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# 8/30/2013

Properties
Thermodynamics is defined as the science of energy. In this chapter, we’ll introduce some basic language and concepts of thermodynamics, systems of units commonly used, and we’ll see a standard methodology which should be used to solve thermodynamic problems. - Units (3) - Systems and control volumes (2) - Properties of a system (3) -Phase (1) - States and equilibrium (2) - Processes and cycles (3) - Temperature and pressure (11) - Problem-working procedure (1)
G. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.0 Ryerson University

Units (1)
Any physical quantity can be characterized by dimensions. There are several primary dimensions, such as mass m, length L, time t, and temperature T. The magnitudes assigned to the dimensions are called units. Other physical quantities can be described using the primary dimensions, and include velocity V (L/t), energy E, and volume V. These are called secondary dimensions.

Metric SI system: A simple and logical system based on a decimal relationship between the various units. English system: It has no apparent systematic numerical base, and various units in this system are related to each other rather arbitrarily.

G. Bramesfeld

AER 309 Thermodynamics

v1.0

Ryerson University

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0551 kJ The SI unit prefixes are used in all branches of engineering.0 Ryerson University 2 .8/30/2013 Units (2) Some SI and English examples: Work = Force  Distance 1 J = 1 N∙m 1 cal = 4. and pound-force (lbf).1868 J 1 Btu = 1. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. G. The relative magnitudes of the force units newton (N). Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. The definition of the force units. kilogram-force (kgf).0 Ryerson University Units (3) Some more SI and English examples: W weight m mass g gravitational acceleration A body weighing 60 kgf on earth will weigh only 10 kgf on the moon. G. The weight of a unit mass at sea level.

such as in compressors. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. The boundary can be fixed or movable/deformable. or control volume.0 Ryerson University 3 . This boundary can be real or imaginary. Furthermore. or nozzles. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.8/30/2013 Systems and control volumes (1) So what is a system? A quantity of matter (closed system) or region in space (open system) chosen for study. the mass or space outside the system. a closed system is one where no mass is exchanged across the boundary separating the system and its surroundings. A boundary is the real or imaginary surface that separates the system and its surroundings. Both mass and energy (duh! mass is energy!) can cross the boundary. G. Control volumes are used when mass flow is involved. turbines. is a “properly defined” region in space. called a control surface. G.0 Ryerson University Systems and control volumes (2) An open system.

where a region is filled with oxygen at atmospheric conditions.0 Ryerson University Properties of a system (2) Since many machines use a working fluid for transferring work and heat (forms of energy). Properties are divided into two categories: • intensive properties do not depend on the amount of mass in the system. dividing one region into two will change the amount of (extensive) total mass and total volume. and include total mass. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. This is the case in most practical problems of interest. etc. Consider the figure below. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.3x10-8m. at 1 atm pressure and 20oC is about 6. and density • extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size of the system. specific internal energy. we treat the group as a continuum. meaning an average molecule travels about 200 times its diameter before colliding with another molecule. an idealization which allows us to treat properties as point functions which vary continuously in space. such as temperature. thermal conductivity. pressure. or how much mass is contained in the system. etc. total volume. and total momentum In the figure at right. The mean free path. or the average distance a molecule travels before bumping another molecule. Properties are how we describe characteristics of a system. and we will assume continuum behavior in all problems in this course. But since the mean free path is much smaller than the size (characteristic length) of the system. or density Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific properties (specific volume.0 Ryerson University 4 . temperature.) G. pressure. viscosity. G.3x10-23kg. we need to understand why atoms and molecules can be considered as a fluid continuum. but not the level of (intensive) temperature.8/30/2013 Properties of a system (1) There are many properties of a system – pressure. volume. mass. The diameter of an oxygen molecule is about 3x10-10m with a mass of 5.

0 Ryerson University Phase (1) A Phase is any quantity of matter that is homogeneous in physical and chemical composition. O2. or: The reciprocal of density is the specific volume. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. for most gases. according to: P  RT or  P RT G. the ideal gas law fits (we’ll see this more and more): The density of liquids and solids is more dependent on temperature than pressure. defined as volume per unit mass: The density of a substance usually depends on the temperature and pressure.8/30/2013 Properties of a system (3) Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Sometimes. • Solid • Liquid • Gas (vapour) A system can contain multiple phases • Water -> freezing point • Soda/pop Gases and some liquids can be mixtures of a single phase: • Air -> N2.0 Ryerson University 5 . the density of a substance is given in terms of other substances (usually water at 4oC where  H 2O  1000 kg/m 3 ). Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. and is called the specific gravity or relative density. water vapour G.

causing macroscopic change in the system (note: this is not saying a state of no change!) Thermal equilibrium: temperature is the same throughout the entire system Mechanical equilibrium: when there is no change in pressure at any point in the system with time Phase equilibrium: when multi-phase system phase masses reach equilibrium Chemical equilibrium: when the chemical composition of the system does not change with time (no chemical reactions occur) G.0 Ryerson University A closed system reaching thermal States and equilibrium (2) equilibrium.8/30/2013 States and equilibrium (1) Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states. magnetic. temperature and specific volume are independent (figure at right) so they fix the state of a simple compressible system. and surface tension effects. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. • Temperature and pressure fix the state for a singlephase system. Equilibrium can be defined as a balanced state with no unbalanced potentials. v1. motion. and it’s called the state postulate: The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent. Two properties are independent if one property can be varied while the other one is held constant. gravitational. but they’re dependent properties for multi-phase systems (saturation conditions…) G. intensive properties A simple compressible system is one which does not involve electrical.0 Ryerson University 6 . • For example. intensive properties. 20 So how can we know what state a substance is in? There’s a rule which tells us how many properties are needed to completely define a state. or drivers. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics The state of nitrogen is fixed by two independent.