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GREENWOODS

ACTIVITIES REVIEWS:
Reg Day
A new batch of freshmen joined the university last August. As usual, we set up a booth, which carries a green theme to recruit our new members. We included our event highlights in the form of photos and videos in the booth. Also, we displayed the harvest from the rooftop farm at Runme Shaw Building, which has added vibrancy and color to our stall. Besides, we also handmade some bookmarks as souvenirs for new members, who has shown support to our society Greenwoods. The bookmarks were made from recycled newspaper and leaflets. We painted plants and created some unique patterns on the bookmarks. We have to thank the Lung Fu Shan Environmental Education Centre for lending us the venue and the required tools. Special thanks also go to the ICA for coordinating such a big event so that all clubs and societies had a chance to recruit and get to know the new batch of freshmen! Thank you again for all your support!

Feb 2014 Newsletter Vol. 2

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GREENWOODS 2013-14

Photo taken in Sai Kung during our GREEN CAMP !!!

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF GREENWOODS, HKUSU 2013-14
Chairperson Ho Kin Sing, Kenny Internal Vice-chairperson Cheung Man Nga, Clio

External Vice-chairperson Su Tsz Ki, Suki Financial Secretary Wong Leung Sit, Samuel General Secretary Leung Shue Kwan, Justin Programme Secretary Cheng Ho Sum, Arthur Lai Hoi Yip, Samson

Publication and Publicity Secretary You Yi, Nikki Chan Chun Man, Clement Academic Secretary Lam Chun Shing, Bon Chan Kwan Kit, Kenneth Marketing Secretary Wu Yu Ching, Carrie Lin Yiwen, Eros

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WORDS FROM PARTICIPANTS:

Day 1 of Ocamp

Orientation Camp of Greenwoods, HKUSU: Sai Kung Green Canoeists
During early autumn in September, HKU

checkpoints, and the second day for canoeing near to the mangrove areas. Unfortunately, due to a super typhoon, the camping session was canceled out of safety concern. Therefore, the first day of o-camp was carried out on September 21stand the venue of the tour and the detective game was changed to the campus of HKU, while the second day was postponed to October 6th.

Chan Wai Ho Desmond:
I think the o-camp is acceptable, except the accident that we cannot go to play the canoe. But the later arrangement is satisfactory. I think that most of the executive members of Greenwoods truly cares about the environmental protection in Hong Kong very much. Some of them inspire me as well.

welcomed a new group of energetic and passionate freshmen. In the first month of the semester, Greenwoods organized an orientation camp for our students, which is both fun and educational as its activities are embedded with the messages of environmental protection. We would like to promote eco-friendly concepts in the campus through attractive and unique activities, including diverse tasks in HKU tour and HK tour, the detective game, as well as canoeing beside the Mangroves in Sai Kung, through which we hope that students can get to understand facilities that reduce waste and enhance energy e!ciency throughout the campus, appreciate the beauty of nature, and practice what they have learned. The o-camp was originally scheduled on September 21st and 22nd.The first day was designated for HKU tour and HK tour, via which participants decide the route to our campsite Wong Yi Chau in Sai Kung by reaching di"erent

Even though some modifications were made due to adverse weather, our executive members were able to stick to the amended plan and remind the participants of some important green tips while they were having fun. Thirteen executives and more than thirty participants were divided into four groups after the ice-breaking games. In the HKU campus, participant gained some firsthand experience in farming on the rooftop of Run Run Shaw Building, discovering some green elements in the Bijas Vegetarian, visiting the food waste processing machine as well as the wind turbines in the centennial campus, which may seem inconspicuous.Yet, they are surely worth noticing. While for the checkpoints outside HKU, they were also set at places with which we are familiar in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island, such as the Admiralty MTR station, Central Ferry Pier and Festival Walk.

Frank Chow:
I think this orientation day is very unique as there are not many chances to join canoeing in other societies. It also allows me to see the mangrove. I liked the orientation day!

