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List of vegetable oils

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Plant oils

Olive oil


Vegetable oil


Macerated oil



Drying oil - Oil paint

Cooking oil

Fuel - Biodiesel


Saturated fat

Monounsaturated fat

The solution may be separated from the plant material and concentrated. Oils may also be extracted from plants by dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent. only the oil from certain major oil crops [4] complemented by a few dozen minor oil crops[5] is widely used and traded.Polyunsaturated fat Trans fat Vegetable oils are triglycerides extracted from plants. The mixture may also be separated bydistilling the oil away from the plant material. giving an extracted or leached oil. Although most plants contain some oil. giving an expressed oil. There are three principal methods for extracting vegetable oils. oils from plants are used in cooking. and for other industrial purposes. and skin care. and the oils may be classified by grouping oils from similar plants. are burned as fuel. Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia. for medical purposes. oil painting. The vegetable oils are grouped below in common classes of use. for example:  By source: most. Contents [hide]  1 Edible oils o 1.[2] or broadly defined without regard to a substance's state of matter at a given temperature.1 Major oils .[1] Edible vegetable oils are used in food. such as "nut oils". both in cooking and as supplements.[3] For this reason. for cosmetics. Many oils. a process called liquid-liquid extraction. such as in oil lamps and as a substitute for petroleum-based fuels. edible and otherwise. The relevant part of the plant may be placed under pressure to extract the oil. Some of the many other uses include wood finishing. Oils extracted by this latter method are called essential oils. Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways.Macerated oils are made by infusing parts of plants in a base oil.  By use: as described above. but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or seeds of plants. some of the entries on this list do not qualify as vegetable oils according to all understandings of the term. Essential oils often have different properties and uses than pressed or leached vegetable oils. These oils are one of several types of plant oils. The term "vegetable oil" can be narrowly defined as referring only to substances that are liquid at room temperature. for fuel.

2 Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel 3 Drying oils 4 Other oils 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading Edible oils[edit] See also: Cooking oil Major oils[edit] Sunflowers.3 Citrus oils 1.4 Oils from melon and gourd seeds 1. the seeds of which are the source of sunflower oil.[6]    Corn oil.[8] Olive oil. Common in the tropics. cosmetics.[9] . soaps.  Coconut oil. both domestically and industrially. with medical and industrial applications as well. with medium chain fatty acids dominant. Extracted from the kernel or meat of the fruit of the coconut palm. a cooking oil. and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.1 Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel 2.5 Food supplements 1.6 Other edible oils 2 Oils used for biofuel o o       2.[7] Cottonseed oil. and unusual in composition.o o o o o  1. All are also used as fuel oils. one of the principal oils sold as salad and cooking oil. These oils make up a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. used as a salad and cooking oil. used in cooking.2 Nut oils 1.

[15] Sesame oil.[18] Mustard oil. May have value for fighting dental cavities. one of the most widely used cooking oils. because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.[19] Beech nut oil. Also used in skin care. a common cooking oil. High in vitamin E.[12]  Peanut oil (Ground nut oil). mainly used for its flavor. is a well-regarded edible oil in Europe. because of its slightastringent nature.[25] Pine nut oil.   Almond oil.[28] . from the seeds of the Schinziophyton rautanenii. a clear oil with some applications as a salad dressing. used for salads and cooking.[26][27] and of potential medicinal interest as an appetite suppressant. including Canola oil. also used to make biodiesel.[10] Popular in West African andBrazilian cuisine. but primarily in the manufacture of cosmetics. and. used for cooking Nut oils[edit] Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel.[22] Macadamia oil. a tree which grows in South Africa. sold as a gourmet cooking oil. produced as a byproduct of processing soy meal.[20]     Cashew oil. due to its high smoke point. used as an edible oil. from Fagus sylvatica nuts. used to make Hazelnut oil. but requiring fresh pecans for good quality oil. especially used for frying. now mostly as a cooking oil. hot pressed for a darker and stronger flavor. the most widely produced tropical oil. valued as a food oil.[23] Mongongo nut oil (or manketti oil). for their flavor.[21] Hazelnut oil. Palm oil.[14] Safflower oil. Also used in skin care.[11] Also used to make biofuel. cold pressed as light cooking oil. somewhat comparable to olive oil. Most are quite costly.[24]   Pecan oil.[16] Soybean oil.[17] Sunflower oil. until the 1960s used in the paint industry. Nut oils are generally used in cooking. with a mild nutty flavor and a high smoke point.[13]       Rapeseed oil.

