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Maniebo, Anna Dominique S.

2OTA

URINARY TRACT INFECTION Description of condition: Also known as UTI, urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that affects the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, urethra, sphincter muscles and bladder). The infections that are most common affect the lower urinary tract – the bladder and the urethra. The upper urinary tract infection involves the kidneys and the ureters. Cystititis is also called the bladder infection while uretheritis which is an infection the urethra. UTI is more common in females as compared to the males. According to a survey in UK (The National Health Service), 1 in 3 women will acquire UTI before she reached the age of 24. However in males, approximately 1 in 2000 healthy men have urinary tract infection. The children are more susceptible to acquiring kidney damage with 8% of girls and 2% of boys will have UTI while in adults, 40% of women and 12% of men will acquire UTI.

Cause/ Etiology: The cause of this infection is a bacterium, specifically the Escherichia coli (E. coli). The urine that passes through the urinary system is bacterium-free though it has salts, fluids, and waste-products. The infection occurs when the bacteria enters the urinary tract through the urethra and spreads and increase in number in the bladder and other parts of the urinary system. UTIs occur mostly in women and affect their bladder and urethra. Cystitis is a type of UTI that is caused by the Escherichia coli (E. coli ) bacterium which is found in the gastrointestinal tract. It is not only through sexual intercourse that women acquire cystitis, it is also basically because of their anatomy. It is short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder. Another type of UTI is urethritis, which is caused by the gastrointestinal bacteria that spread in the urethra from the anus. Other causes of urethritis are sexually transmitted, which are herpes, gonorrhea and chlamydia. Other infections that are caused by gastrointestinal bacteria are ureteritis or the inflammation of ureters and pyelonephritis or inflammation of the kidneys.

In children, the cause of UTI is mainly due to the presence of bacteria in the skin, and in abundance in the rectal area. It is not entirely because of the urine, because normal urine is generally sterile. The bacteria can enter the urinary system and travel upward causing various infections in the different parts of the urinary tract, with kidney infections as the most serious ones; while in adults, there are various reasons why women became more prone to this infection. For women who underwent menopause, the lining of their vagina changes and the decrease of production of estrogen that has protective effects most likely exposed them to more risks. There are other factors that increased the chances of women acquiring UTI, examples are choice of birth control method, the length of their urethras, the inability to release all urine in the bladder and if you have been instrumented, like had a catheter in place and the like. Lastly, disorders such as diabetes can expose someone to UTI, since the body can no longer fight the bacteria due to the decrease of immune function.

Signs/ Symptoms: A sign is something another person, example a doctor can notice, while a symptom is something the patient can feel and can describe. When someone had UTI, the linings of their bladder, urethra, ureters, and kidneys become red and irritated, which makes urinating difficult. In the upper UTI (kidneys and ureters), the general symptoms are:
      

Fever (at least 38C or 100.4F) Shivering Vomiting Nausea Diarrhea Pain on the side (flank), upper back or groin Lower UTI symptoms

While in the lower UTI (the bladder and the urethra), the general symptoms are:
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Cloudy urine The urine may have an unpleasant smell Hematuria - blood in urine Frequent need to urinate

it is best for them to be treated in the hospitals. Macrodantin. others) Nitrofurantoin (Furadantin. avoid the use of feminine products that can be irritating and harmful to one’s private areas. A bacterium is most likely to increase in number if it stays in the bladder for too long. First is to increase the intake of fluids. others) Ampicillin Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) . In cases where patients have severe upper UTI and those with weak immune system. most especially water. Another preventive measure is to empty one’s bladder after an intercourse. frequent bladder emptying is the best mechanism to prevent UTI. Septra. generally feeling unwell Tenderness around the pelvic area / pelvic pain (women) Rectal pain (men) Prevention: “Prevention is better than the cure”. Also. UTI is preventable and there are various ways. Augmentin. Some of the antibiotics for UTI are:      Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim. an example is wiping from front to back (towards the anus) after urinating and after a bowel movement since it helps prevent the presence of bacteria in the anal region thus preventing the spread of bacteria to the vagina and other parts. urine will be more diluted and it allows someone to urinate more frequently. One must also never hold urine in. Treatment: The treatment for UTI depends if it is an upper or a lower urinary tract infection. others) Amoxicillin (Amoxil.       Holding the urine in may become harder to do Discomfort and sometimes pain when urinating Abdominal pain Back pain General malaise. Genital hygiene is another preventive measure. But the typical treatment for UTI is the use of oral antibiotics that can be taken at home. thus flushing bacteria and other wastes from the urinary tract even before an infection can occur. Lastly. It is a primary prevention since through water.

