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MWOC

HRM , A Contemporary Perspective By Ian Beardwell & Len Holden


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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Walton $1%&'(, in an attempt to de)ine HRM, stresses m!t!ality *etween employers and employees+ # M!t!al "oals, m!t!al in)l!ence, m!t!al respect, m!t!al rewards, m!t!al responsi*ility # ,-e t-eory is t-at policies o) m!t!ality will elicit commitment w-ic- in t!rn will yield *ot- *etter economic per)ormance and "reater -!man development

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Beer & /pector $1%&'( emp-asised a new set o) ass!mptions in s-apin" t-eir meanin" o) HRM+ # Proactive system wide intervention, witemp-asis on 0)it1 lin2in" HRM witstrate"ic plannin" and c!lt!ral c-an"e # People and social capital capa*le o) development
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Coincidence o) interest *etween sta2e-olders can *e developed # Open c-annels o) comm!nication to *!ild tr!st and commitment # 4oal orientation # Participation and in)ormed c-oice

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,-e *o!ndaries o) HRM overlap t-e traditional areas o) personnel mana"ement, ind!strial relations, or"anisational *e-avio!r and strate"ic and operational mana"ement

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# 6mer"ence o) HRM can *e attri*!ted to t-e ma7or press!res e8perienced in prod!ct mar2ets d!rin" t-e recession o) 1%&9:1%& # ;/ economy was *ein" c-allen"ed *y <apan, w-ic- led to disc!ssions on 0t-e prod!ctivity o) t-e American wor2er1 compared to t-e <apanese wor2er
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# 0,-e declinin" rate o) innovation in American ind!stries1 # >rom t-e a*ove came t-e desire to create a wor2)orce sit!ation )ree )rom con)lict in w-ic- *ot- employers and employees wor2ed in !nity towards t-e same "oal

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# In t-e ;? HRM *ecame pop!lar *eca!se o)+ # Increased competition # ,-e recession in t-e early part o) t-e decade # Introd!ction o) new tec-nolo"y # Restr!ct!rin" o) t-e economy # Poor trainin"
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# An early model o) HRM introd!ced t-e concept o) strate"ic -!man reso!rce mana"ement *y w-ic- HRM policies are ine8trica*ly lin2ed to t-e 0)orm!lation and implementation o) strate"ic corporate and@or *!siness o*7ectives1 $Aevanna et alB1%&3( C matc-in" model

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,-e matc-in" model emp-asises t-e necessity o) 0ti"-t )it1 *etween HR strate"y and *!siness strate"y # ,-is is a 0!nitarist1 view as it ass!mes t-at di))erent views@con)lict cannot e8ist wit-in an or"anisation *eca!se mana"ement and employees are wor2in" to t-e same "oal o) t-e or"anisation1s s!ccess
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# In order )or HRM to *e strate"ic it -ad to encompass all t-e -!man reso!rce areas o) t-e or"anisation # Aecentralisation and devolvement o) responsi*ility are also seen as very m!ca part o) HRM strate"yDs it )acilitates comm!nication, involvement and commitment o) middle mana"ement and ot-er employees wit-in t-e or"anisation
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,-e e))ectiveness o) or"anisations rested on -ow strate"y and str!ct!re o) t-e or"anisation interrelated # A more )le8i*le model was developed *y Beer and -is associates $1%&3( at Harvard ;niversity # ,-eir model is 2nown as 0t-e map o) HRM territory1
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# 0,-e map o) HRM territory1 reco"nises t-e le"itimate interest o) sta2e-olders and t-at t-e creation o) HRM strate"ies wo!ld -ave to reco"nise t-ese interests and )!se t-em as m!c- as possi*le into -!man reso!rce strate"y and !ltimately t-e *!siness strate"y # Re)erred to as a 0neopl!ralist1 model
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# 4!est $1%&=( e8erts t-at a com*ination o) a set o) propositions, w-ic- incl!de 0strate"ic inte"ration1, 0-i"- commitment1, 0-i"- E!ality1, and 0)le8i*ility1, creates more e))ective or"anisations

