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Lymphatic Systems

Course: BIOL 2402

1) Blood Functions and Characteristics – is the only connective tissue in the body that is a fluid and its primary function is the transport of CO2-laden blood from the tissues to the lungs, where it is exchanged for O2, and the O2-rich blood is returned to the tissues. Under normal conditions, it is self-contained within the circulatory system – and the only time that changes is if there is damage to a vessel and the circulatory system is no longer a closed system. n appearance, blood is slightly viscous and somewhat tac!y in consistency. "hile blood may appear to be a fluid, it is more correctly a suspension – since the formed elements are not so much dissolved in the plasma as much as they are suspended. n terms of color, blood is medium red – and becomes brighter or dar!er with the amount of O2 bound to the hemoglobin #if the blood is O2-depleted, it will appear a deep, ruddy, red, while O2-rich blood will be a bright scarlet red$. n terms of taste, blood is slightly salty – due to the assorted salts dissolved in the plasma, and has a slight metallic taste due to the organometallic nature of hemoglobin. %ecause blood is a suspension, rather than a li&uid, it is denser than water #because of the formed elements$. Chemically, it is slightly al!aline – normal blood p' is (.)* – (.+* – and it,s temperature is approximately )-.C #even though normal body temperature is )(.C, normal blood temperature is always slightly higher – body temperature being a function of blood temperature heating the surrounding tissue, and there being a slight loss of temperature in radiant transfer$. %y composition, blood has three principal fractions – /$ formed elements 2$ plasma, and )$ serum. %y volume, formed elements account for +*0 of whole blood, while plasma accounts for **0, and serum is practically the same #**0 – serum is plasma without any clotting factors$. %lood,s average volume is *-1 2 #3$, and +-* 2 #4$. 2) Formed Elements (type of cell, name, and % by volume) – are the cellular components found in whole blood, and include erythrocytes #5%C,s$, leu!ocytes #"%C,s$, and platelets. . 6rythrocytes #5%C,s – red blood cells$ • +,(777,777 – 1,/77,777 #3$, +,277,777 – *,+77,777 #4$ per 8l • +*0 of whole blood • 1-- 8m diameter • 9nucleated • 2ast /77- /27 days • :rimary function is transport and exchange of O2 and CO2 . 2eu!ocytes #"%C,s$ • +,777 – //,777 per 8l • ;/0 of whole blood a. <ranulocytes – cytoplasmic granules contain cyto!ines and other compounds i. =eutrophils • 2,*77 – (,*77 per 8l • *+0 - 120 of leu!ocytes • /7-/2 8m diameter • >egmented nucleus • ?ine cytoplasmic granules – stains with both acidic and basic dyes #'@6$ • 2asts 1 hours to a few days • :hagocytic action against bacteria and fungi ii. 6osinophils • +7 – 1*7 per 8l • /0 - 10 of leu!ocytes • /7-/2 8m diameter
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Lymphatic Systems

Course: BIOL 2402

• %i-lobed nucleus • 2arge cytoplasmic granules – stains with acidic dyes #"right,s$ • 2ast - – /2 days • 9ctive against viral infections, allergy reactions, and parasites iii. %asophils • /7 – *7 per 8l • 7.2*0 - 7.+*0 of leu!ocytes • /2-/* 8m diameter • Aulti-lobed nucleus #generally 2, sometimes ) lobes$ • 2arge course granules – stains strongly with basicBcationic dyes • <ranules contain histamine and heparin • 9ctive in inflammatoryBhistamineBallergy reactions, parasitic infections • 2asts a few hours to a few days b. 9granulocytes – cytoplasm does not contain granules i. 2ymphocytes • /,777 – ),177 per 8l • 2*0 - ))0 of total leu!ocytes • (-- 8m diameter #average$ – better classified as *-- 8m #small$, /7-/2 8m #medium$, and /+-/( 8m #large$ • 2arge, central nucleus • =ucleus stains dar! and evenly, but not consistently #eccentric staining$ • Cery little cytoplasm around periphery • ) cell lines o % cells – antibody-mediated immune response o D cells – cell-mediated immune response  CE+F cells – activate and regulate D and % cells  CE-F cells – attac!s virus-infectedBoncogenic cells  5egulatory D cells – modulates immune response, prevents autoimmune responses  GH D cells – similar to =I cells, able to initiate an immune response directly against an antigen or against an A'Cantigen complex o =I cells – D cells able to initiate an immune response directly against an antigen – does not need need to bind with A'C-antigen complexJ attac!s virus-infectedBoncogenic cells • 2asts several hours to several years #or longer$ ii. Aonocytes • -7 – /,/77 per 8l • 20 - /70 of total leu!ocytes • /+-2+ 8m diameter • ndistinct, segmented nucleus #KU,-shaped$ • Cytoplasm stains wea!ly with basic dyes • =ucleus shows stronger staining with basic dyes
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Q. #) $lasma Contents (composition.s O2-carrying capacity. by volume O **0 o :roteins – (0  9lbumin – *+0  <lobulin proteins #P. and differentiating into macrophages 9ctive in inflammatory reactions.*0 o >olutes – /. normal levels shortly after the body adLusts to the higher elevation$. nutrients. but settle at. a permanent move to a higher elevation will show an elevated 5%C count and hematocrit for the short-term. viruses. or a short stay at a higher elevation #a short stay at higher elevations will stimulate an increase in erythropoiesis.*0  6lectrolytes • =aF • IF • CaFF • AgFF • ClPage 3 of 24 . G$ – )-0  ?ibrinogen – (0  Other proteins – /0 o "ater – R/. Clinically normal hematocrit values areM +(0 N *0 #3$. and regulatory substances in solution. resulting in a higher 5%C count and a slightly elevated hematocrit – which returns to normal levels on return to lower altitudesJ by contrast.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 • • • • . n terms of its clinical interpretation. n contrast. but it also contains a variety of proteins.s a measure of blood. gases. a higher hematocrit indicates that erythrocytes can carry a heavier O2 load./0 of whole blood • 2 – + 8m diameter • 9nucleated • 2ast * – /7 days • nvolved with clotting mechanism 3) ematocrit (definition and avera!e values. as well as metabolic waste products. by se") – per unit volume. and chronic infections >uspected causal lin! between monocytes and atherosclerosis 2asts several hours to several days Dhrombocytes #:latelets$ • 277. ts clinical significance is that it. by volume) – plasma is predominately water. and +20 N *0 #4$. possible blood doping with eyrthropoietin.777 – *77. as well as a number of electrolytes. a below-normal hematocrit can alert surgeons to internal bleeding following surgery. Dhis may be indicative of athletic training and a higher 5%C count.777 per 8l • . parasites. • "hole blood plasma fraction. or near. vitamins. is the ratio of erythrocytes to total volume. help physicians diagnose iron-deficient erythropoiesis or chronic renal disease. Capable of migrating from blood stream into tissues.

"ith the formation of the common myeloid and common lymphoid oligopotent stem cells. Dhe multipotent stem cell. a mast cell. %y their name. a proerythroblast. goes through several mitotic divisions – forming additional hemocytoblasts and common myeloid and common lymphoid progenitor cells. gamma globulins are best represented by the basic structure found in immunoglobulins – but not all immunoglobulins are gamma globulins. Dhe myeloblast goes through three mitotic divisions. then an orthochromatic erythroblast #a normoblast$. <el electrophoresis is best used for identifying raw protein fractions prior to purification. n thrombopoiesis. cellular fragments that are !nown as platelets. the mega!aryocyte ruptures. ') emopoiesis – is the process by which all hematopoietic cells are produced. the neutrophils. they have a &uaternary. and its position in the lane corresponds to its molecular weight and charge. n granulopoiesis. ?rom each of these are produced neutrophilic. 9nalytically. stimulated by erythropoietin – the proerythroblast #a pronormoblast$ develops into a basophilic erythroblast. stimulated by thrombopoietin – mega!aryoblasts develop into promega!aryocytes and then mega!aryocytes. eosinophilic. Dhe common myeloid progenitor cell goes through four mitotic cycles – forming a mega!aryoblast. 9s an electrical charge is applied to the gel. Dhe result is a gel with several bands in each lane – each band represents a protein. producing small. and a myeloblast. those proteins that are smallest in terms of structure and weight or have the strongest charge move the furthest down the gel. eosinophilic. then a polychromatic erythroblast. and basophilic promyelocyte. globular structure #as opposed to a simple secondary structure as either an P-helix or a Q-pleated sheet$. and finally an erythrocyte.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402      • 'CO)=utrients • <lucose • ?atty acid chains • 9mino acids <ases • O2 • CO2 • =2 5egulatory substances • 6nSymes • 'ormones Citamins Aetabolic waste products • Urea • Uric acid • Creatinine %) &amma &lobulins – are one class of proteins found within the plasma fraction of whole blood. Dhese cells are responsible for /$ thrombopoiesis 2$ erythropoiesis )$ granulopoiesis. and +$ monocytopoiesis. hemopoiesis is set to begin the production of all the formed elements found in whole blood. and basophils are produced. and not all gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. gamma globulins are best separated using gel electrophoresis – which separates proteins based on their molecular weight and net charge. <enerically. Aast cells are a primitive cell line which still exists unchanged. a hemocytoblast. then a polychromatic erythrocyte #a reticulocyte$. eosinophils. n erythropoiesis. Page 4 of 24 . producing a neutrophilic.