uric acid. The passing of kidney stones while urinating in some circumstances can be extremely painful or sometimes unnoticed. But one of the leading causes of kidneys stones is the lack of water intake. Dent's disease (chronic kidney disorder) and many more. This is a result of the gathering or piling up of dissolved substances in the inner lining of the kidneys. These stones do not have any permanent damage. They are mostly comprised of calcium oxalate and its size can increase to the size of a golf ball in some circumstances. Urinary tract infection. some of those are Crohn’s disease (inflammation of digestive tract). An acidic environment is prone to formation of kidney stones. Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Prescription of antibiotics depends on whether someone has an uncomplicated or complicated UTI. solid deposits that has a crystalline structure and that form in the kidneys. Stones mostly include calcium and also substances such as calcium phosphate. such as when urine contains more crystal-forming substances like calcium. cystine or hereditary stone and struvite or infection stone since it is caused by an infection in the urinary tract. thus making the urine more acidic because of the drop in pH levels within the kidneys. KIDNEY STONES Description of condition: Kidney stones or rena lithiasis are hard. . Stones can be resulted from this since there is no enough water to dilute the uric acid found in urine. There are also other medical conditions that can lead to the formation of kidney stones. a longer course of treatment is advised and other treatment recommendations like. home urine tests and intravenous antibiotics in the hospital. hyperparathyroidism (over activity of parathyroid glands). a shorter course of treatment is recommended but it still depends on the patient’s medical history and recurring symptoms. and phosphate. while for those with complicated UTIs or severe infections. oxalate. For those with uncomplicated UTIs. Cause / Etiology: Kidney stones are formed due to an imbalance of certain chemical urinary components.

. but they can grow ‘silently’ and moves to the ureter then the symptoms will be felt. Some of those are:  Severe pain in the side and back. high doses of vitamin D. are caused by an infection such as UTI. Lastly.  Pain while urinating  Can be caused by the passing of large enough stones while urinating       Pink. red or brown urine Cloudy or foul-smelling urine Nausea and vomiting Persistent urge to urinate Urinating more often than usual Fever and chills accompanying these symptoms  A sign that an infection is present and a urologist must be consulted immediately. intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders. it is composed of oxalate that is a substance that can be found in food like nuts. cystine stones are hereditary stones that are caused by too much excretion of certain amino acids. Signs / Symptoms: Kidney stones do not usually show signs and symptoms. Other causes of the increase of oxalate in the urine are dietary factors.  Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin  Can be felt if the stones are not that large enough to cause major symptoms. Lack of water intake and a high-protein diet can cause the production of uric acid stones. in other hand. chocolates. below the ribs  Because of irritation and blockage since the stones are moving in the urinary tract. For calcium stones. and other fruits and vegetables.Causes of kidney stones can also vary depending on its type. Struvite stones.

Since cystine stones are hereditary. cause of stones. The medications for prevention of certain kidney stones depend on its type. Treatment: There are several factors that must be considered in treating kidney stones such are the size of the stones. okra. Lessen the amount of the salt in food and animal protein. This is to reduce the amount of uric acid in the urine and keep urine alkaline. Increasing of water intake is best recommended for this condition. it is not easy to be prevented nor treated. which is a treatment wherein the muscles in the ureter are relaxed (thus making the passing of kidney stones bearable and faster) are all methods on passing a small stone. Allopurinol (Zyloprim. and in some circumstances. For calcium stones. beets. more urine produced. thus flushing all wastes out of the body.Prevention: For someone to be able to achieve the prevention of kidney stones. Aloprim) is prescribed for prevention of uric acid stones. chocolate and soy products. Another is to eat fewer oxalate-rich foods such as rhubarb. This also prevents the crystal-forming substances from concentrating and forming. . sweet potatoes. For lifestyle changes. Swiss chard. some can help in controlling the amount of minerals and acid in one’s urine. number of stones. location. nuts. and medical therapy like alpha blocker. As for the medications. For small stones. because passing of stones can be painful. pain relievers are also recommended since passing of stones can cause discomfort to the patient. one must keep hydrated by increasing his/her intake of water. type of stones. one must consider some lifestyle changes and medications. A study said that orange juice can help in the prevention of kidney stones as compared to other juices like lemonades. It not true that intake of calcium-rich food can cause kidney stones. the symptom management. a thiazide diuretic or a phosphate-containing preparation is prescribed by the doctor. yet one must be cautious in taking calcium supplements. More water intake. Struvite stones can be prevented by keeping one’s urine free from bacteria through long term intake of antibiotics. an increase in fluid intake can help flush out stones and other wastes. and tea. spinach.

