You are on page 1of 31

Is Wellbeing Local or Global? A ohn Pickering , Psihologie , Perspective from Ecopsychology.

Universitatea din Warwick John Pickering, Psychology, War ick j.pickering @ warwick.ac.uk !niversity ESRC Seminar Series asupra ".pickering# ar ick.ac.$k bunstrii : social i individual determinani E%&' %eminar %eries on Wellbeing( Seminar 1 : Wellbeing , %ocial an) In)ivi)$al *eterminantsinteraciunea dintre om i mediul %eminar +( Wellbeing, the interaction nconjurtor " bet een person an) environment- 11 septembrie 2001, Universitatea ++th %eptember .//+, 0$een 1ary Queen Mary din Londra . !niversity of Lon)on. Human kind Cannot bear very much reality. 2.%. Eliot 3+45.6. 7$rnt 8orton. Introduction. natur uman Nu poate suporta prea mult realitatea . T.S. Eliot ( 1942) . Ars Norton . Introducere .

Wellbeing has both no$n an) verbWellbeing senses. are att de verbe i 2he no$n sense ill here mean thesubstantive feeling simturile . Sensul of having a place, of being at home substantiv in the va nsemna aici orl). 2he verb sense ill here sentimentul mean de a avea un loc , de a living in balance ith the trials of life. fi acas It-s , n lume . Sensul verb va important to note that neithernsemna sense aici triesc n echilibru implies that all life-s problems have cu ncerc been rile vieii . Este solve). It means being a are of important hat is s reinei c nici un going on, both goo) an) ba), itho$t sensthat implic faptul c toate $nease that comes from problemele feeling vieii au fost rezolvate something-s rong b$t not kno ing . Aceasta hat nseamn a fi contieni it is or hat to )o abo$t it. de ceea ce se ntmpl , i bune i rele , fr ca nelinite care vine de

9ere I s$ggest that ellbeing is la being sentimentul ceva e n neregul , )iminishe) as me)ia technology brings dar nu $s tie ce este sau ce s fac conflicting messages. :n the one han) despre e el . are bombar)e) by e;plicit images of a life of plenty an) of opport$nity < more Aici am so sugera c bunstarea este perhaps than any previo$s generation. diminuat At ca tehnologie massthe same time e get clear in)ications, media the ne aduce mesaje more po erf$l for being implicit, contradictorii that all . Pe de o parte, is not right. suntem bombardai cu imagini explicite de o via de belug i de What seems to be going rong, inoportunitate part at - mai mult , poate, least, is that o$r relationship dect ith the oricare dintre generaiile environment is increasingly violent anterioare an) . n acelai timp, avem )estr$ctive. We are beginning toindica realise ii clare , cu att mai that the effects of o$r technologise) puternic pentru a fi implicit , c lifestyles are lea)ing to )amage on tot global nu este corect . scale that e may not be able to repair. 2he $nease that this creates Ceea ce is pare a fi merge greit , cel f$n)amentally )etrimental to ellbeing. puin n It parte , este c relaia nee)s to be st$)ie) ithin an appropriate noastr cu mediul este tot mai theoretical frame ork an) violent ithi distructiv . Suntem appropriate styles of en=$iry. ncep I shall s realizeze c efectele propose that Ecopsychology provi)es stilului nostru de via both. tehnologizate duc la deteriorarea pe scar global , care poate nu fi The Long War. capabil de a repara . Nelinitea care creeaz acest lucru este Ecopsychology 3e.g. &os>ak et al., fundamental +44?6 n detrimentul is ro$ghly at the centre of a cl$ster bunst of rii . Acesta trebuie s fie relate) )isciplines, s$ch as Ecological studiate ntr-un cadru teoretic Psychology 3e.g. Winter, +44@6, adecvat *eep i cu stiluri adecvate de Ecology 3e.g. 2obias, +4AA , *eval anchet B . Vom propune %ession, +4A?6 an) Environmental Ecopsychology ofer att . Psychology 3e.g. 'assi)y, +44C6. Lester 7ro n, fo$n)er an) $ntil ./// the R )irector zboiul lung . of the Worl) atch Instit$te in

Washington, commen)e) ecopsychology Ecopsychology ( . De exemplu like this( DEcopsychologists believe Roszak there et al , 1995) este is an emotional bon) bet een aproximativ h$man la centrul de un grup beings an) the environment o$t of de discipline hich conexe , cum ar fi e evolve. E Ecopsychologists Psihologie are ecologice ( de )ra ing $pon the ecological sciences exemplu, to Winter , 1996) , Deep ree;amine the h$man psyche as an Ecologie integral ( de exemplu, Tobias , part of the eb of nat$re. F 37ro n, 1988 +44?, ; Deval & Session , 1985) i page ;vi6 Psihologie de mediu ( de exemplu Cassidy , 1997) . Lester Brown , 8o in recent times this eb has fondatorul ha) i pn n 2000 another thro n over it. 2he director internet al Institutului remin)s $s that the orl) is one place. Worldwatch It din Washington , a as a )ark irony that the seminar apreciat for ecopsychology ca aceasta hich this chapter as originally prepare) : " Ecopsychologists cred c sho$l) have been hel) on %eptember exist ++th. o legtur emoional ntre .//+. !nkno n to those taking part fiinin ele it,umane i mediul din care events else here ere provi)ing ane-am violent evolua . ... back)rop to their )isc$ssions of ellbeing. Ecopsychologists sunt bazndu-se Witnesse) aro$n) the orl) in real pe time, tiinele ecologice s the events of the )ay ere a tra$ma reexamineze for psihicul uman ca o some an) a tri$mph for others, signifying parte integrant a web a naturii . " both the interconnectivity of the( Brown global , 1995 , pagina xvi ) comm$nity an) the )eep )ivisions ithin it. Acum, n ultima vreme acest web a avut un alt aruncat peste el . 2he response to the attacks over Internetul the ne amintete c lumea intervening years has increase) hatre) este un ofloc . A fost o ironie America an) its allies, as their perpetrators ntuneric care seminarul pentru inten)e). It has ma)e f$rther attacks care more acest capitol a fost pregtit likely. As hat as the GWar ini Against ial ar fi avut loc pe data de 11 2errorismH becomes hat is no septembrie. calle) 2001. Necunoscut -2he Long War-, e are moving closer pentru to cei care au luat parte la ea , the permanent global arfare )epicte) evenimente in n alte pri au fost :r ellHs 1984. 2he ar is not so oferind m$chun fundal violent la bet een states as bet een the rich discu an) the iile lor de bunstare . A

poor. While this )ivi)e has al ays asistat been ntreaga lume n timp real , ith $s, it has no reache) pathological evenimentele de zi au fost o proportions. 2he grotes=$e )isparities trauma pentru unii i un triumf ithin the orl) comm$nity that pentru have alii , ceea ce nseamn att emerge) ith globalisation are nointerconectivitatea longer a comunitii simply a matter of more a)vance) globale nations i diviziunile profunde n o$tperforming less a)vance) ones. cadrul 2hey acestuia . res$lt from an aggressive manip$lation of the con)itions of international tra)e Rspunsul to la atacurile de-a lungul increase the ealth of those alrea)y anilor rich care au urmat a crescut ura an) the po er of those alrea)y po of erf$l. America i aliaii si , ca autorii 2he res$lts are patently $n"$st, especially lor destinate . Ea a fcut atacuri for v$lnerable people hose c$lt$res multan) mai probabil . Ca ceea ce a economies are )istorte) by fost market " rzboiul mpotriva manip$lation, 3see e.g. 'hoss$)ovsky, terorismului " devine ceea ce se .//I6. 2he hegemony of the nume ealthy te acum "rzboi lung " , ne nations is so ab$sive that is has indreptam to be mai aproape de maintaine) by economic an) r military zboiul global permanent descris force. It is, accor)ingly, resiste) by n force. Orwell 1984 . Rzboiul nu este 2he res$lting violence, often amplifie) att de by mult ntre state, ntre ancient c$lt$ral enmities, is boga literally i i sraci . n timp ce acest bro$ght home to $s via globalise) decalaj a fost ntotdeauna cu noi , comm$nications. ea a ajuns acum la proporii patologice . Disparitile groteti Globalisation an) the gro th n ofcadrul the comunitii mondiale internet have )ominate) c$lt$ral care change au aprut cu globalizarea nu over the past fe )eca)es. In)ee), maithey sunt pur i simplu o chestiune can be seen as )ifferent aspects de ofmai themulte naiuni avansate same process. In analysing hat he neperformante calls cele mai puin the G&$na ay Worl)H, Anthony Gi))ens avansate . Ele rezulta dintr-o p$ts it like this( DI see globalisation manipulare as a agresiv a condiiilor f$n)amental shift in o$r instit$tions de... comer an internaional pentru a $n)erlying shift in the ay e live. cre2he te bogia celor deja bogat i main )river of globalisationputerea isnHt celor deja puternic . economic globalisation as s$ch, Rezultatele it is sunt evident nedrepte , information an) comm$nication.F n special pentru persoanele

