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Gertie the Dinosaur

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Gertie the Dinosaur
Gertie the Dinosaur

Gertie driven to tears by her master
Directed by Release dates Running time Country Language Winsor McCay February 8, 1914 12 minutes United States
€ €

Silent film English intertitles

Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. It is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur. McCay first used the film before live audiences as an interactive part of his vaudeville act; the frisky, childlike Gertie did tricks at the command of her master. McCay's employer William Randolph Hearst later curtailed McCay's vaudeville activities, so McCay added a live-action introductory sequence to the film for its theatrical release. McCay abandoned a sequel, Gertie on Tour (c. 1921), after producing about a minute of footage. Although Gertie is popularly thought to be the earliest animated film, McCay had earlier made Little Nemo•(1911) and How a Mosquito Operates•(1912). The American J. Stuart Blackton and the French ‚mile Cohl had experimented with animation even earlier; Gertie being a character with an appealing personality distinguished McCay's film from these earlier "trick films". Gertie was the first film to use animation techniques such as keyframes, registration marks, tracing paper, the Mutoscope action viewer, and animation loops. It influenced the next generation of animators such as the Fleischer brothers, Otto Messmer, Paul Terry, and Walt Disney. John Randolph Bray unsuccessfully tried to patent many of McCay's animation techniques and is said to have been behind a plagiarized version of Gertie that appeared a year or two after the original. Gertie is the best preserved of McCay's films€some of which have been lost or survive only in fragments€and has been preserved in the US National Film Registry.

[8] McCay "came to see the possibility of making moving pictures"[9] of his cartoons.[5] </ref>[6] In 1906.[20] </ref>[18] Long-necked dinosaurs often appeared in Dream of the Rarebit Fiend.[10] He followed it in 1912 with How a Mosquito Operates. the layout of the background to the latter bore a strong resemblance to what later appeared in Gertie. and In the Land of Wonderful Dreams from 1911[4] to 1914. Nemo meets a blue dinosaur named Bessie which has the same design as that of Gertie. 1913)[27] McCay considered a number of names before settling on "Gertie".[17] He spoke of the "serious and educational work" that the animation process could enable.•( •Commons•file)[26] episodes of Dream of the Rarebit Fiend. doing chalk talks€performances in which he drew before live audiences.[19][20] episode of Dream of the Rarebit Fiend in which a Brontosaurus skeleton took part in a horse race. he soon incorporated it into his vaudeville act.[13] His animation was criticized as being so lifelike that he must have traced the characters from photographs[14] or resorted to tricks using wires. (May•25.[22] •Wikimedia Commons has a file available for this comic strip.[24] episode of McCay's Little Nemo strip In the Land of Wonderful Dreams. titled "In the Land of the Antediluvians". theatres in 1911. McCay chose a creature that could not have been photographed for his next film.[9] comic strips and animation (1906 McCay's first film starred his Little Nemo characters and debuted in movie photo). and announced plans[16] for "the presentation of pictures showing the great monsters that used to inhabit the earth". </ref> Rarebit Fiend episode in which a hunter unsuccessfully targets a dinosaur.[11] in which a giant.Gertie the Dinosaur 2 Background Winsor McCay•(c.[7] Inspired by the flip books his son brought home.[12] McCay gave the mosquito a personality and balanced humor with the horror of the nightmare situation. his production notebooks used "Jessie the Dinosaurus" [sic]. Disney animator Paul Satterfield recalled hearing McCay in 1915 relate how he had chosen the name "Gertie":[18] . naturalistically animated mosquito sucks the blood of a sleeping man. 1913.[3] to 1911. such as a March•4. 1912.[15] to show that he had not.[14] McCay conferred with the American Historical Society in 1912.[9] though he was Winsor McCay was a pioneer in preceded by the American James Stuart Blackton and the French ‚mile Cohl. He claimed that he "was the first man in the world to make animated cartoons".[21] and a May•25. 1905.[25] and April•22. McCay began performing on the vaudeville circuit. 1867•71•• 1934)[1] </ref> had worked prolifically as a commercial artist and cartoonist by the time he started making newspaper comic strips such as Dream of the Rarebit Fiend•(1904•11)[2] </ref> and his signature strip Little Nemo•(1905•14).[18] McCay had earlier introduced dinosaurs into his comic strip work. 1913. and a 1906 Little Sammy Sneeze episode in which Sammy destroys a dinosaur skeleton with his sneeze.[23] In the September•21.