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Orientation Camp of Greenwoods, HKUSU: Sai Kung Green Canoeists
The aim of such a design was to inform our participants that environmental protection is not totally unrelated with us, it is closely intertwined with our lives. As long as we pay more attention to details and take a step forward, such as avoiding the use of over-packaging products and straws, bringing our own water bottles and utensils for take-away food and using public transportation whenever possible. These seemingly minimal changes will end up creating a huge di"erence. Judging from the feedback of the participants, the tasks shed new light on the concept of eco-friendliness and raised their awareness in such A resect. On October 6th, the muchanticipated part of the orientation was carried on – canoeing in Sai Kung. For most of our participants, this was both interesting and challenging. On that sunny

day, we went to the beach of Sai Kung. First we canoed along the coastline towards the mangroves and gave our new canoe learners some time to practice. When we approached the mangrove area, our executive members briefly introduced the plants and their functions. After leaving the mangroves, we canoed to an island in the sea, then we made our way back, with the whole activity lasted for around three hours. Through this activity, it was expected that students were able to canoe in the wild, learn about the ecological value of mangroves and broaden their knowledge concerning environmental protection. Although some problems arose in our orientation, the schedule could be run smoothly with the cooperation of Greenwoods executive members. What is more gratifying is that participants could learn how to live a greener live as well as make some changes in daily lives. We hope the our mission and philosophy of Greenwoods could continue to be spread out further, encouraging people inside and outside HKU to make a contribution for a better environment.

WORDS FROM PARTI:

Day 2 of Ocamp: Canoeists

Chu Pak Fai Dereck:
Although there was a typhoon which a!ected the arrangement of the o-camp, I think the preparation work was brilliant while the activities were meaningful and interesting.

Yuan ShuaiSwacky:
The o-camp held by Greenwoods was the first one I participate in HKU. Everyone is very nice and I really enjoy it!

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SABAH ECO TOUR

Sabah Eco Tour
The carbon footprint generated from traveling, consuming and the use of disposable supplies is generally believed to be not eco-friendly. However, we do not totally agree. Traveling can take place in a way that may not be as detrimental to the environment as people expect and this is what the six-day eco-tour organized by Greenwoods in July 2013 has successfully proved. A series of activities were organized during the trip. First of all, we had an interflow session with students who study wood management in the Universiti of Sabah. We visited the aquarium and museum in their campus. More remarkably, we had a chance to plant mangroves by ourselves. It is a unique experience since we had to immerse ourselves into the mud in order to insert the mangrove seedlings deep into the mud ground. Via this activity, we highly appreciate the enthusiasm and willingness of the local students in Sabah in handling tougher tasks that Hong Kong students may be reluctant to do so. In Hong Kong, people live in a concrete jungle, where apartments and skyscrapers are closely packed together. We hardly have the chance to experience living in the wild and with nature. We simply do not notice how beauty and amazing nature is.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

SNORKELING

MOUNT KINABALU

MANGROVE PLANTING

LOCAL SCHOOL VISIT

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Sabah Eco Tour
She shared both her job and life experience with us. She also kindly organized a service session, through which we were asked to help primary school students turn domestic food wastes into fertilizers. This prompted us to re-evaluate the role of environmental education plays in the public education system in Hong Kong. Last but not least, we enjoyed the beauty of nature and witnessed the high biodiversity of Sabah after visiting their charming beaches and unique tropical rainforest. It has been a long way since we started to design the itinerary of this eco tour, book the flight and guide nearly thirty people during the trip. The most di!cult but important part

in this trip is to constantly remind participants about generating less

Another important person we met waste in the course of their visit and to show them how to travel in a more in Sabha is Teresa, a sta" in environmental friendly manner. Environmental Action Sabah (EAS). Fortunately, we received a big helping hand from the Universiti of Sabah and Teresa, making our tour a success. We strongly hope that our eco-tour can heighten the awareness of participants and enable them to cultivate a habit of generating less waste when travel and ultimately during their normal lives.

