1 = lim n→+∞ 2
n→+∞

4 6 2n + 2 · · ··· · 3 5 2n + 1 5 7 2n + 3 · · · ··· · 3 5 2n + 1 2n + 3 = +∞, 3 · 

F

= =JE

AF IHA@

I A@E @= A

n→+∞
" "!

lim (n + 1)!
R+

dm = +∞. (1 + x)(2 + x) · · · (n + x)
+∞ (0,π ) n=1

1 H= K =JE 

=

(0,1) 
L

+∞

ln x 1−x

2

dm 

>

n2 sin nx dm 2n

R+ n=1
4A AMA

cos nx dm nenx 

=

=

|x| < 1 L=<E
2

ln x 1−x
F= A

2

= ln x

1 1−x
2

= ln x

2

+∞ n=0 +∞

x

n

=

+∞ n=1

nxn−1 ln2 x,

(0,1)
= A

ln x 1−x

dm =
(0,1)

nxn−1 ln2 x dm.

n=1

+∞ n=1 (0,1)
= I

nxn−1 ln2 x dm =
LK JA HA A "  L=<E

+∞ n=1

n

2 = n3

+∞ n=1

π2 π2 2 = 2 · = < +∞, n2 6 3

(0,1) 
> = A

ln x 1−x
+∞

2

dm =

+∞ n=1

n
(0,1)

nxn−1 ln2 x dm =

π2 . 3

n=1 [0,π ]

n2 sin nx dm 2n

π

+∞ n=1

n2 < +∞ 2n

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

'

E

+∞ n=1 [0,π ]

n2 sin nx dm = 2n =
+∞ n=1

+∞ n=1

n2 1 − (−1)n = · 2n n
2n−2

+∞ n=1

2n − 1 ·2 22n−1 = 20 , 9

(2n − 1)
L=<E

1 2

=

1 + (1/2)2 1−
2 (1/2)2

=

I

LK JA HA A " 

+∞ (0,π ) n=1 
L = A

n2 sin nx dm = 2n

+∞ n=1 (0,π )

n2 sin nx 20 dm = . n 2 9

+∞
+ n=1 R

cos nx dm nenx

+∞ n=1
L=<E

1 n

e−nx dm =
R+

+∞ n=1

1 π2 < +∞, = n2 6

=

I

LK JA HA A " 

+∞ R+ n=1
2HE A EL

cos nx dm = nenx

+∞
+ n=1 R

cos nx dm. nenx
= E JACH=

E @L= FKJ= F=H?E =

K E JACH=?E K

Jn =
0
@ >E =

+∞

cos nx · e−nx dx,

Jn = −
@= A A

1 1 1 lim e−nb cos nb + + lim e−nb sin nb − Jn , n b→+∞ n n b→+∞ 1 2n
,= A

Jn =

+∞ R+ n=1

cos nx dm = nenx

+∞ n=1

1 Jn = n

+∞ n=1

1 π2 . = 2n2 12

" ""

1 H= K =JE 

=

(0,+∞)

xα dm α ∈ R+ 1 + x2+α 

>

(0,1)

ln(1 − e−x ) dm

!

"

),)+1 

L

R+
4A AMA

ln x dm 1 + x2 

C

R+
A

xn dm 1 + ex
= >EH @L= E JACH= = = 

= 6H=<A E E JACH= = E

=FEI=JE

I A@A E

(0,+∞)
7 E

xα dm = 1 + x2+α

(0,1)

xα dm + 1 + x2+α

(1,+∞)

xα dm. 1 + x2+α

@= A

(0,1)

xα dm = 1 + x2+α
+∞ (0,1) k=0 +∞ (0,1) k=0

+∞ (0,1) n=0

(−1)n x(2+α)n+α dm

= =

(−1)2k x(2+α)2k+α + (−1)2k+1 x(2+α)(2k+1)+α dm x(2+α)2k+α − x(2+α)(2k+1)+α dm.
=

= I

= ILA

LK JA HA A " "

x ∈ (0, 1) E k ∈ N L=<E x(2+α)2k+α − x(2+α)(2k+1)+α > 0
I A@E @= A

(0,1)

xα dm = 1 + x2+α =

+∞ k=0 +∞ n=0 (0,1)

x(2+α)2k+α − x(2+α)(2k+1)+α dm

(−1)n . (2 + α)n + α + 1
@ >E = @= A

) =

C

=

I

LK JA HA A " "

(1,+∞)

xα dm = 1 + x2+α
+∞ n=0 (1,+∞)

+∞ (1,+∞) n=0

(−1)n

1 x

(2+α)n−2

dm

=
,= A

(−1)n

1 x

(2+α)n−2

dm =

+∞ n=0

(−1)n . (2 + α)n + 1

(0,+∞)

xα dm = 1 + x2+α

+∞ n=0

(−1)n + (2 + α)n + α + 1

+∞ n=0

(−1)n . (2 + α)n + 1

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

! 

> = IL=

=

x ∈ (0, 1) L=<E ln(1 − e−x ) = −
= I

n∈N

e−nx n=1 n
+∞

F=

=

A

e−nx >0 n

LK JA HA A " " I A@E @= A

(0,1)

ln(1 − e−x ) dm = − =−

+∞ (0,1) n=1 +∞ n=1

e−nx dm n e
−nx

1 n

(0,1)

dm = −
IJ=

+∞ n=1

1 − e−n . n2

2HE AHE L E C IA
" "#

IJ=LG= K

EJ= ?K = I=

E H=@ = =JE

A = A

(En )
n

E F

AHGELED I KF L= E AHE J=@= A = E I= AHA K =

E

AHGEL I KF , 

= = >

χE → χE
n

χE

→ χE

II

=

n→+∞

lim m(En ) = m(E )
IA I KF LE

E lim sup En
n→+∞

E

lim inf En
n→+∞
4A AMA

H=

E K K = I KF = A 

=

I K =

0<ε

1

6=@= A

|χE (x) − χE (x)| ∈ {0, 1}
n

@ L G

A H=

=JH=JE

m({x ∈ X | |χE (x) − χE (x)|
n n

= m({x ∈ X | |χE (x) − χE (x)| = 1}) = m(E △En ).
= FHA @= A

ε})

2HAJF IJ=LE

n → +∞

=

χE → χE
n

F

AHE 6=@=

m(E △En ) → 0

m(E △En ) = m(En ) − m(En ∩ E ) + m(E ) − m(En ∩ E ) ,
0
I A@E @= J

0

m(En ) − m(En ∩ E ) → 0 m(E ) − m(En ∩ E ) → 0 n → +∞
n→+∞

lim m(En ) = lim m(En ∩ E ) = m(E ).
n→+∞
= A 

> 7LA@E

E ∗ = lim sup En
n→+∞

E

E∗ = lim inf En
n→+∞
n

)

L=<E

χE → χ E
2HA = J
n

I I J=@= A A BK

?E A

LAHCEH= = χ , n → +∞}) = 0 m({x | χE A E n χE χE ∗ = lim sup χE E lim inf χE = χE IA K = F= IA I KF LE

H=

E KK AHA

= I KFK K =

AHA

n→+∞

E E∗

n→+∞
E

n

I KF

E∗

IA H=

E KK

=

!