3Gi))ens, +4446. 'omm$nication vulnerabile ale caror culturi i net orks have shr$nk the economii orl). sunt distorsionate de *igitally mobilise) information circ$lates manipulare a pieei , ( a se vedea an) blen)s ithin them. 2he val$e de exemplu this Chossudovsky , 2003) creates is the c$rrency of the eightless . Hegemonia naiunilor bogate economy, the recombinant c$lt$re este att of de abuziv adic trebuie s postmo)ernity 39arvey, +44/6. fie meninut de ctre fora economic i militar . Este , prin Gi))ens p$ts a positive spin on all urmare this,, a rezistat cu fora . seeing globalisation as the means to Violen ealth a rezultat , deseori creation an) even to fairer )istrib$tion. amplificate de dumnii culturale Jor him, it means that those in the vechi poor , este literalmente adus orl) no have a greater chance toacas benefit la noi prin intermediul by participating in postmo)ern capitalism. comunicaiilor globalizate . 7y contrast the anti<capitalist movement sees globalisation as lea)ing to Globalizarea more i creterea de )isparity, not less. In their eyes it internet reflects au dominat schimbare the $ns$stainable e;ploitation of cultural people n ultimele decenii . ntran) environments by transnational adevr , acestea pot fi vzute ca corporations 3Klein, .///6. :thers aspecte see diferite ale aceluiai global comm$nications as promoting proces the . n analiza a ceea ce el evol$tion of capitalism to ar)s nume a more te " Runaway World" , ecologically responsive con)ition 3Porritt, Anthony Giddens se pune ca .//?6. aceasta : " Eu vd globalizarea ca pe o schimbare fundamental n Whether it is for goo) or ill, an) of institu co$rse iile noastre ... o schimbare it ill be for both, globalisation care stau is la baza n modul n care $nstoppable an) ill intensify. Astrit im )oes . Principalul motor al so, images of Western lifestyles sprea) globaliz via rii nu este globalizarea the internet become the hypermobile economic shock , ca atare , este de troops of postmo)ern capitalism. informare *reams i comunicare . " of $ns$stainable ealth sear ( Giddens into , 1999) . Reelelor de v$lnerable min)s creating )esires comunicare that s-au micorat lumea . cannot be f$lfille). Wellbeing )iminishes Mobilizat digital circula de as c$lt$ral )iversity )isappears informare an) i amestecuri n cadrul economic a$tonomy shrinks. acestora . Valoarea aceasta

creeaz este moneda a economiei 2he significance of the internet is not greutate only , cultura recombinant a economic b$t semiotic an) )o$ble postmodernit co)e) ii ( Harvey , at that. It signifies the interconnectivity 1990) . of o$r economic an) political lives b$t also )emonstrates ho Giddens that pune un spin pozitiv interconnectivity is fragmente) asupra as toate acestea, vznd globalisation e;aggerates )isparities globalizarea of ca mijloc pentru ealth an) po er. 2he internet crearea activelyde bogie i chiar la creates hat it signifies thro$gh its distribu po erie mai echitabil . Pentru to transform. 2he t$rb$lent, space<less el , aceasta nseamn c cei din interconnectivity of the internet lume is s araci au acum o sansa mai remin)er of the brai)e) lives of all mare those de a beneficia de ho live on o$r orl). !nlike films participarea an) la capitalism television, hich brings images to postmodern here . Prin contrast yo$ are, the images got by e;ploring micarea the anti - capitalist vede internet have an a$ra of being -else globalizarea here-. ca ceea ce duce la Altho$gh the notions of taking a mai -virt$al disparitate , nu mai puin . n holi)ay- or of traveling a -high ochii ay- by lor se reflect exploatarea $sing the internet are transparent nesustenabil a persoanelor i a nonsense, )iscovering strange mediilor internet de ctre corporaiile sites can feel like the e;ploration of transna e;otic ionale ( Klein , 2000 ) . places. 2he me)i$m is in)ee) the message Alii vd comunicaii globale i an) the message, appropriately, is promovarea that e evoluia have been living in 1cL$han-s capitalismului global spre o stare mai village for )eca)es. ecologic receptiv ( Porritt , 2005) . 2he )o$ble co)ing, tho$gh, brings Fie another c este vorba de bine sau de message( the village is a violentrplace. u , i, desigur, va fi pentru 2his is ma)e clear to $s in a ne ambele an) , globalizarea este de intimate ay as images rather than neoprit or)si se va intensifica . Aa )emonstrate the )irect connection bet cumeen se face acest lucru , imagini rich lifestyles an) violent resistance de stilto de via occidentale se them. 1ore imme)iately an) vivi)ly rspndesc than prin intermediul even a )eca)e ago, ealthy people internetului are deveni trupele de oc being remin)e) that their sec$re hypermobile an) ale capitalismului

ab$n)ant lifestyles )o not come for postmodern free. . Visele de avere 2he cost is violence )one to people, nesustenabile to cauteriza n minile c$lt$res an) to the environment. %ome vulnerabile of crearea de dorine care this violence, as the events on 4L++L.//+ nu pot fi ndeplinite . Bunstare an) of CLCL.//? sho , is coming home. diminueaz ca diversitatea cultural dispare i autonomie 2he nat$re of this violence as )escribe) economic se micsoreaza . by Walter 7en"amin, riting ami) the )ark geopolitics of the +4I/Hs. 9e realise) Semnifica that ia de pe internet nu este hen society cannot contain the po numai er of economic , ci semiotic i technology, the res$lt is not only violence dublu codificate la asta. Aceasta b$t also the celebration of violence. semnific 2he interconectivitatea a me)ia fren>y that greete) the attacks vieii noastre in economice i 8e Mork an) Lon)on, along politice ith the , dar , de asemenea, highly controlle) presentation demonstreaz of the modul n care arfare in Ira= an) Afghanistan interconectarea este fragmentat ca )emonstrate ho an) en)$ring penetrating globalizarea exagereaz his analysis as. Jor many people disparit in theile de bogie i putere . West, the arfare of recent years Internetul has creeaz n mod activ become some hat like a film. It ceea reaches ce se semnific prin puterea them thro$gh reports from "o$rnalists sa de a transforma . Turbulent , embe))e) in the military ho mai ork pu for in spaiu highly partisan me)ia companies like interconectivitatea Jo; pe internet este 2N. All stages of the process are o bro$ght reamintire a vieii mpletite de an) pai) for by political an) economic toi cei care triesc pe lumea organisations ho have an enormo$s noastr stake . Spre deosebire de filme in creating the meaning of hat i televiziune is , care aduce imagini happening. 2his control of information de la cazul is n care v aflai , as strong as that of in any totalitarian imaginile state, obinute de explorarea the more so for being hi))en. 2he internetului vie au o aura de a fi " n that the violence in Ira= an) Afghanistan alt parte " . Dei noiunile de a as f$n)amentally an aggressive ar lua for o oil " vacan virtual ", sau de a str$ggles to be hear). 2he vie that clit tori is o " autostrad ", prin the heroic str$ggle of the forces utilizarea of internetului sunt prostii free)om an) )emocracy against a transparent orl) , descoperind site-uri i)e conspiracy of ma) terrorists de is internet har) ciudate poate simti ca

to avoi). 2his fable, hich might explorarea have de locuri exotice . been crafte) by *isney corporation, Mediul noteste ntr-adevr mesajul i only conceals m$ch of hat le)mesajul to the , n mod corespunztor , arfare b$t also satisfies the )esire este c for am trit n satul global spectac$lar on<screen violence. McLuhan pentru zeci de ani . 8o , e cannot )iso n this violence, Dubla codificare , ns , aduce un since e kno m$ch more than 7en"amin alt mesaj : satul este un loc violent )i) abo$t hat pro)$ces it. 2he p$rs$it . Acest oflucru este clar pentru noi $ns$stainable levels of living by the ntr-un richmod nou i intim ca re=$ires the to be cheap energy. 2he imagini effort , mai degrab dect to control so$rces of energy lea)s cuvinte )irectly demonstra legtura direct to violent )amage being inflicte) ntre on the un stil de via bogat i people of other c$lt$res an) rezisten on thea violent a le . Mai environment. As people resist there mult , is imediat i viu dect chiar i more violence, some of hich appears un deceniu in n urm , oamenii the ealthy c$lt$res, aggravate) bogaby i sunt n curs de a reamintit poverty else here an) by the -clash ca stilul of lor de viata sigure i c$lt$res- )epicte) by contemporary abundente nu vin pe gratis . commentators 3e.g. J$k$yama, Costul .//@ este , de violen fcut 9$ntington, +44@6. Events in 1anhattan, pentru oameni , a culturilor i a Washington an) Lon)on along mediului ith nconjurtor . Unele din protests in %eattle an) Genoa sho aceast that violen , ca evenimentele violence )oes not occ$r Gelse hereH din in 9/11/2001 a i de 7/7/2005 orl) shr$nk by globalisation. 2here spectacol is , se ntoarce acas . more tro$ble ahea) an) it is likely to be ever more close to home. Niolence Natura fromacestei violene a fost hich e benefit or hich is connecte) descris de Walter Benjamin , scris ith the ay e live belongs to $s. n %ince mijlocul geopolitica intunecate it is )one in o$r names, e are involve). din anii 1930 . El a realizat c , We feel responsible. atunci cnd societatea nu poate conine puterea tehnologiei , 7$t this violence is o$t of control. rezultatul Even nu este doar violen , ci those in po er are po erless, given i celebrarea the de violen . )ecline of the nation state as aFrenezia global mass-media care a political player 39$tton, salutat +44@6. atacurile din New York i