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# /trate"ic inte"ration is de)ined as+ # 0t-e a*ility to inte"rate HRM iss!es into t-eir strate"ic plans, to ens!re t-at vario!s aspects o) HRM co-ere and )or line mana"ers to incorporate an HRM perspective into t-eir decision ma2in"1

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Hi"- commitment is de)ined as *ein"+ # 0concerned wit- *ot- *e-avio!ral commitment to p!rs!e a"reed "oals and attit!dinal commitment re)lected in a stron" identi)ication wit- t-e enterprise1

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Hi"- E!ality 0re)ers to all aspects o) mana"erial *e-avio!r, incl!din" mana"ement o) employees and investment in -i"- E!ality employees, w-ic- in t!rn will *ear directly on t-e E!ality o) t-e "oods and services provided1

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# >le8i*ility is seen as *ein" 0primarily concerned wit- w-at is sometimes called )!nctional )le8i*ility *!t also wit- an adapta*le or"anisational str!ct!re wit- t-e capacity to mana"e innovation1

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,wo important points cannot *e overloo2ed + # It -as raised E!estions a*o!t t-e nat!re o) employment relations-ips # Mana"ement o) employee relations and t-e E!estion o) employee commitment to t-e employment relations-ip remains at t-e centre o) t-e de*ate
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# As or"anisations vary in siFe, aims, )!nctions, comple8ity, t-e p-ysical nat!re o) t-eir prod!ct and appeal as employers, so do t-e contri*!tions o) HRM: disc!ss

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# H!man reso!rce mana"ement -owever de)ined, concerns t-e mana"ement o) employment relations-ip+ practiced in or"anisations *y mana"ers # ,-e nature o) t-e or"anisation and t-e way it is managed, constit!te t-e context wit-in w-ic- HRM is em*edded, and "enerate t-e tensions t-at HRM policies and practices tend to solve
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# # # # # Gat!re o) Conte8t+ O!r !nderstandin" depends !pon o!r perception It also depends on o!r ideolo"y ,-ere are t-ere)ore competin" or contested interpretation o) events Ai))erent "ro!ps in society -ave t-eir own interpretations o) events

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,-e very nat!re o) t-e people and t-e way t-ey constit!te an or"anisation ma2es mana"ement comple8 # ;nli2e ot-er reso!rces people -ave needs )or a!tonomy, t-ey t-in2 t-ey are creative, t-ey -ave )eelin"s # ,-ese c-aracteristics in -!man *ein"s complicate t-e tas2s )or mana"ers
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# In-erent tensions in or"anisations+ # ,-e e8istence o) several sta2e-olders in t-e employment relations-ip # ,-eir di))erin" perspective !pon events, e8periences and relations-ips # ,-eir di))erin" aims, interests and needs # ,-ese tensions -ave to *e contin!o!sly resolved
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# As a res!lt a contin!in" iss!e is t-at o) mana"erial control+ # How to orc-estrate or"anisational activities in a way t-at meets t-e needs o) vario!s sta2e-olders # ,-e strate"ies adopted are em*odied in t-e employment policies, and t-e or"anisational systems t-ey c-oose to p!t in place
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# >o!r strate"ies can *e identi)ied t-at mana"ers -ave adopted to deal wittensions in or"anisations+ # /cienti)ic mana"ement or classical sc-ool o) mana"ement t-eory # H!man relations approac-

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Contin"ency or -!man reso!rce mana"ement approac# ,-e )o!rt- approac- is more an ideal t-an a common reality

/cienti)ic mana"ement t-eory


# ,-is approac- addressed t-e tensions in t-e or"anisation *y strivin" to control people and 2eep down t-eir costs # It emp-asised t-e need )or rationality, clear o*7ectives, t-e mana"erial prero"ative, t-e ri"-ts o) mana"ers to mana"e

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/cienti)ic mana"ement t-eory