"

),)+1

) AHA

FHAJF IJ=LE K = J=@= A
n ∗

@= IA I KF LE

χE = χE ∗ = χE
I A@E @=
n

II

E E∗
=

E

E ∗ H= E K K = I A χ ∗ = lim sup χ E E
n→+∞

KF
n

E

lim inf χE = χE
n→+∞
" "$

χE → χE
m

II

,

= =JE 

= )

n → +∞ 
> ) L

fn −→ f fn −→ 0
m m

m

E

gn −→ g n → +∞
m

J=@= E

fn + gn −→ f + g
m

m

E

0

J=@=

fn −→ f n → +∞ 1 m 1 −→ n → +∞ fn f
A = IJ=LG= IA A E

gn −→ 0 n → +∞
E BK

J=@=

?E A

fn

E

fn · gn −→ 0 n → +∞ f
IK I I H= E EJA

@

4A

AMA

EJ= ?K = I=

IJ=

E H=@ E AL F AHE @ = =JE @= J=@= AHE

" "%

) E

F IJ
4A

(fn ) fn : Rk → R AHGEL= BK ?E = f J=
= I LK @=

E

LAHCEH= F

AMA

n(s) ∈ N

J= L

|fn+p − fn | −→ 0 n → +∞ = IL= s ∈ N F IJ E = ILA p ∈ N = ILA FHEH @ A >H ALA n > n(s) L=<E 1 2s < 1 . 2s
= E

m

m
7 E H=IJK E

x ∈ Rk | |fn+p (x) − fn (x)|
E FHEH @ ED >H

AL= @ABE EI=

= I A@A E

n1 = n(1), n2 = max{n1 + 1, n(2)}, n3 = max{n2 + 1, n(3)}, . . .
A = A I=@=

′ = fns , fs

′ ′ As = x ∈ X | |fs +1 − fs |

1 2s

E

Bn =
s n

As .

6=@= A

m(As ) <
2HA = J E IL= A = IL= =

1 , 2s

m(Bn )
s n
L G LA E

m(As ) < n J=
L

1 2n−1

. 1/2n−1 < ε

ν∈N
′ ′ |fn +ν − fn |

ε>0 @ CBn L=<E
n+ν −1 s=n

@= A

′ ′ |fs +1 − fs |

s n

′ ′ |fs +1 − fs | <

1 2n−1

< ε,

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

!!

@=

A I

A@E

m

+∞ +∞ n=1 ν =1

′ ′ {|fn +ν − fn |

ε}

m

+∞ ν =1

′ ′ {|fn +ν − fn |

ε}

m(Bn ) <
= F IJ I LK FHAJD E BK ?E = @ C I A@E @=

1 < ε. 2n−1
I I J

f 2 J = CBn E ν → +∞ = CBn J=
K = 5J C= K E = K

=

A E E

′ E (fs ) ′ |fn +ν
= F A

′ ′ |fn +ν − fn | → 0 n → +∞
LAHCEH= I I = IL= IA

A

′| < ε − fn ′| < ε |f − fn
JA @ >E =

ν
<@=

I

A@E @= = I KFK

=@= AHA

′ | m {|f − fn
J

ε}
= = BK

m(Bn ) <
E F IJ 2

1 2n−1
E F @ = =

→ 0, n → +∞,
E A

LAHCEH= F LAHCEH= F

′ −→ f s → +∞ fs
AHE AHE

m

(fnk )

E =

(fn )
E

E

?E E ?E E

f

@= J=@= E

(fn )

= BK

f

=EIJ=

m({|f − fn |
F= = GK K A

m({|f − fnk |
@= 8=<E E

ε}) = m({|f − fnk + fnk − fn | fn −→ f n → +∞
>H KJ JLH AMA @ I

ε/2}) + m({|fnk − fn |

ε})

ε/2}) → 0, n → +∞, fn −→ f ε})
m
I A@E @=

m

)2

- )

|fn+p − fn | −→ 0 m({|fn+p − fn |

m

E

=EIJ=

m({|fn+p − f |
A

ε}) = m({|fn+p − f + f − fn | ε/2}) + m({|f − fn |
@ABE E E E

ε/2}) → 0, n → +∞.
?E =

" "&

)

f ∈ L(−1, 1)

BK

(fn ) I=

1

fn (x) = n
−1
, = =JE @= E@ = A AFHA

e−n(t−x) f (t) dt. (1 + e−n(t−x) )2
K E J= = =

n→+∞

lim fn (x) = f (x)

x

K

E

=

A

f

4A

AMA A

A

= E@

A

Φn (t, x) =

Φn (1)

AFHA

= F

ne−n(t−x) = IL= n∈N (1 + e−n(t−x) )2 x ∈ (0, 1) E IL= t ∈ (−1, 1) 6=@= 1 1 + e−n(t−x)
1 −1

BK

?E =

1

Φn (t, x) dt =
−1

→ 1, n → +∞.

!"

"

),)+1

A = A F IJ E

x J= δ > 0 J=

= L

AFHA E@ @= =

IJE BK

|t − x|

?E A f 6=@= = IL= δ L=<E |f (x) − f (t)| < ε E

ε > 0

1

1

fn (x) − f (x) = +
x+δ
=

Φn (t, x) dt =
−1 −1

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt
x+δ x−δ

x−δ −1 1

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt +

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt.

A t ∈ (−1, x − δ ) L=<E Φn (t, x) → 0 n → +∞ = t ∈ (x + δ, 1) J= − nδ Φn (t, x) → 0 n → +∞ =@= A |t − x| > δ J=@= A Φn (t, x) ne E Φn (t, x) M = @ L G LA E n F= = I LK A>AC LA JA HA A @ E = J LAHCA ?E E L=<E

n→+∞ −1

lim

x−δ

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt
n→+∞

=
1

x−δ −1

lim (f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt = 0,

n→+∞ x+δ

lim

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt
1

=
1 AFHA E@ IJE BK

x+δ n→+∞
?E A

lim (f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt = 0. f
K J= E

x

> C  @ >E =

x+δ x−δ
,= A

x+δ

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt < ε
x+δ x−δ

Φn (t, x) dt
x−δ

ε.