[23] also used by Renaissance painters in oil paints.[29][30] Citrus oils[edit] A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. cold pressed rather than distilled.[39] Consists of 90% d-Limonene. in cleaning products and in flavoring foods. Grapefruit seed oil was extracted experimentally in 1930 and was shown to be suitable for making soap.[31][32][33][34]  Grapefruit seed oil. a strongly flavored oil with a distinctive green color.  Pistachio oil. are used as essential oils.[38]  Orange oil. Some. extracted from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi).[23] Walnut oil. Used as a fragrance.[note 1][31] The seeds of many if not most members of the citrus family yield usable oils. used for its flavor. [36] Used as a flavoring agent[37]and in aromatherapy. such as lemon and orange oil. One of a small number of cold pressed essential oils. which is uncommon for pressed oils.[40] The fruit of the sea-buckthorn Oils from melon and gourd seeds[edit] . similar in fragrance to the fruit. like lemon oil. [35]  Lemon oil.

marinades.[42]  Bottle gourd oil. from the seeds of Borago officinalis.[52][53][54]  Blackcurrant seed oil.[44]  Butternut squash seed oil. widely grown intropical regions. for their nutrient content or purported medicinal effect. In most cases.   Açaí oil. andIslamic medicine. High in gammaLinolenic. Borage seed oil. with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food. native to southwest North America.Watermelon seed oil. a specialty cooking oil. pressed from Nigella sativa seeds. extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris. and squashes. and sautéeing.[55] Evening primrose oil. from the seeds of Oenothera biennis. produced in Austria. extracted from the seeds of the Lagenaria siceraria. from the fruit of several species of the Açaí palm (Euterpe) grown in the Amazon region.[45]   Egusi[note 2] seed oil. 15–20% and 7–10%. and evening primrose oil all have a significant amount of gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA) (about 23%.[41]  Bitter gourd oil.[55][57] . the plants are grown as food. as well as a topic of current medical research.[43]  Buffalo gourd oil. Used mostly in salad dressings. Asian.[47]  Watermelon seed oil. particularly because it does not contain alpha-Linolenic acid. Used as an edible oil. Slovenia and Croatia. from the seeds of Cucumeropsis mannii naudin. but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil.[48][49] Food supplements[edit] A number of oils are used as food supplements (or "nutraceuticals"). a vine with a rank odor. pumpkins. from the seeds of the Cucurbita foetidissima.[50][51] Black seed oil.[56] the most important plant source of gammaLinolenic acid. omega-3 andomega-6 fatty acids.[46] Pumpkin seed oil.[55]   Borage seed oil. from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Members of the Cucurbitaceae include gourds. pressed from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris. from the seeds of Momordica charantia. has a long history of medicinal use. has a nutty flavor that is used for salad dressings. Traditionally used in cooking in West Africa. blackcurrant seed oil. including in ancient Greek. is used in cooking in West Africa. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content. High in α-Eleostearic acid. from the seeds of Ribes nigrum. used as a food supplement. and it is this that has drawn the interest of researchers. respectively). melons. is particularly rich in linoleic acid. Of current research interest for its potential anti-carcinogenic properties.