as antigens are detected. which develop into neutrophilic. O2 unloading in the tissues is accomplished by the %ohr effect. n both cases. forming a macrophage and a myeloid dendritic cell. and dead or damaged cells. phagocytes. Dhe monocyte then divides. as well as mediate histamine and allergy reactions – allowing for increased blood flow in infected areas. and each globin chain has an ?e atom at its center. O2 is primarily transported by hemoglobin in the form of oxyhemoglobin #nearly R-0$ and the remaining 20 is transported as elemental O2 in the plasma. 9dditionally. Dhe % cells – either as % cells or plasma cells possess the ability to produce antibodies against foreign antigenic epitopes. the body would be defenseless and susceptible to a wide range of infections and diseases if there were no agranulocytes. and develops into a prolymphocyte. agranulocytes play a much more critical role. a myeloblast develops into a monoblast. and parasitic infections. allows for / billion O2 molecules per erythrocyte. or % cells so that it can be destroyed. Dhis process is balanced by the 'aldane effect. Dhe small lymphocyte splits into a D cell and a % cell – and the % cell then develops into a plasma cell () emo!lobin – is the central globular protein at the center of erythrocytes and plays an integral role in gas exchange and transporting O2 and CO2 from the lungs and throughout the body. and basophilic metamyelocytes. On average. n monocytopoiesis.or istocompatability Comple" (. which develops into a promonocyte and then a monocyte. while not as diverse as the common myeloid progenitor. is Lust as important. multiplied by + O2 molecules each.C) – is a large group of proteins that are essential for presenting antigenic epitopes to macrophages. . and basophils. Dhese develop into neutrophilic. with the % cells moderating the antibody-mediated immune system and the D cells moderating the cell-mediated immune system. Dhe common lymphoid progenitor. 9granulocytes provide both arms of the immune system. D cells. CO2 is transported by hemoglobin in one of three forms – the most prominent is as 'CO). Dhere are two classes – A'C Dype . plasma cells. and the remainder #/70$ is transported dissolved in the plasma. which causes the 'b-O2 binding affinity to decrease as the :CO2 increases. and macrophages. the body would be susceptible to any infection not detected by granulocytes. in the lungs – which causes the 'b-CO2 binding affinity to decrease as the :O2 increases )) &ranulocytes vs* +!ranulocytes (functions) – collectively. eosinophils. one O2 #or CO2$ can bind to each ?e atom. and then splits into a small lymphocyte and an =I cell.) -a. %ecause of its complementary structure. hemoglobin is composed of + globin chains #2 P and 2 Q$. allowing the blood to form clots and restrict bacteria from spreading to other parts of the body. and these band cells differentiate into neutrophils. and A'C Dype molecules. while the D cells have the ability to release cyto!ines in response to detecting #or being presented with$ a foreign antigenic epitope – and coordinating the actions of granulocytes. they assist with fighting bacterial. "hile granulocytes can bind foreign antigens and present them to D cells or % cells so the foreign cells can be destroyed by antibodies or =I cells.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 and basophilic myelocytes. eosinophilic. Dhe lymphoblast is the stem cell for lymphopoiesis. eosinophilic. granulocytes function to aid macrophages and phagocytes with the destruction of bacteria. there are 2*7 million hemoglobin molecules in each erythrocyte. >tructurally. or % cells. Dhe common lymphoid progenitor splits.#(70$. and basophilic band cells. followed by carbaminohemoglobin #270$. Tust as O2 is transported by hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin. they Page 5 of 24 . forming a lymphoblast and a lymphoid dendritic cell. 9nd without =I cells. 9s important a role as granulocytes play in fighting infections and helping macrophages. D cells. fungal.

"ithout the A'C proteins. parasites. lymphocytes are the longest-lived of the formed elements in whole blood – living for years. Current research is indicating that basophils may also contribute to the secondary immune response managed by D cells. ?unctionally. the cytoplasmic granules stain a deep blue with basic #li!e hematoxylin$ or other cationic dyes. 11) Basophils – are one of the formed elements found in whole blood. 'istochemically. or =I cells$. do not stain the same color from one cell to the next – this is !nown as eccentric staining$. lobes$. Dhis process allows the antibodies. serving as signals to leu!ocytes – allowing them to locate the damaged cell#s$. occasionally ).Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 are bound to the A'C molecule. D cells. and histamine is released – restoring localiSed blood flow to near-normal levels. nucleus and very little cytoplasm. the virus-infected cells. they are (-. and the mature % cells will be released in the blood. A'C Dype / molecules are specific to CE-F and =I cells. that foreign. "hen the antigen presents itself. the body. % cells develop in the bone marrow #immature % cells$ and are then transported to the spleen #transitional % cells$. and =I cells. they are /2-/* 8m in diameter with a large multi-lobed nucleus #usually 2. =ext to macrophages.8m in diameter with a large. 1/) Chemota"is – a process by which damaged or infected cells release an assortment of chemical stimuli and molecules. where they will differentiate and mature. as well as hypersensitivity reactions. >pecifically. On stimulation by an antigen. 'istologically. or metastatic tumor cells.7/0 to 7. while A'C Dype molecules are specific to CE+F cells. central. D cells. the % cell will differentiate into either a plasma % cell or a memory % cell. Aicroscopically. and macrophages to locate. but not consistently #some nuclei. >pecifically. "hile all three cell lines have the same basic function. or damaged self cells have been detected and need to be destroyed. they are one of two agranulocytes #the other being monocytes$. and phagocytose cells or particles the body has identified as non-self. and ma!e up 7. viral particles. basophils play a maLor role in both the histamine response. or =I cells$ can be alerted that there are foreign cells #bacteria. metastatic cancer cells$ needing to be attac!ed and destroyed. %asophils possess surface receptors that bind g6. or be able to !now. it is not possible to differentiate % cells from D cells from =I cells. the nucleus stains deep and regularly. regulated by D cells$. 12) 0ymphocytes – are another of the formed elements in whole blood. 'istologically. 'istochemically. "ithin the lymphocytic cell type. which assist with mediating hypersensitivity reactions #whether stimulated by pollenBmoldBfungus or by food allergens$. CE+F.)0 of the total leu!ocytes #per 8l$. % cells.s antibody-mediated immune response #as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response. Dhe cytoplasmic granules contain both histamine and heparin. Dhis !ind of distinction can only be done using flow cytometry and immunofluorescently-labeled monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to surface mar!ers of different families of lymphocytes #whether they be % cells. now activated. the location of the inflammatoryBhistamine response. :lasma cells. D cells. each individual cell line has its own uni&ue role. non-self #virus-infected cells or cancer cells$. basophils are transported to the site of inflammation. forming a complex. will produce large amounts of antigen-specific antibody. n response to tissue inflammation. there are three distinct cell lines – % cells. and ma!e up 2*0 to ))0 of the total leu!ocytes #per 8l$. when stained. % cells are responsible for producing antibodies to that antigen.s immune system would effectively be blind – and not be aware. % cells regulate the body. so that cells #whether they be granulocytes. and large cytoplasmic granules. while memory % cells will retain the coding for the antigenic epitope – Page 6 of 24 . attac!. they are one of three types of granulocytic leu!ocytes #the other two being neutrophils and eosinophils$. CE-F. sometimes for the entire lifetime of the individual.

li!e =I cells. D cells regulate the body.s D+ and D. :roerythroblasts develop into polychromatic Page 7 of 24 . Euring positive selection. and bind. are also destroyed #otherwise there would be too great a chance for autoimmune diseases to develop at a later date$. while the others are destroyed. "hile % cells develop in the bone marrow and differentiate and mature in the spleen prior to being released into the blood. but they differ in the initial binding. this standard system was &uic!ly being replaced with the current system of assigning each surface mar!er a specific CE #for Cluster designation$ identifier – as the field of immunology was developing newer. bind to A'C-antigen complexes. mast cells. "hereas CE+ cells bind to antigens on A'C Dype surface mar!ers. >uppressorBCytotoxic D$. so that any two cells with the same CExx surface mar!er#s$ could be identified as the same type of cell – regardless of where they were found. are !ept.s #partly brought on by the discovery of the 'D2C. Dhymocytes that survived positive selection move deeper into the cortex and go through negative selection. lymphocytes. % cells are CE/R. better. D cells develop in the cortex of the thymus. D+ is now CE+. by inhibiting the continued immune response once it is no longer needed. eosinophils. only those thymocytes that are capable of identifying Kself. mega!aryocytes. switch for mounting an immune responseJ there are a group of D cells called regulatory D cells that are the Koff. and uniform identifier #to remove any ambiguity. there is very little !nown about GH D cells other than their similarity to D cells and =I cells. 2i!e memory % cells. selection. Tust as CE+ cells can be considered the Kon. n contrast. reticulocytes. basophils. CE+ cells play the largest role in cell-mediated immunity. Dhose thymocytes that identify. and negative. 9ny information about the se&uencing or structure of the surface mar!ers is still strong supposition. 'elper D. li!e D cells. >uppressorBCytotoxic D became D-$. 'istologically.the multipotent stem cell from which all hematopoietic cells #erythrocytes. there is no means of differentiating between a D cell and a % cell. can also bind directly to the antigen. protocols for se&uencing these surface mar!ers – creating a standard catalog of each mar!er. Currently. too strongly with Kself. chemical structure.virus$. from the discovery that how well #or poorly$ a patient with a particular disease does CE-. the mar!er. thymocytes #immature D cells$ go through both positive. Currently. at best. and glial cells$ arise. D.s. called GH D cells – which. but. Once transported to the thymus. as they are instrumental in activating % cells to become plasma cells – producing antibodies against antigens or pathogens which stimulated the % cell. Dhrombocytes develop from mega!aryocytes – which are the mature form of mega!aryoblasts. due to the patient.count – and their D+BD.t &uite the same$. or their actions weren. there are memory D cells. in part.s cell-mediated immune response. which develop from hemocytoblasts . and become immunocompetent in the outer layer of the thymus cortex. monocytes. >imilar to =I cells is another group of D cells. CE. 5egulatory D cells also play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune diseases. %y the mid-/R-7. =I cells are very similar to CE+ cells in function. D// is CE). and =I #=atural Iiller$ cells are CE/1. 13) 1hrombocytes – are the proper term for platelets.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 maximiSing the secondary immune response to the antigen without the delay of re&uiring % cells to be converted to plasma cells before antibody production can occur.cells attac! cells which have become infected by a bacteriaBvirus or become oncogenic. 'elper D became D+. Dhis classification of distinguishing one population of D cells from another first began as common designators #Dotal D.s se&uence. and *$ mega!aryoblast. Dhe only way to distinguish between the two is by the surface mar!ers present #or absent$ on the D cell.ratio. neutrophils. switch – and inhibit the cell-mediated immune response. each belonging to a specific cell line – /$ proerythroblast 2$ myeloblast )$ lymphoblast +$ monoblast. and by the early /R-7. which play much the same role. =I cells do not re&uire antigens to be bound to the A'C Dype -antigenic complex – they can bind to antigens directly. 'emocytoblasts give rise to five blast cells. and these soon changed to a more standard system #Dotal D became D//.

