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Little Scientist Science Experiments From Your Pantry

In correlation with our science unit, we will be getting ready for a science fair! Our very own Kindies will chose a super fun science experiment to learn, bring to school, and perform for our class, parents and friends! Below I have attached various science experiments that you and your child can try together (you can also come up with your own). Once you have found the perfect experiment, master it, learn HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE, and get your child ready to be a little scientist and teach us all about this cool experiment. Why are we doing this? My first science fair was in grade 2, at West Sechelt Elementary. My friend and I decided to put white carnations in food colouring and watch the flowers change colour! I can remember most of the other experiments too. This was such a fun way for the class to learn more about what science is and how fun it can be! This is an opportunity for your child to be the teacher and teach their peers something cool! I hope that you and your child have a blast experimenting and sharing with the class! Science Experiments •I don’t want to limit anyone from doing an experiment that they really love. Learning is more fun when you are interested in what you are doing, so I am not worried about students doing the same experiment. Fireworks in a Jar What you'll need A jar/ water/ vegetable oil/ food colouring What to do: 1. Fill your jar with warm water 2. In a separate bowl, mix 3-4 tablespoons of oil and several drops of different colours of food colouring. 3. Pour the mixture into the jar of warm water 4. Watch the explosion of colour as the food colouring slowly sinks out of the oil and into the water!

What did we learn? Food colouring dissolves in water but not oil. The less dense oil will sit at the top of the water and the food colouring will begin to sink because the droplets are heavier that the oil. As the food colouring dissolves in the water it will look like a colourful firework show right in the jar.

Homemade Ice Cream What you'll need: •Ice cubes (enough to fill each gallon-size bag about half full) •1 cup half and half •1/2-cup salt (The bigger the granules, the better. Kosher or rock salt works best, but table salt is fine.) •2 tablespoons sugar •1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract •1 pint-size Ziploc bag •1 gallon-size Ziploc bag

Your favorite mixings such as chocolate chips, cereal pieces, or fresh fruit. 1. Combine the sugar, half and half, and vanilla extract in the pint-size bag and seal it tightly. 2. Place the salt and ice in the gallon-size bag, then place the sealed smaller bag inside as well. Seal the larger bag. Now shake the bags until the mixture hardens (about 5 minutes). Feel the small bag to determine when it's done.

3. Take the smaller bag out of the larger one, add mix-ins, and eat the ice cream right out of the bag. Easy cleanup too! Just like we use salt on icy roads in the winter, salt mixed with ice in this case also causes the ice to melt. When salt comes into contact with ice, the freezing point of the ice is lowered. The lowering of the freezing point depends on the amount of salt added. The more salt added, the lower the temperature will be before the salt-water solution freezes. When salt is added to the ice (or snow), some of the ice melts because the freezing point is lowered. By lowering the temperature at which ice is frozen, you were able to create an environment in which the cream mixture could freeze at a temperature below 32 degrees F into ice cream.

Ice Melting What you'll need: •Bowls or dishes (for making the ice) •A large tray with sides •Salt •Food coloring •Spoon or droppers Fill a few different sized bowls with water and freeze them overnight. The next morning, loosen the bowls with warm water and put them in a tray (water will melt). Give your child a bowl of salt (coarse salt works best) and sprinkle it over the ice. The ice will start melting, so you can start butting drops of food colouring on! The reason for adding the colour is to highlight the ravines, crevasses, and tunnels that are forming in the ice! Ice will melt eventually, but what you want to teach your child is that: salt melts the ice at a much cooler temperature, which makes the ice melt even faster! The lowering of the freezing point depends on the amount of salt added.

Make Your Own Slushy! YUM!! What you'll need: •Half a cup of water •1 teaspoon of salt •Zip lock bag •Jar •Fruit Juice Instructions: The night before you want to make the slushy put half a cup of water and one teaspoon of salt into a plastic bag with a seal. You can add some food coloring too, just for fun. Squeeze the air out of the bag and roll it into a shape that will fit inside your jar. Put the bag(s) in the freezer overnight. When the bags have frozen put them into a jar with a lid and add a cold liquid. You can use fruit and vegetable juice. Anything with sugar in it will work. Start shaking! After a few minutes the liquid will become slushy. Pour it into a cup, add a fun straw, and enjoy. The science part: The salt lowers the freezing point of the water in the bag, so the bag of ice stays colder longer than plain ice. This is what causes the liquid surrounding it to begin to freeze.