[59] Other edible oils[edit] Carob seed pods. high in linoleic acid. which it resembles. high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids. cosmetics and medicines in places where the tree is common.[60]    Apricot oil. High in behenic acid. from the seeds of the Attalea speciosa. with similar properties to poppyseed oil. from the seeds of the Argania spinosa. as well as in some ointments and cosmetics.[61] Apple seed oil.[72][73] Cocoa butter. which can be used medicinally. from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum. from the cacao plant. Extremely stable edible oil. is used in the manufacture of chocolate. similar to almond oil. and used as a substitute for. an edible oil[64] used primarily in the cosmetics and pharmaceuticalindustries. also called yangu oil. A good dietary equivalent to fish oil. from the seeds of grain amaranth species. similar in taste and smell to sunflower oil. sometimes known as theobroma oil [74]  Cocklebur oil.[58] Easily turns rancid. High in omega-3 and lignans. Also suitable forbiofuel. is similar to. including Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. is a food oil from Morocco[63]developed through a women's cooperative founded in the 1990s.[note 3] that has also attracted recent attention in Europe. used to make carob pod oil.  Amaranth oil. and to make soap.[69]  Borneo tallow nut oil. coconut oil. extracted from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera.[70]    Cape chestnut oil.[71] Carob pod oil (Algaroba oil).[65][66] Unusually high smoke point of 510°F.[67]  Babassu oil. candles.[75][76] . Used in cosmetics. extracted from the fruit of species of genus Shorea.  Avocado oil. with an exceptionally high essential fatty acid content. is a popular oil in Africa for skin care. from carob. from species of genus Xanthium. Flaxseed oil (called linseed oil when used as a drying oil). Used as a substitute for cocoa butter.[68]  Ben oil.[62] Argan oil.

 Coriander seed oil. One of the earliest oil crops. where is it being examined as a tablet lubricant. Cohune oil.[85] Considered promising as a food or fuel oil. Coriander seed oil. extracted as part of the same process when extracting the oil. native to West Africa. resins and soft soaps.[90] Kenaf seed oil. a high quality food oil[88] also used to make paints.[87] Hemp oil. An edible oil similar to cottonseed oil.[89] Kapok seed oil. soap and pharmaceuticals. such as E. dating back to the 6th millennium B. Mafura butter.[93]  Mafura oil. extracted from the seeds of Trichilia emetica.[81]  Dika oil. used as an edible oil. and medicinally.C. Used as an edible oil in Ethiopia. used in a wide variety of flavoring applications. also sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor. nutty flavor. from Irvingia gabonensis seeds.[79]  Date seed oil. Also used in soaps. from coriander seeds. with a long history of use. as a body ointment. including gin and seasoning blends.[86]     Grape seed oil. Used as an edible oil with a light.[91][92]  Lallemantia oil. soapmaking and as a lamp oil. Used to makemargarine. is not edible. fell out of production in the 1940s.Fatty acid composition is similar to that of olive oil.[80] Its low extraction rate and lack of other distinguishing characteristics make it an unlikely candidate for major use.[84] Produced in modern times in Central andEastern Europe. extracted from date pits. extracted from the kernel of Sclerocarya birrea.[95][96] . from the seeds of Lallemantia iberica.[94]  Marula oil. a cooking and salad oil.[82][83]  False flax oil made of the seeds of Camelina sativa. from the seeds of Ceiba pentandra. from the Attalea cohune (cohune palm) used as a lubricant. and is used in soap and candle making.[77] Coriander seeds are the source of an edible pressed oil. varnishes. coli.[78] Recent research has shown promise for use in killing food-borne bacteria. as fuel. and in soap production. Largely underdeveloped. from the seeds of Hibiscus cannabinus. discovered at archaeological sites in northern Greece. for cooking.

[118] Quinoa oil. by contrast. extracted by steam distillation. extracted from the seeds of Diospyros virginiana. Used in Brazil as a highly prized cooking oil. used to make poppyseed oil  Nutmeg butter. varnishes. is anessential oil. Nutmeg oil. Used in the Philippines as an edible oil. for medicinal purposes in Asian herbal medicine. Cultivation for the plant originated in the Ethiopian highlands. long used for cooking.[103]Not to be confused with papaya oil produced by maceration. high in omega-3 and omega-6. which belongs to the Asteraceae family and of the Guizotiagenus. similar in composition to olive oil. from Punica granatum seeds.[119] .[108]  Pili nut oil. Composed predominantly of oleic andlinoleic acids. in paints. reddish brown color. Meadowfoam seed oil. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications. and soaps. from Abelmoschus esculentus.[98] Niger seed oil is obtained from the edible seeds of the Niger plant. extracted from the seeds of Canarium ovatum.[109]  Pomegranate seed oil.[100]  Okra seed oil. marketed as a gourmet cooking oil[116][117] Similar in composition to peach kernel oil. Dark. The botanical name of the plant is Guizotia abyssinica. in skin care products and as a drying oil. A topic of current medical research for treating and preventing cancer. highly stable oil.[104]  Perilla seed oil. high in omega-3 fatty acids.[97]   Mustard oil (pressed). and has since spread from Malawi to India.[99] Poppy seeds. Nearly equal content of oleic and linoleic acids. is very high in punicic acid (which takes its name from pomegranates). used in India as a cooking oil. similar in composition and use to corn oil.[101] The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor.[105][106]  Persimmon seed oil. with over 98% long-chain fatty acids.[110][111]    Poppyseed oil. Also used as a massage oil.[107]  Pequi oil. Used as an edible oil. as well as for a lamp oil.[112][113][114][115] Prune kernel oil. Nutmeg butter has a large amount of trimyristin. similar in taste to olive oil. extracted by expression from the fruit of cogeners of genus Myristica.[102]  Papaya seed oil. extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense.