2ransnational corporations e;ert enormo$s Londra , mpreun cu prezentarea geopolitical infl$ence an) yet are extrem beyon)de controlat de rzboiul political restraint. People have )isengage) din Irak i Afganistan ith the political processes, )isenchante) demonstreaz ct i de durat by spin an) misrepresentation. penetrant Je er analiza lui a fost . people vote than ever before an) Pentru the muli oameni din )emocratic )eficit is gro ing. We Occident may be , rzboiul din ultimii ani itnessing a transition from party a politics devenit oarecum ca un film . Le to iss$e politics, hich may be beneficial. ajunge , prin intermediul 9o ever, in the transition, tra)itional rapoartelor de la jurnaliti political str$ct$res ill be eakene). ncorporate n armata care 2hey ill conse=$ently e;ert even lucreaz less pentru companiile de restraint on those ith control of the media me)ia extrem de partizane , cum ho ill have more po er than ar fiever Fox TV . Toate etapele before to )istort the presentation ofprocesului events. sunt aduse i pltite de *istortion, intentional an) not, makes ctre organiza it ii politice i impossible to tr$st the ever<present economice me)ia care au un interes barrage. &eal geopolitical events enorm are n crearea de sensul de obsc$re) an) misrepresente) in ceea hat ce se ntmpl . Acest 7a$)rillar) has terme) Ghyper control realityHde informaii este la fel de 37a$)rillar), +4AI, page +@@6. We puternic feel ca i cea a n orice stat po erless. totalitar , cu att mai mult pentru a fi ascunse . Consider c violena 2o feel responsible an) yet pon erless Irak i Afganistan ca s$rely )iminishes ellbeing. 2hefundamental effects un rzboi agresiv de may not be close to the s$rface petrol of o$r se lupt pentru a fi audiate . conscio$s lives, b$t they are important Consider c aceasta este lupta nonetheless. :f co$rse, they are overlai) eroic a forelor de libertate i by a host of )istractions. *istant trage)ies democraie mpotriva o may evoke sympathy, b$t $nless conspira they ie la nivel mondial de )irectly affect o$r lives, they are terori soon ti nebun este greu de evitat . forgotten. What-s happening else Aceast here fabul , care ar fi putut fi may be )istressing, b$t it is else conceput here, de ctre Disney even tho$gh else here is closer Corporation than it , ascunde nu numai o $se) to be. 2hings closer to home mare parte ill din ceea ce a dus la still be more significant if they are r so$rces zboiul , dar , de asemenea,

of stress an) an;iety. Even in the satisface rich dorina de spectaculos orl), someone living in poor con)itions violen pe ecran . has got eno$gh to orry abo$t. Witho$t ork or sec$rity e are not likelyAcum to feel , nu putem renega aceast m$ch concern abo$t events in Afghanistan violen , deoarece tim mult mai or even in 8e Mork. :nly hen multo$r dect a fcut Benjamin cu basic nee)s are met is there the space privire to la ceea ce se produce . feel concern for others, hen they Urm are not, rirea de niveluri o$r concerns are for o$rselves. nesustenabile de via de ctre cei bogai necesit a fi energie 1aslo , a fo$n)ing fig$re in h$manistic ieftin . Efortul de a controla psychology, represente) h$man nee)s sursele as ade energie duce direct la pyrami). At the bottom are basic nee)s deteriorarea to violent a fi aplicata )o ith the preservation of life, pe that oamenii e din alte culturi i share ith all other living beings that asupra m$st mediului . Pe masura ce have air, ater, foo), shelter an) safety oamenii to rezista exist mai mult s$rvive. 8e;t $p are social an) emotional violen , unele dintre care apare nee)s some of hich e share ith n culturile other bogate , agravat de social animals. 2hese are o$r nee)s srcie ton alt parte i de " belong to relate. At the top come ciocnirea the culturilor ", descris de $ni=$ely h$man nee) for comentatori self< contemporani ( de act$alisation( to $n)erstan) o$rselves exemplu an) Fukuyama , 2006 , o$r place in the orl) an) to striveHuntington for the , 1996 ) . Evenimente ma;im$m of conscio$sness. 1eeting n Manhattan , Washington i higher nee)s is con)itional on lo Londra er ones, mpreun cu proteste n having been met. If yo$ canHt breathe, Seattle i Genova arat c violena yo$ on-t notice being h$ngry, ifnu yo$Hre are loc " n alt parte ", ntr-o h$ngry yo$ forget yo$Hre lonely, lume an) so sczut de globalizare . on. :nce nee)s at lo er levels are Exist met, mai multe probleme nainte nee)s at higher levels may receive i este foarte probabil s fie tot attention, if o$r social environment mai aproape de casa . Violena de enco$rages $s to )o so. care beneficiem sau care are legtur cu modul n care trim ne 8o , over the past fe cent$ries those aparine in . Din moment ce se face in)$strialise) societies have fo$n) n numele it nostru , ne-am increasingly easy to meet their basic implicat nee)s, . Ne simim responsabili .

an) since the mi) t entieth cent$ry people in the rich orl) have en"oye) Dar aceast hat violen este scpat Jranklin &oosevelt calle) the de Dmore sub control . Chiar si cei de la ab$n)ant lifeF. :f co$rse, o$r nee)s putere have sunt lipsii de putere , not al ays been met. 2he s$fferings avndof n vedere declinul statuluipoverty ami)st ealth )epicte) in naG9ar) iune ca un actor politic global ( 2imesH an) G2he &agge)<2ro$sere) Hutton , 1996) . Corporaii PhilanthropistsH ere real eno$gh. transna An) ionale exercit o influen they remain real, since the monstro$s geopolitic enorm i, totui, sunt )isparities of Nictorian Englan) are dincolo no de reinere politic . globalise), as many commentators Oamenii sho s-au decuplat cu 3%hiva, .///, 'hosso)ovsky, .//I6 procesele politice , deziluzionai de rotire i declaraii false . Mai If ellbeing primarily )epen)s on punee)s ine persoane voteaz dect being met an) if people in oricnd ealthy nainte i deficitul societies are becoming more able democratic to meet este n cretere . Am them, then ellbeing sho$l) be increasing. putea fi martorii o tranziie de la %$rveys sho that economic in)icators politica de partid de a emite like G*P an) $nemployment levels politic )o , care pot fi benefice . Cu in)ee) pre)ict reporte) ellbeing, toate at least acestea , n perioada de in the )evelope) co$ntries 3)i 2ella tranzi et al., ie , structuri politice .//+6. At the same time other tradi s$rveys ionale vor fi slbit . Ei vor reveal a stea)ily increasing inci)ence exercita of , prin urmare, chiar mai mental an) psycho<somatic illnesses puin reinere pe cei cu controlul co$ple) ith cons$mption ofmass-media anti< , care vor avea mai )epressants 3e.g. %kaer et al., mult .///, putere dect oricnd nainte 7lanchflo er B :s al), .//56. 2here de a denatura are prezentarea de bo$n) to be comple; )emographic evenimente an) . Distorsiune , economic factors at ork here, s$ch inten as the ionat i nu , face imposibil increasing press$re on people ith s aib "obs, ncredere n ce mai prezent )ifferent patterns of family life an) baraj so on. media . Evenimente 9o ever, an $n)erlying )river for geopolitice all of reale sunt ascunse i these, s$rely is the creation gre ofitan n ceea ce Baudrillard a increasingly $ns$stainable image of numit hat " realitate hiper " life sho$l) offer. :$r basic nee)s (may Baudrillard be , 1983 , pagina 166 ) met, b$t all is not ell. . Ne simim neputincioi .