urologyhealth.mayoclinic. Utresoscopy  Which makes use of an instrument called ureterscope wherein it has access to the stones in the ureter and kidneys. Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney  A surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy is surgically removing the kidney stones from the patient using small telescopes and other materials that are inserted in the patient’s back. Once he stones are visualized.org/urology/index.com/articles/189953.cfm?article=148 http://www.com/articles/154193. References: http://www.php#treatment http://www.medicalnewstoday. it will be easier for the patient to pass it through urinating.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-tract infection/basics/definition/con-20037892 http://www.mayoclinic.urologyhealth. Some of the treatments are:     Using sound waves for treatment (Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy / SWL)  A machine called lithotripter produces sound waves that cause vibrations to the kidney stones thus making them crumble into pieces.cfm?article=47&display=1 http://www.cfm?article=46 http://www. a separate tool is used to grab the stones and and remove them. In this way. as well as other infections in the urinary tract. the treatment must be more invasive since this condition can cause bleeding of the kidneys and damage to it. Parathyroid gland surgery  This surgery is done since most calcium stones are caused by over active parathyroid glands.In cases wherein the stones are large and has symptoms.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones/basics/treatment/con20024829 http://www.php .org/urology/index.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.medicalnewstoday. The urologist can visualize the stone.

" gonorrhea is a contagious disease transmitted most often through sexual contact with an infected person. the infection can cause pelvic inflammatory disease. The bacteria can also grow in the mouth. so that a mother could pass on the infection to her newborn during childbirth. a dangerous condition for both the mother and baby. Syphilis What is Gonorrhea? Also called the "clap" or "drip. which may damage the fallopian tubes (the tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus) or even lead to infertility. throat. itchy eyes)  Bleeding between periods  Spotting after intercourse  Swelling of the vulva (vulvitis)  Burning in the throat (due to oral sex)  Swollen glands in the throat (due to oral sex) Gonorrhea symptoms in men  Greenish yellow or whitish discharge from the penis  Burning when urinating  Burning in the throat (due to oral sex)  Painful or swollen testicles  Swollen glands in the throat (due to oral sex) What Happens if Gonorrhea don't get treated? In women. if left untreated. The infection is easily spread and occurs most often in people who have many sex partners. . Gonorrhea symptoms in women  Greenish yellow or whitish discharge from the vagina  Lower abdominal or pelvic pain  Burning when urinating  Conjunctivitis (red. a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in mucus membranes of the body. and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women.Mary Rose A. and in the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body) in women and men. What Causes Gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. including the cervix (opening to the womb). Gonorrhea may also be spread by contact with infected bodily fluids. Masangcay 2OTA Gonorrhea. and anus. uterus (womb). Chlamydia. Both men and women can get gonorrhea. Gonorrhea bacteria can grow in the warm. moist areas of the reproductive tract. and untreated gonorrhea infection could increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy (when the fertilized egg implants and develops outside the uterus).

gonorrhea can cause epididymitis.S. In fact. making urination difficult. blindness. Chlamydia symptoms in women        Abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor Bleeding between periods Painful periods Abdominal pain with fever Pain when having sex Itching or burning in or around the vagina Pain when urinating Chlamydia symptoms in men     Small amounts of clear or cloudy discharge from the tip of the penis Painful urination Burning and itching around the opening of the penis Pain and swelling around the testicles What Happens If Chlamydia don't get treated?   For women.In men. chlamydia infection can cause pelvic inflammatory disease which can lead to damage of the fallopian tubes (the tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus) or even cause infertility (the inability to have children).an infection of the urethra (the tube by which men and women pass urine). For men. epididymitis -- . It is not passed through casual contact. chlamydia may cause premature births (giving birth too early) and the infection can be passed along from the mother to her child during childbirth. Chlamydia can cause a condition called nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) -. If left untreated. What is Chlamydia? Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the U. causing aneye infection. gonorrhea can also affect the prostate and can lead to scarring inside the urethra. Untreated chlamydia infection could also increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy(when the fertilized egg implants and develops outside the uterus. This infection is easily spread because it often causes no symptoms and may be unknowingly passed to sexual partners. Without prompt treatment.) Furthermore. Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth. or pneumonia in the newborn. How Is Gonorrhea Spread? Gonorrhea is spread by vaginal and anal intercourse and oral sex. about 75% of infections in women and 50% in men are without symptoms. a painful condition of the testicles that can sometimes lead to infertility if left untreated.