[140] . similar to olive oil. widely used in southern China as a cooking oil. suitable for high-temperature cooking. pressed from the seeds of the one of several species of genus Guizotia abyssinica (Niger pea) in India andEthiopia. from the seeds of Jessenia bataua. phenol compounds and natural anti-oxidants.[124] Shea nuts. from the seeds of Nicotiana tabacum and other Nicotiana species. edible oil shrub that grows in the higher Himalayas. from the seeds of the arugula (Eruca sativa). is suitable for edible purposes.[120][121]  Rice bran oil is a highly stable cooking and salad oil.[137]  Tigernut oil (or nut-sedge oil) is pressed from the tuber of Cyperus esculentus.[133][134]  Thistle oil. African women. from the Peruvian Amazon. Used medicinally in Nepal. a wild. from which shea butter is pressed    Sacha inchi oil. much of which is produced by poor. hair oils and a variety of other products. grown in West Asia andNorthern India. Used as a (pungent) edible oil after aging to remove acridity.tocopherols. sunflower and rapeseed oils.[128]  Shea butter.[138]  Tobacco seed oil. omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Also used in making soaps.[135] A good potential source of special fatty acids. pressed from the seeds of Silybum marianum. Used primarily in skin care products and as a substitute for cocoa butter in confections andcosmetics. pressed from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis. used as a cooking oil in Guatemala. If purified.[125][126] Sapote oil. High in behenic. It has properties similar to soybean. Ramtil oil.[129][130]  Taramira oil. carotenoids.[131][132]  Tea seed oil (Camellia oil).[138] It is used in cooking and making soap[139] and has potential as a biodiesel fuel.[67][122] It also has potential as a biofuel. Used in South America as an edible oil.[127] Seje oil.[136] as well as for generally improving the nutritional value of foods.[123]  Royle oil. as well as for soaps and in the cosmetics industry.

as a cooking oil.[141]  Wheat germ oil.[142] high in vitamin E and octacosanol. used nutritionally and in cosmetic preparations. Tomato seed oil is a potentially valuable by-product. from the waste seeds generated from processing tomatoes.[143] Oils used for biofuel[edit] See also: Vegetable oil used as fuel A flask of biodiesel Sunflower kernels .

[158] Salicornia oil. Widely grown in Asia. effort required to grow and harvest. from Brassica rapa. Other oils are used only as biofuel.[145] diesel fuel is almost exclusively petroleum-based. Kinematic viscosity may be an issue. relatively low in emissions.[159] . Wild radish contains up to 48% oil. energy content. shown to be comparable to Canola oil as a biofuel. and post-harvest processing cost Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel[edit] The oils listed immediately below are all (primarily) used for other purposes – all but tung oil are edible – but have been considered for use as biofuel. very popular for biofuel. a halophyte (salt-loving plant)native to Mexico. Cost. viscosity. Cottonseed oil. combustion productsand other factors 2. used in one of the first demonstrations of the Diesel engine in 1900.[154]        Peanut oil. lower cost than many candidates. based in part on yield.[153] Palm oil.[146] Coconut oil (copra oil).[148]     Corn oil. but the environmental impact from growing large quantities of oil palms has recently called the use of palm oil into question. It is a major source of biodiesel in Germany. with vegetable oil in mind.[156] Rice bran oil. the subject of study for cost-effectiveness as a biodiesel feedstock.[149][150] False flax oil. appealing because of the abundance of maize as a crop.[151][152]   Mustard oil.[157] Safflower oil.[147] Colza oil.Jojoba fruit A number of oils are used for biofuel (biodiesel and Straight Vegetable Oil) in addition to having other uses. Production is problematic in some countries because of its association with marijuana. in part. used for lighting in India.[86] Hemp oil. appealing because of lower cost than many other vegetable oils.[144] Ramtil oil. explored recently as a biofuel in Montana.[155] Rapeseed oil. Suitability as a fuel. promising for local use in places that produce coconuts. from the seeds of Salicornia bigelovii. from Camelina sativa. used in Europe in oil lamps until the 18th century. the most common base oil used in Europe in biodiesel production. based on flash point.    Castor oil. var.[note 4][144] Although diesel engines were invented. making it appealing as a fuel. oleifera (turnip) is closely related to rapeseed (orcanola) oil.[145] Radish oil. Vegetable oils are evaluated for use as a biofuel based on: 1.