but when a vessel wall is damaged. which mature into erythrocytes. include stimulation of the tunica media by sympathetic nerve fibers. 1') 2niversal Blood 3onor and 2niversal Blood 4ecipient – are the terms applied to two of the 2andsteiner blood group designations. :aradoxically. step is coagulating the platelets in the plug – sealing the damage to the vessel wall. and then attached between the edges. and it.s these processes that. Dhere are two agglutinogens – Dype 9 and Dype % – and their presence or absence determines %lood Dypes 9. Dhis is commonly the most visible of the three steps in repairing a wound. and holds the platelet plug in place – to prevent any further damage to the vessel wall while it. present. Dhe third. platelets adhere very strongly to the collagen fibers in the vessel wall. or are not. 9s simple a step as this may seem. as the blood clots – leaving a meshwor! of fibrin filaments.s bro!en down and digested by alveolar macrophages. Dhe combination of these three compounds form a synergistic positive feedbac! loop – the more platelets there are. Aega!aryoblasts develop into mega!aryocytes. massive cells. 1#) 3 Factors 1hat $revent Blood 0oss – are responses the body ta!es to restrict blood flow to a damaged vessel. On stimulation by thrombopoietin. the more compounds are released magnifying the effects of the compounds. and used to assign a blood type based on which surface mar!ers are. and proprioceptor stimuli. they release three compounds – 9E:. with as much as )2 times the normal amount of genetic material.s believed that the cellular membrane of mega!aryocytes form membranous processes all along the periphery of the cell. chemotactic stimuli by platelets and endothelial cells.s being repaired. fibrin filaments begin to form between the platelets – forming a mesh holding the platelets together. >pecifically. and final. while serotonin and thromboxane 92 both function to increase the vascular spasm as well as enhance the platelets adhesive properties. and thromboxane 92. 9s coagulation begins. Dhe first step is initiating a vascular spasm in the vessel. 1%) +!!lutino!ens – are protein surface mar!ers found on erythrocytes. which mature and differentiate into granulocytes #neutrophils. and orchestrated reaction in which an array of /) plasma proteins #synthesiSed by the liver$ come together in a specific se&uence with the end result being the formation of a very strong fibrin mesh which protects the vessel wall while it is repaired. %. because of their genotypes. which then begin going through repeated mitotic cycles without cyto!inesis – resulting in singular. and initiate a localiSed cascade reaction to create a clot – sealing the vessel wall. platelets will not adhere to the endothelium of blood vessels. eosinophils. serotonin. 2ymphoblasts and monoblasts mature into 9granulocytes #lymphocytes and monocytes. Dhis is also the step in which the body launches the cascade reaction involved in blood clotting – a coordinated. respectively$. and basophils$. it. individuals with one of these two phenotypes can either give blood to any other blood type #Kuniversal donor. Dhe second step is the creation of a platelet plug attached to the edges of the damaged vessel. 9%. Dhe vascular spasm is the vasoconstriction of the vessel in response to the inLury. the efficiency of the vascular spasm mechanism increases with the amount of tissue damage.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 erythroblasts. 9s more platelets bind to the collagen. ?actors contributing to the vasoconstriction can. and do. 9E: wor!s to increase the adhesiveness of the platelets. Under normal circumstances. and O. 9s platelets begin adhering to the damaged edges. 9fter mega!aryocytes have degenerated – forming thrombocytes in the process #approximately 2-*777 thrombocytes per cell$ – the remnant of the mega!aryocyte ma!es its way to the lungs.$ or receive blood Page 8 of 24 . where it. when pinched off – forming cellular fragments – develop into thrombocytes. Ayeloblasts develop into progranulocytes. a large glycoprotein #von "illebrand factor$ in the blood stabiliSes the bond between platelet and collagen – allowing for more and more platelets to bind with the collagen. causing more platelets to bind to the collagen. the body can minimiSe blood loss by maximiSing vasoconstriction of the damaged vessel before moving on to the next step.

9%. was discovered later$. coded by a gene se&uence on chromosome /R. because anti-9 and anti-% antibodies also exist in the serum. %. %ecause of this. Dhis is the underlying principle of blood typing and matching utiliSed by hospitals and blood ban!s across the globe. %lood type O is not the presence of an agglutinogen. and will agglutinate if mixed with blood types % or 9%. t is important to note that the 5h. >imilarly. %ecause of this frameshift. Dype O. agglutinogens are present. while individuals with type O produce anti-9 and anti-% antibodies that are g<. %ecause agglutination occurs when Knon-self. Dhere is also a genetic lin! between blood type and an increased predisposition to bleeding.. but rather the absence of an agglutinogen – and is the result of a homoSygous recessive combination. 6ven though type O and type 9% are considered to be universal donors and recipients. n these individuals. in /R77 #and many other researchers produced similar research independently$. Dype 9% blood will only occur as a co-dominant combination of 9%. the protein translated for type O is enSymatically inactive – leaving the ' antigen unchanged #fucoseUgalactoseUacetylglucosamineUgalactose$. 1() +B5 Blood 1ypes – is the system on which the entire science of typing blood is based.#genotype OO and the 5h factor is negative$. anti-9 and anti-% antibodies #isoantibodies – antibodies produced by an individual against antigens produced by members of the same species$ are produced. agglutination will still occur. ?irst discovered by Iarl 2andsteiner. OO. it must be remembered that this only applies to pac!ed erythrocytes – not whole blood. Dhe 9. erythrocytes possessing a different agglutinogen will induce agglutination of the mixed cells. but not as strongly$. and O mar!ers are coded by a gene se&uence on chromosome R which.$. or heteroSygous 9OB%O combination.. and the universal recipient is type 9%. Dype 9 or Dype % blood is the result of either a homoSygous 99B%%.s susceptibility to infection by toxoplasmosis. Dhis ' antigen is a carbohydrate se&uence #fucoseUgalactoseUacetylglucosamineU galactose$ bound to a transmembrane protein. respectively. galactoseUacetylglucosamineUgalactose$. and O #hence the name K9%O. as overloo!ing the 5h compatibility – while not lethal – may induce mild to moderate anemia in the not an oversight. %lood type % codes for an additional galactose at position 2 #fucoseU galactose. 9nti-9 and anti-% antibodies are usually gA #which are unable to cross the placental barrier$. %lood type O actually results from a nucleotide deletion #a guanine is deleted – causing a frameshift. acetylgalactosamine is added at position 2 #fucoseUacetylgalactosamine. and will agglutinate if mixed with blood types 9 or 9% #in both cases. because type 9% blood possesses both 9 and % agglutinogens.#genotype 9% and the 5h factor is negative$. when translated. galactoseU aceytlglucosamineUgalactose$. respectively.blood may be given to anyone and agglutination will not occur. the heritability #establishing the genetic lin! between transference of the parental genotype to a child$. Dhe basis for all three surface mar!ers is the ' antigen. there is a mutation resulting in a very rare blood group #type hh$ called the K%ombay %lood <roup. as well as the location and se&uencing of the genes which code for the surface mar!ers. %lood type 9% presents with both 9 and % surface mar!ers in fairly e&ual proportions.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 from any other blood type #Kuniversal recipient. Lust as Dype 9%.blood can receive blood from anyone and agglutination will not occur. it establishes the presence of surface proteins on erythrocytes as being the distinguishing factor between one blood type and another. while the fourth. people with type O are at higher ris! of uncontrolled bleeding due to lower levels of von "illebrand in their system. resulting in an entirely different protein$. Page 9 of 24 . because the 9%O antigen is also expressed on von "illebrand protein. Tust as type O is the result of an inactive protein – resulting in the ' antigen being the surface mar!er. protecting against foreign or mismatched blood. %. and later wor! established the structure of these surface mar!ers. %ecause erythrocytes are typed by the agglutinogen present on their cell membrane. Dhe universal donor is type O. blood type % possesses blood agglutinogen %. %lood type 9 possesses blood agglutinogen 9. 9 few years after birth. "or! was done which established blood types 9. adds another carbohydrate to the ' antigen. as well as increase the patient. ?or blood type 9.