(f (t) − f (x))Φn (t, x) dt → 0, n → +∞.
1

2HA = J

A

n→+∞
J

lim

fn (x) − f (x)

Φn (t, x) dt
−1

= 0,

n→+∞

lim fn (x) = f (x)
A = A

" "'

LAHCEH= I

(fn ) fn : X → R X ⊆ R
H ILK@= AHGEL BK

E

AHGELED BK =X =g

?E =

E

?E E f

:R→R

AHGEL=

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

!#

BK E
4A

?E = K EB H

AFHA E@ =

=

(g ◦ fn )
AMA

LAHCEH= I I BK I LK KI

?E E

{f (x) | x ∈ X } g◦f =X

,

= =JE @= J=@=

=

L= =@=J = E = II =

(∀ε1 > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)n > n0 ⇒ |fn (x) − f (x)| < ε1
E

X

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ > 0)(∀x, x′ ∈ R) |x − x′ | < δ ⇒ |g (x) − g (x′ )| < ε.
= A

ε1 FH

E L G

<A

K AJE @= A

ε1 = δ

F= @ >E =

(∀ε > 0)(∃δ > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)n > n0 ⇒
@=
" #

|fn (x) − f (x)| < δ ⇒ |g (fn (x)) − g (f (x))| < ε

II

=

X,

A I A@E JLH AMA A = A ED BK =

= F IJ

(fn ) fn : X → R∗ X ⊆ R
?E = , E LAHCEH= BK E = BK = =JE @= J=@=

E ?E E

AHGELED I

H

ILK@=

f

E E JACH=>E

?E = g J= L= @= = IL=

|g (x)| I I f
4A AMA

X
I

(fn )

LAHCEH= F

II = X 2HEJ n ∈ N L=<E |fn (x)| AHE BK

?E E

=

LK JA HA A " # = F J IJE

= GK K A <A E

@= A BK

?E =

f

E JACH= = IL= I KF

>E AHA

= K =

A CK>A E EIFKMA J

FHAJF IJ=LEJE @= A A 6=@= = IL=

x∈X

A KJE A

|fn (x)|

= I A@A A = GK

|g (x)|

|f (x)|

|g (x)| 

= A =HK A

BE IEH=

ε > 0 L=<E En =
F= A

+∞ i=n

{x ∈ X | |fn (x) − f (x)|

ε} ⊆ {x ∈ X | |g (x)|

ε }, 2

m(En )

m {x ∈ X | |g (x)|
E

ε } < +∞ 2
?E E

n = 1, 2, . . .
II = 

=

J 

.

EMA E?= @=

(fn )

LAHCEH= BK A

f

X

E F E?EH= @= A

m

+∞ n=1

En

=0

2HA = J

lim sup m ({x | |fn (x) − f (x)|
n→+∞

ε})

n→+∞

lim m(En ) = m( lim En ) = 0,
n→+∞

!$

"

),)+1

@
" #

I

@=JE A = A

E

LAHCEH= F E ,

AHE E JACH=>E AHGELED I KF L=

BK

?E E

f

(Ei ) Ei ⊂ R
+∞ i=1

m(Ei ) < +∞ i ∈ N
AHE E = @ I KF L= II

J= =L @= A

X =

Ei

= =JE @= E BK ?E E

LAHCA ?E A F

AHGELED BK I A@E F IJ
4A AMA

?E =

(fn )

AHGEL

f

= IL=

=MA F @ E = = I

(fnk ) (fn ) fn

E =

(fn )

J= L C @=

fnk → f
ILK@= A =

Ei =X
@= F = I E LK

LK 4EI LA JA HA A JA HA = " " 
k(1)

= GK K A =

IJ

EF @ E

(fn E2
=

)

E =

E

LAHCEH= I

H @=

E1
=

4EI LA JA HA A I A@E @= F IJ LAHCEH= I I =

fn −→ f

m

=

I A@E @= E

k(1)

E F @ E

−→ f

m

=

E2
k(2)

FAJ
k(1)

(fn

E2

E

(fn

>A >A K A AC EIJA ?E K F @ E = =

E1 ∪ E2
II =

2 IJKF=

<A

k

) (2)

A F @ E @=

E = E = @ E ,=

) E (fn )
AH

(fn
E

)

LAHCEH= I I 4EI L= JA HA = E LAHCEH= E (fn ) (fnk )

=IJ=LE

=
k

f

Ej +1

LAHCEH= I I F
" #

) k(j +1) 6=@= A E (fn (j +1) ) F k = E1 ∪ E2 ∪ · · · ∪ Ej +1
E LAHCEH= =

(fn

(fn
F

) (j )
AJ C

E =

A F IJ

E F @ E

AJ

C

E =

f

II

=

+∞ n=1

En = X

A = A

A = (0, +∞) E 1 − n(x − k ), k < x k + 1/n, 0, k + 1/n < x k + 1, fn
A LAHCEH= LAHCEH= = K E =@

fn (x) =
, = =JE @= J=@= ?E =

k ∈ N0 .
= E @=

E BK
4A AMA

(fn )

K EF

n → +∞ I I = A AHE m = I KFK A

@= A A A

n→+∞

= x ∈ A F IJ E k J= L @= A x ∈ (k, k + 1] J F IJ E n0 J= L k + 1/n0 < x 2HA = J A = IL= n n0 L=<E fn (x) = 0 @= A lim fn (x) = 0 = IL= x ∈ A J fn → 0 n → +∞ I I = A =

m
= GK K A
" #!

x ∈ A | |fn (x) − 0|
E BK ?E =

1 2
A

=

+∞ n=1

1 = +∞, 2n
K EF AHE

@=

(fn )

LAHCEH=

m

=

A

A = A

fn (x) =

x χ (x), 1 + |x| [−n, n]

n ∈ N,

x∈R

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

!%

E

f (x) =

E (fn ) LAHCEH= m(A) < +∞
4A

x x∈A 1 + |x|
F

C@A A AHE BK

A

AHGEL F @I KF ?E E

@ =

R

, E I=

= =JE @= = A

f
E L=

= I KFK

A

AMA A = A m(A) < +∞ ,ABE n ∈ N 6=@= A (An ) H=IJK E E I KF m(An ) ↑ m(A) J

E E

I KF

LAHCEH= I KFK

An = [−n, n] ∩ A A F=

(∀ε > 0)(∃n0 ∈ N)(∀n ∈ N) n > n0 ⇒ m(A) − m(An ) < ε.
= A

fn (x) = f (x)

