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Lesson 8.

3

Chapter 8: Equations and Functions
Standards:
6.0 Students graph a linear equation and compute the x-and y-intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4). 7.0 Students verify that a point lies on a line, given an equation of the line. Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula. 8.0 Students understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line parallel/perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point. 16.0 Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions. 17.0 Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression. 18.0 Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion. Alg2-24.0 Students solve problems involving functional concepts, such as composition, defining the inverse function and performing arithmetic operations on functions.

Lesson 8.3: Introduction to Functions
Objectives: 1.Construct a table or a graph from a function rule. 2. Identify the domain and range of a function or a relation. 3. Determine whether a relation is also a function.

Functions
A function is a relation in which each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element of the range. Another way of saying it is that there is one and only one output (y) with each input (x).

Relations and Functions Relations can be written in several ways: 1. ordered pairs 2. table 3. graph 4. mapping.

Ordered Pairs and Table {(3, 4), (7, 2), (0, -1), (-2, 2), (-5, 0), (3, 3)}
x 3 7 0 -2 -5 3
2

Mapping
Create two ovals with the domain on the left and the range on the right. *Elements are not repeated. *Connect elements of the domain with the corresponding elements in the range by drawing an arrow.

y 4 2 -1 2 0 3
-6 4 0

1
0 3

{(2, -6), (1, 4), (2, 4), (0, 0), (1, -6), (3, 0)}

Ordered Pairs and Graph
{(3, 4), (4, 2), (0, -1), (-2, 2), (-4, 0), (3, 3)}

Definition: A relation is any set of ordered pairs. The set of all first components of the ordered pairs is called the domain of the relation, and the set of all second components is called the range of the relation.
Example 1: For each of the following relations, give the domain and range, and indicate which are also functions.

X
{(4,5), (6,7), (8,8)} Domain: {4, 6, 8} Range: {5, 7, 8}
4 6 8

Y
5 7 8 Function Map

Every domain is different!

The figure shows that every element in the domain corresponds to exactly one element in the range. No two ordered pairs in the given relation have the same first component. Thus, the relation is a function.

Example 2: For each of the following relations, give the domain and range, and indicate which are also functions. {(5,6), (4,7), (6,6), (6,7)} Domain: {4, 5, 6} Range: {6, 7}

X
4 5 6

Y
6 7 Function Map The figure shows that 6 corresponds to both 6 and 7. If any element in the domain corresponds to more than one element in the range, the relation is not a function. Thus, the relation is not a function.

The domain 6 is repeated!

Vertical Line Test (pencil test)
If any vertical line passes through more than one point of the graph, then that relation is not a function. Otherwise, it’s a function. Are these functions?

FUNCTION!

FUNCTION!

NOT A FUNCTION

Vertical Line Test

FUNCTION! NOT A FUNCTION!

NOT A FUNCTION!
FUNCTION!

Does the graph represent a function? Name the domain and range.
Yes! D: all real numbers R: all real numbers

x

y

x

Yes! D: all real numbers R: y ≥ -6

y

Does the graph represent a function? Name the domain and range. No! D: x ≥ 1/2 R: all real numbers

x

y

x

No! D: all real numbers R: all real numbers

y

Does the graph represent a function? Name the domain and range. Yes! D: all real numbers R: y ≥ -6

x

y

x

No! D: x = 2 R: all real numbers

y

Graphing Relations and Functions
Problem: The profit on the school play is $4 per ticket minus $280, the expense to build the set. There are 300 seats in the theater. The profit for n tickets sold is p = 4n – 280 for 70 ≤ n ≤ 300. a. Make an input-output table.

n p

70 0

71 4

72 8

73 12

… 300 … 920

b. Is this a function?

Yes; none of the inputs are repeated.

c. Describe the domain and range. Domain: 70, 71, 72, 73,… , 300

Range: 0, 4, 8, 12,… ,920

Example 2
You ride in a bicycle for 4 miles and decided to ride for 2.5 more hours at 6 mi/hr. The distance you have traveled d after t hours is given by d = 4 + 6t, where 0 ≤ t ≤ 2.5. a. Make an input-output table. Calculate d for each half-hour (t = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5).

t d
b. Draw a line graph.

0 4

0.5 7

1 10

1.5 13

2 16

2.5 19

Example 2 (cont.)

t d

0 4

0.5 7

1 10

1.5 13

2 16

2.5 19

Bicycle Distance
20
Distance (miles)

15 10 5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Time (hours)

Example:
Graph the given relation. Use the graph to find the domain and range, and indicate whether the relation is a function.

1. y = x2 + 4

x
-2 -1 0 1 2 3

y
8 5 4 5 8 13

-3 13

D: all real numbers R: {y l y ≥ 4} It’s a function!

Example:
Graph the given relation. Use the graph to find the domain and range, and indicate whether the relation is a function.

1. y = lxl - 2

x
-2 -1 0 1 2 3

y
0 -1 -2 -1 0 1

-3 1

D: all real numbers R: {y l y ≥ -2} It’s a function!

Individual Practice/Homework Problem Set 8.3, TB pp. 499-503 Multiples of 4 (4, 8, …, 44); 46