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Thesis/Project Review

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Review of Projects/Theses on Remedial Reading Programs

Teresa Froehlke Boise State University

E !"#FS $%& Ted Singletary Fe'r(ary )*+ )%%,

Thesis/Project Review Project(1)

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o(glass+ - .1,/,0- A guide to remedial reading materials. Un1('lished master2s 1roject+ Boise State University+ Boise+ #dahoCommittee Members: r- Ro'ert Friedli+ r- 3eorge 4ess+ and r- 5ohn BeitiaNeed Fulfilled: This is a 1roject to assist classroom teachers in selecting a11ro1riate reading materials for (se in their classrooms with remedial st(dents- The 1roject was develo1ed in antici1ation of termination of s1ecialist servicesProduct Description: The 1rod(ct that was designed was a g(ide develo1ed to assist the classroom teachers in locating reading materials for st(dents that had reading deficiencies- The g(ide incl(des recommendations for (se+ reada'ility and interest level- The Fry form(la was (sed to determine reada'ility- The Fry Form(la determines reada'ility thro(gh a selection of three 1%% word 1assages and taking the average n(m'er of sentences and sylla'les- These averages are a11lied to a gra1h which gives the grade level reada'ility- The materials develo1ed thro(gh this 1roject incl(ded the following classification of materials6 (1licating material+ kits+ ta1es+ records+ filmstri1s+ ed(cational 1rograms+ teacher reso(rces and gamesProject(2) 7c#ver+ 8- "- .1,/90- The remedial reader in the classroom. Un1('lished master2s 1roject+ Boise State University+ Boise+ #dahoCommittee Members: r- "lara P- B(rtch+ r- R(th 7arks+ and r- Ro'ert :- Friedli-

Need Fulfilled:

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8 1roject designed to address the iss(e of reading diffic(lties in the elementary school classrooms and to 1rovide remedial hel1- The intent of the 1roject was to aid st(dents in their reading diffic(lties 'y 1roviding 1ro1er identification of 1ro'lem areas+ followed 'y effective corrective 1roced(resProduct Description: The 1rod(ct of this research was a kit which assisted the reg(lar classroom teacher with the identification of s1ecific 1ro'lem areas in reading and to recommend 1roced(res for the teacher to (se in assisting the st(dent having diffic(lties- The kit consisted of two se1arate (nits- The first (nit contained reading diagnostic material in the following categories6 .a0 Phonetic 8nalysis+ .'0 Str(ct(ral 8nalysis+ .c0 ;oca'(lary evelo1ment+ .d0 "om1rehension Skills and .e0 St(dy Skills- The second (nit contained materials designed to remedy the areas that were identified as weak in the first (nitProject(3) Sollars+ 7- .1,<%0- A multi-Perceptual approach for high-risk students at the beginning reading level. Un1('lished master2s 1roject+ Boise State University+ Boise+ #dahoCommittee Members: r- 5ohn Beita+ r- R(th 7arks and r- =endell =aiteNeed Fulfilled: 8 1roject designed to e>1lore and 1re1are materials (sing m(lti1le 1erce1t(al senses to assist high risk st(dents to achieve s(ccess with 'eginning readingProduct Description: The 1rod(ct of this research was a hand'ook (tili?ing a m(lti!1erce1t(al 1rogram for high! risk st(dents at the 'eginning reading level- The hand'ook incl(des how to 1re1are for the 1rogram+ it also incl(ded how to organi?e and 1resent the material- @ther areas incl(ded in the