she breathes rhythmically. and her abdominal muscles undulate as she draws water.•Interview with Milt Gray.[36] When the drawings were finished.[32] Working in his spare time. He thought it was a good name. When she feels she has been pushed too far.[32] a medium good for drawing as it did not absorb ink.[34] a job that fell to art student neighbor John A. she shifts her weight as she moves. he timed his own breathing to determine the timing of Gertie's breathing. wait a minute!" in a very sweet voice.[32] McCay used registration marks in the corners of the drawings to reduce jittering. prehistoric denizens such as a flying lizard continually distract Gertie. so in a scene in which Gertie stood up. She tosses a mammoth in the lake. she hurls a boulder at it as it swims away. €Paul Satterfield.[28] Its star Gertie does tricks much like a trained elephant. She is animated in a naturalistic style unprecedented for the time. and as it was translucent it was ideal for the laborious retracing of backgrounds. so he called it "Gertie". McCay was concerned with accurate timing and motion. from the film's introduction . childlike Gertie appears from a cave. 1977[18] 3 Content Gertie the Dinosaur is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur. She cries when he scolds her.[30] </ref> Throughout the act. and included subtle details such as the ground sagging beneath Gertie's great weight. After she quenches her thirst by draining the lake.[35] </ref> marked with registration marks in the corners[34] to reduce jittering of the images when filmed. they were photographed at Vitagraph Studios in early 1914. she could be capricious. Fitzsimmons. the frisky. and one of them said. They were photographed mounted on large pieces of stiff cardboard.[32] McCay consulted with New York museum staff to ensure the accuracy of the movements of dinosaur.Gertie the Dinosaur He heard a couple of "sweet boys" [gay men] out in the hall talking to each other. Her whip-wielding master has her do tricks such as raising her foot or bowing on command.[31] Production Gertie was McCay's first piece of animation with detailed backgrounds. McCay had a flying lizard come on screen to draw away viewers' attention.[37] Preparing the thousands of drawings for the film.[32] The drawings themselves occupied a 6-by-8-inch (15•cm ƒ•20•cm) area of the paper. when it teases her by spraying her with water. McCay imbued her with a personality€while friendly. and he placates her with a pumpkin. McCay has her carry him offstage while he bows to the audience. Bertie. "Oh. but wanted it to be a girl's name instead of a boy's.[33] McCay drew thousands of frames of Gertie on 6•1‚2-by-8•1‚2-inch (17•cm ƒ•22•cm) sheets of rice paper. the staff were unable to help him find out how an extinct animal would stand up from a lying position.[18] Main production began in mid-1913. she nips back at her master. ignoring or rebelling against her master's commands.[29] Synopsis Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) When her master McCay calls her.

including the use of registration marks. and the cycling of drawings to create repetitive action..[49] On March•8. in length. McCay began the show making his customary live sketches. Gertie lifted up the animated McCay. This relieved tedium and improved the timing of the film's actions. he introduced "the only dinosaur in about dinosaurs. The visitor was animator John Randolph Bray. He then appeared on stage with a whip and lectured the audience on the making of animation. and the Mutoscope action viewer.[31] The show soon moved to New York.. to 160 ft. reviews of McCay's shows disappeared from the American's pages. and eventually McCay signed a new contract barring him from performing outside of greater New York. "Any idiot that wants to make a couple of thousand drawings for a hundred feet of film is welcome to join the club.[50] McCay's contract did not prohibit him from his vaudeville performances. which he followed with How a Mosquito Operates.Gertie the Dinosaur McCay pioneered the "McCay Split System" of keyframe animation."[38] During production of Gertie.[42] 4 Release Gertie the Dinosaur first appeared as part of McCay's vaudeville act in early 1914. where McCay performed in New York. in which major poses or positions were drawn first and the intervening frames drawn after.[39] who sued McCay in 1914[40] after taking advantage of McCay's lapse to patent many of the techniques. He reinforced the illusion with tricks such as tossing a cardboard apple at the screen. Advertisements reflected this by trying to educate audiences: "According to science this monster once ruled this planet•. Hearst refused to run paid advertisements from the Victoria Theater.[37] It also appeared in an extended edition for movie theaters towards the end of the year. placed him on her back. 1914. McCay walked offstage from where he "reappeared" in the film. Hearst announced a ban on artists in his employ from performing in vaudeville. but Hearst was able to pressure McCay and his agents to cancel bookings. Skeletons [are] now being unearthed measuring from 90 ft.[45] </ref> The first performance was on February•8.[46] </ref>[37] in Chicago at the Palace Theater.[43] .[47] </ref> For the finale. An elephant should be a mouse beside Gertie.[48] Though reviews were positive. newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. he showed the details to a visitor who claimed to be writing an article about animation. As the film started Gertie poked her head out of a cave. reportedly saying. was displeased that his star cartoonist's vaudeville schedule interrupted his work illustrating editorials.[43] Dinosaurs were still new to the public imagination at the time of Gertie's release. captivity". tracing paper. McCay's employer at the New York American. and refused to patent his system."[44] Vaudeville McCay originally used a version of the film as part of his vaudeville act. and there is evidence that McCay may have countersued€he received royalty payments from Bray for licensing the techniques. and McCay encouraged her to come forward.[36] McCay was open about the techniques that he developed. and walked away as McCay bowed to the audience. at which point he turned his back to the audience and pocketed the apple as it appeared in the film for Gertie to eat. Advertisements educated audiences Standing to the right of the film screen. Shortly after.[41] The suit was unsuccessful. At Hearst's orders.