# ,-is led to a red!ction o) tas2s to t-eir *asic elements and "ro!pin" o) similar elements to"et-er to prod!ce low s2illed, low paid 7o*s, epitomised *y assem*ly: line wor2in" # Wor2ers tended to *e treated relatively impersonally and collectively iHeH mana"ement and la*o!r
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H!man relations approac# 6mer"ed d!rin" t-e middle years o) t-e last cent!ry and developed in parallel witan increasingly prosperous society in w-ic- strong trade unions and a "rowin" acceptance o) t-e right of the individual to ac-ieve sel):)!l)ilment

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H!man relations approac# It modi)ies scienti)ic mana"ement *y its reco"nition t-at people di))ered )rom ot-er reso!rces # ,-at i) t-ey were not treated as -!man *ein"s t-ey wo!ld not *e )!lly e))ective at wor2 # It reco"nised t-e si"ni)icance o) social relations-ips at wor2
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H!man relations approac# Mana"ers -ad to pay -ard attention to t-e nature of supervision and t-e working of groups and teams and to )ind ways o) involving employees t-ro!"- 7o* desi"n, motivation, and a democratic, cons!ltative or participative style o) mana"ement

H!man reso!rce mana"ement approac# Aeveloped as ma7or c-an"es and t-reats -ave *een e8perienced in t-e conte8t o) or"anisations+ # Recession, international competition, <apanDs *!siness s!ccess

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement approac# In response to t-e need to ac-ieve )le8i*ility in t-e or"anisation and wor2)orce and improved per)ormance t-ro!"developin" decision ma2in" and empowerment # ReE!irin" t-at employees *ecome m!lti: s2illed and wor2 across traditional *o!ndaries
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement approac# ,-is approac- attempts to inte"rate t-e needs o) employees wit- t-ose o) t-e or"anisation in a clear & de)inite manner # It reco"nises t-at people s-o!ld *e invested in as assets so t-at t-ey ac-ieve t-eir potential )or t-e *ene)it o) t-e or"anisation # As s!c- employees are approac-ed individ!ally rat-er t-an collectively
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement approac# ,-is strate"y approac-es t-e or"anisation -olistically and o)ten wit- "reater attention to its c!lt!re, leaders-ip and vision # It pays "reater attention to t-e individ!al rat-er t-an t-e collective

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement approac# ,-e notions o) developin" individ!al1s potential -ave *een accompanied *y individ!al contracts o) employment, per)ormance appraisal and per)ormance related pay # HRM constr!es individ!als as reso!rce )or t-e or"anisation to !se

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Idealistic, -!manistic approac# Aims to constr!ct t-e or"anisation as an appropriate environment )or a!tonomo!s individ!als to wor2 to"et-er colla*oratively )or t-eir common "ood # Approac- adopted *y many cooperatives # It )orms t-e *asis o) t-e notion o) learnin" or"anisation $/en"e, 1%%9(

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ;nderlyin" t-e mana"ement o) people in or"anisations are some )!ndamental ass!mptions a*o!t t-e nat!re o) people and reality itsel) and -ence a*o!t or"anisin" and mana"in"

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# Mana"ers ma2e ass!mptions *o!t t-e nat!re o) t-e or"anisation+ # Many interpretin" it as an o*7ective reality $ not in)l!enced *y )eelin"s( t-at e8ists separately )rom t-emselves and ot-er or"anisational mem*ers # ,-ey ma2e ass!mptions a*o!t t-e nat!re o) t-eir "oals, w-ic- t-ey identi)y as t-e "oals )or t-e or"anisation
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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,-ese ass!mptions in)orm t-e practices o) mana"ement, and -ence de)ine t-e or"anisational and concept!al space t-at HRM )ills and "enerate t-e m!ltiple meanin"s o) w-ic- HRM is constr!cted

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H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# ,-e de)inition o) t-e wider conte8t o) HRM co!ld em*race inn!mera*le topics $Ind!strial Revol!tion to "lo*alisation( and a lon" time perspective

H!man reso!rce mana"ement


# W-at in detail constit!tes t-e elements o) t-e socio:economic, tec-nical, political: le"al and competitive conte8tI # W-at, in yo!r view -ave *een t-eir in)l!ences !pon HRMI

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