=

x ∈ An

= IL=

ε > 0 L=<E n > n0 ,

{x ∈ A | |fn (x) − f (x)|
@= A I A@E @= A = IL=

ε} ⊆ A \ An ,

ε>0 ε}) m(A \ An ) = m(A) − m(An ) < ε.
AHE

m ({x ∈ A | |fn (x) − f (x)|
,= A E BK E BK ?E =

(fn )

LAHCEH= F

m BK

?E E

f

=

A

(fn ) LAHCEH= f F m = A E I=@= @= A m(A) = +∞ 6=@= F IJ E ε = 1/2 J= L m(An ) < m(A) = +∞
A = ?E =

FHAJF IJ=LE @= L=<E  AH A

m

x ∈ A | |fn (x) − f (x)|

1 2

= m ({x ∈ A | |x| > n}) = m(A \ An ) = +∞, n ∈ N,
JH=@E ?E =

@= ,=
" #"

A I A@E @= A

(fn ) A L=<E m(A) < +∞
A = A

LAHCEH=

=

f

F

m

=

A

(fn ) fn : [0, +∞) → R∗ fn (x) = χ[n, n + 1] (x) , = =JE @= @=JE = E @= A LAHCEH= F AHE m
4A AMA

E E

AHGELED BK LAHCEH= I I

?E = @=J I= =

[0, +∞)
@= = IL= A

7

E

@= = IL=

I A@E @=

E (fn ) n∈NE0<ε<1E

x ∈ [0, +∞) L=<E
K E II =

LAHCEH= =

[0, +∞)

n→+∞

lim fn (x) = 0
A KJE

m ({x ∈ [0, +∞) | |fn (x) − 0|
@= A I A@E @= @=JE E A

ε}) = m ([n, n + 1]) = 1 = 0,
K EF AHE

LAHCEH=

m

!&

"

),)+1

" ##

A

=

A

(fn ) fn : [0, 1) → R∗
i i+1 , k k

E

AHGELED BK

?E = @=J I=

fn (x) = χ
, = =JE @= J=

(x),

0

i < k,
AHE

n= m
=

k (k − 1) + 1 + i. 2
A LAHCEH= I I

E

LAHCEH= F

E @=

4A

AMA

=

= IL=

n ∈ N E 0 < ε < 1 L=<E ε}) = m
K E F

m ({x ∈ [0, 1) | |fn (x) − 0|
= GK K A @= @=JE E

i i+1 , k k
AHE

=

1 , k

LAHCEH= @ E = >AI E J JAHL= = @=JE E

x0 ∈ [0, 1) FHEF=@= A@ 2HA = J A fn (x0 ) = 1 LAHCEH= K fn (x0 ) A

m 5 @HKCA IJ=H= A = [i/k, (i + 1)/k ] = IL= k∈N C LHA@ IJE n = J = E @=
A LAHCEH= K E I I

)2
F L

- )

=@=?E " # LAHCA

" #! J

" #" @=

" ## C A@

L

HA A E

@ F

IK

LAHCA

?E A

AHE E

?E A I I

= @HKCK

E?EH= K >A KI

" #$
F

A AHE

= A

m

= X = n → +∞ 4A AMA

E LAHCEH= (fn ) fn : X → R E AHGELED BK ?E = ∗ FH E L G = AHGEL= I I ?E E f A = A g : X → R m = BK ?E = E m(X ) < +∞ , = =JE @= J=@= gfn −→ gf = E @= A FHAJF IJ=L = m(X ) < +∞ >EJ = BK I LK

=

{x | |gf − gfn |

ε} = {x | |g ||f − fn | ⊆ { x | |g |

ε}

t} ∪ x | |f − fn |

ε t ε t
A

I

A@E

m ({x | |gf − gfn |
2HLE I=>EH= I I E = = BK ,= A

ε})
@ =

m ({x | |g |
A =@

t}) + m

x | |f − fn |

. g

FHAJD ?E =

fn −→ f

m

A A@ = IJE JA<E 0 =@ t → +∞ AH n → +∞ @HKCE I=>EH= J= A JA<E 0

AH

n→+∞
J

lim m ({x | |gf − gfn |

ε}) = 0,

gfn −→ gf n → +∞

m

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

!'

,= >E F I K

= = A AH

fn −→ 0
BK

m

=

=@=

?E = I I

LAHCEH= F

E @= A FHAJF IJ=L = m(X ) < +∞ >EJ = H= JHE A g (x) = x fn (x) = 1/n n ∈ N E m(X ) = +∞ 6=@= m({x ∈ X | |fn (x)| ε}) → 0, n → +∞ g A = = = X E gfn (x) = x/n = gf (x) = 0 A KJE gfn A AHE = gf AH = IL= n ∈ N L=<E

m({x | |gf −gfn |
" #%
E = A = BK

ε}) = m({x | |x/n|
?E =

ε}) = m({x | |x|
E? L KI L = IAC

nε}) = +∞.
A BK JK

g

=@

L

G=L=

EF

AHGELED BK

?E =

[a, b] E |fn (x)|
[a,b]

LAHCEH= F AHE AHGEL (fn ) g (x) g ∈ L[a, b] , = =JE @= J=@=

?E E

[a, b] f

g (fn (x)) dm →
LK KI L= =@=J

[a,b]

g (f (x)) dm, n → +∞.

4A

AMA

=

I

= L=<E

(∃M > 0)(∀x, y ∈ [a, b]) |g (x) − g (y )|
E = IL=

M |x − y | ε}) = 0

ε>0

A

n→+∞
@

lim m({x | |fn (x) − f (x)|
I A@E @= = IL=

HEIJA

E FHAJD

ε1 > 0 L=<E g (fn (x)) − g (f (x)) dm |fn (x) − f (x)| dm.