film producer William Fox offered to market Gertie the Dinosaur to moving-picture theaters for "spot cash and highest prices". The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918). McCay was introduced by animator Max Fleischer.[43] McCay used a bet as a plot device. But as I see. As the film opens. is making it into a trade. but a trade.[43] such as cartoonists George McManus and Tad Dorgan. During both appearances he complained about the state of contemporary animation. and extended the film to include a live-action prologue[52] </ref> and intertitles to replace his stage patter.[58] and took nearly two years to complete. as he had previously in the Little Nemo film.[57] McCay used cel technology[58] in his follow-up to Gertie. some of which an assistant drops. Canadian Raoul Barr„'s registration pegs combined with American Earl Hurd's cel technology became near-universal methods in animation studios.[29] McCay and animation after Gertie McCay's working method was laborious. writer Roy McCardell. That is how I conceived it. McCay attended a dinner in his honor in New York.[61] After 1921. each a little different from the one preceding it" is put on display. They enter the museum. and animators developed a number of methods to reduce the workload and speed production to meet the demand for animated films. animation when Hearst learned he devoted more of his time to animation than to his newspaper illustrations. but when he felt the audience was not giving him attention.[67] of a cerebral embolism.[51] McCay accepted.[62] Unexecuted ideas McCay had for animation projects included a collaboration with Jungle Imps author George Randolph Chester.[64] In 1927. a musical film called The Barnyard Band. McCay was made to give up was McCay's first film to use acetate cels.[55] </ref>[29] with humorous scenes of mountains of paper.[68] .[56] When the film is finished.Gertie the Dinosaur 5 Movie theaters In November 1914. and actor Tom Powers. The film successfully traveled the country and had reached the west coast by December.[66] McCay died July•26. Bad Luck!"[65] That September he appeared on the radio at WNAC.000 drawings to be made over two years. the friends gather to view it in a restaurant. what you fellows have done with it. and while viewing a Brontosaurus skeleton. saying.[53] McCay's son Robert had a cameo as a camera-room assistant. "Animation is an art. though three of them were never made 25. McCay and friends suffer a flat tire in front of the American Museum of Natural History.[43] The live-action sequence features McCay with several of his friends. but was not a commercial success. McCay gave the gathered group of animators some technical advice. and on November 2 Frank Craven interviewed him for The Evening Journal's Woman's Hour.000 drawings.[59] It was his most ambitious film at 25.[63] and a film about the Americans' role in World•War•I. Not an art.000 drawings. he berated them. 1934.[54] McCay sketches Gertie for his colleagues in a live-action sequence made for the film's theatrical release. McCay wagers a dinner that he can bring a dinosaur to life with his animation skills. and commercially available. The animation process and its "10. Within a few years of Nemo's release. After a considerable amount of drinking.[60] The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918) required McCay made six more films.