7$t then, it never as. %$ffering S is sethe simt responsabil i nc $niversal con)ition, as the f 7$))ha r putere cu siguran se realise). Western philosophers diminueaza from starea de bine . %chopenha$er to %artre have also )etecte) Efectele nu pot fi aproape de )iscontent at the core of suprafa h$man a vieii noastre e;perience. It o$l) be ell to bear con this tiente , dar ele sunt in min) as e in=$ire into ellbeing. importante We , totui . Desigur , sho$l) not try to eliminate thatacestea hichsunt suprapuse de o serie cannot be eliminate), especially as deitdistrageri can . Tragedii ndeprtate be a so$rce of gro th 3Mo$ng<Eisen)rath, pot evoca simpatie , dar dac nu +44@, Gilbert, +4A46. afecteaz n mod direct vieile noastre , ele sunt uitate curnd . 8onetheless, there )oes seem Ce to sebe ntmpl n alt parte ar something amiss, over an) above putea the fi dureros , dar este n alt normal trials of life. 2he last cent$ry parte or so , chiar dac n alt parte este has been calle) Dthe age of an;ietyF, mai aproape dect se obisnuia sa something that 1cL$han e;plaine) fieas . Lucruri D mai aproape de cas E the res$lt of trying to )o to)ayHs va fi"ob nc i mai important , dac ith yester)ayHs tools, ith yester)ayHs acestea sunt surse de stres i concepts.F 31cL$han B Jiore, +4@C6. anxietate In . Chiar i n lumea one sense, ho ever, Dto)ayHs "obF bogat is hat , cineva care triesc n it has al ays been( to seek ellbeing condi an) ii precare a ajuns suficient to feel hole, sec$re in a stable i)entity. pentru a v facei griji . Fr loc 7$t this is ma)e more )iffic$lt de munc hen sau de securitate nu i)entity itself is open to in)efinite sunt susceptibile de a simi mult re)efinition. :$r "ob to)ay, ngrijorarea as one cu privire la celebrant of the postmo)ern con)ition evenimentele p$ts din Afganistan sau it, is Dto eclectF hat to be 3Jencks, chiar +44@6. din New York . Numai :$r tools, ho ever, are those of yester)ay, atunci cnd sunt ndeplinite the notions of personal a$tonomy, nevoile noastre de baz este acolo en)$ring i)entity an) responsibility spaiul s se simt preocupare be=$eathe) $s by Locke, Kant an) 1ill. pentru alii , atunci cnd acestea nu sunt , preocuprile noastre sunt 2he postmo)ern t$rn has provi)e) pentru ne noi nine . tools ith hich to probe these notions

an) has prompte) a re<appraisal Maslow of o$r , o cifr fondator n ass$mptions of stable personal i)entity psihologia an) umanist , reprezentat of in)ivi)$al a$tonomy. Instea) of nevoile taking umane ca o piramid . n them as absol$te, e no regar) them parteaas de jos sunt nevoile de baz relative to the social system in hich de a they face cu pstrarea vieii , pe are constr$cte) an) maintaine).care2he le avem n comun cu toate psychology of postmo)ern selfhoo) celelalte no fiine vii , care trebuie s O ... foc$ses on the ay in hich aib aer e , ap , hran , adpost i constr$ct o$r e;perience, especially de siguran o$r pentru a supravieui . sense of self, from messages in o$r Urm =$ickly torul sunt nevoile sociale i changing c$lt$re.O Winter 3+44@6.emo:$r ionale dintre care unele le c$lt$re is in)ee) changing =$ickly mp an)rt eim cu alte animale sociale are immerse) in a sea of )igitally . Acestea sunt nevoile noastre de a enhance) options. Images, slogans aparan) ine refer. n partea de sus intellect$al fashions veni make nevoia unic om de autorecommen)ations, both e;plicit an) actualizare not, : la noi nine i locul abo$t ho to look, speak an) think nostru < in n lume, s neleag i s short, abo$t hat to be. 2his hasdepun al ays eforturi pentru maxim de been the case b$t it is no more po con erf$l, tiin . Nevoilor superioare $bi=$ito$s an) it appears earlier este an) condiionat de cele mai mici earlier in the life cycle. au fost ndeplinite . Dac nu se poate respira , nu vei observa fi 2his choice of i)entity is e;citing foame hile at , dac i-e foame uitai c the same time contrib$ting to the Gstress eti singur of , i aa mai departe . mo)ern lifeH. 'learly GstressH, Odat like ce are nevoie de la G ellbeingH is a comple; con)ition nivelurile ith inferioare sunt fol)e) layers of components. satisf :ne of cute , nevoile de la niveluri these, at the some hat neglecte)mai global mari pot primi atenie , n en) of the range, may be a gro cazul ing n care mediul nostru social a areness of the tro$ble) relationship ne ncurajeaz s fac acest lucru . bet een the self an) the orl). %elfhoo) is constr$cte) $sing hat the Acum c$lt$re , de-a lungul ultimele aro$n) it provi)es. What e take secole o$r cei din societile selves to be is in t$rn taken from industrializate hat o$r au gsit-o ce n ce c$lt$ral conte;t )efines a self to be. mai In u the or pentru a satisface ealthy orl) selfhoo) is bo$n) nevoile closely lor de baz , i de la

bo$n) to the variety of lifestyles a rich mijlocul an) secolului al XX-lea ab$n)ant c$lt$re can offer. 7$t oamenii these din lume bogat s-au cannot be separate) from the relationships bucurat de ceea ce Franklin ith the rest of the orl) that make Roosevelt them a numit " viaa mai possible. Globalise) comm$nications abundent are " . Desigur , nevoile sho ing $s that rich lifestyles noastre arenu au fost ntotdeauna $ns$stainable an) that they make a respectate ma"or . Suferinele srciei n contrib$tion to the ca$ses of violence. mijlocul Met avere descris n " Hard even as the personal an) geopolitical Times costs " i " The Ragged of s$ch lifestyles are becoming trousered clearer, filantropi " au fost images that create e;pectations an)destul )esires de real . i ele rmn reale , for them are sprea)ing aro$n) thedeoarece orl). disparitile monstruoase 2hose en"oying the lifestyles ale Anglia are victorian sunt acum $nconcerne) for the most part. globalizat At the , ca muli comentatori -Earth %$mmit- hel) in &io in +44., aratthe ( Shiva , 2000; )eveloping nations )re the attention Chossodovsky of , 2003) the then !% presi)ent, George 7$sh senior, to the over<cons$mption byn the cazul !% n care starea de bine an) other rich co$ntries. 9e )ismisse) depinde n primul rnd de nevoile their concerns ith the remark( ndeplinite O2he i n cazul n care American Way of Life is not oamenii $p for din societile bogate negotiationO. *espite recent moves sunt din to ce n ce mai n msur s e;plicitly aban)on this ay of life, le ndeplineasc by , atunci starea de some !% states an) by E$ropean co$ntries bine ar trebui s fie n cretere . s$ch as Germany an) % e)en, Sondajele the arat c indicatorii violence in the oil<rich co$ntries is economici a )ark , cum ar fi PIB i testament to ho effectively thisnivelul policyomajului nu prezice ntrhas been follo e). adevr starea de bine a raportat , cel puin n rile dezvoltate ( di 8o , George 7$sh "$nior has )eclare) Tellathe et al . , 2001 ) . n acelai OLong WarO in )efence of that aytimp, of life. alte studii au evideniat o Altho$gh, like any comple; geopolitical inciden n continu cretere de campaign it has many interleave) boli mentale i psiho- somatice ob"ectives, there remains a centralcuplate )river(cu un consum de to maintain control of ) in)ling antidepresive energy ( de exemplu Skaer reso$rces, especially oil. &ich lifestyles et al , 2000; . Blanchflower i

nee) cheap energy an) energy is cheap Oswald so , 2004 ) . Acolo sunt long as e;traction costs can be kept obliga lo i s fie complex de factori an) the environmental costs are not demografici met, i economici la locul or are met by others. 2he ealthy de nations munc aici , cum ar fi are no cons$ming the global commons presiunea at tot mai mare asupra an $ns$stainable rate an) leaving persoanelor other cu locuri de munc , nations an) those yet be born diferite ith themodele ale vieii de res$lting environmental )amage.familie 7$ti aa mai departe . Cu )egra)ing the environments of those toate ho acestea , un ofer care stau la )o not benefit from the reso$rces obtaine) baza pentru toate acestea , cu is not only $n"$st b$t also $nsafe. siguran 2he este crearea unei trage)y of the commons is beingimagini playe) ce mai greu de ceea ce ar o$t on a global scale. It trebui ill be s ofere via . Nevoile increasingly )iffic$lt for the poor noastre an) forde baz pot fi ndeplinite , primary reso$rce pro)$cers to maintain dar tot nu este bine . their in)epen)ence an) meet their nee)s in the f$t$re. 2hey ill )o hatever they Dar atunci can , nu a fost . Suferina to protect themselves an) their reso$rces. este condiia universal , ca %ometime this ill be )one by peacef$l Buddha a realizat . Filozofi means, as is happening in %o$th America. occidentali de la Schopenhauer la %ometimes it ill be )one by Sartre arme) au detectat , de asemenea, resistance to transnational companies, nemul as is umirea la baza experienta happening in Africa. Present in)ications umana . Ar fi bine s aib n are that this geopolitical sit$ation vedere ill acest lucru ca ne-am orsen over the ne;t cent$ry or so. ntreba n bunstare . Noi nu ar trebui s ncerce s elimine ceea 2he base of 1aslo -s hierarchy of nee)s ce nu pot is fi eliminate , mai ales ca $niversal. :$r nee)s to breathe, aceasta to bepoate fi o surs de cretere no$rishe) or to feel safe are not impose) ( Young - Eisendrath , 1996 , by c$lt$re. As e move f$rther Gilbert $p the, 1989) . hierarchy, $niversal nee)s may be transforme) by c$lt$ral infl$ences Cu toate into acestea , nu pare a fi ac=$ire) ones. When these incl$)e ceva ra u , n plus fa de me)ia<born floo) of imperativesncerc abo$t rile normale de via . n hat to ear, abo$t hat shape toultimul be an)secol sau aa a fost numit abo$t hat it is fashionable to say " vrsta an) de anxietate " , ceva care

