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Now that we have a better understanding of energy and power, we will learn how these concepts apply to thermodynamics. - Thermodynamic concepts of energy (1) - Energy transfer by heat (7)

- Heat transfer modes (3)

G. Bramesfeld

AER 309 Thermodynamics

v1.0

Ryerson University

We will lump all these additional forms together as internal energy U. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. and other phase changes. and translational motion of the molecules of a substance. we prefer to deal with the differences in total energy between states: G.0 Ryerson University . In addition to mechanical forms of energy (potential and kinetic).Thermodynamic Concept of Work (1) We talked about how there are different kinds of energy. there is energy stored in vibrational. Internal energy is what we change during chemical reactions and phase changes. The total energy E of a system is the sum of all forms of energy in the system Since total energy is very difficult to define. rotational. but also during cooling/heating. evaporation/condensation.

the higher is the rate of heat transfer.Energy transfer by heat (1) Heat: The form of energy that is transferred between two systems (or a system and its surroundings). Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. v1. The larger the temperature difference.0 Ryerson University . Energy can cross the boundaries of a closed system in the form of heat and work. driven by a temperature difference. G.

a system exchanges no heat with its surroundings. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics . During an adiabatic process. v1. which only occurs if the system is perfectly insulated or there is no temperature difference.0 Ryerson University G.Energy transfer by heat (2) Heat transfer per unit mass Amount of heat transfer when heat transfer rate is constant Amount of heat transfer when heat transfer rate changes with time Energy is recognized as heat transfer only as it crosses the system boundary.

which treats molecules as tiny balls that are in motion and thus possess kinetic energy. heat was thought to be an invisible fluid called the caloric that flowed from warmer bodies to the cooler ones. v1.0 Ryerson University . Heat transfer mechanisms: • Conduction: transfer of energy from more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interaction (contact) • Convection: transfer of energy between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid in motion.Energy transfer by heat (3) Some history of heat – it wasn’t correctly articulated and based on molecular motion until around the 19th century with kinetic theory. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics In the early nineteenth century. involving the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion (advection) • Radiation: transfer of energy due to the emission of electromagnetic waves (photons) G. So heat is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules.

heat transfer from a system and work done on a system are negative According to this work and heat transfer have opposite sign conventions! • The alternative used is to use the subscripts in and out to indicate direction G.Energy transfer by heat (4) Formal sign convection: heat transfer to a system and work done by a system are positive.0 Ryerson University . Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.

not a state • Unlike properties. but heat and work are path functions. both are associated with a process. meaning their magnitudes depend on the path followed during a process as well as the end states Properties are point functions have exact differentials (d ). Path functions have inexact differentials ( ) G. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.Energy transfer by heat (5) Some more details about Heat and Work: • Both are recognized at the boundaries of a system. they are both boundary phenomena • Systems possess energy. but not heat or work.0 Ryerson University . heat or work have no meaning at a state • Properties are point functions. as they cross the boundaries.

Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.Energy transfer by heat (6) A special note about Electrical Work: Electrical work Electrical power When potential difference and current change with time Electrical power in terms of resistance R. current I.0 Ryerson University . When potential difference and current remain constant G. and potential difference V.

the heat transfer rate integrated over a time interval yields the total heat transferred Heat Flux Since heat is transferred through the boundaries of a system it is often helpful to express the rate of heat transfer per unit area. It has the same unit as power. heat transfer is a function of the process. or as heat flux 𝑞 . The total rate of heat transfer is given by the area integral: G.Energy transfer by heat (7) Rate of Heat Transfer Like work. Like with power and work. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.0 Ryerson University . The rate at which occurs is called rate of heat transfer 𝑄.

0 Ryerson University . e. The total heat transfer rate in positive x-direction is gi: 𝑑𝑇 𝑄𝑥 = 𝑞𝐴 = −𝑘𝐴 𝑑𝑥 Assuming a linear temperature gradient simplifies this to 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 𝑄𝑥 = −𝑘𝐴 𝐿 or 𝑘𝐴 𝑄𝑥 = − 𝑇 − 𝑇1 𝐿 2 𝑑𝑇 G.g. you touching a hot plate. For 1-D conduction through a solid planar wall: • Thermal conductivity coefficient k in [W/mK] • Heat flux 𝑞 = −𝑘 𝑑𝑥 (linear temperature gradient) • Cross-sectional area A perpendicular to x.Heat Transfer Modes (1) Conduction Requires direct contact. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1.

Surface at uniform with temperature 𝑇 > 𝑇∞ . Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. Convection coefficient ℎ in [W/m2K].g. by a fan) G.g. The total rate of heat transfer from a surface of area A is given 𝑄 = ℎ𝐴 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ Note that the fluid has to be in motion (convect) for convection to occur. e. air over hot plate.0 Ryerson University .Heat Transfer Modes (2) Convection Convection is the transfer of energy between a surface and a moving fluid. Heat flux is 𝑞 = ℎ 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ This is known as Newton’s Cooling Law. Convection can be free (motion due to buoyancy effects) or forced (e. • • • • Fluid with temperature 𝑇∞ far from surface.

67 × 10−8 𝑊 𝑚2𝐾 • The emissivity coefficient 0 ≤ 𝜖 ≤ 1 is a material property. Bramesfeld AER 309 Thermodynamics v1. The total rate of heat transfer from a surface of area A actively involved in radiation is 𝑄 = 𝜖𝜎𝐴𝑇 4 G.Heat Transfer Modes (3) Radiation Radiation is the transfer of energy from a surface by emission of photons (e.0 Ryerson University . • Heat flux is 𝑞 = 𝜖𝜎𝑇 4 This is known as Stefan-Boltzmann Law (tragic person). • Surface at uniform temperature 𝑇 . • The Stefan-Boltzmann constant is 𝜎 = 5.g. red glowing hot plate).

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