C.[49] ‚mile Cohl praised McCay's "admirably drawn" films. titled Gertie on Tour. The film was to have Gertie bouncing on the Brooklyn Bridge in New York. into whose care McCay's films and artwork had been entrusted in the 1940s.[72] A Gertie-like dinosaur appeared in In the Land of Wonderful Dreams on September•21. their success motivated film studios to join in the infant animation industry..[73] It is not known for certain who produced the film. such as the Fleischer Studios series Out of the Inkwell (1918•1929)[15] and Walt Disney's Alice Comedies series (1923•1927). wading in on the Atlantic City shore. D. with careful attention to timing and weight. 1913. Of what he kept.[48] On February 28 the New York Evening Journal called it "the greatest act in the history of motion picture cartoonists".[79] The film exists only in concept sketches and in one minute of film footage in which Gertie plays with a trolley and dances before other dinosaurs.[74] Filmmaker Buster Keaton rode the back of a clay-animated dinosaur in homage to Gertie in Three Ages•(1923).. Walter Lantz. these Gertie drawings are the only original animation artwork of McCay's to have survived. much has not survived.[76] McCay's clean-line.[33] much was destroyed in a late-1930s house fire.[84] Mendelsohn . a columnist in the paper called the act "a laugh from start to finish•. open forms of animation in Europe. and more was sold off when the McCays needed money. Variety magazine wrote the film had "plenty of comedy throughout" and that it would "always be remarked upon as exceptionally clever".[71] Upon its theatrical release. McCay's original artwork has been poorly preserved. Otto Messmer.[78] Gertie's reputation was such that animation histories long named it as the first animated film. where the act opened.Gertie the Dinosaur 6 Reception and legacy Gertie pleased audiences and reviewers. though its style is believed to be that of Bray Productions. Of all of McCay's films.[82] Besides some cels from The Sinking of the Lusitania. before Hearst had barred the New York American from mentioning McCay's vaudeville work. using cels on a static background.[80] Since his death. if anything at all. which included anthropomorphic dinosaurs animated in a naturalistic style. discovered by animator Robert Brotherton in disarray in the fabric shop of Irving Mendelsohn. which deteriorates and is highly flammable in Fragment of Gertie on Tour (c. A pair of young animators discovered the film in 1947 and preserved what they could. In many cases only fragments could be saved. Shamus Culhane. McCay worked on a second animated film featuring Gertie. far funnier than his noted mosquito drawings". A fake version of Gertie the Dinosaur appeared a year or two after the original.[81] About 400•original drawings from the film have been preserved. and set it apart from the abstract. high-contrast. Pat Sullivan. Paul Terry.[77] This legacy is most apparent in the feature films of the Walt Disney Animation Studios. attempting to eat the Washington Monument in Washington. and Gertie in particular. 1921) storage.[75] Other studios used McCay's combination of live action with animation. and Bill Tytla were among the generation of American animators who drew inspiration from the films they saw in McCay's vaudeville act. realistic style set the pattern for American animation to come. for example in Fantasia•(1940). but with less skillful animation.[56] Around 1921. and other scenes.[54] McCay's first three films were the earliest animated works to have a commercial impact.[83] McCay destroyed many of his original cans of film to create more storage space. Dave and Max Fleischer.[70] On February 22. Gertie is the best preserved. as it was photographed on 35mm nitrate film. it features a dinosaur performing most of Gertie's tricks.. 1914.[69] It won the praise of drama critic Ashton Stevens in Chicago. after seeing them in New York before he returned to Europe.

His birth records are not extant."[86] An ice cream shop in the shape of Gertie sits by Echo Lake in Disney's Hollywood Studios in Walt Disney World.•17.•13. pp. p. [9] Canemaker 2005.[37] Brothers Simon and Kim Deitch loosely based their graphic novel The Boulevard of Broken Dreams (2002) on McCay's disillusionment with the animation industry in the 1920s. [17] Motograph staff 1912. p. [3] The strip was titled Little Nemo in Slumberland from 1905<ref name="FOOTNOTECanemaker200597">Canemaker 2005. McCay's approached necromancy".<ref name="FOOTNOTECanemaker200522">Canemaker 2005.[89] Gertie has been written about in hundreds of books and articles. p. [15] Murray & Heumann 2011. [5] Canemaker 2005.[90] </ref> who in his younger years had a Gertie-like stage act featuring a mastodon named Milton. p.•33. p. [2] Rarebit Fiend was revived between 1911 and 1913 under other titles.•92. [6] Eagan 2010. p. Walt Disney expressed to the younger McCay his feeling of debt.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMerkl2007478">Merkl 2007.•22. though sometimes scary.•162.•32.[87] Animation historian Donald Crafton called Gertie "the enduring masterpiece of pre-Disney animation".[91] Gertie has been selected for preservation in the US National Film Registry. p.Gertie the Dinosaur and Brotherton tried fruitlessly to find an institution to store McCay's films until the Canadian film conservatory the Cin„math…que qu„b„coise approached them in 1967 on the occasion of that year's World Animation Film Exposition in Montreal. saying "it was too strange and personal to be generalized or to have any children".•62.•160. p. [11] Eagan 2010. [18] Canemaker 2005.•157. The story features an aged cartoonist named Winsor Newton. on seeing a retrospective of Gertie McCay's animation at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1975.•164.•168. p.[92] One of the 400 surviving original drawings from 7 Notes [1] Different accounts have given McCay's birth year as 1867. [10] Canemaker 2005. p. but that "Disney's magic. struggled mightily to recapture" the qualities in McCay's animation.[87] He and Disney animator Richard Huemer recreated the original vaudeville performance for the Disneyland television program in 1955. p. Dowd & Hignite 2006. all this should be your father's. p. [13] Canemaker 2005. wrote of Gertie that "Disney•. The Cin„math…que qu„b„coise has since curated McCay's films. and 1871. [19] Wikimedia Commons has a file available for this comic strip.[88] New York Times film critic Richard Eder.•131•132. 1869. Eder compared McCay's artistic vision to that of poet William Blake's. p. [12] Barrier 2003. such as Midsummer Day Dreams and It Was Only a Dream.•478. p.. [14] Mosley 1985. was always contained. likely at the close of the film.•229. [4] Canemaker 2005. p.[71] this was the first exposure the film had for that generation. "Bob. [7] Canemaker 2005.[85] </ref>[86] Of the surviving drawings. Canemaker 2005.[34] McCay's son Robert unsuccessfully attempted to revive Gertie with a comic strip called Dino. and gestured to the Disney studios saying. fifteen have been determined not to appear in extant copies of the film.•157. They appear to come from a single sequence. [16] Crafton 1993. p. [8] Beckerman 2003. p. . p. and have Gertie showing her head from the audience's right and giving a bow.•97.•123.•167..