more doses will be needed. Although this disease is spread from sores. shared clothing. can cause abnormalities or even death to the child. This disease. People who are being treated for syphilis must abstain from sexual contact until the infection is completely gone.an inflammation of the rectum. tetracyclineor doxycycline can be given instead. If you are in a later stage of disease. or proctitis -. swollen . a single dose of penicillin is usually enough to destroy the infection. called congenital syphilis. bath tubs.an infection of the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm away from the testes). white patches on the inside of the mouth. The infected person is often unaware of the disease and unknowingly passes it on to his or her sexual partner. They may also experience moist warts in the groin. hot tubs. They occur on the genitals or in or around the mouth somewhere between 10-90 days (average three weeks) after exposure. Rarely. including oral and anal sex. Occasionally. sometimes resembling rashes caused by other diseases. The sores resemble large round bug bites and are often hard and painless. or eating utensils. However. For those allergic to penicillin. the vast majority of those sores go unrecognized. rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body. It can also spread from a woman to her fetus during birth. treated. Syphilis infection occurs in three distinct stages: Early or primary syphilis. Pregnant women with the disease can spread it to their baby. The secondary stage may last one to three months and begins within six weeks to six months after exposure. What is Syphilis? Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity. Syphilis cannot be spread by toilet seats. Sexual partners of people with syphilis should be tested and. How Is Syphilis Treated? If you've been infected with syphilis for less than a year. door knobs. What Causes Syphilis? Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. the disease can be passed to another person through prolonged kissing or close bodily contact. Chlamydia is not passed through casual contact. People with primary syphilis will develop one or more sores. it is spread during oral sex or by touching your eye with your hand. How Is Chlamydia Spread? Chlamydia is spread by vaginal and anal intercourse. swimming pools. Even without treatment they heal without a scar within six weeks. if necessary. People with secondary syphilis experience a rosy "copper penny" rash typically on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

impotence. This is where the infection lies dormant (inactive) without causing symptoms. How Is Syphilis Spread? Syphilis is spread by contact with syphilis sores. and nerves that can result in paralysis. Latent syphilis. it may then progress to a stage characterized by severe problems with the heart. Tertiary syphilis. If the infection isn't treated. deafness. and even death if it's not treated.lymph glands. fever. Direct contact can occur during  vaginal and anal intercourse  oral sex  kissing (much less commonly) . secondary syphilis will resolve without treatment. Like primary syphilis. andweight loss. blindness. dementia. brain.

University of Santo Tomas College of Rehabilitation Sciences Department of Occupational Therapy Health Care Lab 2: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) & AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) Submitted by: Giorla Joanne A. Negre 2OTA .

