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Passive 8olar Design

and
Clay Masonry
Wayne Burton
On behalf of the Clay Brick Association of 8outh Africa
www.claybrick.org.za
The World Business Council on Sustainable Development publication on ಯFacts and Trends Sheetರ
relating to the Energy Efficient Buildings Project. www.wbcsd.org ; The Australian Sustainable Home
Guide published by the Australian Government ; www.consumerenergycenter.org / home / construction
/ solardesign ; ಯMeasures of Sustainabilityರ published by Canadian Architect Magazine ; ಯThermal
Mass, Building Comfort and Energy Efficiencyರ, a technical guide published by EcoSpecifier
Australasia.; www.usgbc.org (US Green Building Council); www.gbcsa.org.za (Green Building Council
of SA) ; www.gbca.org.au (Green Building Council of Australia) ;www.breeam.org (Building Research
Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) ;www.ecospecifier.org ; www.yourhome.gov.au ;
www.ruralbuilding.com.au ; www.australbrick.com.au (with thanks and recognition to Cathy lnglis and
her team, used with permission.) ; University of Newcastle Masonry Research Unit (with thanks and
recognition to Prof A.Page, Prof. B.Moghtedari, Dr. H.Sugo, used with permission) ; SA Weather
Service www.weathersa.co.za ; www.thinkbrick.com.au (with thanks and recognition to Linda Ginger
and Ross Maher, used with permission) ; EECA: Energy-wise Renewables 11: Passive Solar Design
for New Zealand ; www.cleanenergyawards.com ;www.revolutionroad.com.au ; www.pdc1.co.za
Energy and Development Research Centre UCT, 2000 ; Structatherm : Thermal Modeling of 132m2
house using VisualDOE by Howard Harris ; ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 ; Prof. D. Holm, F.A.
Engelbrecht : Journal of the South African lnstitution of Civil Engineering, Vol 47 No.2.2005 ; A Study of
the lnfluence of Wall R Value on the Thermal Characteristics of Australian Housing, Univ. of Newcastle
(Prof. A.Page, Prof.B.Moghtaderi, Dr. H.Sugo, S.Hands 2009).
Sources and References
Energy Matters Energy Matters Energy Matters Energy Matters
Presentation Overview
ls sustainability affordable ? ls sustainability affordable ? ls sustainability affordable ? ls sustainability affordable ?
Passive Solar Design Passive Solar Design Passive Solar Design Passive Solar Design
Embodied in
Greenwash
Operating
for comfort
SANS 204 SANS 204 SANS 204 SANS 204
Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs
Empirical
Research
Thermal
Modeling
Thermal Mass
On Show
Brick is Best Brick is Best Brick is Best Brick is Best
Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency
Designing
for Climate
The The The The
cost cost cost cost
of of of of
G GG G
R RR R
E EE E
E EE E
N NN N
l ll l
N NN N
G GG G
6 countries / regions are using ൉ಬs of global energy demand : Brazil, China, Europe, lndia,
Japan and USA.
Energy Efficient Efficient Efficient Efficient Buildings Project
Perception Research
ಯ ಯಯ ಯBuildings Buildings Buildings Buildings
are 40% of are 40% of are 40% of are 40% of
energy use energy use energy use energy use
in most in most in most in most
countries. countries. countries. countries.ರ ರರ ರ
ಯ ಯಯ ಯThe cost The cost The cost The cost
premium to premium to premium to premium to
achieve a achieve a achieve a achieve a
sustainable sustainable sustainable sustainable
building in a building in a building in a building in a
developed developed developed developed
country is about country is about country is about country is about
5%. 5%. 5%. 5%.ರ ರರ ರ
Perception Perception Perception Perception Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Perception Perception Perception Perception
www.wbcsd.org
www.wbcsd.org
LEED* case studies : 40 offices and schools LEED* case studies : 40 offices and schools LEED* case studies : 40 offices and schools LEED* case studies : 40 offices and schools
*Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design *Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design *Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design *Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Scottsdene Show Village 2008
9Internal painting without plaster is possible
9Low maintenance costs
9Deals well with winter rainfall periods
9Eliminates damp and airborne diseases
9Provides good security
9High fire resistance
9Meets expectations of quality and long lasting solutions
9An investment return
9Uses local skills and local materials
9Built in 6 weeks
Face brick cavity walling
Incremental cost relative to single skin walling is
5% on the total project or R200/m
2
,
BUT for that you get…….
www.cleanenergyawards.com
Costs and Payback of Costs and Payback of Costs and Payback of Costs and Payback of ಯ ಯಯ ಯGreening Greening Greening Greeningರ ರರ ರ Low Cost Housing ? Low Cost Housing ? Low Cost Housing ? Low Cost Housing ?
Khayelitsha Energy Project (CDM)
Solar water heaters, insulated ceilings, energy efficient lighting retrofitted in 2310 homes
5% internal temp increase in winter ; 5% internal temp decrease in summer
Up to 40% electricity savings ; Annual saving approx. $96/household
NPV of savings covers 20 to 30% of incremental capex (fluctuate with carbon prices)
Ceiling, wall insulation and window size – show substantial positive economic benefit at a “social”
discount rate of 8%. (30m
2
RDP house), but….
Energy and Development Research Centre UCT, 2000
www.pdc1.co.za Energy and Development Research Centre UCT, 2000
A Multi-variable challenge requiring simple, inexpensive, acceptable solutions
Low income households can’t afford incremental capex alone or at all
Low income households can’t afford high maintenance costs
Coastal temperate climate with prolonged winter rainfall periods
High incidence rate of airborne diseases
Security risks
High fire resistance
Expectations of quality and long lasting solutions
How to make all homes an investment
High unemployment rate – need job creation and local support
Large housing backlog
And so on……..