[a,b]

g (fn (x)) dm −
[a,b]

g (f (x)) dm =
[a,b] [a,b]

|g (fn (x)) − g (f (x))| dm
LK JA HA A " # I A@E @=

M
[a,b]

=

=

I

[a,b]
= GK K A @=

|fn (x) − f (x)| dm → 0, n → +∞,

[0,1]

g (fn (x)) dm → f

[0,1]

g (f (x)) dm, n → +∞. Lp (a, b) C@A A b − a < +∞ Lq (a, b) = 1 q < p
HK

" #&
,

A

= BK

?E =

FHEF=@= FH IJ

IJ HK

= =JE @= J=@=

f

FHEF=@= FH

"

"

),)+1

4A

AMA

=

I

LK

1/α (a,b)

1/β

|f (x)|q dm =

(a,b)

|f (x)|qα dm
q/p

·

1β dm
(a,b)

(a,b)
C@A A

|f (x)|p dm

· |b − a|(p−q)/p < +∞,
I A@E @= BK ?E =

1/α + 1/β = 1 α = p/q > 1 β = p/(p − q ) FHEF=@= FH IJ HK Lq (a, b)
" #'
, = =JE @= BK = E ?E =

f

L2 (0, +∞)
4A AMA =

1 f (x) = √ FHEF=@= FH x(1 + | ln x|) A FHEF=@= FH IJ HK Lp (0, +∞) = p > 1 p = 2
1 0 +∞ 1
4=

IJ

HK

p = 2 L=<E dx + x(1 − ln x)2 dx = 2 < +∞. x(1 + ln x)2
=JHE F IA> I K =

[0,+∞)
,= ALA A

|f (x)|2 dm =

|f |2 ∈ L(0, +∞) J f ∈ L2 (0, +∞) p>2 @ I p<2
=

p>2F

IJ

E

β

J=

L

@=

A

1 < β < p/2
p

6=@=

|f (x)|p
1 xβ
J = @ L G = F

xβ − 2 → +∞, x → 0+, = (1 − ln x)p
EJEL I

x

dm @ELAHCEH= f∈ / Lp (0, +∞) p > 2
[0,1]
=

x−β

A@E @= E

|f (x)|p > x−β = E JACH= p dm @ELAHCEH= @ I | f ( x ) | [0,1]
A A

1<p<2F

IJ

E

β

J=

L

@=

p/2 < β < 1

6=@=

|f (x)|p
1 xβ
E

xβ − 2 → +∞, x → +∞, = (1 + ln x)p x
A

p

|f (x)|p > x−β = E JACH= 1 +∞ p @ELAHCEH= I A@E E @= E JACH= | f ( x ) | dm @ELAHCEH= 1 @= f ∈ / Lp (0, +∞) = 1 < p < 2
J = @ L G LA

+∞
J

x−β dm
= E

)2

- )

=

I

LK

=@=J= =

= " #& E " #' LE@E

@= A FHAJF

IJ=L

=

=

IJE E

JAHL=

= >EJ

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

"

x f ln ∈ L[0, 1] 2
4A AMA

" $

2

= =JE @= = IL= K BK @ =

?E K A

f

.K @=

=

q

J= L

x FHEF=@= FH IJ HK Lq [0, 1] = IL= 2 A 1/p + 1/q = 1 F = =JE 5=@= FHE A
?E =

f ∈ L[0, 1]

Lp [0, 1] p > 1 x H= @= L=<E f ln ∈ L[0, 1] 2
E FH IJ H=

L=<E

ln

q

1

F= E

0A @AH LA

A A@ =

IJE @ >E =

f (x) ln
[0,1]
F=

x dm 2

1/p [0,1]

|f (x)|p dm

ln
[0,1]

x 2

q

1/q

dm

< +∞,

f ln
2

x ∈ Lp [0, 1] 2
= = A @= F IJ E BK ?E = f

=EIJ=

f (x) =

FHEF=@= FH IJ
" $

x 2 HK L[0, 1] x ln2
E

−1

∈ L[0, 1] J=
@

L= @=

f ln

∈ L[0, 1]
?E = E

f (x) ln

x = 2

x ∈ / L[0, 1] 2 x −1 x ln A 2 fn → f

A =

A

(fn )
@

BK

FH IJ H=

Lp (a, b)

)

n → +∞ K Lp

= =JE @= J=@=

(a,b)

|fn |p dm →

(a,b)

|f |p dm, n → +∞.
2HE A A A@ = IJE

4A

AMA

7 AIJ

(a,b) FEI= A

A@

IJ=L

E

LI

C @ >E =

1/p

1/p

1/p

|f |p dm
1/p

|f − fn |p dm |f − fn | dm
1/p p

+
1/p

|fn |p dm
1/p

,

|fn | dm
@ I
1 p

p

+

|f | dm
1/p

p

,

|fn | dm
,= A

p

|f |p dm
1/p

|f −fn |p dm
1/p

→ 0, n → +∞.

|fn |p dm
J

|f |p dm

, n → +∞,

|fn |p dm →

|f |p dm, n → +∞

"

"

),)+1

" $

A

=

E =

BK

LAHCEH= , = =JE @=

g

K

?E = (fn ) Lq (a, b) C@A

LAHCEH= A

= f K Lp (a, b) 1/p + 1/q = 1 p > 1

= E

A J=@=

E (gn ) a, b ∈ R

n→+∞ (a,b)
2 J HEIJA E J= HA K

lim

fn gn dm =
(a,b)
@ = =JE @= =

f gdm. cn → c, n → +∞ f dm.
(a,c)
C@A

J=J

cn , c ∈ [a, b]

L=<E

n→+∞ (a,c ) n
4A AMA = I LK

lim

fn dm =

1/p (a,b)
I A@E

1/q

|fn − f |p dm

→ 0,

(a,b)

|gn − f |q dm

→ 0, n → +∞,

(a,b)

fn gn dm −
(a,b)

f g dm
(a,b) (a,b)

|fn gn − f g | dm

|fn ||gn − g | dm +
1/p

(a,b)

|g ||fn − f | dm
1/q

(a,b)

|fn |p dm
1/q

(a,b)

|gn − g |q dm
1/p

+
(a,b)
J

|g |q dm

(a,b)

|fn − f |p dm

→ 0, n → +∞,

n→+∞ (a,b)
) K A @= A

lim

fn gn dm =
(a,b)
n
J=@= A

f g dm. g (x) = χ[a, c] (x)
AH

gn (x) = χ[a, c ) (x)
1/q q

(a,b)
5=@= = I

|gn − g | dm
@ @

= |cn − c|1/q → 0, n → +∞.
= = C JLH AM= E =

LK FHAJD

n→+∞ (a,c ) n

lim

fn dm = lim

n→+∞ (a,b)

fn gn dm =
(a,b)

f g dm =
(a,c)

f dm.

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

"!

" $!