Mangroves planting in Sabah

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GREEN STALL
This year's Green Stall was successfully held during the last week of September and the first week of October at the Union Building and KKL building respectively. As usual, Green Stall aims to promote the concept of living green to sta" members and students in HKU by incorporating Green elements into our products. This year, we sold products such as natural coconut oil, environmental friendly stationaries, sheer linen towel, plants, consigned goods from a green organization Organic We such as organic shower gel, reusable organic tampon and organic liquid hand soap. After the activity, we discovered that people generally like to purchase either functional or physically

appealing products. This basically means environmentally friendly products do not have a large market and are usually sought after by people who blindly follow suit or do not act in a green way by heart. Environmental advocates should consider whether these eco-friendly products are functional and of use. Some of the products sold are brand-new and innovative, such as reusable cotton cleansing pads. A lot of students are

regular goods in the market due to the high cost, therefore, are not that appealing to students. Even if we bargain with the suppliers, they are reluctant to reduce the price a lot. The higher price of eco-friendly products is a main factor that scares o" a lot of potential customers. To improve our environment requires a concerted e"ort, thus some green groups or retailers have joint hands with us and provide timely help, both tangible and

doubtful about the durability and safety intangible ones. Some generously left of such a product, therefore, we need their handmade soap and bathing to show them how to use or even try it products to us for sales without asking ourselves before selling it. This for a commission fee. We highly convinces people to try and purchase appreciate their support and it, and more importantly assure them of assistance. All in all, we could see a the quality and safety of the product. highly level of participation and support from di"erent groups in For the price of our goods, they are society. still relatively more expensive than

Interview on MetroRadio MMD

Did you listen to our 5episode interview on radio? It is our pleasure to be invited by DJ Cathrine Chu to take part in the recording. Two cabinet

members, Suki and Clio, were so thrilled to be interviewed and they shared the mission and history, as well as the activities, such as the rooftop farming program, the Reclamation Concern Alliance, Sabah eco-tour and glass

bottle recycling scheme of Greenwoods with the audience. We are so grateful to be included in the program and will try our very best to keep up our spirit and further spread our influence in the future.

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THE ROOFTOP FARMING PROJECT AT HKU
The Rooftop Farming Project at HKU is co-organised by the#General Education Unit#and#Sustainability O!ce, supported by#Time To Grow,Greenwoods (HKUSU)#and#Bijas Vegetarian Restaurant, and sponsored by the#BOCHK Charitable Foundation. The project started in July 2013 and

project and handle regular farming work with other students. The daily work includes watering, removing grasses, loosening the soil as well as setting up the farm and harvesting before and after the planting. It would be a new experience for students to witness how vegetable grows stage by stage. The project promotes the idea of a sustainable life and thus the ultimate

exacerbate the problem of global warming. Thus the farm would also like to raise greater concerns over such an

goal of reducing wastes. The harvested issue. In summer, corns, bitter melons, eggplants, Red Amaranth, Ghost vegetable would be served in Bijas Vegetarian Restaurant. The food waste Pepper, Perilla and Cucumbers were planted, with some herbs such as from restaurants in the Centennial Campus will be transformed into the rooftop farm is located on the Runme Shaw Building in the main campus. The#General Education Unit#and#Sustainability O!ce manage the farm and give instructions to students participating in the project. Meanwhile, city farmers were invited to fertilizer after being processed by the food waste disposal machine. The fertilizer can then be used at the rooftop farm as a more natural alternative than chemical fertilizers. Furthermore, vegetable should be Common Rue, Rosemary, Clary Sage and Basil. In autumn and winter, we planted Bak Choi, Spinach, Lesser Tong Hao, Lettuce, Broccoli, tomato, White Radish, and Carrots etc. We saw an abundant of reaps and our team members felt gratified to harvest the vegetables they planted themselves. HKU Rooftop Farming webpage: http:// rooftopfarmhku.wordpress.comm/

planted according to suitable seasons. teach students the techniques of urban As a matter of fact, the green houses farming. As one of the green groups in used to plant vegetable in winter trap the university, we are glad to join the much heat from sunlight and further

Birds crashing to glass walls in centennial campus
The newly built centennial campus has been in operation since 2012. The new and modern campus makes use of large glass walls to introduce natural light into the interior. Due to centennial campus’ sustainable design and the outstanding strategic plan to reduce

disruption to the ecosystem nearby, it is awarded the highest performance Platinum certification under LEED. Despite its much-touted design, its well-known glass walls are deadly to birds. The centennial campus has a number of of man-made gardens, attracting birds to gather around the area. However, unlike human beings, transparent panels are invisible to birds. They are also attracted by the lighting at night, as the illumination

system of the centennial campus remains in operation. Therefore, it is not rare to see birds crashing into curtain walls, which resulted in injuries or even death. Greenwoods has reported the issue to the Vicechancellor o!ce, Dr Steven J. Cannon, Executive Vice-President (Administration and Finance) who has shown his deepest concern on the issue and will discuss the solutions with the Estates O!ce.

