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Tutorial 1

Policy Making

1. Who is Max Weber? He believes the ideal model of economy and society is one in which bureaucracy plays a key role to a good functioning state. Bureaucracy should provide continuity permanence! it should be a hierarchical organisation! rational and efficient and there should be a dichotomy between the political and administrative level. An Official] shall carry out the duties assigned to him objectively, impartially and in keeping with his duty of loyalty to the Communities "he Weberian tradition! is centred on a doctrine of separation of political and administrative roles. Whereas politicians are seen as responsible for the broad formulation and general direction of policy! bureaucrats are regarded as executives who implement politicians# ob$ectives. %. What are the sources of influence of civil servants according to Weber &see 'uote in manual(? )peaking in terms of hierarchy and authority! civil servants are always agents that implement their political masters# demands. *n the literature on public administration &+berbach , -ockman! 1../0 1ichbaum , )haw! %212( this phenomena is also called the 3responsive competence4 of the civil service! which refers to 3the readiness of public servants to do what government ministers want4 &Mulgan! %225! p. 6/7(. *n a politicised setting the prescribed borderline between policy formulation and policy implementation is blurred! with civil servants contributing to the generation of ideas and the interpretation of interests. 6. "he supranational 1uropean 8ommission is the principal 1uropean bureaucracy to which member states have delegated important powers. How can we explain this important transfer of powers? How can the national capitals make sure that their 9agent# in Brussels behaves according to their wishes? :elegation involves both costs and benefits for the delegating party and! in a rational world! the relative attractiveness of alternative governance structures is determined by the balance between the two."he benefits of delegation lie in the reduction of political transaction costs! by providing solutions to collective;action problems that prevent efficient political exchange. "he benefits may be grouped in four general categories< &a( facilitating credible policy commitments! as agents allow politicians to $ointly tie their hands0 &b( reducing information asymmetries! as agents develop and employ policy;relevant expertise0 &c( improving decision making efficiency! as agents manage detailed rule making! thus saving politicians# time and effort for more general policy decisions0 and &d( shifting blame for unpopular decisions and policy failures! as agents get to carry the conse'uences! thus allowing politicians to escape electoral punishment. 8ommittee members hold supranational role perceptions that complement their identities as government representatives &e.g. 1geberg et al.! %226(. "he studies by Beyers &1..5! %227( indicate that national factors play a more prominent role in shaping the attitudes of officials towards the 1= than social interaction at the 1uropean level. /. *n his study on the role of committees! >rank H?ge investigates under which conditions national civil servants participating in working groups take decisions on

Ministers can devote only a limited amount of time to 8ouncil decision. "heir employment may be terminated at any time! sub$ect to one month#s notice per year of service. How is the administrative machinery of the 1uropean Carliament organised? "he conditions under which certain civil servants are employed lead to a distinction between permanent staff! temporary staff! contract agents and accredited parliamentary assistants. While their contracts are identical to those of permanent staff in terms of rights! working conditions and social benefits! the main difference is that their position is not permanent. . :o you consider that his findings are problematic for the legitimacy of the 1= policy.making than is fre'uently suggested.legislative dossiers without involvement of the political level. Accredited parliamentary assistants. Permanent staff of the Carliament are assigned to the Deneral )ecretariat &D)( and belong to the highest level of the administrative machinery.making give few indications that the voting rule is explicitly applied to reach decisions at the committee level! but the mere prospect of a vote being taken at the ministerial level seems to foster more compromising attitudes in committee negotiations. >ew commentators would argue against the merits of experts deciding on proposals that demand a good understanding of highly complex matters.making. "heir working conditions and salary scales are different to those of temporary staff as wells! which usually result in lower allowances that are contingent on the amount of professional experience of the applicant. "he expected effect of uncertainty about the conse'uences of legislative proposals is also found in the analysis. Ministers have time constraints and cannot deal with each and every proposal personally. 1xisting accounts of 8ouncil decision. But the analysis demonstrates that the most important dossiers do not go through the 8ouncil machinery without the direct involvement of ministers.term employees who can be employed for a maximum of three years in Carliament. "hus! ministers focus their attention on the most conse'uential proposals and leave less important dossiers for bureaucrats to decide. Contract staff are fixed. 7. *f a dossier demands more speciali@ed knowledge to understand its conse'uences! the dossier is more likely to be decided at the committee level. What are the main findings of his extensive research? +lthough the si@e of the voting rule effect depends on the inclusion of controls for different 8ouncil formations! the possibility of 'ualified ma$ority voting seems to increase the probability of a decision being made at the committee level. Temporary agents of the 1C are sub$ect to regulation of the 38onditions of 1mployment of Ether )ervants of the 1uropean 8ommunities4! which is an integral part of the )taff -egulations. )uch assistants are defined as persons chosen by one or more M1Cs to provide direct assistance to the M1C in a climate of mutual trust. "hus! government ministers seem to be more in control of 8ouncil decision. making process? Ao * don#t think so. B.

"he officials# perception of themselves! what they consider as typical and essential elements of their work0 3We are the masters of procedural and practical matters4 F.vis the 8ouncil. +ccording to the ideal model of Weber! civil servants are supposed to be neutral and it is up to the politicians to make the choices./! p.G. *ssue of legitimacy. . *n a politicised setting the prescribed borderline between policy formulation and policy implementation is blurred! with civil servants contributing to the generation of ideas and the interpretation of interests. Do through a concour! you have to be smart! however not elected. What do we learn about this 'uestion from the case study on the 1uropean Carliament conducted by -omanyshyn and Aeuhold? "he neutrality of civil servants is 3the ability to do the work of government expertly! and to do it according to explicit! ob$ective standards rather than to personal or party or other obligations and loyalties4 &1. 1ven though government cabinets may change fre'uently! civil servants represent the 3organisational memory4 of their respective departments and must be able to serve any government with e'ually neutral support *t should not come as a surprise that! in addition to the traditional role of the guardians of procedural guidelines! Carliament conciliation officials also act as policy experts advising the negotiators on how to achieve the best compromise solutions for the Carliament vis.. 8ivil servants are needed for their expertise and they have more time. *n practice however the expert knowledge of bureaucrats is a possible source of influence on the policymaking process. /B1(.