A = IK HA= IJ

p E q HA=
A IA ,

E >H

ALE J= LE @= A

E JAHL= A A@ =

= =JE @= J=@= IL= =

p > q 1 E (a, b) f ∈ Lp (a, b) =@

= = L G=L=

f Lq (b − a)1/q
4A AMA

f Lp . (b − a)1/p Lp (a, b)
I A@E @= IK

= ?E = =

I

LK =

=@=J = " #& I A@E @= A A

=

BK

f
A

FHEF=@= FH IJ HK

Lp (a, b) ⊆ Lq (a, b)
H A

5J C=

f

Lp E

f

Lq

f
= I LK 0A @AH LA

q Lq

=
(a,b)

|f |q · 1 dm, p1 = p/q
(p−q )/p
E

A A@ =

IJE I= F=H= AJHE = @= A

q1 =

p/(p − q ) 1/p1 + 1/q1 = 1 f
q Lq (a,b)

@ >E =

q/p

|f |qp/q dm
q/p

1p/(p−q) dm
(a,b)

=
(a,b)
1 F I A@MA A A@ =

|f |p dm
1/p

(b − a)(p−q)/p . q 1I
A@E

IJE E

EMA E?A @= A

f
@ I

Lq

(a,b)

|f |p dm

(b − a)(p−q)/(pq) = f Lp . (b − a)1/p

(b − a)1/q f (b − a)1/p

Lp ,

f Lq (b − a)1/q
A = BK ?E = E

" $"

p r ∈ (p, q )
>H ALA
4A AMA

q q > p
A@

f ∈ Lp (0, +∞) ∩ Lq (0, +∞) = BE IEH= 1 , = =JE @= J=@= f ∈ Lr (0, +∞)
=FEI= KLA@E = A

A HA= = IL=

A

4=@E

IJ=L E AC

E0 = {x

0 | |f (x)|
E

1}

6=@= A

E = (0, +∞)

E

|f |r dm =

E0

|f |r dm + 1Ep<r

E \E0

|f |r dm. x ∈ E0
p Lp
A EIFKMA

=

= I KFK

|f (x)|r (1)

E0 L=<E |f (x)| |f (x)|p 5J C= A |f |r dm
E0

= IL=

E0

|f |p dm

E

|f |p dm = f

< +∞.

""

"

),)+1

,=GA = I KFK E \ E0 E = @= x ∈ E \ E0 L=<E |f (x)|r |f (x)|q

A

2HA = J

|f (x)| > 1

E

=

A

r<q

= IL=

A

(2)
E \E0
= I LK

|f |r dm

E \E0

|f |q dm
@= A

E

|f |q dm = f

q Lq

< +∞.

(1) E (2)

= GK K A

E
J

|f |r dm

f

p Lp

+ f

q Lq

< +∞,

f ∈ Lr (0, +∞)
A = A

= IL=

r ∈ (p, q )
AHGEL I KF K = A

" $#

E

FH E L G= IJ HK

Rk
,

E

A = IK

f

E

g

=

A

BK

?E A E FH IJ H=

f g FHEF=@= FH
4A AMA

L2p (E ) Lp (E )

p>1

= =JE @= J=@= BK

?E =

2HE A >E =

0A @AH LA

A A@ =

IJE I= F=H= AJHE =

p1 = 2

E

q1 = 2 @
p

1/2 E
J

1/2 E

|f g | dm

E

|f | dm

2p

|g | dm

2p

= f

p L2p

· g

p L2p < +∞,

FH E L @ @LA BK A = IK

?E A E FH IJ H=

L2p (E ) FHEF=@= FH

IJ HK

Lp (E )

" $$

A = E I=

E1 , . . . , En A KI > @EI K J E AHGELE I KF LE K Rk E A E = E1 ∪ · · · ∪ En , = =JE @= BK ?E = f ∈ Lp (E ) p 1 = = ILA BK ?E A fν = f ↾Eν ∈ Lp (Eν ) ν = 1, . . . , n E @= A J=@= f
Lp

=

f1

p Lp

+ · · · + fn

p Lp

1/p

.
K =

4A

Rk E E
= FH

E1 , . . . , En A KI > @EI K J E AHGELE I KF LE = E1 ∪ · · · ∪ En BK ?E = f : E → R∗ A AHGEL= = E = E I= A AHGEL= = ILE I KF LE = E1 , . . . , En LE@AJE =@=J= ! "% ∗ E L G K AHGELK BK ?E K f : E → R J=@= L=<E
AMA

=

IK

n E
5J C= A EC A@

|f |p dm =

ν =1

|f |p dm.

E

|f |p dm

+∞

|f |p dm < +∞, ν = 1, . . . , n,

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

"#

@=

A

AF

IHA@

ILA BK

?E A

I A@E @= BK ?E = f ∈ Lp (E ) p 1= fν = f ↾Eν ∈ Lp (Eν ) ν = 1, . . . , n E J=@= A

E I=

=

1/p

n

1/p Eν

n

f

Lp

=
E

|f | dm F

p

=
ν =1

|fν | dm

p

=
ν =1

fν p Lp

1/p

.

" $%
) A

A

=

A L

E A

JACH=

BK

?E A @

f

= FHEF=@= FH = =JE @= J=@=

IJ

HK

Lp (a, b)

q J=

@=

1/p + 1/q = 1

F (x + h) − F (x) → 0, h → 0. |h|1/q
4A AMA =

F (x) =

(a,x) f (t) dm

L=<E

|F (x + h) − F (x)| |h|1/q 1 |h|1/q = =
(x,x+h)
@= A A

1 |h|1/q
(x,x+h)

(x,x+h)

|f (t)| dm
1/p 1/q

|f (x)|p dm
1/p

1q dm
(x,x+h)

1 |h|1/q

(x,x+h)

|f (x)|p dm
1/p

· |h|1/q

|f (x)|p dm

→ 0, h → 0,

F (x + h) − F (x) = 0. h→0 |h|1/q lim
" $&
, = =JE @= =

f ∈ Lp (a, b) a, b ∈ R
p
1 p

= IL=

p

1

J=@=

(a,b)

|f (x)| dm
?E = E J=

→ supess |f (x)|, p → +∞.
x∈[a,b]
A AIA J= ?E = CH= E A = =

4A C

AMA

AHGEL= BK A = L= E IA F IJ

f
IJ=

HMA IJH= = =M= J= =

A J=

L= @= A ?E =

f (x)

AII
K

(a, b) I= = (a, b)
BK ?E A

IJ= =

A

A >EJ I=

EE

E AIA

E IKFHA

f

(a, b)

=L=

supess f (x)
x∈[a,b]

"$

"

),)+1

A = A

M = supess |f (x)| < +∞.
x∈[a,b]
6=@= L=<E

1/p (a,b)
J

|f (x)|p dm

M |b − a|1/p → M, p → +∞,
1/p

L = lim
=

p→+∞

(a,b)

|f (x)| dm
E E I KF

p

M. Eε = E (|f | > M − ε) > (M − ε)(m(Eε ))1/p
E

ε

J= L

A = A

@= A M > ε > 0 @ABE m(Eε ) = δ > 0 6=@= A
1 p

1/p Eε

(a,b)

|f (x)| dm

p

|f (x)| dm

p

= (M − ε)δ 1/p → M − ε, p → +∞.
,= A )