you can become infected with HIV. You need to know that it’s much easier to get HIV (or to give it to someone else). penis." or isn't working the way it should. That isn't the case with HIV – the human immune system can't seem to get rid of it. like those caused by herpes or syphilis. or mouth. sweat. AIDS: A – Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. Cuts and sores. you will need medical intervention and treatment to prevent death. HIV can also enter through open sores. Vaginal fluids. but HIV invades them. I – Immuno – Your body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease. urine. including: Amniotic fluid. those body fluids can deliver the virus into your bloodstream through microscopic breaks or rips in the delicate linings of your vagina. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the final stage of HIV infection. HIV is transmitted through body fluids in very specific ways: • During sexual contact: When you have anal. Opening to the penis. your immune system can clear most viruses out of your body. because it is a complex illness with a wide range of complications and symptoms. You acquire AIDS after birth. I – Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. Needles (syringes). see CDC's The Role Of STD Detection And Treatment In HIV Prevention. V – Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host. You will be diagnosed with AIDS if you have one or more specific OIs. Rips in these areas are very common and mostly unnoticeable. Rectal (anal) mucous. Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lot like other viruses.Description of the Condition HIV: H – Human – This particular virus can only infect human beings. or vomit—don’t contain enough HIV to infect you. rectum. uses them to make more copies of itself. But there is an important difference – over time. HIV lives and reproduces in blood and other body fluids. Your body has to have these cells to fight infections and disease. tears. saliva. HIV infection can lead to AIDS. Over time. Mouth that has sores or bleeding gums. Scientists are still trying to figure out why. HIV can enter the body through: Lining of the anus or rectum. certain cancers. When that happens. D – Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient. Healthcare workers may be exposed to some other body fluids with high concentrations of HIV. oral. Cerebrospinal fluid. If any of those fluids enter your body. nasal fluid. Lining of the vagina and/or cervix. if you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD). you will usually have contact with your partner’s body fluids. We know that the following fluids can contain high levels of HIV: Blood. or vaginal sex with a partner. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems. if infected body fluids get in them. or a very low number of CD4 cells. rather than a single disease. HIV can destroy so many of your CD4 cells that your body can't fight infections and diseases anymore. Synovial fluid. If your partner has HIV. Other body fluids and waste products—like feces. For more information. S – Syndrome – A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. We know that HIV can hide for long periods of time in the cells of your body and that it attacks a key part of your immune system – your T-cells or CD4 cells. Semen (cum). including those that cause the "flu" or the common cold. which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). Cause / Etiology HIV is found in specific human body fluids. and then destroys them. A "deficient" immune system can't protect you. Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum). AIDS is a syndrome. Breast milk. vulva. . unless they have blood mixed in them and you have significant and direct contact with them. If you have AIDS.

Symptoms can include:  Fever (this is the most common symptom)  Swollen glands  Sore throat  Rash  Fatigue  Muscle and joint aches and pains  Headache These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. During this late stage of HIV infection. often described as the “worst flu ever. Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for 10 years or more. although it is still active. anus. depending on the individual and what stage of the disease you are in. the HIV virus reproduces at very low levels. if you share needles and “works”. . pink. “Latency” means a period where a virus is living or developing in a person without producing symptoms. the disease moves into a stage called the “clinical latency” stage. groin. not everyone who is infected with HIV develops ARS. mouth. nose. or only mild ones. If you work in a healthcare setting. or genitals  Pneumonia  Red. people who are infected with HIV experience no HIV-related symptoms. Each of these symptoms can be caused by other illnesses. you should not assume you have HIV if you have any of these symptoms. Needles or drugs that are contaminated with HIV-infected blood can deliver the virus directly into your body. but not all.” and it’s the body’s natural response to the HIV infection. many. A few healthcare workers have been infected when body fluids splashed into their eyes. Conversely. people infected with HIV may have the following symptoms:  Rapid weight loss  Recurring fever or profuse night sweats  Extreme and unexplained tiredness  Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits. or into an open sore or cut. *If you have HIV and you are not taking HIV medication (antiretroviral therapy). The onset of symptoms signals the transition from the clinical latency stage to AIDS ( Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).”) During the clinical latency stage. During the clinical latency stage. (This stage is sometimes called “asymptomatic HIV infection” or “chronic HIV infection. childbirth. or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth. and other neurologic disorders. Signs / Symptoms The symptoms of HIV vary. brown. depression. After birth. • As a result of a blood transfusion with infected blood or an organ transplant from an infected donor: Screening requirements make both of these forms of HIV transmission very rare in the United States. EARLY STAGE OF HIV: SYMPTOMS Within 2-4 weeks after HIV infection. or neck  Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week  Sores of the mouth. or breastfeeding: Babies have constant contact with their mother’s body fluidsincluding amniotic fluid and blood-throughout pregnancy and childbirth.• During pregnancy. people experience flu-like symptoms.” This is called “acute retroviral syndrome” (ARS) or “primary HIV infection. • As a result of occupational exposure: Healthcare workers have the greatest risk for this type of HIV transmission. THE CLINICAL LATENCY STAGE After the early stage of HIV infection. infants can get HIV from drinking infected breast milk. eventually the HIV virus will weaken your bo dy’s immune system. or eyelids  Memory loss. • As a result of injection drug use: Injecting drugs puts you in contact with blood-your own and others. you can come into contact with infected blood or other fluids through needle sticks or cuts. However.