think, the mi))le an) $pper levels McLuhan of a explicat ca " ... 1aslo -s hierarchy becomes bloate) rezultatul ith de a ncerca s -i fac ac=$ire) nee)s. While chil)rentreaba in the de astzi cu instrumente de poor orl) look to their parents for ieri foo), , cu conceptele de ieri . " those in the rich orl) nag theirs ( McLuhan for & Fiore , 1967) . ntrclothes an) electronic toys that ill unmake sens , cu toate acestea , " de them feel -cool-, a process inflame) locuriby de munc de astzi ", este skillf$lly targete) me)ia campaigns ceea ce a fost ntotdeauna : s 3Jree)lan), .//@6. 2heir intrinsic caute nee) bunstarea i s se simt for social i)entity has been converte) ntreg by , sigur ntr-o identitate a)vertising into the nee) to possess. stabil . A Dar acest lucru este mai bran) of trainers, f$nctionally i)entical dificilto atunci cnd identitate n a host of others, can be ma)e so )esirable sine este deschis de redefinire that chil)ren are violently robbe) for nedeterminat their . Treaba noastr de sake. astzi , ca un celebrant a condiiei postmoderne se pune , este de " a A)vertising converts nat$ral nee)s eclect into " ceea ce a fi ( Jencks , )esires that are har) to recognise 1996) an) . Instrumentele noastre , cu impossible to meet. 2he meanings attache) toate acestea , sunt cele de ieri , to pro)$cts often tap into 1aslo noiunile Hs de autonomie personal , hierarchy at the social level. 'lothes identitatea can durabil i come to mean gro$p membership responsabilitatea an) ne- a lsat hence to satisfy a nee) to belong. mo G$i)e) tenire de ctre Locke , Kant i by )igitally mobilise) sales Mill )ata, . a)vertising campaigns constantly re<t$ne the meanings of pro)$cts, often choosing Rndul su, postmodern a oferit targets earlier an) earlier in the life noi cycle. instrumente cu care a proba If from the earliest stages of someone-s aceste life noiuni i a determinat o re nee)s can be impose) that are har) -or evaluare even a ipotezelor noastre de impossible to meet, )eman) ill identitate remain personal stabil i a high. Even hen e have eno$gh,autonomiei it m$st individuale . n loc de be ma)e to seem $nsatisfactory. a Alua sales -le ca absolut , noi acum le e;ec$tive p$t it this ay in the privim +4?/Hs(ca relativ la sistemul social DItHs o$r "ob to make omen $nhappy n care ithacestea sunt construite i hat they haveF. A)vertising in +4?/ ntreinute as . Psihologia sinelui a cottage in)$stry compare) postmodern ith the acum " ... se

corporate enterprise it is to)ay. concentreaz Its pe modul n care c$m$lative global impact on ellbeing vom construi is experiena noastr , immense. In a recent anthology mai ales on sentimentul nostru de ecopsychology, it as p$t like this(sine , de la mesaje n cultura noastr n rapid schimbare . " Corporate advertising is Winter ( 1996) . Cultura noastr likely the largest single este ntr-adevr schimb rapid i psychological project ever ne sunt scufundate ntr-o mare de undertaken by the human opiuni mbuntite digital . race, yet its stunning Imagini , sloganuri i moda impact remains curiously intelectuale face recomandri , ignored by mainstream att explicite i nu , despre cum s Western psychology. We se uite , vorbi i cred c - pe suggest that large scale scurt , despre ce s fie . Acest advertising is one o the lucru a fost ntotdeauna cazul , dar main actors that creates acum este mult mai puternic , and maintains a omniprezent i se pare mai particular orm o devreme i mai devreme n ciclul narcissism ideally suited de via . to consumerism. !s such, it creates arti icial Aceast alegere de identitate este needs "ithin people that interesant n timp ce n acelai directly con lict "ith their timp, contribuie la " stresul vietii capacity to orm a moderne " . n mod clar " stres " , satis ying and sustainable ca " bunstare " este o afectiune relationship "ith the complexa , cu straturi pliate de natural "orld. 3Kanner B componente . Una dintre acestea , Gomes, +44?, page A/6 la sfritul global oarecum neglijate de gama , ar putea fi A satisfying an) s$stainable relationship creterea gradului de ith the nat$ral orl) has been, over contientizare the a relaiei cu history of h$man kin), the basis probleme of dintre sine i lume . ellbeing. 2hat is hat -feeling at home Selfhood in este construit folosind the orl)- means. 2his is not ceea a static ce cultura din jurul le con)ition b$t )epen)s on a furnizeaz healthy . Ceea ce ne-am lua noi balance bet een met an) $nmetnnee)s. ine pentru a fi este la rndul

A)vertising creates artificial nee)s su hich luat din ce context cultural are )esigne) to be permanently define $n<met. te o auto- a fi . n bogat 2hey act as an irritant, $n)ermining Sinele o$r Universal lume este obligat sense of balance bet een hat strns e have, legat de varietatea de stiluri hat e nee) an) hat e ant. de !nmet via o cultur bogat i nee)s are those of hich e are generally abundente poate oferi . Dar most conscio$s, b$t, being conscio$s acestea theynu pot fi separate de are s$b"ect to scr$tiny an), ith rela l$ck, iile cu restul lumii, care le fac proper management. 7asic nee)s act$ally posibil . Comunicaii globalizrii provi)e the information re=$ire) to ne satisfy arat c un stil de via bogat them. If yo$Hre thirsty or h$ngry, suntyo$ nesustenabile i c acestea au kno hat yo$ lack. Artificially impose) o contribuie major la cauzele de nee)s, by contrast, are preconscio$s violen an) . Cu toate acestea, chiar hence har)er to recognise. 2hey i costurile are personale i har)er to meet beca$se e )onHt geopolitice kno ale unor astfel de stil hat e ant P only that e antde it via very sunt din ce n ce mai clare ba)ly. When they are specifically , imagini care creeaz ateptrile )esigne) an) constantly mo)ifie) i dorin toele pentru ei se stim$late cons$mption, they are virt$ally rspndesc n ntreaga lume . Cei impossible to satisfy. care se bucur de stilul de via sunt indifereni pentru cea mai Gan)hi remarke) that( D2he orl) marehas parte . La " Summit-ul eno$gh for everyoneHs nee)s, b$t P not mntului for ", a avut loc la Rio n some peopleHs gree)F. %omeone 1992 ho , naiunile n curs de e;periences the orl) from this viedezvoltare point au atras atenia ill feel f$n)amentally sec$re. 'orporate preedintele de atunci al SUA, gree), got secon)han) via the a)vertising George Bush senior , la suprain)$stry makes people feel insec$re. consumul 2he de SUA i alte ri orl) cannot seem ever to bogate provi)e . El a respins preocuprile eno$gh. It has been clear for )eca)es lor cu that meniunea : "modul de the nat$ral nee)s of the orl)Hs viata peoples american nu este de pn can be met, an) met s$stainably, given pentru the negocieri " . n ciuda technological reso$rces e no recentelor possess miscari de a abandona 3e.g. %eabrook, +4A?6. Artificial n nee)s mod explicit acest mod de via create) thro$gh me)ia stim$lation, , de c by tre unele state din SUA i contrast, are )esigne) specificallyde not ri to europene , cum ar fi

be met. !nmet nee)s create violence. Germania If i Suedia , violena n the nee)s in =$estion threaten rile o$r bogate n petrol este un e;istence in the short term then testament the nchis pentru ct de violence is correspon)ingly imme)iate. eficient If aceast politic a fost e are being choke), e ill fighturmat for air, . if e are being ignore), e ill fight for attention. If the nee)s are longer Acum term , George Bush junior a ones then altho$gh the response declarat" may be rzboi lung ", n more planne) an) strategic, it illap still rarea be de acest mod de via . a fight for all that. Dei , la fel ca orice campanie geopolitic complex are multe 2he technology for imposing artificial obiective intercalate , rmne un nee)s is violently o$t of control conduc an) is tor auto central : pentru pro)$cing violence in the process. a menine controlul de diminuarea %omeone ho feels incomplete resurselor itho$t de energie , n special this or that commo)ity ill str$ggle petrolto . Un stil de via bogat obtain it. 2hereHs nothing rong nevoie ith the de energie ieftin i commo)ity, nor in fact ith the str$ggle energia to este ieftin , att timp ct feel complete. 2he problem arises costurile hen de extracie pot fi one is attache) to the other. A chil) pstrate ho sczut i costurile de kills another for their trainers or a mediu nation nu sunt ndeplinite , sau that s$bverts the government of sunt another ndeplinite de ctre alii . for their o n economic en)s are Naiunile t o bogate sunt acum symptoms of a single )isor)er. consuma bunurile comune globale , la o rat nesustenabil i lsnd We become more a are of this as alte global naiuni i cele care se net orks bring the evi)ence n to scuser $s. nc cu daunele aduse Inevitably, this evi)ence ill be )istorte) mediului rezultate . Dar an) sensationalise) in hyper<reality. degradante 7$t mediile celor care nu )espite the smoke an) mirrors, beneficiaz it is de resursele obinute $nmistakable that there is crisis,nu an) esteadoar nedrept , ci , de )eep one, of hich globalise) violence asemenea, is a nesigure . Tragedia symptom bunurilor comune este jucat pe o scar global . Acesta va fi din ce 2he ecopsychology perspective onnthis ce mai is greu pentru cei sraci i that e nee) to seek an appropriately pentru )eep productorii de resurse