walnut. a desert shrub. Researched in the 1980s by Petrobras." [138] Tung oil.[175] . popularized by chemist Melvin Calvin in the 1950s.[169]  Petroleum nut oil. India. from the Canarium strictum. Used in Brazil as a cosmetic product and a major source ofbiodiesel.[167]   Nahor oil. plus the major oilsdescribed above.[163]    Jatropha oil. [161] Several factors in China produce biodiesel from tung oil. not economical as a fuel crop.[170]  Pongamia oil (also known as Honge oil). The Philippine government once explored the use of the petroleum nut as a biofuel. pressed from the kernels of Mesua ferrea.  Copaiba. from the Petroleum nut (Pittosporum resiniferum) native to the Philippines. the Brazilian national petroleum company. but appealing as a byproduct of soybean crops for other uses. referenced in several lists of vegetable oils that are suitable for biodiesel. from the seeds of Simarouba glauca.[173]  Dammar oil. sunflower and safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils.[164][165] Jojoba oil. Soybean oil. used in paint as an oil drying agent. suitable as a fuel. from the Simmondsia chinensis. but not necessarily cost effective.[166] Milk bush.[168] Paradise oil.[174] Can also be used as a lamp oil. have received much more attention as fuel oils than other plant oils. and in other paint and wood finishing applications. Such oils are used as the basis of oil paints.[160] Tigernut oil has been described by researchers in China as having "great potential as a biodiesel fuel. has received interest in India as a feed stock for biodiesel. Has attracted strong proponents for use as a biofuel. an oleoresin tapped from species of genus Copaifera.[144]    Sunflower oil. In addition to the oils listed here. extracted from Millettia pinnata and pioneered as a biofuel by Udipi Shrinivasa inBangalore.[note 5] These. widely used in India as a fuel oil.[162] Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel[edit] See also: Algae fuel These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated solely for producing oil-based biofuel. is used in India as a lamp oil.[171][172] Drying oils[edit] See also: Drying oil Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry to a hard finish at normal room temperature.

varnishes and paints.[179]  Vernonia oil is produced from the seeds of the Vernonia galamensis.[173] Stillingia oil (also called Chinese vegetable tallow oil). It has been studied for insecticidal use. Used as a drying agent in paints and varnishes. obtained by solvent from the seeds of Sapium sebiferum.[177][178]  Tung oil. or not used as an edible oil. linseed oil is called flaxseed oil. for use in oil paints. as a plasticizer and hardener in putty and in making linoleum. used as an industrial lubricant and highly effective drying agent.[180] Other oils[edit] A number of pressed vegetable oils are either not edible. pressed from the fruit of the Phellodendron amurense. similar in usage to linseed oil but with better color stability.[181][182] . It is composed of 73–80% vernolic acid. Also used as a substitute for linseed oil. Linseed oil's properties as a polymer make it highly suitable for wood finishing.   Poppyseed oil. The fruit of the amur cork tree Castor beans are the source of castor oil  Amur cork tree fruit oil.[176] When used in food or medicinally. and industrial coatings. which can be used to make epoxies for manufacturing adhesives.