PEP consists of 2-3 antiretroviral medications and should be taken for 28 days. Most commonly. Some of the ways to reduce your risk of getting HIV through sexual contact include:  Don't have sex. PEP must begin within 72 hours of exposure. Sex (anal. or during episodes of unprotected sex or needle-sharing injection drug use). Having only one sex partner reduces your risk of getting HIV— but monogamy won't protect you completely unless you know for sure that both you and your partner are not infected with HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis. oral. HIV is transmitted through fluids such as Blood. like a condom. PEP is safe but may cause side effects like nausea in some people. To be effective. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier against HIV and other viruses and bacteria. taken when someone working in a healthcare setting is potentially exposed to material infected with HIV. PEP is not 100% effective. There are two types of PEP: (1) occupational PEP (sometimes called "oPEP"). the CDC recommends that you be tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) every 3-6 months. "Unprotected" means sex (anal.  Get tested and know your partner's status: Knowing your own status is important for both your health and the health of your partner. If you have more than one sex partner. or PrEP. In addition. These medications prevent HIV from making copies of itself and turning into an infection that’s spread throughout your body. Many of these studies have indicated that male circumcision can decrease the male partner's risk of contracting HIV during heterosexual vaginal sex. you are 100% protected from getting HIV in that way. or vaginal) is the main way that HIV is transmitted.  Be monogamous. or vaginal) without barrier protection. before the virus has time to make too many copies of itself in your body. Semen (cum). contains two of the many medications that can be used to treat people who already have HIV. PrEP is a way for people who are at very high risk of getting HIV to lower their risk by taking a daily pill. Talking about your HIV status can be difficult or uncomfortable —but it's important to start the discussion BEFORE you have sex. Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum). from sexual assault. oral. called Truvada®. recent studies show that circumcision does NOT protect women from contracting HIV from male partners. These side effects can be treated and are not life threatening. There is much less available data for men who have sex with men and how circumcision might affect HIV transmission through anal sex.Prevention As stated above. In this way PrEP medicines can help keep the virus from establishing a permanent infection. These medications keep HIV from making copies of itself and spreading through your body. Rectal (anal) mucous from an infected person enter the body of an uninfected person. taken when someone is potentially exposed to HIV outside the workplace (e. HIV can be spread by having unprotected sexual contact with an HIV-positive person. Your doctor will determine what treatment is right for you based on how you were exposed to HIV.. is a new HIV prevention method in which people who do not have HIV infection take a pill daily to reduce their risk of becoming infected. If you aren't having sexual contact.g. Being monogamous means: 1) You are in a sexual relationship with only one person and 2) Both of you are having sex only with each other. and (2) non-occupational PEP (sometimes called “nPEP”). Breast milk. . Vaginal fluids. The pill. Use condoms consistently and correctly. So. HIV is transmitted through sex. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) involves taking anti-HIV medications as soon as possible after you may have been exposed to HIV to try to reduce the chance of becoming HIV positive. HIV cannot enter the body through unbroken skin. it does not guarantee that someone exposed to HIV will not become infected with HIV. There has been a lot of research over the past few years about the role male circumcision plays in preventing HIV infection.

For people who are not on ART. Two of the most important tests will be a CD4 count and a viral load test. . by itself. but some people may progress through this phase faster. The results of all of these tests will provide a baseline measurement for future tests.Treatment If you take antiretroviral therapy (ART) during Clinical Latency stage. a drug called AZT became the first approved treatment for HIV disease. That’s because no drug can cure HIV. or toxoplasmosis In 1987. and more are under development. Taking 3 different HIV meds does the best job of controlling the amount of virus in your body and protecting your immune system. tuberculosis. approximately 30 drugs have been approved to treat people living with HIV/AIDS. you may live with clinical latency for several decades because treatment helps keep the virus in check. this clinical latency stage lasts an average of 10 years. Your provider may also order some other tests:  Complete blood count  Blood chemistry profile (including liver and kidney function tests)  Urinalysis  Tests for other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)  Tests for other infections. such as hepatitis. including:  "The Cocktail"  Antiretrovirals (ARVs)  Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART or ART) This regimen is standard for HIV care —and it’s important. You may also take a drug resistance test to determine the best medication options for you. Since then. won’t stop HIV from harming you. You may have heard these drugs called many different names. and taking a single drug.