sol$tion an), since the ecological primare crisis is de a menine a psychological crisis the sol$tion independen ill lie a i satisface nevoile ith social changes rather lor n than viitor . Ei vor face tot ce pot technological fi;es. 1$ch ofpentru hat a se proteja i de resursele threatens ellbeing arises from lor . Uneori, the acest lucru se va massive over<cons$mption re=$ire) realiza to prin mijloace panice , aa meet pathological nee)s inflame) cum se byntmpl n America de me)ia technology. In #he $ear Sud . o Uneori, aceasta se va face $reedom, ritten in +45/, Eric prin Jromm rezisten armat de companii note) that as the G1ore Ab$n)ant transna LifeH ionale , aa cum se loosene) tra)itional constraints ntmpl in the n Africa . Informaiile name of free)om, the res$lt as a actuale type ofsunt c aceast situaie emotional vac$ity i)eal for cons$merism geopolitic se va nruti n to fill. 2he con)ition as even secolul moreurmtor sau cam asa noticeable some thirty years later ceva hen .he rote #o Have or to %e& Baza ierarhiei nevoilor a lui 8o it is not so m$ch noticeable asMaslow starkly este universal . Nevoile )efinitive of contemporary lifestyles. noastre de a respira , de a fi hranit What some ecopsychologists have sau calle) s se simt n siguran nu the GAll<cons$ming %elfH is a narcissistic sunt impuse de cultura . Aa cum con)ition in hich selfhoo) becomes am merge too mai departe n sus n strongly )efine) by possession, ierarhia having , nevoile universale pot fi been )etache) from its more transformate nat$ral prin influene s$pports by a barrage of cons$merist culturale n cele dobndite . images in the me)ia. In this pathological Atunci cnd acestea includ un con)ition, the bo$n)ary bet een potop the self nscut -media de imperative an) the orl) becomes in)efinitely cu privire la ceea ce sa poarte , ce e;pan)able an) virt$ally )isappears form s fie i cu privire la ceea 39illman, +44?6. 2o be a self is ce noeste tola mod s spun i cred possess this or that thing hich is not c , self. la mijloc i nivelurile If this nee) to possess is pathologically superioare ale ierarhiei lui inflate), the selfL orl) bo$n)ary becomes Maslow devine umflat cu nevoi a moving frontier of gree). 2he ans dobndite er to . n timp ce copiii din the =$estion( D9o m$ch is eno$gh?F lume sis raci uita la prinii lor no ( DWhatHs Geno$ghH?F. A pentru me)ia< alimente , cei din bogat

in)$ce) trance of $nlimite), conse=$ence< NAG lume a lor pentru haine i free cons$mption is a global juc )anger. rii electronice , care va face sa '$lt$res in hich it has taken hol) se simta ill "cool" , un proces violently rest hat they ant from inflamate the de campanii massenvironment an) from other c$lt$res. media 2his cu pricepere vizate violence can be conceale) ithin( hyper< Freedland , 2006 ) . Nevoia lor reality to some e;tent, b$t preconscio$sly intrinsec de identitate social a the ne s leaks o$t. 'ombine) fost transformat ith de publicitate n preconscio$s nee)s for self<act$alisation necesitatea de a poseda . Un brand that cannot be met, it makes for a po de formatori erf$l , funcional identice )egra)ation of ellbeing. cu o serie de alte persoane , pot fi fcute astfel de dorit ca copiii sunt %elf<act$alisation, lying at the violent top ofjefuit de dragul lor . 1aslo -s hierarchy, is o$r most important nee) an) it is cr$cial to ellbeing. Publicitate When transform nevoile the integrity of the self is threatene), naturale n dorine , care sunt greu ellbeing is impaire). 2he technologies de recunoscut i imposibil de of )esire that have appeare) ithin ndeplinit post< . Semnificaiile ataate in)$strial societies have f$n)amentally produselor de multe ori atingei n )iminishe) the integrity of the self. ierarhia Weber lui Maslow la nivel social )escribe) the orl) as transforme) . Haine by thepot veni pentru a nsemna in)$strial revol$tion as G)isenchante)H apartenena la un grup i , prin 3Weber, +4?A6. :ne of the )rivers urmare, of pentru a satisface o colonialism an) the West ar) e;pansion nevoie de a aparine . Ghidat de in America as an effort to re<enchant mobilizat the digital datele de vnzri orl) by the appropriation of e;otic , campanii lan)s publicitare n mod 37erman, +4A+6. 2o those alrea)y constant living re - tune sensurile de there, the inva)ers ere seen as ma))ene) produse , alegerea de multe ori by the nee) to cons$me. 2he obiective 9opi mai devreme i mai In)ians, as their ay of life as devreme being n ciclul de via . Dac )estroye), recognise) the malaisede of lathe primele etape ale nevoilor hite people. It as a mental illness viaa that cuiva poate fi impus , care they calle) Gkoyaanis=atsiH, meaning, sunt greu Ga sau chiar imposibil de a life o$t of balanceH. satisface , cererea va rmne ridicat . Chiar i atunci cnd neWellbeing )epen)s on a life in balance. am destul If , trebuie s fie fcut s

o$r ay of life is being )riven )eeply par o$t nesatisfctoare . Un director of balance by artificial an) $ns$stainable de vnzri a pus acest fel n anii nee)s, this has to be a))resse) if 1950 e are :to " Este datoria noastr de a carry o$t research that is appropriate facean) femeile nemultumiti de ceea $sef$l. 1ost social sciences, reflecting ce authe " . Publicitate n 1950 a fost ethos of mo)ernity, mo)el their research o industrie cabana n comparaie on the nat$ral sciences. 2hey mainly cu ntreprinderea )eal corporative este ith things that can be co$nte) an) astzi ith . Impactul su cumulativ the more imme)iate, rational, )eterminants global asupra bunstrii este of ellbeing. 2he contrib$tion imensof . ntr-o antologie recent pe ecopsychology is to complement this ecopsychology ith , a fost pus ca research that reflects the metho)ological aceasta : )iversity of the postmo)ern era 3Gergen, .//+6. It strikes a more even Publicitate balance Corporate este bet een =$antitative an) =$alitative probabil cel mai mare proiect metho)s. Preconscio$s psychological psihologic singur ntreprins )eterminants are treate) as serio$sly vreodat as de ctre rasa uman , dar contrib$ting to the rational actions cu of un both impact uimitoare rmne gro$ps an) in)ivi)$als. &esearchers curios are ignorate de mas no longer ne$tral e;ternal observers psihologie b$t de Vest . Sugerm c participant observers. publicitatea pe scar larg este unul dintre principalii factori care Jollo ing this line s$ggests that creeaz the i menine o anumit E%&', in making ellbeing oneform of its de narcisism ideal pentru thematic priorities, nee)s to in=$ire consumerism into . Ca atare , se the )eeper =$alitative iss$es raise)creeaz by the nevoi artificiale, n ay e live as ell as carrying oameni o$t care intra in conflict direct =$antitative st$)ies. %t$)ying cusocial capacitatea lor de a forma o relations can be )one on many levels relaan) ie satisfctoare i durabile cu the i)er orl) comm$nity sho$l) lumea not be naturala . ( Kanner & ignore). 9ealthy o$tcomes may beGomes so$ght, 1995 , pagina 80 ) at both the in)ivi)$al an) the collective levels. 7$t the latter is primary( O relatie it is satisfacatoare si durabile har)er to promote healthy in)ivi)$als cu lumea in natural a fost , peste sick societies than it is to help istoria sick omenirii , n funcie de in)ivi)$als in healthy ones. 2he teaching starea de bine. Asta este ceea ce "