and lyse. 9rising from the left coronary artery are the circumflex artery. diffuse capillary networ! with the left anterior descending artery. the non-hh blood. thymus. esophagus. %ounded superiorly by the thoracic inlet. 9fter perfusing the myocardium.) Cardiac 1issue (# layers) – consists of /$ the pericardium 2$ the epicardium )$ the myocardium.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 the gene for the ' antigen is missing or defective. and a right coronary artery – running along the coronary sulcus #an anatomical landmar! on the heart. mmediately underneath the fibrous pericardium is the serous pericardium – whose parietal layer is immediately beneath the fibrous pericardium. 1)) -ediastinum – is that space. inferiorly by the diaphragm. their bodies do produce anti-' antibodies – so the only blood they can receive is type hh. the coronary arteries form capillary beds which develop into the venous return. and +$ the endocardium. 9lthough there are several cardiac veins #Lust as there are coronary arteries$. %eneath the parietal layer of the serous pericardium is the pericardial sac – filled with pericardial fluid. their erythrocytes do not have either 9 or % antigens #li!e type O – so they can effectively donate to types 9. among them$. Dhe outermost layer. %. aorta. the middle Page 10 of 24 . and the inferior mediastinum #extending from the angle of 2ouis to the diaphragm$. or angle of 2ouis$. which serves to reduce the friction created by the serous pericardium sliding against itself and the heart sliding against the pericardium as it beats. to form two maLor arteries – the right marginal artery running along the right anterolateral margin of the heart #perfusing the right lateral side of the heart$. is actually contiguous with the epicardium of the heart. within the thorax. has a high collagen content and serves to protect the heart as well as anchor it to anatomic structures within the mediastinum. the remaining space occupied by the heart. separating the atria from their respective ventricles$. provides a smooth. and O$. 9%. the fibrous pericardium. 2/) eart Blood 6essels (Coronary +rteries) – the coronary arteries arise from the base of the aortic trun!. running from the margin of the left coronary sulcus and continuing around to the posterior aspect of the heart #perfusing the left atrium and the posterior wall of the left ventricle$. which can be further subdivided into the superior mediastinum #extending from the superior thoracic inlet to the fusion of the manubrium and the body of the sternum #sternal angle. it ramifies – forming a small. and perhaps as high as 7. the middle mediastinum #containing the pericardium$. bifurcating. and as such their bodies are unable to produce the ' antigen precursor. the visceral pericardium. where the heart is located. Dhe innermost tissue layer is the endocardium – and Lust li!e any other hollow organ in the body.7/0 in some parts of ndia #Aumbai. n these individuals. forming a left. and the posterior interventricular artery running along the posterior interventricular sulcus #perfusing the apex of the heart and the posterior ventricular walls$. Dype hh blood has a very low incidence – only as high as 7.777+0 globally. and by the lungs on either side. Dhe left coronary artery also creates two maLor branches from a bifurcation. 1. %eneath the epicardium is the myocardium – composed of cardiac myocytes interspersed with cardiac autorhythmic fibers. but because they do not have the ' antigen either. the three largest veins are the great cardiac vein #paralleling the circumflex artery$. and the left anterior descending artery #anterior interventricular artery$ running along the anterior interventricular sulcus #perfusing the interventricular septum and the anterior walls of both ventricles$. and posterior mediastinum #posterior to the pericardium$. 9s the posterior interventricular artery nears the apex of the heart. thoracic trachea. otherwise their body will attac!. Dhe inferior mediastinum can be further divided into the anterior mediastinum #anterior to the pericardium$. Dhe inner layer of the serous pericardium. low-friction surface allowing the internal surfaces of the heart to slide past each other as the chambers contract and relax. and neural pathways – is the mediastinum. Dhe right coronary artery runs to the right margin of the heart. associated lymph nodes.

9ctually. 9n 6I< re&uires a minimum of ) leads – to measure the voltage difference between /$ the left and right arm 2$ the left leg and right arm. 23) E8& (EC&) – is a graphic recording of the heart. the action potential spreads – crossing the right atrium – arriving at the atrioventricular node. n these cells. there is W7. and continuously depolariSe – always drifting close to the threshold necessary to generate an action potential. Centricular systole begins almost as soon as the action potentials start propagating along the :ur!inLe fibers. the action potential continues to propagate – arriving at the atrioventricular bundle #bundle of 'is$. Lust to begin the rapid depolariSation all over again. "ith the influx of =aF. autorhythmic cells repolariSe Lust as fast. >timulating the nerve fibers of the vagus nerve that innervate the sinoatrial node has the effect of reducing the heart rate. 9t the apex. following the :ur!inLe fibers. itVs characteristic rhythm – the sinus rhythm – determines heart rate$. the delay between the onset of depolariSation at the sinoatrial node and the completion of ventricular systole is W227 ms. the heart rate would actually increase W2* bpm #to W/77 bpm$ – this is !nown as vagal tone. Dhere are other cardiac veins #posterior cardiac vein. Once at the bundle of 'is. and )$ the left leg and left arm. and smaller veins and venules$ that either anastomose with the coronary sinus or drain directly into the right atrium. hyperpolariSation at the end of an action potential triggers the closing of IF gates and opening of =aF gates. Dhese three large veins Loin together. 9 popular misconception is that an 6I< is a visual representation of a single impulse generated by the heart. 9s the sinoatrial node depolariSes. Dhe characteristic )-pea! Page 11 of 24 . Dhe parasympathetic nervous system can only moderate the heart rate – since it does not innervate the cardiomyocytes in the atria and ventricles. and the small cardiac vein #paralleling the right marginal artery$. Dhese pacema!er potentials – or prepotentials – initiate the action potentials that spread throughout the heart. t is the sudden CaFF influx #rather than the =aF influx$ that is responsible for the rapid depolariSation and generation of the action potential. Dhe cell membranes of these cells have an unstable resting potential. which drains into the right atrium. Eespite this. generated by the heart and transmitted throughout the body. On average. allowing the atria to enter systole before the ventricular myocardium begins to depolariSe and enter systole. an 6I< is a visual representation of all the impulses. f the nerve fibers of the vagus nerve that innervate the sinoatrial node were severed. 9s the atria complete systole. %oth the sinoatrial and atrioventricular bundles are innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems as well as the vagus nerve. opening IF gates and releasing IF – repolariSing the cell. in toto. 22) Electrical +ctivity of Cardiac -uscle Contractions – the heartVs autorhythmic cells control the heartVs ability to beat.s electrical activity.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 cardiac vein #paralleling the posterior interventricular artery$. autorhythmic cells do not maintain a stable resting potential. only the sympathetic nervous system can moderate both the heart rate and the contractile force. the action potential splits – following the separate #left and right bundles down to the apex of the heart. Unli!e cardiomyocytes or striated muscle cells. CaFF channels open. Once at the atrioventricular node. the action potentials follow the bundle branch fibers along the ventricular walls. forming the coronary sinus. Dhe pacema!er potential in these cells is possible because of the special properties of the ion gates in the cell membrane. triggering its characteristic rhythmic contractions. Dhe sinoatrial node is the ganglionic nerve bundle that is the pacema!er of the heart #because no other nerve bundle in the heart has a faster depolariSation rate – for this reason./ s delay. and *$ the :ur!inLe fibers #running through the ventricular myocardium$. anterior cardiac vein. the intramembrane potential becomes less negative – and as threshold approaches #-+7 mC$. 21) Conduction 7ystem of the eart – is composed of /$ the sinoatrial node 2$ the atrioventricular node )$ the atrioventricular bundle #bundle of 'is$ +$ the left and right bundle branches. ?ollowing the sudden depolariSation.

Dhe :5 interval is therefore a good estimate of atrioventricular node function. Dhe XD interval varies with heart rate . • :5 interval – lasts* s . so the amplitude of the X5> complex is usually much larger than the :-wave. Dhe interval from the beginning of the X5> complex to the apex of the D wave is referred to as the absolute refractory period. Dhe :5 intervalVs importance is in its clinical relevance. Dhis coincides with the impulse conduction from the atrioventricular node to the bundle of 'is to the bundle branches and then to the :ur!inLe fibers. 55 O • $. U wave – the U wave is not always seen. it follows the D wave. Dhis allows the cardiologist to get the basic tracing.7./1 sJ the D wave represents the repolariSation of the ventricles.7. this shows as a flat line on the 6I<.7. • T-point – only serves as a landmar!./2 sJ the >D segment connects the X5> complex and the D wave. Compared to the atria. Dhis segment represents the period when the ventricles are depolariSed. • XD interval – lasts 7. the impulse is directed from the sinoatrial node towards the atrioventricular node./2 sJ the :5 segment connects the : wave and the X5> complex. • D wave – lasts 7. Dhe last half of the D wave is referred to as the relative refractory period #or vulnerable period$. or atherosclerotic pla&ues are developing in some of the coronary arteries #that might not be detected on auscultation. this re&uires a correctionM "hereM the value for XD is ta!en from the 6I<. 9lthough an 6I< can be done with as few as ) leads. • X5> complex – lasts 7.7.2 sJ is measured from the beginning of the : wave to the beginning of the X5> complex. • : wave – lasts about 7.7.s .+) sJ the XD interval is measured from the beginning of the X5> complex to the end of the D wave.s . t is the point at which the X5> complex finishes and the >D segment begins. it.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 tracing seen in an 6I< is actually a combination of seven regions – and each region is significant in terms of what it tells the cardiologist.and for clinical relevance. as well as record impulses from different angles – in case there are ischemic areas in the heart. Dhe :5 interval reflects the time the impulse ta!es to travel from the sinoatrial node through the atrioventricular node and enter the ventricles. • :5 segment – lasts 7.s recommended that /7 to /2 leads are used./2 s .sJ during normal atrial depolariSation. Dhe T-point is used as a reference to measure the degree of >D elevation or depression #if present$. and an angiogram is considered unnecessary at the time$. and XDC is the XD value.) s . • >D interval – lasts 7. and spreads from the right atrium to the left atrium.7. 9 prolonged XD interval is a primary ris! factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. the myocardium of the ventricles is much thic!er.)2 sJ Dhe >D interval is measured from the T-point to the end of the D wave./2 sJ the X5> complex reflects the rapid depolariSation of the right and left ventricles. %ecause a contraction is not being produced. Page 12 of 24 . and 55 is the interval from one 5 wave to the next #and mathematically. corrected for heart rate. since itVs typically a low amplitude impulse – by definition. • >D segment – lasts 7.