GAK What you'll need:

•2 4 oz. bottles of Elmer’s Glue •1 tsp. Borax (found in the laundry detergent section of the store) •Water •Plastic Cup •Bowl •Food Coloring Begin by emptying the two bottles of glue into a bowl. Then fill bottles with warm water and shake. Empty into your bowl. Add some food coloring and set aside. Add 1/2 cup warm water to your cup. Add 1 tsp. borax to the water and mix until borax dissolves. Then pour this into your glue bowl. Start stirring and you will notice how it starts becoming stringy. Keep mixing by using your hands and squishing around. You will notice after a few minutes that it has become pretty gelatinous. Let the kids play with it for a bit and it will become the perfect GOOEY consistency! Science: The mixture of Elmer’s Glue with Borax and water produces a putty-like material called a polymer. In simplest terms, a polymer is a long chain of molecules. You can use the example of cooking spaghetti to better understand why this polymer behaves in the way it does. When a pile of freshly cooked spaghetti comes out of the hot water and into the bowl, the strands flow like a liquid from the pan to the bowl. This is because the spaghetti strands are slippery and slide over one another. After awhile, the water drains off of the pasta and the strands start to stick together. The spaghetti takes on a rubbery texture. Wait a little while longer for all of the water to evaporate and the pile of spaghetti turns into a solid mass -- drop it on the floor and watch it bounce. Many natural and synthetic polymers behave in a similar manner. Polymers are made out of long strands of molecules like spaghetti. If the long molecules slide past each other easily, then the substance acts like a liquid because the molecules flow. If the molecules stick together at a few places along the strand, then the substance behaves like a rubbery solid called an elastomer. Borax is the compound that is responsible for hooking the glue’s molecules together to form the putty-like material.

Rock Candy What you'll need: • 4 cups sugar •2 cups water •a small saucepan • a wooden spoon • a candy thermometer • a small, clean glass jar • a measuring cup • cotton string • a weight to hang on the string (such as a screw or galvanized washer) • waxed paper • a pencil (to suspend the string in the jar) What Do I Do? 1.Heat the water in the saucepan over medium-high heat until it comes to a boil. 2. Completely dissolve the sugar in the boiling water, stirring continuously with the wooden spoon until the solution grows clear and it reaches a rolling boil. 3.Remove the solution from the heat, and then carefully pour it into the jar. Cover the jar with a small piece of waxed paper. 4.Tie the weight to one end of the string, and then tie the other end to the middle of the pencil. The string should be about two-thirds as long as the jar is deep. Dip the string into the sugar solution, remove it, lay it on a piece of waxed paper, straighten

it out, and let it dry for a few days. 5.Gently suspend the prepared string in the solution and let sit at room temperature, undisturbed, for several days. You can check each day to see how much your crystals have grown. It’s tempting, but don’t touch the jar until the experiment is finished—it usually takes about seven days. 6.At the end of the week, the crystals on your string should be clearly defined, with sharp right angles and smooth faces of various sizes. In the field of crystallography, these are called monoclinic crystals. Their shape is determined by the way the individual sugar molecules fit together, which is similar to the way the shape of a pile of oranges is determined by the shape of the individual oranges and the way they stack together. What’s Going On? • Why does the string need to be soaked and then dried? The string will provide the surface on which the crystals will grow. As water evaporates from the string, small crystals of sugar will encrust the string. These tiny seed crystals provide starting points for larger crystals. Future growth will be concentrated around these points. • What makes the crystals grow? Two different methods will contribute to the growth of the crystals on the string. You have created a supersaturated solution by first heating a saturated sugar solution (a solution in which no more sugar can dissolve at a particular temperature) and then allowing it to cool. A supersaturated solution is unstable—it contains more solute (in this case, sugar) than can stay in a liquid form—so the sugar will come out of solution, forming what's called a precipitate. This method is called precipitation. The other is evaporation—as time passes, the water will evaporate slowly from the solution. As the water evaporates, the solution becomes more saturated and sugar molecules will continue to come out of the solution and collect on the seed crystals on the string. The rock candy crystals grow molecule by molecule. Your finished rock candy will be made up of about a quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) molecules attached to the string.

Cool Celery What you'll need: •Cups •Celery •Food colouring •Water What to do: Fill about 1/2 inch of water into a glass and add food coloring. Place a piece of celery with leaves still attached into the colored water and keep an eye on it for a day or two. Watch how the water travels up the stalk to the leaf and changes color. Cut the stalk across and show children where the coloring is showing the tubes that carry the water up the stalk of the plant. This is call capillary action… Most of the time, plants get their water from the ground. This means that the plant has to transport the water from its roots up throughout the rest of the plant. How does it do this? Water moves through the plant by means of capillary action. Capillary action occurs when the forces binding a liquid together and the forces attracting that bound liquid to another surface are greater than the force of gravity. The plant's stem sucks up water much like a straw does.