and as an ingredient in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. The refined fat is used as an edible fat and vegetable ghee in India.[201]  Mowrah butter. used primarily for skin care products. from the nuts of the Shorea stenoptera. used in cosmetics as an alternative to whale oil spermaceti. and in phthisis.[196]  Honesty oil.[187]     Candlenut oil (Kukui nut oil).[185][186]  Burdock oil (Bur oil) extracted from the root of the burdock. used in skin care products. Of interest as sources of medium chain triglycerides. from the seeds of Lunaria annua. Used incosmetics. pressed from the seeds of Lesquerella fendleri.[89][197]  Illipe butter. including erucic and nervonic acid.[190] Also used to treat secondary syphilis. extracted from the seeds of the artichoke fruit. Similar to cocoa butter. making it suitable for certain industrial purposes. from carrot seeds. Used as an herbal remedy for scalp conditions.[184]  Brucea javanica oil. extracted from the seeds of the Brucea javanica.[183]  Balanos oil. Many industrial uses.[44] .[69]  Bladderpod oil. produced in Hawai'i.rheumatism. from the seeds of the Madhuca latifolia and Madhuca longifolia. and can be used for making soap. used for many centuries.[note 6][189] Castor oil. extracted from the seeds of the Crambe abyssinica.[200] Mango oil. Artichoke oil. from the seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana. High in erucic acid.[195]  Cuphea oil.[191][192]  Crambe oil. The oil has been shown to be effective in treating certain cancers. Crude Mowrah butter is used as a fat for spinning wool.[188] Carrot seed oil (pressed). The oil is particularly rich in long chain fatty acids. is high in stearic acid.[198][199]   Jojoba oil. shampoo.[144] Chaulmoogra oil. which contain 30–40% oil. it was formerly used as a drastic purgative. pressed from the stones of the mango fruit. Highly toxic. from a number of species of genre Cuphea.[193][194]  Croton oil (tiglium oil) is pressed from the seeds of Croton tiglium. both native to India. which is chemically similar to the ricinoleic acidfound in castor oil. Rich in lesquerolic acid. scrofula. a corrosion inhibitor. to treat leprosy. alkyd resin and shoe polish. pressed from the seeds of Balanites aegyptiaca. Castor beans are also a source of the toxin ricin. used as an industrial lubricant. Possible substitute for castor oil as it requires much less moisture than castor beans. native to North America. was used in ancientEgypt as the base for perfumes. for making candles and soap. but with a higher melting point. with many industrial and medicinal uses. internally and externally. is an unsaturated semi-drying oil with potential applications in making soap.

[211]  Tall oil.[202]  Ojon oil extracted from the nut of the American palm (Elaeis oleifera).[212]  Tamanu or foraha oil[213] from the Calophyllum tacamahaca.[213]is used for skin care.[203][204]   Rose hip seed oil.[214 . popular ingredient in cologne. carotenoides and unsaturated fatty acids. from Azadirachta indica. Neem oil. and as an insecticide. used in cosmetics. A further byproduct called tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) is a cheap source of oleic acid. used medicinally in Brazil. It has been explored as a drying oil in Nigeria. although very expensive. used primarily in skin care products. pressed from the seeds of the Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). particularly for aging or damaged skin.[206] as a diesel fuel in India[207] and as food for livestock in Cambodia and Vietnam. has received attention as a potential use of what otherwise would be a waste product from making rubber.[215] Ucuhuba seed oil. High in tocopherol. and. is high in erucic acid. Oil extracted from both the nut and husk is also used as an edible oil in Central and South America.[214]   Tonka bean oil (Cumaru oil). native to north Africa. from the halophyte Cakile maritima.[208]  Sea buckthorn oil. extracted from the seeds of Virola surinamensis. Used medicinally. used primarily medicinally. Commercialized by a Canadian businessman in the 1990s. a brownish-green oil with a high sulfur content.[210]  Snowball seed oil (Viburnum oil). [205] Rubber seed oil. is important in Polynesian culture. for medicinal purposes. is unusually high in myristic acid. derived from Hippophae rhamnoides.[209]  Sea rocket seed oil. produced as a byproduct of wood pulp manufacture. produced in northern China. from Viburnum opulus seeds. and therefore has potential industrial applications.