Thesis/Project Review

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hand'ook were kinesthetic activities+ inde1endent seatwork and the order of letters to 'e introd(ced- The hand'ook has incl(ded teacher made material and lessons for e>1eriencing letter so(ndsThesis(1) :ally+ A- R- .1,/90- Jeff: The case study of a dyslexic child- Un1('lished master2s thesis+ Boise State University+ Boise+ #dahoCommittee Members: r- 8cel "hat'(rn+ r- Tr(dy "om'a+ 7iss "lara B(rtch+ r- 3erald =allace+ r- Ben 4ollen'a(ghNeed Fulfilled: The s('ject of this thesis was a case st(dy on dysle>ia thro(gh the a(thor2s son+ 5eff- #t was the ho1e that the 1resentation of dysle>ia from a 1arent2s 1oint of view wo(ld give readers an (nderstanding of 1eo1le with dysle>ia and the 1ro'lems families enco(nter with this learning disa'ilityese!rch Methods: The a(thor relied on a review of literat(re+ definitions of terms and 1ersonal o'servations thro(gh 'irth+ infancy+ toddler+ 1re!school+ 1rimary grades+ intermediate grades+ j(nior high+ high school and mat(ration to doc(ment the case st(dy- The case st(dy is s(11orted with re1ort cards+ test res(lts and t(torial re1orts- The a(thor concl(des with a 1hiloso1hical 1rognosis for the f(t(re for her son-

-Thesis(2)

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Fig(eredo+ 8- .1,<,0- A study to determine the effectiveness of corrective reading programs on nineteen students identified as mildly handicapped. Un1('lished masterCs thesis+ Boise State University+ Boise+ #dahoCommittee Members: r- =enden =aite+ 5eanne Ba(wen+ 5ohn 5ensenNeed Fulfilled: This was a st(dy on im1roving reading achievement of st(dents with mild learning disa'ilities thro(gh a irect #nstr(ctional a11roach- The three research D(estions that the st(dy tried to address were whether a corrective reading 1rogram im1roved st(dent decoding skills+ im1roved st(dent com1rehension or raised overall reading achievementese!rch Methods: The data for this research was collected from nineteen st(dents in the fo(rth and fifth grade that received reading instr(ction in the reso(rce room at an elementary school- Each st(dent was 1retested on tow meas(res+ the "orrective Reading Placement Test and the =oodcock 5ohnson Psycho!Ed(cational Battery- 8 norm!referenced com1arison was selected to eval(ate st(dent achievement- The norm!referenced com1arison is a common design (sed in Ed(cation when there is not a control gro(1- St(dents are 1retested+ given the treatment+ 1ost!tested+ and 1erformance is com1ared against the norm gro(1 (sed to standardi?e a testCh!pters in the rese!rch: Ch!pter " a0 #ntrod(ction '0 #ntrod(ction to the Pro'lem c0 Statement of the Pro'lem d0 Research E(estions

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e0 4y1othesis f0 g0 efinitions of ;aria'les efinitions of Terms

h0 :imitations Ch!pter "" a0 Preview of the :iterat(re '0 #ntrod(ction c0 Aat(re of a :earning isa'ility d0 "haracteristics 8ssociated with Reading isa'ility e0 Strategies for #m1roving Reading 8chievement Ch!pter """ a0 7ethods '0 Po1(lation c0 #nstr(mentation d0 esign and Proced(res

Ch!pter "# a0 Res(lts '0 @verview of 8nalysis c0 E>1erimental Research Res(lts "ha1ter ; a0 S(mmary isc(ssion and Recommendations '0 S(mmary c0 isc(ssion

d0 Recommendations

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$ppendi% $ :etter =ord #dentification Pretest St(dent Scores $ppendi% & :etter =ord #dentification Posttest St(dent Scores $ppendi% C =ord attack Pretest St(dent Scores $ppendi% D =ord 8ttack Posttest St(dent Scores $ppendi% ' Passage "om1rehension Pretest St(dent Scores $ppendi% F Passage "om1rehension Posttest (tudent (cores $ppendi% ) Total Test!Pretest St(dent #ndivid(al Scores $ppendi% * Total Test!Posttest St(dent #ndivid(al Scores &iblo+r!ph,"mport!nce of Project: The a(thor o'served that individ(al st(dent attending a reso(rce room had minimal teacher! centered instr(ction- The individ(al instr(ction that was 1rovided was for a 1ortion of the st(dent2s allotted time and the remainder of the time was s1ent working inde1endently on material that was designed to reinforce a 1artic(lar skill- The draw'acks that the a(thor noted for