Green Route Outing
Last year, the work of “Eco-Trip around Double Haven” won the Green Route Design Competition. As promised, we have organized a one-day trip on January 10th so that our participants can learn more about the ecosystem of the suburb areas in Hong Kong, as well as fully unwind themselves after the examination. When we reached the Five-finger Camphor at Lai Chi Wo Village, eco-tour guide told us that one “finger” of the Camphor was cut during the Second World War by the Japanese army for its high market value. However, country has shown a high concern for environmental protection throughout the years. This made us to reflect on the issue of international To our delight, the level of participation was environmental protection. If everyone, when keen and the number of participants reached the traveling, holds the belief of “it is not our own place” limit within one week. The hiking trip commenced and thereby ruins the local ecosystem deliberately, from Wu KauTan(烏蛟騰) and we walked across our environment will su"er a lot. Therefore, Upper and Lower Miu Tin(上下苗⽥田) and Sam A cooperation among all global citizens is a key to Tsuen (三椏村) to the coastline of Double Haven (印 conserving the ecosystem. Gladly, we discovered 州塘). After passing Lai Chi Wo (荔枝窩) and Kuk Po that there was very little rubbish on the trail we (⾕谷埔), we finally reached the destination---LukKeng passed through and we only collected one plastic (⿅鹿頸). Along the trail, students could take a look at bottle throughout the trip! As responsible travelers, the wide variety of ecological landscape, such as we should be aware of their own behavior while the Fung Shui Woods, Derris, Wetlands, Mangrove traveling so as to minimize our disruption to the and etc. Our students spotted a sea of red maple beautiful mother nature. leaves during the trip. The scenery was eyecatching, the weather was cool, yet comfortable and the air soothed and refreshed our mind.

If you think these are washed clean quilts piled up by a tidy person, I’m sorry that you’d be wrong. They are quilts being abandoned by our students...

Hall Recycling Campaign
At the very beginning we thought the job of our committee members was simple but it turned out to be the opposite. Originally we just planned to assist the halls to arrange permanent bins for “other recycling materials”. However, after our small-scale data collection, it is discovered that some halls in our campus do not even have a bin for basic recycling (i.e. paper, plastics, & metals). The recycling management is so poor that numerous useful resources are being dumped every single semester. $ You can imagine the amount of resources being wasted every year, every semester, and every hall, I hope the answer would break your heart... What is even worse is that fact that there is no organisation here in Hong Kong that collects quilts and pillows, meaning that all of them are directly transported to the landfills. Although those quilts (in the picture) have just been sent to poor families in rural China with the help from CEA (China Education Association, HKUSU) & Prime Care HKU, this is

definitely not a long-term solution to curb the waste problem. The University of Hong Kong is well-known in the academic field, however, when it comes to conservation and waste reduction, there is still room for improvement.

‘’The hall recycling work was much challenging than we imagined. Situations were shocking. Schedules were stumbled by unexpected difficulties.’’