an) learning of ecopsychology simte makes acas n lume " nseamn . sense since e all inhabit the Aceasta same nu este o condiie static , environment. Ecopsychology seeks ci depinde to de un echilibru sntos make people a are of the )eep reciprocity ntre nevoile ndeplinite i bet een the ay e live an) thenesatisfacute impact . Publicitate creeaz that has on other c$lt$res an) nevoi on the artificiale , care sunt biosphere. In making sense of the concepute orl) pentru a fi in e cannot ignore o$r impact on it. permanenta ne- cunoscut . Ele acioneaz ca un iritant , If research simply takes gro subminnd th an) sentimentul nostru de ab$n)ant cons$mption for grante) echilibru an) ntre ceea ce avem , ceea then bolts them onto mo)ernist notions ce avem of nevoie i de ceea ce ne selfhoo), it ill not be )oing anything dorim . Nevoile nesatisfacute sunt ra)ically ne . :f co$rse, research cele de care suntem , n general, carrie) o$t in or)er to inform policy cel ismai not contient , dar , fiind meant to a))ress anything ra)ically con ne tient . c sunt supuse unui 0$ite the reverse. Its role is to stabilise control i , cu noroc , un an) consoli)ate the po er of those management ho adecvat . Nevoile de f$n) it. 9ence, it is normative baz an) oferi de fapt, informaiile consens$al. It is abo$t fin)ing o$t necesare hat pentru a le satisface . ill keep people happy so they Daca ill esti sete sau foame , tu tii contin$e to s$pport political instit$tions. ce i lipsete . Necesitile impuse Investigating the effect of the artificial b$ilt , prin contrast , sunt environment on ellbeing co$l) precon be an tient i , prin urmare, ill$strative case. 1ost people in greu the !K de recunoscut. Ele sunt mai live in cities. 9elping to make the greu $rban pentru a satisface pentru c environment goo) to live in noi seems nu tim ce vrem - doar c ne orth hile, as in)ee) it is, in a dorim limite) foarte prost . Atunci cnd sense. 7$t if the life s$pport for the suntorl) special concepute i comm$nity is threatene) by $rbanise) modificate pentru a stimula lifestyles, it is parochial an) short sighte). consumul n mod constant , ele 0$antitative st$)ies of $rban ellbeing sunt practic )o imposibil de a not a))ress the problem )eeply eno$gh. satisface . What is nee)e) is a complementary =$alitative investigation of, for e;ample, Gandhi a remarcat c : " Lumea hy people so often seek alternatives are suficient to pentru nevoile

$rban living on retirement.

fiecruia , dar nu pentru lacomia unor oameni " . Cineva care Jor ecopsychologists, the ob"ect triete ofn lume din acest punct de research nee)s to be the geopolitical vedere se va simi sigur pathology that threatens global ellbeing. fundamental . Lcomiei %$ch research integrates ith corporatiste an) , a fost secondhand complements conventional research prin very industria de publicitate face ell 37ragg, +44C6. It is not a l$;$ry oamenii to be se simt nesiguri . Lumea en"oye) by those ith leis$re an) free)om nu poate prea vreodat pentru a from more imme)iate nee)s. If oferi e are suficient to . Acesta a fost clar promote ellbeing in the longer term de zeci an)de ani c nevoile naturale on a global scale, e m$st recognise ale popoarelor the lumii pot fi inter)epen)ence of self an) environment. ndeplinite , i ntlnit durabil , 2hen, harm to the environment o$l) avnd then n vedere resursele be e;perience) as harm to the self. tehnologice 2his is pe care le avem n far more effective in helping thoseprezent in rich ( de exemplu, Seabrook , the orl) to change their cons$mptive 1985) . Nevoi artificiale create lifestyles. 1oralising, scol)ing prin an) stimularea mass-media , prin alarmism, hat &os>ak calls Dg$ilt contrast trips , sunt proiectate special an) scare tacticsF, certainly )onHt pentru ork a nu fi ndeplinite . Nevoi 3&os>ak, +44?6. nesatisfacute crea violen . Dac nevoile n cauz amenin Summary( existena noastr pe termen scurt , atunci violena este corespunztor Wellbeing )epen)s on a feeling of being imediat in . Dac suntem sufocat , a balance) relationship ith vomo$r lupta pentru aer , dac ne environment. 2his relationship sunt ignorate is , vom lupta pentru obsc$re) by massive propagan)a atenthat ie . n cazul n care nevoile converts nat$ral nee)s into the nee) sunt cele to pe termen mai lung , cons$me. 8onetheless, conscio$sly atuncior , dei rspunsul ar putea fi $nconscio$sly, e kno that violence mai planificate is i strategic , being )one in o$r name, e fear things aceasta areva fi n continuare o lupt going to get orse an) e feel pentru e are tot ceea ce . po erless. Tehnologia pentru impunerea Ecopsychology is an attempt to recognise unor nevoi artificiale este violent

an) reme)y all this. As a psychological de sub control i se produce analysis of h$man ellbeing, it s$ggests violen n procesul . Cineva care that research has to e;ten) beyon) se simte the incomplet fr aceast h$man sphere. We sho$l) not confine sau acea o$r marf se va lupta s-l research to =$antitative s$rveys obin of . Nu e nimic n neregul cu satisfaction ith ealthy lifestyles. marfa , nici n fapt, cu lupta sa se :ther ise e ill not even simta be re< complet . Problema apare arranging the )eckchairs on the atunci 2itanic, cnd unul este ataat la b$t merely asking their occ$pants cel ho lalt . Un copil care ucide un comfortable they are. alt pentru formatorii lor sau o naiune care submineaz guvernul References: de un alt pentru propriile lor scopuri economice sunt dou 7a$)rillar), J. 3+4AI6 'imulations simptome de o tulburare singur . 2ranslate) by Pa$l Joss, Pa$l Patton Am an) devenit mai contieni de Philip 7eitchman. acest lucru ca reele globale aduce %emiote;tQeR, dovezi 8e pentru noi . n mod Mork. inevitabil , aceste dovezi vor fi 7en"amin, W. 3+4C/6 2he Workdistorsionate of Art i exagerate n hiperin the Age realitate of . Dar, n ciuda fum i 1echanical oglinzi , este de necontestat c &epro)$ction. este criz In , i una profund , din (luminations, care e)ite) globalizat violena este un an) ith simptom an intro)$ction by 9annah Aren)t.Perspectiva 'ape, ecopsychology n Lon)on. acest sens este c avem nevoie s 7erman, 1. 3+4A+6 #he caute )e* o soluie adnc n mod enchantment o corespunz the tor i , din moment ce World. Ithaca, criza 8M( ecologic este o criz 'ornell !niversity psihologic soluia va sta cu Press. schimbrile sociale , mai degrab 7lanchflo er, *. B :s al), A. dect 3 remedieri tehnologice . O Well<7eing :ver mare 2ime parte din ceea ce amenin in 7ritain an) bunthe starea apare din masiv supra-

!%A. +ournal consum o necesare pentru a ,ublic -conomics, satisface nevoile patologice AA(+I?4<+IA@. inflamate de tehnologie mass7ragg, E 3+44C6 Ecopsychology media An) . n Frica de libertate , scris Aca)emia( 7ri)ging n 1940 , Eric Fromm a menionat 2he Para)igms. c ar fi " via din belug " relaxat -copsychology constrngerile .nline tradiionale n no. ., +44C. numele libertii , rezultatul a fost 3Internet reso$rces un tip de emoionale golul sticlei belo for !&L6. ideal pentru consum pentru a 7ro n, L. 3+44?6 Ecopsychology umple An) . Condiia a fost chiar mai 2he Environmental vizibil vreo treizeci de ani mai &evol$tion. trziu, In atunci cnd a scris de a -copsychology/avea sau de a fi ? )estoring the -arth, Healing the Acum, 0ind aceasta nu este att de E)ite) by &os>ak, mult 2., de remarcat ca starkly Gomes, 1. B Kanner, definitiv de stilul de via A.. %ierra 'l$bcontemporan 7ooks, . Ceea ce unii %an Jrancisco. ecopsychologists au numit " All 'assi)y,2. 3+44C6 -nvironmental consumatoare de Sine ", este o ,sychology/ afeciune narcisist n care sinele %ehaviour !nd devine prea puternic definit de -1perience (n Conte1t posesie , a fost detaat de la . 9ove( Psychology suporturile de mai naturale, de un Press, 9ove. baraj de imagini consumeriste n 'hoss$)ovsky, 1. 3.//I6 #he mass-media . n aceast stare 2lobali3ation opatologic , grania ntre sine i ,overty and thelumea 4e" devine pe termen nelimitat World .rder. :ntario( extensibil i practic dispare Global :$tlook. ( Hillman , 1995) . Pentru a fi un *eval, W. an) %essions, G. 3+4A?6 auto este acum de a poseda acest -cology/ 5iving lucru !s sau ( acel lucru care nu este 4ature 0attered de la sine . n cazul n care aceast Peregrine nevoie %mith de a poseda este patologic 7ooks, %alt Lake umflat 'ity. , limita auto / mondiala