L

M EL M −ε A M = +∞ @ABE E

= IL= E

ε>0

F= = GK K A

@= A

L=M

[f ]n (x) =
E

f (x), |f (x)| n, n, |f (x)| > n,
1/p

En = {x | |f (x)|
(a,b)

n}

6=@=

1/p

|f (x)|p dm =
En

([f ]n )p dm
(a,b) 1/p

f p dm +
CEn

np dm
1/p

=
En 
AH

f p dm + np m(CEn )
A

→ +∞, n → +∞ L = +∞
F= A E K L

I K =K
" $'

M = +∞ F= L=M
,

m(CEn )) > 0

@=

A I A@E

= =JE @= I=

A

FAH=J H

@ABE EI=

Aλ : L2 (0, 1) → L2 (0, 1) 0 < λ < 1, x(t), t λ, 0, t > λ,

(Aλ x)(t) =

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

"%

E

A=H=

E

AFHA

E@=

=

=JE

=

E MAC

LK

H

K

4A F=

AMA A

)

A

x ∈ L2 (0, 1)

J=@=

A

x =

2 (0,1) |x(t)| dm 1/2

1/2

< +∞

1/2

Aλ x =
(0,λ)
J

|x(t)|2 dm

(0,1)

|x(t)|2 dm

< +∞,

Aλ x ∈ L2 (0, 1) , = @= A Aλ
, =<E @= A

E

A=H=

FAH=J

H

IJ=LG=

EJ=

?K

= I=

IJ=

E

H=@

CH=

E

A

FAH=J

H

=

A

1/2

1/2 (0,1)

Aλ x =
(0,λ)
I A@E @= A

|x(t)| dm
A E FAH=J H K H E @= A

2

|x(t)| dm 1
E BK

2

= x ,

CH=

E

Aλ λ, 1.

,= >EI

@HA@E

FAH=J

H=

x0 (t) =
8E@E @= A

Aλ K

?E K

λ, 0 t 0, λ < t

λ

x0 =
0
,= A A A

√ λ
=

2

1/2

λ

1/2

dt

=

λ
0
J A

dt

= λ.
F=

x0 ∈ L2 (0, 1) Aλ =

A

Aλ x0 = x0 Aλ x x

Aλ x0 = x0 = λ

sup
x∈L2 \{0}
= I

Aλ x0 λ = = 1. x0 λ
= = E @= A

,=

A


" %

Aλ =1
= IL=

1

=

LA

F

1

I

A@E @=

A

K BK

?E K

(a,b) x(t)y (t) dm = 1 , = =JE
4A AMA A =

E I=

x ∈ Lp (a, b) a, b ∈ R p > 1 F IJ E E JACH= = BK ?E = y ∈ Lq (a, b) C@A A 1/p + 1/q =
=

x ∈ Lp (a, b) E y ∈ Lq (a, b)
1/p

1/p + 1/q = 1
1/q

6=@=

A

(a,b)

|xy | dt

(a,b)

|x| dm

p

(a,b)

|y | dm

q

< +∞.

"&

"

),)+1

2HAJF IJ=LE 7 E E BK

I=@= @= = x ?E =

(yn )

@=J I=

∈ Lp (a, b) F

IJ

E E JACH=

(a,b) x(t)y (t)dm

yn (t) =
= IL= BE IEH=

y (t), |y (t)| n, n, |y (t)| > n.
CH= E A = I= E JE = = =

n ∈ N BK ?E = yn A E JAHL= K (a, b) L=<E @= yn ∈ Lq (a, b) q > 1 1/p + 1/q = 1 ,= A (fn ) C@A A fn (x) =
(a,b)
A E CH= E A ED BK ?E A = =

yn ∈ Lq (a, b)

x(t)yn (t) dm, Lp (a, b) E
Lq .

(∗)
= A = IL= FHE A

fn = yn n
=

(a, b)

EIFKMA

|xy | ∈ L(a, b)
?E E @ >E =

A>AC LA JA HA A

|x(t)yn (t)| < |x(t)y (t)|
@ E = J

E

LAHCA

n→+∞

lim fn (x) = lim =

n→+∞ (a,b)

xyn dm =

(a,b) n→+∞

lim xyn dm

(a,b)
5=@= = I

xy dm < +∞.
A CH= E A ,= A = IJE JA HA = A  CH= E A

LK FHE ?EF= K EB H @= A E

= GK K A

( fn )

M > 0 L=<E

fn = yn
= I LK .=JK LA

Lq

M,

n ∈ N.
@= A

A A  A = "   @ >E =

y
" %

Lq

M,

J

y ∈ Lq (a, b).

f (x) = cos x x ∈ R = , = =JE @= f E A JH= ?E = = R = @= A HAIJHE ?E = BK ?E A f = E JAHL= [−1, 1] JH= ?E = FH IJ H= [−1, 1] ED BK ?E = = R @ABE EI= I= f1 = f E > A = A (fn ) E HA= A a HA AMA A@ = E A x = cos x @ = =JE fn+1 = f ◦ fn n ∈ N ) LAHCA ?E K E @HA@EJE CH= E K LHA@ IJ E = (In ) @ABE EI= C I=
A = A

In =
[1/2,+∞)

e−x

2

1+

x n

n

n sin

2x − 1 fn (x) dm, n

n ∈ N.

/

)8) "

-*-/

8 1

6-/4)

"'

4A

AMA 

= ) = =

>E FHAI E =L=MA IJ= J=

>E F IJ

f >E JH= ?E = FH q ∈ [0, 1) J= L= @= L=<E π π q x− , x ∈ R, cos x − cos 2 2 cos x − cos π 2 x− π 2
x=π/2

IJ H=

R

J=@=

J

q, q<1
,= A

x ∈ R \ {π/2} ,
A KJE J AK JH=@E ?E E I= = FH IJ HK

@=

A I A@E

(cos x)′

(cos x)′ R

x=π/2

= sin(π/2) = 1

f

EA

JH= ?E =

2 I =JH=

I=@= FHAI E =L=MA EC A@ JA HA E L=<E

x ∈ [−1, 1]
=CH= < L

g = f ↾[−1,1] J g (x) = cos x g : [−1, 1] → [−1, 1] = x, y ∈ [−1, 1] FHA = sin 1|x − y |,

|g (x) − g (y )| = |f (x) − f (y )| = |f ′ (ξ )||x − y | = | sin ξ ||x − y |
AH A JH= ?E = FH IJ H=