&uic!ly followed by the ventricular myocardium beginning to depolariSe #X5> complex$ • Dhe atria remain in diastole for the remainder of the cardiac cycle 2. Dhe physical events of the cardiac cycle always follow the electrical events seen in an 6I<. the tricuspid valve begins closing #the remaining blood will fill the right ventricle as the right atrium contracts$ • 9s the sinoatrial node depolariSes. and it exceeds the pressure in the pulmonary and aortic trun!s – the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves open. the standard starting point for the cardiac cycle is with the heart completely at rest – with both atria and ventricles relaxed. the atria contract #: wave$ – causing a slight increase in intracardiac pressure – forcing the blood left in the atria into the ventricles • "ith the atria in systole. Dhe cardiac cycle is characteriSed by a succession of changes in the pressure and volume of blood in the heart. Centricular filling #mid-to-late diastole$ • ntracardiac pressure is low • :ulmonary and aortic semilunar valves are closed • Cenous return is filling the right atrium and flowing through the tricuspid valve. sovolumetric relaxation #early diastole$ • Dhe ventricles enter diastole as the ventricular myocardium begins to repolariSe #D wav$ • %lood remaining in the ventricles #end systolic volume – 6>C$ is no longer compressed. thereVs a sudden. the ventricles are at maximum volume – holding as much blood as they can #end diastolic volume . an arbitrary start point for the beginning of the cardiac cycle must be selected. and the intraventricular pressure decreases rapidly • Dhe sudden drop in intraventricular pressure creates a localiSed vacuum. ending the isovolumetric phase • 9t this point – the ventricular eLection phase – the intravascular pressure in the aorta is W /27 mm 'g ). and is !nown as the dicrotic notch Page 13 of 24 . %ecause blood is circulating continuously. to ventricular systole and diastole. drawing blood in the pulmonary and aortic trun!s bac! towards the ventricles – closing the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves in the process • 9s the aortic semilunar valve closes. Centricular systole • 9s the ventricles enter systole. intraventricular pressure &uic!ly increases – closing the atrioventricular valves • ?rom the time the atrioventricular valves are closed and the ventricles are sealed chambers – and the blood volume is constant – is the start of the isovolumetric phase • 9s the intraventricular pressure continues to increase. %y convention.6EC$ • Dhe atria enter atrial diastole.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 2#) Cardiac Cycle – includes all events associated with the blood flow through the heart during one complete heartbeat – from atrial systole and diastole. and the heart is in mid-to-late diastole. slight increase in intravascular pressure resulting from the temporary bac!flow of blood against the cusps of the semilunar valve – and this can be heard on auscultation. /. filling the right ventricle • Dhe right ventricle almost full.

and the ventricle to fill with more blood. cardiac fibers are actually !ept at a shorter than normal length. 2)) $ositive .) s – the remaining 7.s. the heart beats once every 7. 2') +utorhythmic Fibers – account for approximately /0 of cardiac muscle fibers which. will allow for a stronger ventricular contraction and a larger eLection volume. Unli!e striated muscle fibers #which are !ept at optimal length for developing maximum tension$. albicans and may be of use combating A5>9 – in cardiology. increase the effects of the c9A: second messenger system by bloc!ing phosphodiesterase – prolonging ventricular diastole by increasing CaFF levels • <lucagon – releases glucose. prolongs ventricular diastole • Calcium sensitiSers #2evosimendan$ – acts as a CaFF analog and binds to troponin-C.seconds #-77 ms$ is the time it ta!es the heart to beat once. • %erberine – even though it is a plant product with antifungalBantibacterial properties and has some efficacy against C. 2%) /*) 7econds – given a clinically average heart rate of (2 bpm. unli!e striated and most cardiac muscle fibers. %y increasing the diastolic fraction – stretching the cardiac fibers in the process – the contractile force of the cardiac fibers is increased.+ s is !nown as the &uiescent period. Ailrinone$ – are phosphodiesterase inhibitors. increasing CaFF upta!e. ma!ing it available to the cardiomyocytes.. functioning as a synergistic agonist as glucagon levels are affected by sympathetic stimulation and catecholamines Page 14 of 24 . and have the natural effect of increasing heart rate • 6icosanoids #:rostaglandins$ – are natural vasoconstrictors.notropic Factors – are a group of chemicals and compounds which have the effect of increasing the contractile force of the heart. and have the added effect of controlling the movement of CaFF into cardiomyocytes • :hosphodiesterase inhibitors #6noximone. 2() 7tarlin!9s 0a: of the eart – allowing the walls of the ventricle to stretch further. it has the effect of enhancing the c9A: second messenger system. 7. which has the effect of increasing not only the strength of the ventricular contraction but also the eLection volume. increasing CaFF sensitivity • Cardiac glycosides #Eigoxin$ – prolongs the plateau phase of the cardiac cycle./ s and ventricular systole lasts for 7. 6pinephrineB=orepinephrine. Aost positive inotropic factors currently in use belong to one of nine groups. Ailrinone. which increase the effects of the c9A: second messenger system. and prolonging ventricular diastole • %ipyridine derivatives # namrinone. but that of the rest of the heart. as well.s cardiomyocytes..Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 "ith an average heart rate of W(* bpm. slowing ventricular contraction • Catecholamines #Eopamine. increase CaFF upta!e. 9trial systole lasts for 7. are capable of initiating not only their own spontaneous depolariSation. Eopexamine. and prolong ventricular diastole • Calcium – increases CaFF levels. soprenaline$ – are sympathomimetic hormones secreted by the adrenal gland. Eobutamine. Dheophylline$ – as with %ipyridine derivatives.

myocardium. are high concentrations of both A2 muscarinic and Q/-adrenergic receptors. the heart rate – increasing or decreasing it as necessary. epinephrine is released and binds to the Q/-adrenergic receptors – stimulating the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes to fire faster by increasing their impulse conduction speeds and increasing contractions – resulting in an increased eLection fraction. the body has developed a networ! of micro-capillaries which run throughout the tunica externa of the larger vessels – allowing muchneeded O2 to reach cells otherwise unable to absorb O2 through simple diffusion alone. and )$ tunica externa. and contractility and heart rate begin to decrease as p'. a subendothelial layer #a thin lamina propria$ between the tunica intima and the tunica media. Dhe parasympathetic nerve fibers release acetylcholine. n the larger diameter vessels. sensitive to acetylcholine and epinephrine. which binds to A2 muscarinic receptors – returning the heart rate to normal sinus rhythm by decreasing the depolariSation speed and reducing the contractile strength of the atrial cardiomyocytes./. "hen the sympathetic nervous system is triggered. Dhe cardioinhibitory center – located in the medial nuclear group of the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata – is connected to the parasympathetic dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve by primary axons. Dhe cardioacceleratory center – located in the lateral nuclear group of the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata – is connected by preganglionic fibers in the D/-D* region to ganglionic fibers in the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic trun!.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 2. respectively. in response to physical or emotional stimuli. 31) Effect on eart 4ate – elevated Y'FZ and acidosis will have an initial positive inotropic effect. both the tunica intima and tunica media receive ade&uate perfusion from the lumen. while sympathetic antagonists include metoprolol and atenolol #both of which belong to the category of cardiac beta bloc!ers$. vagus nerve fibers send inhibitory impulses to the heart. and regulating. >ympathetic agonists include isoprenaline and dobutamine. decreasing the impulse conduction speed of the atrioventricular node. and the coronary arteries. < 32) 6asa 6asorum – are found in the tunica externa of larger blood vessels. :ostganglionic fibers run from the sympathetic trun! through the cardiac plexus and enter the heart – connecting with the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes.s thic!er in Page 15 of 24 . ?rom there. regulate heart rate in response to stimulation by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Dhe tunica intima contains the endothelium #composed of simple s&uamous epithelium$ facing the luminal space and in vessels larger than / mm in diameter. as well as smaller versus larger vessels #the tunica media is thic!er in the larger vessels for the same reason it. Counterpoint to the sympathetic nervous system is the parasympathetic nervous system. Dhe thic!ness of the tunica media varies between arteries and veins #arteries need a thic!er tunica media than veins. with postganglionic fibers innervating the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes. 3/) 4eceptors Control of eart 4ate – throughout the atrial and ventricular walls.(. Do compensate. to maintain a constant hydrostatic pressure and !eep blood flowing$. Dhe tunica media is a loose triple layer composed of smooth muscle fibers sandwiched between thin elastin sheets. are the /$ tunica intima 2$ tunica media. Aany of the parasympathetic nerve fibers are found in ganglia within the ventricular wall. returning the heart rate to normal after the emotional or physical stimuli that triggered the sympathetic response has passed. and decreasing the contractility of the ventricular myocardium. as well as the trun!s of the venae cavae and aorta. ncreased contractility and heart rate is seen at p'[(. but as the Y'FZ increases and blood p' drops below (. but the tunica externa is often too thic! to be ade&uately perfused.) -edulla 5blon!ata Cardiac Control Center – are the two centers in the medulla oblongata responsible for maintaining. 33) Blood 6essel 1issue 0ayers – from the luminal space outwards.2.2 it starts to rebound and have a negative inotropic effect. Dhese receptors.