•171•172. [23] Canemaker 2005. [29] Crafton 1993. 261. [41] Canemaker 2005.•177. [31] Canemaker 2005. p.•32. [22] Though the strip appeared in the Evening Telegram on May•25.<ref name="FOOTNOTECrafton1993112">Crafton 1993. Crafton 1993. [24] Wikimedia Commons has a file available for this comic strip. Merkl 2007. [70] Crafton 1993.•177. [65] Canemaker 2005. pp.•32. p. Canemaker 2005. [30] In the original vaudeville version. 1910•(•Commons•file). [42] Canemaker 2005. p. p.•7.•188.•113.<ref name="FOOTNOTENathanCrafton201340">Nathan & Crafton 2013. p.•12. [46] McCay registered the copyright for Gertie the Dinosaur on September•15. p. p. [37] Crafton 1993.•29. [36] Canemaker 2005. Taking cycling into account.•439. [52] It is not known when the live-action sequences were filmed.•341•342.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMerkl2007488">Merkl 2007.•249.•112.•25. Crafton 1993. p. have only seven minutes of animation.Gertie the Dinosaur [20] Merkl 2007. [35] This was in the 1:1. p. such as the August•21.•10•14.•112.•112. p.•198. p. p. p. extent copies of the theatrical version of the film. [26] Merkl 2007.<ref name="FOOTNOTENathanCrafton201332">Nathan & Crafton 2013. 181. 217.•182.•174.•175•177. p.•169. p.•123. pp.<ref name="FOOTNOTENathanCrafton201329">Nathan & Crafton 2013. [32] Canemaker 2005. [50] Canemaker 2005. [54] Crafton 1993.•182. pp. p. 8 . of which only one brief scene is known to be missing.33 aspect ratio that was standard for film at the time.•366•367. [59] Canemaker 2005. [61] Canemaker 2005. [53] Cullen 2004. [25] McCay used dinosaurs in other strips as well. p. p. p. p. p. [27] Wikimedia Commons has a file available for the complete strip.•182.•197•198.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMerkl2007341•342">Merkl 2007. p. [47] In the theatrical version. pp. p. [56] Thomas & Penz 2003. [63] Canemaker 2005.•181. as that number of frames at 16 frames per second would result in 11 minutes of animation. even 11 minutes is a conservative estimate.•181.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBaker20127">Baker 2012. p. p. 1913. p. p.•172•173. p. [44] Tanner 2000. p. p. [55] David Nathan and Donald Crafton find the number 10. [66] Canemaker 2005. [21] Glut 1999. [43] Canemaker 2005.•171.•62. p. [39] Canemaker 2005.•199. [48] Canemaker 2005. [64] Canemaker 2005.•171. [38] Canemaker 2005. [57] Barrier 2003. [49] Canemaker 2005. [33] Heer 2006.•172.•738. p. [51] Canemaker 2005. p. p.•193.•488. p.•172.•7. [62] Sito 2006. [40] Sito 2006. p. the intertitles call the apple a pumpkin.•198. [60] Canemaker 2005. [28] Mitchell 1998. [34] Nathan & Crafton 2013. p.•40. [68] Syracuse Herald staff 1934. pp.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBaker20127">Baker 2012.•29.•110.•168. [45] There are no known extent copies of the vaudeville version of Gertie.•199. p. pp. p. it was drawn sometime between 1908 and 1911. pp. p.•36. p.•36. [69] Canemaker 2005.•186.•134. [58] Canemaker 2005. [67] Canemaker 2005.•110.<ref name="FOOTNOTECanemaker2005182">Canemaker 2005. pp. p. pp.000 suspect. pp. Canemaker 2005. p. Crafton 1993.•177. McCay used an apple rather than a pumpkin.•239. 261. 1914.