GREEN NEWS: A TOXIC NIGHTMARE - THERE ARE MONSTERS IN YOUR CLOSET!
from Greenpeace
Today we told the world a story, a story about the Little Monsters in children's clothes and shoes. As the mother of a young daughter this is one story I had to read and one that revealed a shocking truth about the clothes we buy for our kids. Our latest investigation has revealed the presence of hazardous chemicals in clothing made by 12 very well known brands; from the iconic kid's label and even top-end luxury labels like Burberry. The shocking truth is that no matter what type of kid's clothes we shop for, there's no safe haven – all of the tested brands had at least one product containing hazardous toxic monsters. For parents everywhere, this is a toxic nightmare. Most parents don't realise it but these brands are making us unwitting accomplices in the industry's toxic scandal. These chemicals are not only impacting on local communities – when they are released into rivers from the polluting factories in production centers like China and Indonesia – they are also escaping from people's clothes and through their washing machines to also pollute our local waterways. Once released into the environment, the cocktail of hazardous chemicals found in this study can have seriously adverse e"ects on wildlife – some have even been known to make male fish take on female characteristics! What's more they can contaminate our bodies via food, air and water and pose health risks to humans, particularly to our immune, reproductive and hormonal systems. It's bad enough that even though there are safer alternatives out there, many brands continue to use these hazardous chemicals to make adult's clothes. But this study showed no significant di"erence between the level of hazardous chemicals found in children's made for adults. Our little ones are especially vulnerable to the presence of certain Little Monsters in our environment. My daughter is now four-years old and I'm always amazed how fast she learns and develops day-by-day. Unfortunately, many of the chemicals tested for are known to disrupt our hormone systems, and mess with the normal development of our bodies. We may only see these adverse e"ects much later in lives of our little ones. But all is not lost! Some of you reading this may already be part of the global movement that made 18 global brands commit to Detox – agreeing to phase out all hazardous chemicals by 2020. The movement is proof that people power works. What’s more, progress is already being made with most of the brands taking steps to eliminate the worst chemicals and make their supply chains more transparent. However, it shocks me to see other brands like adidas with global reach and vast profit margins refusing to take this Join the Movement. We have already made 18 big brands commit to change their ways and we can do it again. This is an issue close to my heart and one I believe we can all do something about. On behalf of my daughter, I decided to step out of my comfort zone and put pen to paper, adding my voice millions of others by writing this, my very first blog. The Detox campaign has shown that when we as parents, fashion lovers and activists speak out, big clothing brands do listen. By making ourselves heard, we can push the industry to commit to change in the name of our own children, grandchildren, nieces, nephews and the generations to come. Take Action. issue seriously, failing to follow through on their public commitment with any credible actions. Meanwhile, other big players in the clothing industry, like Disney and American Apparel, still haven't taken responsibility for their involvement in this toxic tale that is a"ecting people across the globe.

Disney, to sportswear brands like adidas, clothes and those found in garments

The actual situation is that the concentration of RSP remains high. [17]

A beautiful figure from the government showing the gradual decrease in amount of RSP in HK. [18]

Greenwoods commentary

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The environmental protection department in Hong Kong announced the replacement of Air Pollution Index (API) with Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) in December 2013. The new index concerns mainly the ‘short-term health risk of air pollution’ according to the department, but exactly what kind of pollutants are involved and how these pollutants can a"ect people’s health in Hong Kong? According to the Hong Kong’s Environmental Protection Department, air pollutants in Hong Kong mainly include sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), respirable suspended particulates (RSP or PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO). All these pollutants are harmful to us and PM10 would be our main focus in this article. RSP(PM10): Respirable suspended particulates (RSP or PM10) are particulate that can penetrate to#alveoli#and hence the#circulatory system and with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers, thus also named as PM10. They are tiny pieces of solid or liquid matter associated with the Earth's atmosphere. Burning of#fossil fuels#in vehicles,#power plants#and various industrial processes generate significant amounts of particulates. Sea spray consisting of mainly sodium chloride is another important source of particulates.[16] #Atmospheric Within the group of PM10, PM2.5 is a subgroup which with diameter smaller than 2·5 %m that can penetrate into the gasexchange region of the lung and have a greater degree of lung penetration than PM10.#The#World Health Organization (WHO)#estimates that "... fine particulate air pollution (PM(2.5)), causes about 3% of mortality from cardiopulmonary disease, about 5% of mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung, and about 1% of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 yr, worldwide." [17] particulate matter can be of di"erent sizes but PM10 is more of a concern because of its small size. The small size of the particle helps it to penetrate the deepest part of the lungs such as the bronchioles or alveoli while the larger particles are generally filtered in the#nose#and#throat#via cilia and mucus. Since 1970s, the e"ect of anthropogenic#particulate air pollution on health has been heavily studied. Many studies suggested that exposure to fine particulate matter in the air was associated with life shortening and some found significant e"ects of particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 %m (PM10) on non-malignant respiratory deaths in men and women, and on lung-cancer mortality in male, non-smoking individuals [1] The e"ect on shortening life expectancy has been estimated at 1–2 years for realistic exposure contrasts. [2]