when the ventricles are contracting. respectively. at rest. 9 positive pressure on the arterial side indicates fluid is being pushed out of blood vessels and into the interstitial space and the lymphatic system. forming collateral capillary networ!s between arterioles and venules. a person. while hypotension is the condition when the systolic pressure well below /27. adLusting for the counter-pressure exerted by the osmotic pressure. and an adaption found in veins that is absent in arteries are recurrent infoldings of the tunica intima – forming rudimentary valves – to prevent the bac!flow of blood within the vein. and blood pressure$ and is measured by a sphygmomanometer. as it changes not only throughout the day. 9 negative pressure on the venous side Page 16 of 24 . disease.s %: is not constant. 3%) -etarterioles – are arterioles arising from an arteriole and anastomosing directly with a venule. >ympathetic nerve fibers are found throughout the tunica media. 9 person.s blood pressure #%:$ is the ratio of their and measured in mm 'g. %y extrapolation.s diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure exerted on the arterial wall – near the beginning of the cardiac cycle. 36) 12/=)/ mm ! – is the clinically normal blood pressure for a healthy adult. orthostatic hypotension is the transient hypotension associated with feeling light-headed after standing up.s systolic pressure is the maximum pressure exerted on the arterial wall – near the end of the cardiac cycle. "hile sphygmomanometers no longer re&uire a column of mercury to measure blood pressure #aside from the !nown haSards of heavy metal poisoning. lymphatic capillaries – and in larger vessels.s important to understand the history to grasp the importance of what. the net filtration pressure is used to calculate the pressure exerted against the vessel wall. Dhe tunica externa is interlaced with nerve fibers. 3() Formula for >F$ (and its clinical si!nificance) – in cardiology. n contrast. micro-capillaries of the vasa vasorum are also found in the tunica externa. heart rate. respirations. which diffuses into the smooth muscle of the tunica media – causing the smooth muscle fibers to relax. is enough to lift nearly *7 pounds. %lood pressure is one of the four. a normal systolic pressure of /27 is the e&uivalent of raising a column of 'g almost *\ – or in simpler terms. Casoconstriction results from the release of epinephrine by sympathetic nerve fibers and binding to P/-adrenergic receptors in the tunica mediaJ and vasodilation results from the release of acetylcholine by parasympathic nerve fibers and binding to A) muscarinic receptors in the tunica intima – causing the endothelium to release nitric oxide. 'ypertension is the condition when the systolic pressure is significantly higher than /27. 9 person. diet. 3#) 6asoconstriction vs* 6asodilation – are the terms applied to the reduction or increase in luminal diameter. the more constrictive force is needed to maintain the same pressure$. and the vessel to vasodilate. Capillaries are able to develop from metarterioles. Comparing arteries and veins – the lamina propria of the tunica intima is thic!er in veins than in arteries. when the ventricles are filling with blood. vital signs #temperature. a mm of 'g is the pressure re&uired to raise a column of mercury #nearly /+x as dense as water$ by / mm. 9 person. exercise$. %y definition. without first developing into a capillary networ! between the arteriole and venule.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 arteries – the larger the vessel. it. >imilar to hypotension. the elastin sheets found in the tunica media of arteries is absent in veins and the tunica media in veins is thinner. a layer of loose collagen fibers which help to reinforce the vessel as well as anchor it to surrounding anatomic structures.s being measured. >urrounding the tunica media is the tunica externa. and current models use electronic sensors$. but it also varies between beats – in response to external factors #stress. standard. of blood vessels. providing autonomic stimulation of the muscle fibers.

respectively. 9dditionally. 3. but the lymphatic vasculature is routed through a networ! of lymph nodes throughout the body. and these lymph nodes – containing large numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes – act as filters to remove #or initiate an immune response$ these larger particles from the lymph before they have a chance to enter the vascular system. n relative siSe. bacteria. lymphatic capillaries have two structural modifications uni&ue to the lymphatic system – /$ the endothelial cells of the vessel walls are not tight.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 indicates fluid is being absorbed from the interstitial fluid and returned to the systemic blood supply. bone marrow or the central nervous system. Dhis has the overall effect of opening the valves when the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure inside the lymphatic capillaries #and !eeping the capillaries from collapsing$. but are blind-ended. and has the effect of vasoconstricting or vasodilating. teeth. 9ngiotensin is part of the renin-angiotensin system. as vascular capillaries do with arterioles and venules. 6pinephrineBnorepinephrine is an adrenergic hormone which stimulates vasoconstriction. and *$ histamine. and closing the valves when the hydrostatic pressure in the lymphatic capillaries is greater than the hydrostatic pressure – and preventing lymphatic fluid from escaping and flowing bac! into the interstitial spaces. but more characteristic of very loose gap Lunctions – providing a high degree of porosity #and allowing interstitial fluid much easier entrance into the capillaries$ – and the overlapping edges of adLacent cells create flow-restrictive valves #analogous to the valves seen in the vascular system$. virii. 9lso in contrast to vascular capillaries. 9ny of these larger particles would pose a threat to both the vascular system as well as the body. Dhe formula for calculating the net filtration pressure isM =?: O #%': F ?O:$ – # ?': F %O:$ "here. "hen surrounding tissues become inflamed. • %': O hydrostatic pressure of the blood • %O: O osmotic pressure of the blood • ?': O hydrostatic pressure if the interstitial fluid • ?O: O osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid 3)) 0ymphatic Capillaries – are the smallest of the vessels in the lymphatic system. unli!e vascular capillaries.) 7ympathetic Effect on Blood 6essel 3iameter – the tunica media of the vascular system is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. it cleaves angiotensinogen – converting it to angiotensin . #/) ormones +ffectin! Blood $ressure – hormones affecting blood pressure are /$ epinephrineBnorepinephrine 2$ angiotensin )$ 9E' +$ 9=:. lymphatic vessels can be found throughout the interstitial space. oncogenic cells$ to enter the lymphatic system. so that any increase in interstitial fluid volume – rather than force the capillaries to collapse – increases tension on the collagenic fibers. collecting excess interstitial fluid. these are on the order of vascular capillaries. 'owever. phages. the vessels on stimulation #or inhibition$ by the sympathetic nerve fibers. and 2$ the collagenic fibers surrounding the capillaries – and serving as the structural matrix – are anchored to the valves in the capillaries. Page 17 of 24 . 5ather than connect two vessels. lymphatic vessels become very porous – allowing much larger particles #cellular debris. opening the networ! of valves – and adding to the structural integrity of the lymphatic capillaries. proteins are able to enter lymphatic capillaries. lymphatic capillaries are not found in bone. 9s renin is released by the !idneys in response to either a decrease in blood pressure or blood volume.