ISBN•978-1-58115-301-9. [92] Andrews 1991.com/ books?id=yaeJFVTedysC). Todd (2006). p. 197. Howard (2003). ISBN•978-1-61696-113-8.•192.com/books?id=deq3xI8OmCkC). p. Before Mickey: The Animated Film 1898€1928 (http://books. [85] On the indifference of American institutions to the task. Donald (1993). p. [75] Callahan 1988. p. € Crafton. 9 References Works cited Books € Baker. [84] Canemaker 2005. pp. [89] Canemaker 2005. Daniel (2010). [74] Canemaker 2005. Cara (2003). Continuum International Publishing Group. McFarland & Company.com/books?id=TjzlxyfWbxwC). p. € Goldsbury. € Barrier.com/books?id=FcATAQAAIAAJ). pp. p. McFarland & Company.com/books?id=a5nBLnKhch0C). [79] Canemaker 2005. America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide To The Landmark Movies In The National Film Registry (http://books. [86] Canemaker 2005. the Myth. old and new (http://books. The Frankenstein Archive: Essays on the Monster.google. p. Kage (2012). [73] Canemaker 2005. p. [83] Canemaker 2005. Carbon Dates: A Day by Day Almanac of Paleo Anniversaries and Dino Events (http:// books.•257. ISBN•978-0-8264-2977-3.).google. Ancient Rockets (http://books.google. Skyhorse Publishing. € Canemaker.com/books?id=XFnfnKg6BcAC).•223.•175.google.com/books?id=oTt4-hnLpBEC).•125.•253•254. Douglas Bevan. [91] Young 1991. p.google. Vaudeville.•258. p. University of Chicago Press.•134•135. p.•254. . [77] Crafton 1993. [88] Goldsbury 2003.•93. p. John Canemaker quotes children's book illustrator Maurice Sendak: "America 'still doesn't take its great fantasists all that seriously. And Bluesies: Essays in Comics And Culture (http:// books.•255. Donald F. Animation: The Whole Story. Bowman Books.<ref name="FOOTNOTELeopold2003">Leopold 2003.•194. ISBN•978-1-56898-621-0.•256. p.•102.google.google.•111. (1999). Donald F.•180. Hignite. ISBN•978-0-7864-8069-2. ISBN•978-0-19-516729-0. Frank (2004). the Movies. € Dowd. [81] Canemaker 2005. pp.google. Michael (2003). [78] Canemaker 2005.•175. € Glut. € Cullen. Tachyon Publications. Abrams Books. [87] Hoffman & Bailey 1990. [76] Murray & Heumann 2011. [80] Canemaker 2005. ISBN•978-0-8109-5941-5. Winsor McCay: His Life and Art (http://books.•253•255. Oxford University Press.com/books?id=96y-V5chpgkC). and More (http:/ /books. p. Hatfield 2004. a brand of art supplies. p. 263.com/ books?id=vs82AQAAIAAJ) (Revised ed.google. [82] Canemaker 2005. com/books?id=zDJXnzMh7bkC). Routledge. Princeton Architectural Press.•31. p. ISBN•9780226116679. [72] Variety staff 1914. 258.Gertie the Dinosaur [71] Crafton 1993. € Eagan. p.google. ISBN•978-0-415-93853-2. [90] "Winsor Newton" is wordplay on "Winsor McCay" and "Winsor & Newton". John (2005). Strips.'"<ref name="FOOTNOTECanemaker2005255">Canemaker 2005.•49.•255. € Beckerman. Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age (http://books. (2002). € Glut.•26. Toons. pp. ISBN•978-0-7864-0592-3. pp. The Luxury Guide to Walt Disney World: How to Get the Most Out of the Best Disney Has to Offer (http://books. Glut 2002.