Bouncy Ball What you'll need: •Borax •Warm water •Cornstarch •Glue •2 small mixing cups •Stirring stick •Food colouring Instructions: 1. Label one cup “borax solution” and the other cup “ball mixture” 2. Pour 4 ounces of warm water into the borax cup and 1 teaspoon of the borax powder into the cup. Stir the mixture to dissolve the borax 3. Pour 1 tablespoon of glue into the ball cup and add 3-4 drops food colouring, if desired. 4. Add ½ teaspoon of the borax solution and one tablespoon of cornstarch to the glue. Do not stir. 5. Allow the ingredients to interact on their own for 10-15 seconds and then stir. 6. Once the mixture become impossible to stir, take it out and start molding the ball with your hands. The ball will start out sticky and messy, but will solidify as you knead it! Science: This activity demonstrates an interesting chemical reaction, primarily between the borax and glue. The borax acts as a “cross-linker” to the polymer molecules in the glue- basically it creates chains of molecules that stay together when you pick them up. The cornstarch helps to bind the molecules together so that they hold their shape better.

Lava Lamp What you'll need: •Vegetable Oil •Water •Food coloring

•Alka Seltzer tablets •A glass or plastic bottle Fill up your container about 2/3 of the way with oil. Then add your water to about an inch from the top and watch the substances separate. Add a few drops of food coloring. You’ll have to wait a couple of minutes for the food coloring to go through the oil and color the water. Add one Alka Seltzer tablet and watch your mixture turn into a whirling lava lamptype show! You can repeat as many times as you want with additional tablets. Science: First of all, you confirmed what you already knew... oil and water do not mix. The molecules of water do not like to mix with the molecules of oil. Even if you try to shake up the bottle, the oil breaks up into small little drops, but the oil doesn’t mix with the water. Also, food coloring only mixes with water. It does not color the oil. When you pour the water into the bottle with the oil, the water sinks to the bottom and the oil floats to the top. This is the same as when oil from a ship spills in the ocean. The oil floats on top of the water. Oil floats on the surface because water is heavier than oil. Scientists say that the water is denser than the oil. Here’s the surprising part... The Alka-Seltzer tablet reacts with the water to make tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide gas. These bubbles attach themselves to the blobs of colored water and cause them to float to the surface. When the bubbles pop, the color blobs sink back to the bottom of the bottle.

Volcano What you'll need: •Play dough

•Baking sheet •Water bottle •Scissors •Tin foil •Vinegar •Baking soda •Food colouring Instructions: 1. Cut the water bottle in half 2. Place the water bottle on the baking tray and wrap the aluminum foil over the rim of the bottle. You want to create the shape of the volcano. 3. Take the paly dough and roll it out. Wrap it around the tinfoil ( do this gently so the foil doesn’t collapse) 4. Roll more play dough and continue to cover the volcano 5. Take about 2 tablespoons of baking soda and place it into the mouth of the water bottle- premix 4 cups of vinegar with food colouring. 6. Pour some of the vinegar into a measuring cup for the kids 7. They will need about ½ cup to make the volcano erupt Science: The baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is a base while the vinegar (acetic acid) is an acid. When they react together they form carbonic acid, which is very unstable, it instantly breaks apart into water and carbon dioxide, which creates all the fizzing as it escapes the solution.

Invisible Ink Invisible Ink the Baking Soda Way Mix about 1/4 cup (60 ml) of baking soda and 1/4 cup (60 ml) of water. Next, write using a Q-tip, toothpick or brush on a piece of paper. Let it dry completely. To read the secret message, paint grape juice concentrate across the paper with a paintbrush or a sponge. Don't forget - grape juice stains. Why it works: Grape juice has an acid that reacts with the baking soda. A different color appears wherever the secret message is written. Invisible Ink the Milky Way

Put a little milk in a small bowl. Write with the milk on a piece of paper with a Q-tip or a brush. Let your message dry completely. To read the messages just heat the paper. Use an iron or 100-watt light bulb or stove element. Don't rest the paper on the bulb. Ask an adult to help in case a fire starts and never use a halogen light. Why it works: Milk is an organic product, which means it comes from a living thing. When it's heated, it burns at a slower rate than the paper. Your invisible message shows up brown. Invisible Ink the Lemon Way This works the same way as the Milky Way. Simply dab a Q-tip or brush into a bowl of lemon juice and write away. Just make sure you don't use too much. To see the message, simply heat the paper after it dries. Another way to see the message is put salt on the drying ink. Give it a minute and then wipe the salt off. Use a wax crayon to color over the message. Why it works: Both lemon juice and milk are mildly acidic and acid weakens paper. The acid remains in the paper after the juice or milk has dried. When the paper is held near heat the acidic parts of the paper burn or turn brown before the rest of the paper does.