the lymphatic system is one-way – but unli!e the circulatory system. macrophages. the circulatory system begins with the great vessels and wor!s its way down to the capillary beds and bac! up again to the great vessels$. it passes bac! into the Page 18 of 24 . it is called lymph. so are more diffuse and numerous than vessels in the circulatory system. and monocytes will often release histamine. 9E'. and the larger vessels parallel the larger blood vessels #using pressure created by deep muscles and organ systems pressing against the s!eletal system to generate the pressure it needs$. secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary. with several vessels leading in and out. basophils. Tust as blood contains formed elements. reticular connective tissue. Dhese masses become encapsulated – developing distinct cortical and medullary regions. and reticular cells #which help support the collagenic matrix of the lymph nodes$. a vessel will swell – forming a mass of loose. or retaining too much water and destabiliSing the fluid balance between the C? and 6C?. and tonsils are lymphoid organs which serve the same purpose. they are not found in bone. "hile epinephrineBnorepinephrine. to prevent an increase in renal vascular pressure$.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 which is converted to angiotensin by angiotensin -converting enSyme #9C6$. allowing more cells to reach the site of infection – and as a result of its vasodilator effects. 9E' is secreted in response to the body being severely dehydrated and needs to retain as much water – increasing blood volume and blood pressure – as possible. 2i!e the circulatory system. a histamineBallergic reaction often results and as part of the immune response eosinophils. thereVs a decrease in blood pressure. %ecause of this. 9ngiotensin also triggers the adrenal glands to release aldosterone to increase =aF resorption – and that triggers an accompanying resorption of '2O. Dhese lobes develop into lymph nodes.when the blood volume or blood pressure has increased and returned to normal values. %ecause the lymphatic system is a passive-pump system #it has no source to create positive pressure$. 9=: functions to prevent intravascular pressure from increasing too much and possibly rupturing a blood vessel. 'istologically. 2ymphatic vessels fill the intercellular spaces. and % cells attac! and destroy the material. Dhroughout the entire lymphatic system. dendritic cells. and tunica externa$ but the tissue layers are not as thic!. is another hormone that wor!s in coordination with angiotensin . it acts as a vasodilator. Other than the lymph nodes. the spleen. lymphatic vessels contain the same tissue layers #tunica intima. 9s histamine is released. Dhese vessels collect excess fluid that diffuses out of the bloodstream and into the interstitial fluid – once this fluid has left the bloodstream. n response to a foreign antigen. macrophages. bone marrow. Once the lymph has been filtered. 'istamine is a vasodilator involved with inflammationBhistamineBallergy reactions. 9s widespread as the networ! of lymphatic vessels is. 9=: #atrial natriuretic peptide$ functions to inhibit the effects of these hormones . the smaller lymphatic vessels parallel the bodyVs superficial blood vessels #and use the bodyVs musculature$ to create the pressure it needs to move lymph through the vessels$. n this case. tunica media. it triggers systemic vasoconstriction to temporarily increase blood pressure #and the macula densa secretes prostaglandins to stimulate localiSed vasodilation. Dhe D cells. thymus. 9ngiotensin also stimulates the hypothalamus to release 9E' to increase '2O retention – increasing blood volume in emergencies. Dhe lymphatic system is essential for absorbing digested lipids and transporting triglycerides through the left thoracic trun! and into the left subclavian vein. which increases blood volume #having a concomitant effect on systemic blood pressure$. 9fter lymph has passed through the lymph nodes. 9s angiotensin levels increase in the blood. or the central nervous system. which serve as the lymphatic systemVs filtration system – for removing all harmful or foreign material from the lymph. angiotensin . phagocytes. % cells. teeth. and 9E' all wor! to increase blood pressure. lymph only moves through the vessels by compression of surrounding tissue. the lymphatic system begins with lymphatic capillaries #in contrast. #1) 0ymph Characteristics (ori!in and development) – the lymphatic system is composed of an elaborate networ! of vessels very similar to the circulatory system. lymph contains D cells.

granulocytes. they are transported to the thymic cortex where they go through positive selection – a process in which CE+FBCE-F D cells are exposed to Kself. n the respiratory and digestive tracts. the s!in includes the !eratiniSed epithelium.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 interstitial fluid. :hagocytes and macrophages are perhaps the most pervasive internal defense. n females. to the complex survive – those that do not are destroyed by macrophages. =I cells. but are still inactive. solutes diffuse bac! into the interstitial fluid . lymph nodes found throughout the lymphatic system serve as a filter to remove all foreign or haSardous material from the interstitial fluid. with its normally acidic p' inhibits bacteria from growing – preventing urinary tract infections from developing. 2acrimal secretions and saliva continuously lubricate and clean the eyes and mouth – !eeping any bacteria from growing. and the bodyVs complement is effective at !illing bacteria by lysing their membranes – similar to the way D cells can by secreting cyto!ines. 9ntimicrobial proteins #such as interferons and the bodyVs complement protein$ are capable of protecting cells from being infected before D or % cells can initiate an immune response. and antimicrobial proteins. Dhose cells that recogniSe. bac! into the bloodstream. Dhe internal branch includes phagocytes. and then be able to destroy them. wor!ing together with phagocytic cells. Dhe filtrate thatVs removed remains in the lymph nodes. Dhe thymus is functional shortly after birth until about age 2*. Euring this time. =I cells. bacteria. Dhe bodyVs inflammatoryBhistamine response. or bind strongly enough. cellular debris. phagocytes. 9s the lymph is filtered. #2) 0ymphatic 7ystem Functions – 9s blood flows throughout the body in the vascular system. or excreting what cannot be recycled. granulocytes. Once D cells have developed. but it is not always an even exchange – as there is always about ) 2Bday of fluid and solutes that remain in the interstitial fluid. >ubstances entering the interstitial fluid must be able to diffuse bac! and forth – otherwise hypovolemic shoc! will be the result. Dhe external branch includes the s!in and the mucus membranes. #3) >on?7pecific Body 3efenses +!ainst . antigens complexed with A'C molecules. to induce a fever – which is a very effective antimicrobial – since bacteria have difficulty surviving if their environment becomes too warm. and other harmful particles are removed. Aore specifically. is very effective in preventing the spread of pathogens and bacteria. 9t its simplest. =asal hairs and respiratory cilia trap and filter microorganisms in the trachea and nose. ?luids and other substances which diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid often ma!e their way bac!. as ubi&uitous as it is. as well as s!in secretions #sweat and sebaceous secretions$ which ma!e the s!in acidic – inhibiting bacterial growth. as part of a histamine reaction. ##) 1hymus &land (function) – is an endocrine gland found in the mediastinum of the thorax. and triggers lymphocytes. <astric Luices in the stomach #containing concentrated 'Cl and proteases$ &uic!ly destroy any bacteria or pathogens. Once in the lymphatic system. and dissolved gases in the plasma diffuse bac! and forth through the vessel walls. the vaginal canal itself is very acidic – inhibiting bacterial growth. 9s lymph exits the lymph nodes. as they are able to attac!. mucous membranes ma!e a very simple and effective barrier. macrophages. nutrients. and bind. to the Page 19 of 24 . mucus &uic!ly traps microorganisms. metabolic waste products. because those D cells that either do not recogniSe. digest. immature D cells produced in the bone marrow are transported to the thymus and allowed to develop. and from there it diffuses bac! into the bloodstream – filtered and free of any bacteria or pathogens that may have been present.and from there. and macrophages to attac! and destroy the particles – recycling them if they are cellular debris. and % cells are a very potent combination – as =I cells have the ability to identify foreign cells or pathogens that other cells may not. 6ven urine.nfection – the human body has two branches of non-specific defenses against infection – an external and an internal branch. Dhe body can also secrete pyrogens. and destroy a wide array of pathogens and bacteria.

=I cells are able to initiate an immune response directly. and stimulate the production of antibodies. coordinating with % cells #which moderate the antibody-mediated immune response$ – as a non-self antigen is detected. Once inserted. Euring differentiation. a cell. any cells that bind too strongly will be destroyed by macrophages. are identified by one or more of the surface mar!ers expressed on their cell membrane. Dhis phase is important because those cells which bind too strongly are li!ely to trigger an immune response that develops into an autoimmune disease. response. D cells which are selected through positive selection move deeper in the thymus. or % cells – as well as cell messenging cyto!ines which coordinate the cell.s$.expression. it will stop downregulating its CE.s E=9.$ virus – using an 5=9 reverse transcriptase to convert the viral 5=9 into a complementary E=9 se&uence and insert it into the cell. searching for non-self particles or pathogens. granulysin. the selection is not testing for those that doBdo not bind to the antigen – but rather those cells which bind too strongly to the A'C-antigen complex. and start downregulating its CE+ expression – becoming a CE-F cell. while CE+FBCE-F which bind to A'C Dype molecules will develop and differentiate into CE-F cells. and other proteases$ directly into the cell – which destroy the cell membrane and cellular proteins. D cells moderate the cell-mediated immune response. and begin negative selection. #%) >8 Cells – are a population of D cells which are CE/1FCE). are able to produce antibodies much faster and deal with a localiSed response rather than a prolonged. n secondary immune responses. CE+F cells release cyto!ines which signal macrophages. CE-F. CE+F cells are also targeted by the ' C-/ #'D2C. Dhe most common are the CE)F. which already have the antigenic epitope#s$ from a previous immune response. #') 1 Cells – are the collective cell line of D lymphocytes which. the surviving D cells are again presented with A'C-antigen complexes bound to native cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells #antigen-presenting cells – 9:C. the viral E=9 ta!es control of the cellular processes. CE-F cells are able to function without releasing cyto!ines – actively moving through the blood stream. Dhose cells which survive both selection phases are now ready to be activated. which release cyto!ines to stimulate the conversion of % cells into plasma cells. and initiating an immune response when they are found. #() elper 1 Cells – are those D cells identified by expression of the CE+F surface mar!er. and CE/1F. if the cell loses binding affinity. n this phase. macrophages. closer to the corticomedullary margin. Euring positive selection. antigens and be able to initiate an immune response. "here both CE+F and CE-F cells need to have antigen presented to them as part of an A'C-antigen complex. CE+F. Conversely. other phagocytic granulocytes. 9ctivation occurs by cells #dendritic cells. CE+FBCE-F cells which bind to A'C Dype molecules will develop and differentiate into CE+F cells. after developing and differentiating in the thymus.s interactivity with each other. n this phase. systemic.s binding affinity determines whether the cell continues to develop – if a CE+FBCE-F cell retains its binding affinity. =I cells are effective against some oncogenic cells as well as cells infected with either '>C-/ or '>C-2.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 antigenic complex will not recogniSe Knon-self. "hen the cell Page 20 of 24 . or % cells$ expressing non-self antigens being presented to the inactive #na]ve$ D cells – triggering the release of cyto!ines by the D cells.and possess characteristics of both CE+F and CE-F cells – with one maLor difference. 9s before. this process is often truncated – because memory D cells. to fabricate and construct new virions. it activates the D cells. CE+F cells are one half of the CE+FBCE-F model – where CE+F cells identify non-self antigens and trigger an immune response by presenting them to macrophages for phagocytosis or % cells to trigger antibody productionJ and CE-F cells do not re&uire the release of messenger cyto!ines #as CE+F cells do$ in order to launch an immune response – being able to release cytotoxic cyto!ines #perforin. it will downregulate its CEexpression – becoming a CE+F cell.