That's All Folks?: Ecocritical Readings of American Animated Features (http://books. Merkl.google. Hoffman.questia.worldcat.doc). Ron (Summer 2000). David (September•October 1988). gov/xca12001192). . Disney's World: A Biography (http://books. Rowman & Littlefield. Donald (2013). 1914-12-19.) 7 (4): 162. Motograph (Electricity Magazine Corp. (on included DVD) Mitchell. (1998). Maureen.Gertie the Dinosaur ISBN•978-0-9726972-2-4.x).org/issn/ 2154-6932). ISSN• 1542-734X (http://www.com/ books?id=_tR1owszUR0C).worldcat. The Comics Journal (Fantagraphics Books): 48•51.doi. € Nathan. Murray. Frank (October 1991). ISBN•978-0-8128-3073-6.2000. The Last Dinosaur Book: The Life and Times of a Cultural Icon (http://books.2000. Arts and Entertainment Fads (http://books. Routledge. ISSN• 2154-6932 (http://www. Robin L.1111/j.org/issn/0194-7869). Frank W. Bailey. University of Chicago Press. Variety: 26. ISSN• 1746-8485 (http://www. University of Florida) 1 (1). org/10.worldcat.doi.1177/1746847712467569 (http://dx. € Hatfield. € Heer.. University Press of Kentucky. Heumann. "The Presence of the Artist: Kim Deitch's Boulevard of Broken Dreams vis-a-vis the Animated Cartoon" (http://www.jstor. Journal of American & Comparative Cultures (Blackwell Publishing) 23 (2). Architectures of Illusion: From Motion Pictures to Navigable Interactive Environments (http://books.edu/imagetext/archives/v1_1/hatfield/index. Fran†ois (2003). Sito.com/read/ 1P3-109966024).1542-734X. ISBN•978-0-8032-3512-0. Mosley. ISBN•978-1-84150-045-4.com/content/8/1/23). € Tanner. David L. ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies (Department of English. doi: 10. Catolog of episodes & text of the book: Ulrich Merkl. (1990).org/issn/1746-8485).google.worldcat. Virginia Quarterly Review (University of Virginia) 82 (2): 104•121.com/books?id=XZ0PsCWPSZ0C). Jeet (2006). Joseph K. Film History (Indiana University Press) 2 (3): 223•228. ISBN•978-0-226-53204-2. ISSN• 0194-7869 (http://www. T.google. "Cel Animation: Mass Production and Marginalization in the Animated Film Industry" (http://www. LCCN• xca12001192 (http://lccn.org/stable/3815119). W.google. Tom (2006). "Well Done: Raw". University of Nebraska Press. ISBN•978-0-8131-2407-0.english. "Little Nemo in Comicsland" (http://www. Intellect Books. Leonard (1985).google.loc. com/books?id=HOojfZgV3wcC). Drawing the Line: The Untold Story of the Animation Unions from Bosko to Bart Simpson (http://books. ISBN•978-3-00-020751-8.com/books?id=_UozK9smjVcC). Penz. 10 € € € € € € € Thomas.org/details/ motography78elec).shtml).1542-734X. Animation (8): 23•46.org/details/variety37-1914-12).google.org/issn/1542-734X).1177/1746847712467569). € "Gertie" (http://archive. J. William G. "Terrible Lizard! the Dinosaur as Plaything" (http://www. "The Making and Re-making of Winsor McCay's Gertie (1914)" (http:/ /anm. Charles (2004).com/ books?id=BnmHNNFLw1EC). ISBN•978-0-86656-881-4. (2011).2302_53. € Young. The Complete Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904€1913) by Winsor McCay 'Silas' (.org/10. € Motograph staff (1912-04-04). Ulrich (2007).2302_53..com/read/1P3-1010716801). doi: 10. Retrieved 2013-04-28. Crafton. Journals and magazines € Callahan.x (http://dx.1111/j.ufl. "Making Motion Pictures by Pencil" (http://archive.questia.com/books?id=toDDUG8GHAkC).sagepub.

imdb.disney. Dies". TimesDaily. € Syracuse Herald staff (1934-07-27). google. 11 External links € Gertie the Dinosaur (http://www. "Winsor M'Cay Early Comic Artist. "Library of Congress adds 25 more films to classics collection" (http://news. "The Strange History of a Cartoon Cat: Graphic Novel 'Boulevard of Broken Dreams' Ode to Animation" (http://edition.deitch/index.com.osu. p.com/movie/v151281) at allmovie € "Have You Seen Gertie at Disneyƒs Hollywood Studios?" (http://disneyparks.com/2003/SHOWBIZ/books/01/09/kim. Syracuse Herald. CNN. (1991-09-26).allmovie. p. html?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ). Web € Leopold.Gertie the Dinosaur Newspapers € Andrews.•31. CNN. Robert M.edu/blogs/cartoons/files/2012/09/dino.jpg) strip by Bob McCay (attributed to Winsor McCay at the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum) .com/blog/2011/05/ have-you-seen-gertie-at-disneys-hollywood-studios/) about Dinosaur Gertie's Ice Cream of Extinction € Example of Dino (http://library.3978561). Todd (2003-01-09). Retrieved 2013-04-28.cnn.com/title/tt0004008/) at the Internet Movie Database € Gertie the Dinosaur (http://www.go.com/newspapers?id=pEweAAAAIBAJ&sjid=OscEAAAAIBAJ&dq=gertie the dinosaur national film registry&pg=1308.•12.