Mechanism of health problems: A number of models are suggested on the mechanism of how the fine particulates can cause health problems. According to some epidemiological studies, inhaled particulates can cause increase in respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The particulates can cause proinflammatory e"ects involving lung epithelial cells [8]and alveolar macrophages. [7] They directly uptake into epithelial cells [8] and macrophages, and oxidant pathways are activated with the downstream consequences of stimulating cytokine and mediator release, resulting in extensive neutrophil migration, but also T lymphocyte recruitment and activation. [9] [10] Acute tissue damage will activate the epidermal-growthfactor receptor (EGFR) pathway, and organ-repair responses and results in epithelial mucus metaplasia, as does ongoing cytokine and chemokine secretion that contributes to airway inflammation. [9] As for PM2.5, it can lead to high plaque deposits in#arteries, causing vascular inflammation and#atherosclerosis#— a hardening of the arteries that reduces elasticity, which can lead to heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems. Also, there is evidence that particles smaller than 100 nanometers can pass through cell membranes and migrate into other organs, including the brain. Brain damage similar to that in Alzheimer’s patient can be caused by this kind of particulate. The standard To conclude the risk of particulates on health, there is an excess risk of death of “0·5% per 10 %g/m3#PM10 [14] Taking Hong Kong as an example, with mortality figure of 43672 in 2012 [14] and the annual average PM10 level of 50ug/m3, the number of death attributable to day-to-day variations in PM10 would translate into at least 1092 deaths brought forward by air pollution per year—almost 2.5 times the number of deaths due to diabetes. Though the RSP is posing a great risk to our health, the guideline on regulating the concentration of of RSP in Hong Kong is not up to international standard. According to the WHO air quality guideline for PM10, the 24-hour and annual concentration of the particulates should not be greater than 50 and 20 %g/m3 respectively. However, the Hong Kong standard are only 100 and 50 %g/m3 for the 24-hour and annual concentration. The di"erences in Hong Kong and WHO standard are even greater for PM2.5. The Hong Kong standard is almost 3 times than that of the WHO one. Due to this ‘high tolerance’ of RSP concentration, the general annual concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 are about 50 ug/m3 and 35 ug/m3 over the past 10 years. The figures fit perfectly with Hong Kong standard but they are a few times higher than the WHO standard. We do not know how does the government come up with the Hong Kong air quality objectives, whether the similarity between the measured concentration and the Hong Kong standard is an coincidence or not. But Hong Kong, which claims itself as Asia’s world city, should not have an air quality control standard that lag so much behind the international standard. The WHO standard was published in back in 2005. Another point that is worth mentioning is that according to the government website, there is a gradual decrease in the total amount of RSP production in Hong Kong. However, when comparing with the documents obtained from the Legislative Council, such a decreasing trend was not found in the annual concentration of the RSP, which remains high for past few years. So, is there anything wrong in the RSP measuring program? Or there are more sources of pollution that we do not know? The answers of these questions remain unclear but what we know is that many new findings suggest that health e"ects can be seen at even lower concentrations and air pollution problem will remain one of the most crucial environmental problems waiting for solution.

Comparing Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (from the Environmental Protection Department) and the WHO Air quality guidelines [16][17]
Pollutant Averaging time 10-minute 24-hour 24-hour Annual 24-hour Annual 1-hour Annual 8-hour Hong Kong Concentration limit (µg/m3) 500 125* 100* 50* 75* 35* 200 40 160* WHO Guideline 500 20 50 20 25 10 200 40 100

Sulphur dioxide Respirable suspended particulates (PM10) [ii] Fine suspended particulates (PM2.5) [iii] Nitrogen dioxide Ozone

# the Hong Kong’s AQOs was updated on 1 January 2014.
* means the concentration limit is greater than the WHO guildlines.