:lasma cells are capable of producing five different classes #isotypes$ of immunoglobulins – found in different parts of the body and with different functions.!9s and respective functions) – are a class of molecule synthesiSed by plasma cells following exposure to an antigen. providing passive immunity to the developing fetus • :eople with type O blood form anti-9 and anti-% antibodies that are g<-based b.mmunity – is that branch of the immune system #and immune response moderated by % cells.. mmunoglobulins are a class of proteins found in the blood. forming a hinge at the base – allowing a wide degree of conformational variation in the structure of the immunoglobulin molecule. CE+F cells are compromised and destroyed – leaving a decreasing number of CE+F cells – and the body. Dhe variable regions of each chain are arranged opposite each other. #.s ability to randomly select and assemble genes in a multitude of different combinations – with the result being the body. and saliva • >erum level O /*0 • <onorrhea #N.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 reaches its viral load capacity.) Cell?mediated .s ability to create millions of different antibodies from the 2*. Dhe heavy chains contain a variable region and three constant regions. bilaterally. but can exist in the standard monomer #^2_2$ configuration • >erum level O *0 Page 21 of 24 . antigen that triggered the immune response in the % cells. %/) &enetic 4ecombination – is the immune system. maternal mil!. >ecretory isotype is produced by mucosal % cells and secreted in colostrum. the cell membrane ruptures – releasing the new virions into the blood stream to repeat the process. %etween the first and second constant regions of the heavy chain are two >-> disulfide bonds. tears. a. n this manner. >erum isotype is produced by % cells in red bone marrow ii. immunoglobulins are composed.777 genes each cell possesses to code for all the proteins it must synthesiSe. On introduction of an antigen into the body and exposure to it. %1) . >tructurally. g P # mmunoglobulin 9$ • ?ound in a linear #^+_+$ dimeric configuration • ?ound in both serum and secretory forms i. while the light chains contain a variable region and a single constant region. g 8 # mmunoglobulin A$ • ?ound predominately in a pentameric or hexameric #^/7_/7 or ^/2_/2$ ring configuration. g G # mmunoglobulin <$ • ?ound in the standard monomer #^2_2$ configuration • >erum level O -70 • :rovides protection against bacteria. % cells are converted to plasma cells – and it is these plasma cells which then begin producing immunoglobulins #antibodies$ in response to the Knon-self.s inability to fight off opportunistic diseases. and toxins found in the blood and lymph • 9ble to cross the placental barrier. of a heavy chain #^$ lin!ed to a light chain #_$ and loo! li!e the letter K`. gonorrhœae$ releases a protease which destroys g9 c. viruses. creating the antigen-binding site of each arm. #)) +ntibody?mediated .mmuno!lobulins (% classes of .mmunity – is that branch of the immune system #and immune response$ that is moderated by D cells. !nown as gamma globulin proteins.

n its monomeric form. Dhe latest research has not been able to identify specific causes as much as determining factors. Diter levels are most useful in determining the lowest concentration of a virus or other infectious agent that is still capable of infecting a host cell. g6 triggers the cell to release histamine #or other anti-inflammatory compounds$ to counter inflammation or a hypersensitivity reaction • =ormally. and )$ environmental factors. /M+. /M/1. and mounts an immune response against it. :hage titers are used in constructing genetic libraries of phage genomes. it is attached to % cells and serves as an antigen receptor n its pentamericBhexameric form it is the first class of antibodies released as part of an immune response • ts multiple binding sites ma!e gA a very strong antibody • gA does not cross the placenta • 6levated serum gA levels are often indicative of current or prior infection • :eople who have type 9B%B9% form anti-9 and anti-% antibodies that are gA-based g a # mmunoglobulin 6$ • ?ound in the standard monomer #^2_2$ configuration • >erum level O . or surface mar!er being tested. e.C$./0 • >lightly larger than g< • >ecreted by plasma cells in the s!in. and the tonsils • n inflammation reactions. and starts identifying it as Knon-self. Diter is also used to categoriSe fats – the titer being the temperature #bC$ at which the fat solidifies. etc$ which still gives a positive result for the antibody. Page 22 of 24 .C$ or a grease #titer is d +7. as well as categoriSing the fat as a tallow #titer is c +7.s life when their immune system stops identifying systemic structures as Kself./0 • n the +1 years since its discovery. Dhese factors can be bro!en down into /$ genetic predisposition 2$ gender predisposition. and the titers are used to ensure there are enough phage particles to represent the entire genome of the phage. mucosae of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 d. g6. /M-.s stem binds to mast cells and basophils – and when antigens bind to its antigen-binding sites. serum g6 levels are very low – but rise in response to hypersensitivity reactions or chronic parasitic infections of the digestive tract g H # mmunoglobulin E$ • ?ound in the standard monomer #^2_2$ configuration • >erum level O .. phage titers are even more important. 9s important as antibody or antigen titers are. %3) +utoimmunity – occurs at some point in an individual. antigen. as an antigen receptor #li!e gA in its monomeric form • gE has recently been found to bind to basophils and mast cells #in the same manner as g6$ to produce antimicrobial factors that ta!e part in defending against respiratory infections • • %2) +ntibody 1iter – is the lowest serial dilution #/M/. /M2. very little is still !nown about gE and its function within the body • 9lmost always found attached to plasma cells.

have errors in their tertiary #or even &uaternary$ structures that are not detected – and play a role in autoimmune diseases with no association to mutations in either immunoglobulins or D-cell receptors #specifically – the human leu!ocyte antigen #'29$-E52 is associated with >26 #systemic lupus erythematosus$. in fact. the only association #and yet-to-be verified$ is '29-%2( and an!ylosing spondylitis #a variant of rheumatoid arthritis. narcolepsy. and '29-E5+ is associated with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis #59$. even though they have the correct primary and secondary structures. molecules. and appear Kcorrect – may. and Crohn. it can result in the fusion of the entire spine$. and attac!ing them.s biochemical pathways and using them to replicate the virus in Page 23 of 24 . rather than E=9 #as in most virii$. no longer feeling the attenuation effects of the disease. Dhe proposed infection model is that the infectious disease so attenuates the body. Dhis is proven by leaving the geographical area and treating for the infectious disease – once the patient has been treated for the disease.s system. or the body.s immunoglobulins. >tudies have shown that in areas where infectious diseases are endemic. are bro!en down. returns to identifying its cells and tissues as Knonself. Kself-correcting. if not temporary.s own immune system. these diseases are not restricted to females – and it is being found that these f-lin!ed autoimmune diseases present themselves more severely in males than in females. myasthenia gravis #A<$.s immunoglobulins or D-cell receptors could result in a variety of autoimmune diseases of varying severities. Once it infects a host cell. Of interest is the inverse correlation that appears to exist between infectious diseases and the incidence of autoimmune diseases. %#) 4etrovirus – is a class of virii which encodes its genetic material as 5=9. >ome of these f-lin!ed diseases include an!ylosing spondylitis. – in that any molecules that the body detects as Kwrong. the symptoms of the disease also disappear. and multiple sclerosis #A>$. palliative treatment for the autoimmune disease. but suppresses the body.s immune system. a disease li!e lupus erythematosus #26$. indicates a tentative association between autoimmune diseases and mutations on the f chromosome – ma!ing these f-lin!ed autoimmune diseases. can be induced by the administration of drugs or other chemical agents – and once they have cleared the patient. psoriasis. and type diabetes$.t duplicate its own E=9. "ithout any predisposition or other contributing factors. and its infection vector is very similar to that of a parasite. the body. '29-E5) is associated with >LegrenVs syndrome #it attac!s the body.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 <enetic predisposition involves congenital or point mutations in genes coding for the body. the 5=9 is encoded as E=9 by means of an 5=9 reverse transcriptase. while tenuous. and type diabetes. <ender predisposition. that affects the lower intervertebral Loints and the sacroilium of the pelvic girdle – in its worst form. Once the host cell has been infected. do show a clear association between autoimmune diseases and the environment. Dhis can perhaps best be illustrated by inducing the onset of lupus erythematosus in a patient by the administration of drugs or other chemical agents #in a controlled setting$. the retrovirus is now !nown as a provirus #a virus that doesn. 9lthough nearly (*0 of patients are female.s A'C molecules are. for the most part. D-cell receptors. and the virus. >ome of these molecules however. recycled. that infection with the disease not only prevents the body from mounting an immune response against the disease. but inserts its E=9 into the host E=9 – ta!ing control of the host. :oint mutations to any of the body. and replaced with Kcorrect. from the latest research.s disease #an autoimmune disease of the gastrointestinal tract causing inflammation of the tissue$. 5=9 has been translated into E=9 #and inserted into the E=9 of the host cell$. type diabetes.s exocrine glands$. 6nvironmental factors. 9ny number of point mutations to the genes coding for the body. the incidence of autoimmune diseases is very low – if at all. >26.s A'C Dype B allotypic molecules.s autoimmune response – causing an observable. 9lthough associations between A'C Dype molecules and autoimmune diseases have been presumed.

releasing millions of new copies of the virus – to infect more host cells. Page 24 of 24 . 9t this time. the virus causes the host cell to rupture. until the host cell has reached the end of its lifespan$.Lymphatic Systems Course: BIOL 2402 large &uantities.