org/w/index. Gamaliel.org/w/index.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey File:Winsor McCay (1921) Gertie on Tour.jpg •Source: http://en.org/w/index. Curly Turkey. JEN9841. Parrot. SpaceFlight89.wikipedia. Timc. Another Believer. Modernstructure.jpg •Source: http://en. 83d40m. Lockley. Licenses and Contributors File:Gertie.org/w/index.svg •Source: http://en.php?title=File:Commons-logo. San Sanitsch. Kintetsubuffalo. MioUzaki. Skier Dude. Jpgordon. Curly Turkey. Rich Farmbrough.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnify-clip.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Winsor McCay File:The Sinking of the Lusitania (Winsor McCay. Locogato.org/w/index.Gerite carries MccCay in her mouth. SpectrumDT.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey File:Magnify-clip.org/w/index. Davin. MWAK. Jr9999.php?title=File:Gertie.webm •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey File:Gertie the dinosaur standing on a cliff edge looking at a mastodon frame. Killuminator. Yngvadottir. Davepape.php?title=File:Winsor_McCay_(1914)_Gertie_the_Dinosaur_-_Gerite_carries_MccCay_in_her_mouth.php?title=File:Gertie_the_dinosaur_standing_on_a_cliff_edge_looking_at_a_mastodon_frame.org/w/index.wikipedia. Mr.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Andy king50. Casliber. MER-C.Flip in the Land of the Antediluvians panel 9. Aleal.jpg •Source: http://en. Granger.wikipedia.0/ . HueSatLum.org/w/index. Lugnuts.1913-09-21 . Kintetsubuffalo. signed cel). Rulerk. Magioladitis. UberMan5000.org/w/index. 81 anonymous edits Image Sources. Luxoman237.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey File:Gertie stacks of drawings. Refrainin' Diamonds.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Winsor McCay File:Gertie Variety.panels 3€6. Angelo Michael. Banclark3.php?oldid=594544365 •Contributors: 31stCenturyMatt.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Andibrunt File:Gertie dinner party. Masaruemoto.wikipedia.png •License: Public Domain •Contributors: User:Erasoft24 File:Winsor McCay (1914)Gertie the Dinosaur. Flappiefh. Crisco 1492. Vctrbarbieri. Sailorsaurus.webm •Source: http://en. FunkMonk.php?title=File:Winsor_McCay_-_Little_Nemo_-_In_the_Land_of_Wonderful_Dreams_-_1913-09-21_-_Flip_in_the_Land_of_the_Antediluvians_panel_9.png •Source: http://en.php?title=File:Winsor_McCay_(1921)_Gertie_on_Tour.wikipedia. Catalaalatac. Andrzejbanas.wikipedia File:Winsor McCay 1906. John W. Sverigekillen.jpg •Source: http://en. Garion96.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Twsx. HarDNox.php?title=File:Winsor_McCay_(1914)Gertie_the_Dinosaur.wikipedia.org/w/index. Colonies Chris.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. H‡tler's hand of doom.jpg •Source: http://en._signed_cel).jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey. AnmaFinotera.jpg •Source: http://en.jpg •Source: http://en. Mwvandersteen. Modemac. Brickwalljon. KentoIkeda. Œ •Ž••‘•’.php?title=File:Gertie_stacks_of_drawings. Buffbills7701. MisfitToys.org/w/index. Koyaanis Qatsi. Stereorock. MiguelTremblay. FunkMonk File:Commons-logo.svg •License: logo •Contributors: Anomie File:Winsor McCay . Pjoef.Dream of the Rarebit Fiend 1913-05-25 . Demeny.wikipedia. Materialscientist.wikipedia.wikipedia.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Original uploader was Edchstu at pt.0 //creativecommons. HarlandQPitt.webm •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Curly Turkey File:Winsor McCay (1914) Gertie the Dinosaur . DrCruse.wikipedia. E-shark. Kaitoace. Zoe. Tbhotch.webm •Source: http://en.wikipedia. Michfan2123.php?title=File:Gertie_dinner_party. A. Circeus. Fram. Grzegorznadolski. Pearle.In the Land of Wonderful Dreams . Mgiganteus1.jpg •Source: http://en. Estrose. TheNewMinistry. Graham87. Agent 78787.wikipedia. Erik.php?title=File:Gertie_Variety. Melchoir.jpg •Source: http://en.php?title=File:Winsor_McCay_-_Dream_of_the_Rarebit_Fiend_1913-05-25_-_panels_3•6.org/w/index. Behnam Lot. Hektor. Bensin.wikipedia.org/w/index.Little Nemo . Kennedy.jpg •Source: http://en. Ian Rose. ˆ‰Š‹.wikipedia. S0ulreaper. Banclark4. Favonian. Soerfm File:Winsor McCay . Khazar2. GeeJo.Article Sources and Contributors 12 Article Sources and Contributors Gertie the Dinosaur •Source: http://en.php?title=File:The_Sinking_of_the_Lusitania_(Winsor_McCay.php?title=File:Winsor_McCay_1906. Zanimum. Glane23.wikipedia.