2014 . OTRP. Olaño 2-OTA January 20. Gutay. Alconcel. OTRP Kristina B. Devora. Carol Mae B. MOH Ma. PTRP Submitted by: Karla Nicole R.University of Santo Tomas College of Rehabilitation Sciences Department of Occupational Therapy Health Conditions Report on Liver Cirrhosis Submitted to: Nelson R. OTR.

on top of the stomach. confusion. symptoms tend to develop when the functions of the liver are affected. The following signs and symptoms may occur:    Anorexia Bleeding gums Blood capillaries become visible on the skin above waist level/upper abdomen Encephalopathy (changes in personality. prolonged exposure to toxins. Bile is a bitter. It is the only organ that able to regenerate. and are not common during the early stages of cirrhosis. It weighs around 3 pounds and is of reddishbrown color. some genetic disorders. it is the body’s largest gland. and the lobules are filled with fat. the blood vessel that carries blood from the liver. insomnia. Bile by-products are filtered out by the kidneys and leave the body in the form of urine. chronic viral hepatitis B and C. Description of the Condition The liver is a large organ. Cirrhosis is most commonly the result of chronic alcohol abuse. blockage of bile ducts. This excretion helps carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion. preventing the liver to function properly. unusual reactions to some drugs. Signs/Symptoms The symptoms of the disease are the same regardless of the cause. In this condition. right kidney and intestines. Cirrhosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the liver in which the lobes are covered with fibrous tissue. yellow-green secretion of the liver which is stored in the gallbladder. difficulty concentrating) Fatigue          Fever Frequent nosebleeds Hair loss Jaundice Nausea Pain around the liver area Red or blotchy palms Shivering attacks Spider angiomas   . As cirrhosis progresses. Healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue. the parenchyma or the functional tissue degenerates. It is located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity. The liver filters the blood coming from the digestive tract before passing it to the rest of the body. beneath the diaphragm. Other conditions that cause this disease are nutritional deprivation. memory loss. and thrombosis or blood clots occurring in the hepatic vein. It is the final phase of chronic liver disease.I. cardiac problems. Cause/Etiology Cirrhosis is the end result of chronic liver damage caused by chronic liver disease. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity and diabetes. II. the functions of the liver slowly deteriorate. III.

so those who have already been diagnosed with cirrhosis should abstain from it. black stools          Loss of libido Mental confusion More frequent fevers Muscle cramps Nosebleeds Shortness of breath and panting Urine becomes darker Vomiting blood Walking problems IV. Alcohol accelerates the progression of the disease. know your limits and do not exceed them. Use a mask and gloves when handling toxic household chemicals Screen for genetic disease       . balanced diet and multivitamin daily When drinking alcoholic beverages. since hepatitis could be sexually transmitted or avoid having multiple sexual partners Avoid dirty needles or do not use used needles when taking intravenous drugs because hepatitis could be transmitted through blood products Avoid exposure to industrial chemicals. Prevention The chances of developing cirrhosis can be reduced by observing the following:   Consume and maintain a healthy.   Tiredness Varicosities Very itchy skin    Vomiting Weakness Weight loss The following signs and symptoms may occur as the disease progresses:        Accelerated heartbeat Altered personality Ascites (swelling in the abdomen area) Body finds it harder to process alcohol and drugs Drowsiness Edema (fluid buildup in the lower extremities) Either very pale or very dark. Avoid drinking every day Abstain from tobacco and drugs Those who are at risk of becoming infected with hepatitis such as health care workers. social workers and the police should be vaccinated Practice safe sex by using condoms.

Consulting a doctor about all the medicines you take such as diuretics. and antibiotics for infections For the severe or later part of the disease other treatments such as endoscopic treatments for enlarged veins. manage the symptoms. removal of fluid from the abdomen and placement of a shunt to repair blood flow in the liver A liver transplant is needed when liver cirrhosis progresses to end-stage liver disease   . vitamin K or blood products to prevent excess bleeding. and liver transplant. Treatment aims to halt the liver damage. eating a healthy diet low in salt and fat. treat the complications of cirrhosis. observing early prevention and detection of liver cancer. drugs for mental confusion. Treatment Currently.V. there is no medical cure for liver cirrhosis. and getting vaccinated for diseases. The following are some practices that could be observed:   Lifestyle changes such as limiting alcohol consumption.