)i 2ella, &., 1ac'$lloch, &. B :s devine al), A. o frontier n micare de 3.//+6 2he lcomie . Rspunsul la ntrebarea : 1acroeconomics " Ct :f de mult este suficient " este 9appiness. War"ick acum : " Ce este " destul " ? " . O -conomic )esearch transa indusa de mass-media de ,apers, 8o consum @+?, nelimitat , - consecin *epartment liber este :f un pericol global . Economics. !niversity Culturile n care le-a luat hold va of War ick smulge violent ceea ce doresc de Jree)lan), J. 3.//@6 Pester la Po mediu er. i de la alte culturi . )esurgence. Iss$e Aceast .I?, violen poate fi ascuns pages 5/ < 5+. n hiper - realitate, ntr-o oarecare J$k$yama, J. 3.//@6 #he msur , dar preconstient de tiri -nd o scurgeri afar . Combinate cu History and nevoile precontiente de autothe 5ast 0an. actualizare , care nu pot fi %econ) ndeplinite , se face pentru o e)ition. 8e degradare puternic de bunstare . Mork( %imon an) %c Auto-actualizare , situat n partea h$ster. de sus a ierarhiei lui Maslow , este Gergen, K. 3.//+6 Psychological nevoia %cience noastr cea mai important In A Postmo)ern i este esenial pentru bunstarea . 'onte;t. !merican n cazul n care integritatea de ,sychologist. sine ?@3+/6( este ameninat , bunstare A/I<A+I. este afectata . Tehnologiile de Gi))ens, A. 3+4446 )una"ay dorinta World , care au aprut n Profile societ 7ooks, ile post- industriale s-au Lon)on. diminuat n mod fundamental Gilbert, P. 3+4A46 Human 4ature integritatea and de sine . Weber a Human 'u descris ering lumea ca transformat de 9ove( Erlba$m.revoluia industrial ca " 9arvey, *. 3+44/6 #he Condition dezam ogii " ( Weber , 1958 ) . ,ostmodernity. Unul dintre oferii de colonialism 7lack ell, :;for). i extinderea Westward n 9illman, J. 3+44?6 A psyche the America si>e of a fost un efort de a re-

the earth. incanta Inlumea prin nsuirea de -copsychology/terenuri exotice ( Berman , )estoring the 1981 -arth, ) . Pentru cei care deja Healing the locuiesc 0ind acolo , invadatorii au fost E)ite) by &os>ak, privite 2., ca nnebunit de Gomes, 1. B Kanner, necesitatea de a consuma . La A.. %ierra 'l$bindienii 7ooks, Hopi , ca modul lor de %an Jrancisco. via era distrus , a recunoscut 9$ntington, %. 3+44C6 #he Clash stare general o de ru a oamenilor Civili3ations/ !nd albi .the A fost o boal psihic, care )emaking o se World numete " koyaanisqatsi " , .rder. %imon adic,B " o via de echilibru " . %ch$ster( Lon)on. 9$tton, W. 3+44@6 #he 'tate We6re Bun(n. stare depinde de o via n Nintage, Lon)on. echilibru . n cazul n care modul Jencks, '. 3+44@6 What nostru(s de via este n curs de ,ostmodernism& condus profund de echilibru de Aca)emy E)itions, nevoi artificiale i nesustenabile , Lon)on. acest lucru trebuie s fie abordate Kanner, A. B Gomes, 1. 3+44?6 dac vrem s desfoare activiti cons$ming self. de cercetare In , care este adecvat i &os>ak, 2., Gomes, util . 1. Cele mai multe tiine B Kanner, A.sociale 3E)s.6, care reflect etosul de -copsychology/modernitate , modelul lor de )estoring the cercetare -arth, n tiinele naturale . Healing the Acestea 0ind se refer n principal cu %ierra 'l$b 7ooks, lucruri %an care pot fi numrate i cu Jrancisco. factorii determinani imediate , Klein, 8. 3.///6 4o 5ogo/ #aking raional !im , de bunstare . !t #he %rand Contribu %ullies. ia ecopsychology este de Jlamingo, Lon)on. a completa acest lucru cu de 1cL$han, 1. B Jiore, 0. 3+4@C6 cercetare care reflect diversitatea 0edium (s metodologic #he al epocii 0assage. &an)om postmoderne ( Gergen , 2001) . 9o$se, 8e Mork. Este un echilibru mai mult chiar Porritt, J. 3.//?6 Capitalism !s ntre ( #he metode cantitative i

World 0atters. calitative . Determinani Lon)on( Earthscan. psihologice precontiente sunt &os>ak, 2. 3+44?6 Where Psyche tratate 1eets la fel de serios ca i Gaia. In &os>ak, contribuie 2., la aciunile raionale Gomes, 1. B Kanner, din ambele grupuri i indivizi . A. Cercetatorii 3E)s.6 nu mai sunt -copsychology/observatori externi neutri , dar de )estoring the observatori -arth, participante. Healing the 0ind %ierra 'l$b 7ooks, n acest %an sens sugereaz c ESRC , Jrancisco. n a face bunstare una dintre %eabrook, J. 3+4A?6 5andscapes priorit . ile sale tematice , trebuie ,overty. 7lack s seell, intereseze n problemele :;for). calitative profunde ridicate de %hiva, N. 3.///6 Globalisation modul an) in care traim , precum i Poverty. )esurgence realizarea de studii cantitative . Iss$e Studiind ./., relaiile sociale se poate %eptemberL:ctober. face pe mai multe niveluri i %kaer, 2., %kaer, 2., %clar, *., &obison, comunitatea L. mondial mai larg B Galin, &. nu 3.///6 ar trebui s fie ignorate . 2ren)s In 2he &ate Rezultatele :f sntoase poate fi *epressive Illness solicitat An) att la nivel de individ i !se :f Anti)epressant nivelurile colective . Dar acesta Pharmacotherapy din urm 7y este primar : este mai EthnicityL&ace( greu An de a promova persoanele Assessment :f sanatoase :ffice< din societile bolnave 7ase) Nisits dect In 2he este de a ajuta persoanele !nite) %tates, bolnave +44+< in cele sanatoase . +44C. Clinical Predarea i nvarea de #herapeutics/ ecopsychology #he are sens, deoarece (nternational +ournal noi toi locuim n acelai mediu . o 7rug #herapy Ecopsychology ncearc s face ..3+.6(+?C?<A4. pe oameni contieni de 2obias, 1. 3E).6 3+4AA6 7eep -cology reciprocitatea profund ntre Avant 7ooks, modul %an n care trim i impactul pe 1arcos, 'A. care l are asupra altor culturi i

Weber, 1. 3+4?A6 #he ,rotestantasupra -thicbiosferei . n a face sens and the 'pirit din lume, o nu putem ignora Capitalism, translate) impactul nostru pe ea . by 2alcott Parsons. %cribners, 8e Dac Mork. cercetarea pur i simplu Winter, *. 3+44@6 -cological ,sychology nevoie de cretere i consumul / Healing #he abundent 'plit de la sine i apoi le %et"een ,lanet uruburi !nd pe noiuni moderniste ale 'el . 9arper 'ollins, sinelui , acesta nu va face nimic 8e Mork radical nou . Desigur , cercetrile Mo$ng<Eisen)rath, P. 3+44@6 #he 2i efectuate ts o n scopul de a informa 'u ering, A))ison politica nu este menit s abordeze Wesley Longman( ceva 8e radical nou . Dimpotriv . Mork. Rolul su este de a stabiliza i consolida puterea de cei care o Internet sources: finaneaz . Prin urmare , este normativ i consensual . Este 7ragg on Ecopsychology( vorba despre a afla ce se va ine pe oameni fericii , astfel nct http(LLisis.cs$hay ar). vor continua s sprijine acestea e)$LAL%%LE':L/+4CL instituiile politice . Investigarea ne resch.htm efectul mediului construit asupra bunstrii ar putea fi un caz Ecopsychology in general( ilustrativ . Cei mai muli oameni dinar). Marea Britanie locuiesc n http(LLisis.cs$hay orae . Ajutarea pentru a face e)$LAL%%LE':LJinalLi n)e;.htmSintro mediul urban bun de a tri n pare util , aa cum ntr-adevr este , ntr- un sens limitat . Dar n cazul 2he Worl) Watch Instit$te( n care suportul de via pentru comunitatea mondial este http(LL . orl) atc ameninat de un stil de via h.orgL urbanizate , acesta este parohial i termen scurt. Studii cantitative de Koyaanis=atsi, GA life o$t of balanceH bunstare urban nu rezolva http(LL .koyaanis=atsi.orgLin)e;.php problema destul de profund . Ceea

ce este necesar este o investigaie Anthony Gi))ens on globalisation( complementar calitativ a , de exemplu , de ce oamenii caut att http(LL .polity.co.$kLgi))ensLp)fsLGlob de des alternative la via urban alisation.p)f cu privire la pensionare . Pentru ecopsychologists , obiectul de cercetare trebuie s fie patologia geopolitic care amenin bunstarea global . O astfel de cercetare se integreaz cu i completeaz cercetare convenionale foarte bine ( Bragg , 1997) . Acesta nu este un lux pentru a fi bucurat de ctre cei cu petrecere a timpului liber i de libertate de la nevoile imediate . Dac suntem de a promova bunstarea pe termen lung i pe o scar global , trebuie s recunoatem interdependena de sine i de mediu . Apoi , un pericol pentru mediul nconjurtor ar fi experimentat ca un pericol pentru sine . Acest lucru este mult mai eficient n a ajuta pe cei n bogat din lume de a schimba stilul lor de viata consumptive .