References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. DE Abbey, N Nishino, WF McDonnell et al. Long-term inhalable particles and other air pollutants related to mortality in nonsmokersAm J Respir Crit Care Med, 159 (1999), pp. 373–382 B Brunekreef Air pollution and life expectancy: is there a relation? Occup Environ Med, 54 (1997), pp. 781–7845H Bayram, RJ Sapsford, MM Abdelaziz, OA Khair E"ect of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on the release of proinflammatory mediators from bronchial epithelial cells of nonatopic nonasthmatic subjects and atopic asthmatic patients in vitroJ Allergy Clin Immunol, 107 (2001), pp. 287–294 A Blomberg, MT Krishna, V Bocchino et al. The inflammatory e"ects of 2 ppm NO2 on the airways of healthy subjectsAm J Respir Crit Care Med, 156 (1997), pp. 418–424 T Sandstrom, R Helleday, L Bjermer, N Stjernberg E"ects of repeated exposure to 4 ppm nitrogen dioxide on bronchoalveolar lymphocyte subsets and macrophages in healthy men T Fujii, S Hayashi, JC Hogg, R Vincent, SF Van Eeden Particulate matter induces cytokine expression in human bronchial epithelial cells Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 25 (2001), pp. 265–271 M Lundborg, U Johard, L Lastbom, P Gerde, P Camner Human alveolar macrophage phagocytic function is impaired by aggregates of ultrafine carbon particles Environ Res, 86 (2001), pp. 244–253 RC Stearns, JD Paulauskis, JJ Godleski Endocytosis of ultrafine particles by A549 cells Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 24 (2001), pp. 108–115 SS Salvi, C Nordenhall, A Blomberg et al. Acute exposure to diesel exhaust increases IL-8 and GRO-alpha production in healthy human airways Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 161 (2000), pp. 550–557 S Salvi, A Blomberg, B Rudell et al. Acute inflammatory responses in the airways and peripheral blood after short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy human volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 159 (1999), pp. 702–709 SM Puddicombe, DE Davie The role of MAP kinases in intracellular signal transduction in bronchial epitheliumClin Exp Allergy, 30 (2000), pp. 7–11 J Firket Fog along the Meuse Valley Trans Faraday Soc, 32 (1936), pp. 1192–1197 Number of Deaths by Leading Causes of Death, 2001 - 2012. Centre for Health Protection. http://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/ data/4/10/27/380.html Bert Brunekreef, Stephen T Holgate, Air pollution and health, The Lancet, Volume 360, Issue 9341, 19 October 2002, Pages 1233-1242, ISSN 0140-6736, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11274-8. (http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673602112748) Legislative#Council Panel#on EnvironmentalA"air Subcommittee#on#Improving#Air#Quality#Responses#to#the#Follow& up#Actions#(Items#(3))#Arising#from#the#Discussion#at#the#Meeting#on#27#June#2012# http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr11-12/ english/panels/ea/ea_iaq/papers/ea_iaq0627cb1-2367-1-e.pdf doc The Air Pollution Control Ordinance (Cap. 311) sets out Air Quality Objectives (AQOs). http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/ english/environmentinhk/air/air_quality_objectives/air_quality_objectives.html WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen, dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 2005. http:// whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf?ua=1 Hong Kong#Air Pollutant Emission Inventory. Environmental Protection Department. 2014. http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/ english/environmentinhk/air/data/emission_inve.html

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To conclude...
The 21st cabinet of Greenwoods, HKUSU witnessed a fruitful school year, denoted with the variety of activities, outings and campaigns we held. We have strived to achieve the following goals: to promote harmony between

mankind ourselves and our environment, to urge our university body to align its operations and administration with environmental objectives and to heighten our students’ awareness towards an ecofriendly lifestyle. In the coming

academic year, a new group of committee members will be handed over the baton and more importantly, they will continue to uphold the spirit of Greenwoods, HKUSU and make a positive impact on all HKU students.

Thank you for the support this year! Hope to see you guys soon!