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PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE USE 1 PUTTING EMPHASIS ON THE RESULT.

I have studied English. I have finished my homework. I have sp !en to Paul.

USE " ACTION THAT IS STILL GOING ON
I haven#t ta$!ed to Jim for a week. I have $ived in Iniesta for 20 years. I haven#t finished my homework yet. Bill hasn#t a%%ived yet.

USE & ACTION THAT STOPPE' RECENTL(.
They have )ust a%%ived. I have )ust finished my degree. She has )ust d ne all her homework.

USE *. FINISHE' ACTION THAT HAS AN INFLUENCE' ON THE PRESENT.
You have +% ,n since the last time I saw you. The go ernment has -e. /e more interested in arts education. Ja!anese has -e. /e one of the most !o!ular courses at the uni ersity since the "sian studies !rogram was esta#lished. $y English has really i/p% ved since I mo ed to "ustralia.

USE 0. E1PERIENCE. ACTION THAT HAS TA2EN PLACE ONCE3 NE4ER OR SE4ERAL TIMES 5EFORE THE MOMENT OF SPEA2ING..
I have -een to %rance.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES.

I have -een to %rance three times.
YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.

I have ne er -een to %rance.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.

I think I have seen that mo ie #efore. &e has ne er t%ave$$ed #y train. Joan has studied two foreign languages. "' Have you e er /et him( B' )o* I have not /et him.

and -since Tuesday.ontinuous. You can also use the Present Perfect . I have -een stud6in+ English for three hours. 3ecently* I have -een fee$in+ really tired.-for two weeks*.ed n the p%esent.+ithout the duration* the tense has a more general meaning of -lately.to em!hasi2e this meaning. She has -een .ontinuous to show that something started in the !ast and has continued u! until now. +hat have you -een d in+ for the last .0 minutes( James has -een tea.aitin+ here for o er two hours/ +hy has )ancy n t -een ta!in+ her medicine for the last three days( USE &. Re.are all durations which can #e used with the Present Perfect ..at.hin+ at the uni ersity since June.hin+ too much tele ision lately. They have -een p$a6in+ tennis all the e ening.or -recently. Finished a.+e often use the words -lately. %!in+ at that com!any for three years. Have you -een e7e%.ent$63 Late$6.isin+ lately( $ary has -een fee$in+ a little de!ressed.ti n that inf$uen.. +hat have you -een d in+( . u%se % du%ati n. She has -een . +e have -een .PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS USE 1. They have -een ta$!in+ for the last hour. USE ". Puttin+ e/phasis n the .in+ her English. She has -een d in+ her homework for two hours. 4isa has n t -een p%a.ti. 'u%ati n f% / the Past Unti$ N .ontinuous +IT&01T a duration such as -for two weeks. -%or fi e minutes*. +e use the Present Perfect .

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE USE 1 C /p$eted A.S. %!in+ at that com!any for three years when it went out of #usiness.ontinuous8 howe er* the duration does not continue until now* it sto!s #efore something else in the !ast.and -for two weeks. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS USE 1 'u%ati n 5ef %e S /ethin+ in the Past +e use the Past Perfect .aitin+ to get on the #us( $ike wanted to sit down #ecause he had -een standin+ all day at work. I did not ha e any money #ecause I had $ st my wallet.!ed in ad ance. -%or fi e minutes. E5am!les' They had -een ta$!in+ for o er an hour #efore Tony arri ed. .are #oth durations which can #e used with the Past Perfect . once #efore. "' Had you e er visited the 1. Tony knew Istan#ul so well #ecause he had visited the city se eral times.ontinuous to show that something started in the !ast and continued u! until another time in the !ast.ti n 5ef %e S /ethin+ in the Past The Past Perfect e5!resses the idea that something occurred #efore another action in the !ast.S. It can also show that something ha!!ened #efore a s!ecific time in the !ast. +e were not a#le to get a hotel room #ecause we had n t . &ow long had you -een . Had Susan e er studied Thai #efore she mo ed to Thailand( She only understood the mo ie #ecause she had %ead the #ook.ontinuous. E5am!les' I had ne er seen such a #eautiful #each #efore I went to 6auai. )otice that this is related to the Present Perfect . She had -een . 6ristine had ne er -een to an o!era #efore last night. #efore your tri! in 2007( B' Yes* I had -een to the 1.

/p$eted the !ro!osal #y the time he e!ves this afternoon.ti n 5ef %e S /ethin+ in the Futu%e The %uture Perfect e5!resses the idea that something will occur #efore another action in the future.eived my !romotion.ontinuous #efore another action in the !ast is a good way to show cause and effect. I a/ n t + in+ t have finished this test #y . FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE USE 1 C /p$eted A. It can also show that something will ha!!en #efore a s!ecific time in the future.James had -een tea. USE " Cause f S /ethin+ in the Past 1sing the Past Perfect . By the time he gets home* she is + in+ t have . Sam gained weight #ecause he had -een ve%eatin+. o9clock. By the time I "#$#s% this course* I . This is #ecause the interru!tions are in time clauses* and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.i$$ have ta!en ten tests.i$$ have %e. Betty failed the final test #ecause she had n t -een attendin+ class. E5am!les' By ne5t )o em#er* I . 8i$$ she have $ea%ned enough .hin+ at the uni ersity for more than a year #efore he left for "sia. E5am!les' Jason was tired #ecause he had -een ) ++in+. . &ow many countries a%e you + in+ t have visited #y the time you t&'$ .0( )otice in the e5am!les a#o e that the reference !oints < m!'(e) #$ #t! #*s= are in Sim!le Present rather than Sim!le %uture.hinese to communicate #efore she moves to Bei:ing( Sam is !ro#a#ly + in+ t have . "' &ow long had you -een stud6in+ Turkish #efore you mo ed to "nkara( B' I had n t -een stud6in+ Turkish ery long.$eaned the entire house.

E1ERCISES. P%esent Pe%fe.t Si/p$e 9 C ntinu us3 Past Pe%fe.t C ntinu us &. P%esent Pe%fe.t Si/p$e 9 Past Pe%fe.t C ntinu us *.t C ntinu us ".t Si/p$e 9 C ntinu us . Past Pe%fe.t Si/p$e 9 P%esent Pe%fe. 1.t Si/p$e 9 P%esent Pe%fe. P%esent Pe%fe.