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this a11roach was the limited time on task and the amo(nt of direct teacher instr(ction the st(dents receive- This a11roach to instr(ction was creating an environment of 'ehavior 1ro'lemsThe a11roach the a(thor recommended in his thesis was a teacher!centered a11roach with the em1hasis 'eing on teacher 'ehavior+ classroom organi?ation and the (se of instr(ctional time in the classroom- This st(dy was concerned with im1roving the reading achievement of st(dents with mild learning disa'ilities thro(gh a direct instr(ctional a11roach- The 1(r1ose of this st(dy was to determine the effects of (sing the "orrective Reading Program in an instr(ctor!led format in the s1ecial ed(cation reso(rce room that serviced nineteen st(dents in the fo(rth and fifth gradesDesi+n of (tud,: The st(dents 1artici1ating in this st(dy consisted of nineteen fo(rth and fifth grade st(dentsThese st(dents were fo(nd eligi'le for S1ecial Ed(cation Services in accordance with the =ashington State R(les and Reg(lationsThe service delivery model selected for (se with

these st(dents was the reso(rce 1rogram- Reading instr(ction in the reso(rce 1rogram served as the st(dent2s 1rimary so(rce for reading instr(ctionEach st(dent was 1retested on two individ(ally administered meas(res The "orrective Reading Placement Test and the =oodcock!5ohnson Psycho!Ed(cational Battery- The =oodcock!5ohnson Psycho!Ed(cational Battery is an individ(ally administered normed referenced test- The reading cl(ster selected from the =oodcock!5ohnson consistent of three s('tests6 letter!word identification+ word attack+ and 1assage com1rehension- 8 norm! referenced com1arison design was selected to eval(ate st(dent achievement- The norm! referenced com1arison (sed in this st(dy is a common design (sed in 1rogram eval(ation in

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ed(cation when no control gro(1 is availa'le- St(dents were 1retested+ given the treatment+ 1ost! tested+ and 1erformance was com1ared against the norm gro(1 (sed to standardi?e the testD!t! Collected: The de1endent varia'le for the st(dy was standard scores recorded from the =oodcock! 5ohnson Psycho!Ed(cational BatteryF Part 1 reading cl(ster- The res(lts of the norm!referenced com1arison eD(aled or e>ceeded the criteria necessary for ed(cational significance- The difference in 1retest and 1ost!test total test reading res(lts yield a five D(arter standard deviation increase- This increase re1resents a f(ll standard deviation increase against the mean of the norm gro(1 for the de1endent varia'leConclusion: Reading instr(ction in the S1ecial Ed(cation Reso(rce room in this st(dy followed a format in which the instr(ctor worked with one or two st(dents while the other st(dents worked on 1encil and 1a1er tasks- The st(dents+ who were left to work on their own+ often e>hi'ited 1ro'lem 'ehavior- The a(thor designed a st(dy in which the reading instr(ction was delivered in a teacher centered instr(ctional a11roach (sing a "orrective Reading Program ."RP0 c(rric(l(mThis c(rric(l(m was 'ased on letter word identification skills+ word attack skills and com1rehension skills- The 1revio(s c(rric(l(m was the 7acmillian Reading Series which was a whole word a11roach to readingThe res(lts of this st(dy s(11ort a transformation from a st(dent centered a11roach to a teacher centered instr(ctional a11roach to reading (sing the "RP c(rric(l(m- The overall reading achievement showed a , month growth in < months of instr(ction- The "RP f(lfilled the needs and e>1ectations of the a(thor of this st(dy- This research shows the need for f(rther st(dies to determine if a st(dent is a'le to generali?e the skills learned in a "RP 1rogram- This st(dy is

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enco(raging in it2s strategies to im1lement for reading and it wo(ld 'e interesting to determine if the res(lts wo(ld 'e similar for math+ s1elling and written lang(age-