ξ ∈ (x, y ) ⊆ [−1, 1] = A sin 1 ∈ (0, 1) J A FHAI E =L=MA g [−1, 1] > = FH E L G x ∈ R A = A x0 = f (x) xn+1 = g (xn ) n ∈ N , =<E @= A fn (x) = xn−1 n 2 = n = 2 A@ IJ=L @ >E = f2 (x) = f (f (x)) = g (f (x)) = x1 2HAJF IJ=LE @= = A n 2 L=<E fn (x) = xn−1 6=@= A fn+1 (x) = f (fn (x)) = g (fn (x)) = g (xn−1 ) = xn ,= A = I LK FHE ?EF= =JA =JE A E @K ?E A A fn (x) = xn−1 = ILA n 2 LAHCEH= = A@E IJLA BE I J= E = IL= x ∈ R E (fn (x)) a FHAI E =L=M= g = A > C fn (x) ∈ [−1, 1] n 1 K A@ E A@E = BE I = J= = FHAI E =L=M= f J A@E HA AMA A@ = E A x = cos x ?E A = R F= IK AFHA E@ A E BK ?E A .K ?E A fn IK AFHA E@ A BK Fn : R → R @ABE EI= A I= Fn (x) = e−x
= A
2

1+

x n

n

n sin

2x − 1 fn (x), n
A

x ∈ R, n ∈ N.

|fn (x)|

1
2

= ILA

x ∈ R E ILA n ∈ N J
n

|Fn (x)| = e−x e−x = e−x

2

x n x 1+ n 1+

n sin

n

2x − 1 |fn (x)| n 2x 2x 2 n sin +1 +1 e−x ex n n n x 1/2, n ∈ N.

2 +x

(2x + 1) = G(x),

#

"

),)+1

,=GA

n→+∞

lim Fn (x) = e−x

2

= e−x ex a(2x − 1),
.K ?E =

2

n→+∞

lim

1+

x n

n

n→+∞

lim

n sin

2x −1 n

n→+∞

lim fn (x)

x
=

1/2, n ∈ N.
F= A

G

A

L−E

JACH=>E

=

[1/2, +∞)

n→+∞

lim In = =a

[1/2,+∞) n→+∞ +∞ −(x2 −x)

lim Fn dm = a

+∞ 1/2

e−x

2 +x

(2x − 1) dx

e

1/2

√ d(x2 − x) = a 4 e.

" %

A : L2 (−∞, +∞) → L2 (−∞, +∞) CH= E A E A=H E FAH=J H J= =L @= F IJ E BK ?E = g : R → R J= L= @= A Af = gf = ILA f ∈ L2 (−∞, +∞) , = =JE @= I H ILK@= = R L=<E |g (x)| A
A = A 4A AMA

m(B ) = 0
J= =L @=

B = {x ∈ R | |g (x)| > A } 6HA>= @ IKFH J J @= A m(B ) > 0 A A 0 < m(E ) < +∞ 6=@= A
>A A<E 2HAJF IJ=LE

= =JE @= = A

A

E⊆B

1/2

AχE = gχE = =
E

(−∞,+∞) 1/2

(g (x)χE (x)) dm
1/2

2

(g (x))2 dm

>
E 1/2

A 2 dm = A χE ,
A

= A
E
J H=J A K H J JH=@E @= A ?E E I=

(χE (x))2 dm
E? @=

EMA

A

CH=

E

A

E

A=H

E

FA

AχE

A · χE

EJAH=JKH=
[1] [2] [3]
, )

, ) -81

),- *74/

=JA =JE = = = E = I

=K

= *A

CH=@ ''"

5

)

3) 1 7L @ K HA= K E BK ?E = K = = E K
CH=@ '%"

/H= ALE

I

=

MEC= *A

)

= = = E = JA HE = FAH=J H= 
''&

45-

81

,

56) 1

,

+1 6A HA = AHA BK ?E =
=JA =JE E B= K JAJ *A CH=@

[4] [5]

8

7
/

14 81
=JE E B= K

AH= E E JACH=?E =  >EH = =@=J= =
JAJ *A CH=@ '%&

2HEH

@

=JA

3

=@=J= = E BK ?E = A = = E A
JAJ LE 5=@ 

)1

741 1

5

2

1 12 81
2HEH @

*

5

6)

81
=JE

>EH =
E B= K

=JA

[6]

, ''#

74 1

>EH = =@=J= = E BK ?E = A = = E A

*A

CH=@

[7] P. R. Halmos Measure Theory Springer, New York – Heidelberg – Berlin, 1974. [8] E. Kreyszig Introductory functional analysis with applications John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. [9] [10]
5

74-2) .K ?E = = = = E = A A A JE JA HE A FAH=J H=
I = MEC= =CHA> '&

5

FH IJ HK

)4,- 1

=JA =JE = = = E = K n−@E A E =
I = MEC= =CHA> '%"

HA=

#

#

16-4)674)

[11]
CH=

)4 )
=K * ''

81
=

AJHE

E FH IJ HE 5JE J AI L E

A>AC L E JA

MEC= *A

CH=@ '$&

[12] [13] [14] [15]

14 81 1641 
'%

6A HE =

AHA E E JACH= =

=K

=

MEC=

*A

CH=@

, 5 *A

81
5> H E

) = EJE

A

A A@ =

IJE /H= ALE

I

=

MEC=

CH=@

.5

)
I

=@=

F

=JA

=JE AI

K = = E K 2H

ILA

wA
8

EA

L= '&

4

)

-81

.K

?E

=

= = = E =

=K

=

MEC=

*A

CH=@ 

''"

[16] W. Rudin Real and complex analysis McGrow Hill Book Company, New York, 1970. [17] W. Rudin Functional analysis New York, 1973. [18] [19] [20]
E 8 K 5

McGrow Hill Book Company,

)81

6A HE = H=CK AL=?

AHA E E JACH= = 

2HEH

@

=JA

=JE

E B=

JAJ

6

)5 81 )5 81
=IJ=L

, ) A

4) - 81
LE A *A

6A HE = BK CH=@ '&

?E = E BK

?E

=

=

= = E =

ME<AL

6

A E A=H = BK = IHA@IJL= *A

?E

= ''!

= = = E =

=L

@

= KN>A

A E

CH=@

[21] [22]

) 6

4/) -8 4/) -8 
'''

.K

?E

=

= = = E = *A

CH=@ 

''#

) *A

6

,

74 1

H=J=

KHI BK

?E

=

A = = E A

CH=@

[23] S. Cheng A short course on the Lebesgue integral and measure theory " [24] J. Weidmann Linear operators in Hilbert spaces Springer–Verlag, New York, 1980.