Energy in buildings is consumed in 3 primary areas Energy in buildings is consumed in 3 primary areas Energy in buildings is consumed in 3 primary areas Energy in buildings is consumed in 3 primary areas
www.wbcsd.org
Life Cycle Energy Use
How to make How to make How to make How to make Sustainability Sustainability Sustainability Sustainability Affordable Affordable Affordable Affordable ? ?? ?
ಯಹjust making the building the right shape, properly placing its windows and
pointing it in the right direction can cut the building's total energy use by 30
to 40 percent at no extra costರ ದ www.consumerenergycenter.org
www.canadianarchitect.com
Demand less ! Demand less ! Demand less ! Demand less !
Consume less ! Consume less ! Consume less ! Consume less !
TECHNICAL CONFORMITY ENERGY EFFICIENCY
ECOLABEL for Buildings CEN/TC 350
Voluntary - Under development Voluntary - Under development
Compulsory - Under recast DG ENVI DG ENTR
DG TREN Building assessment
Holistic optimization
Use-phase only
Energy consumption focus
Scope:
- New buildings
- Major renovations
based on…
CPD/R - CE marking Minimum requirements ECODESIGN - CE marking Environmental Product Declarations
Under revision Use-phase only Compulsory
DG ENTR Scope: DG ENTR & TREN Life-cycle
Common technical language - Technical building systems Eliminate bad performing products
- Building Envelope components Life-cycle
(windows, CWs, cladding…) Energy consumption and other criteria
Scope:
ENERGY LABELLING DIRECTIVE - Energy related Products
… Compulsory - Under recast
U-value DG TREN
… Rating to promote best products
Use-phase and life-cycle ECOLABEL
Energy consumption focus Voluntary
and other indicators DG ENVI
Awarded to best products only
Life-cycle
Sustainable use of natural ressources Various criterias
Scope:
- Several product groups
- New product groups to be added
Green Public Procurement
Compulsory? - Under development
DG ENVI
Core criteria: Energy efficiency
Comprehensive criteria: Ecolabel
ISSUE
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY
L
E
V
E
L
B
U
I
L
D
I
N
G
ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF
BUILDINGS DIRECTIVE
Supposed to harmonise all existing
national and international rating
P
R
O
D
U
C
T
Various environmental impacts without
political judgment
§
§
§

§
How to make How to make How to make How to make Sustainability Sustainability Sustainability Sustainability Affordable Affordable Affordable Affordable ? ?? ?
How to make How to make How to make How to make Sustainability Sustainability Sustainability Sustainability Affordable Affordable Affordable Affordable ? ?? ?
Environmental Social
Economic
Energy
Matters
Embodied in
Greenwash
Health Warning !! Health Warning !! Health Warning !! Health Warning !! Don Don Don Donಬ ಬಬ ಬt be swept away by t be swept away by t be swept away by t be swept away by
ಯ ಯಯ ಯGreenwashing Greenwashing Greenwashing Greenwashingರ ರರ ರ
Rating Systems avoid Rating Systems avoid Rating Systems avoid Rating Systems avoid ಯ ಯಯ ಯEE Greenwash EE Greenwash EE Greenwash EE Greenwashರ ರರ ರ
“EE must be understood in the context of the system
using the material, rather than the material itself. The
whole system must be compared with alternatives
performing the same function. It is not possible to
assign a life to a pile of bricks or tonne of insulation –
they only have a true “life” when considered in the
context in which they are used.
E.g., as a wall, building components do assume a life.
The results of a direct comparison between a tonne of
one material and another would be misleading.
Instead, a comparison must be made between one
square meter of a wall made of either honeycomb brick
or concrete block with insulation. This comparison
needs to be based on similar insulation levels and
life expectancy. Transport, construction and
disposal aspects must also be taken into account.”
www.wbcsd.org
www.breeam.org
Energy
Transport
Water
¡ndoor
Environmental
Ouality
¡nnovation
Emissions
Materials
Management
Land Use and
Ecology
www.wbcsd.org
“It is also important to note that the primary
energy used to calculate embodied energy of a
functional unit (e.g., a wall) is dependant on the
country’s fuel mix. The electricity that goes into
the calculation of the embodied energy of a
functional unit will be different if its generation
comes from nuclear power or coal power plants.
If buildings become more energy efficient in their
use phase, the proportion linked to the other
building life cycle phases becomes more
important. The challenge for the industry is
therefore to reduce the energy demand of
buildings during the use phase without
increasing the embodied energy of the materials
and equipment, while also reducing the energy
used for the other phases.”
Rating Systems avoid Rating Systems avoid Rating Systems avoid Rating Systems avoid ಯ ಯಯ ಯEE Greenwash EE Greenwash EE Greenwash EE Greenwashರ ರರ ರ
www.gbcsa,org.za
Some Australian numbers Some Australian numbers Some Australian numbers Some Australian numbers
(with a warning to use cautiously)
Australian Sustainable Home Guide
Embodied Energy Comparison Embodied Energy Comparison Embodied Energy Comparison Embodied Energy Comparison (quick) (quick) (quick) (quick)
Clay Brick Clay Brick Clay Brick Clay Brick CaSi CaSi CaSi CaSi Brick Brick Brick Brick
lmpact on other materials Life Cycle Assessment EE/m
2
or m
3
GHG emissions Energy balance of process Re-usability
Use of waste / byproducts Headcount (total) per kg Application rate
Employee transport Recyclability Process waste
Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors Other Factors
Mortar Mortar Apply
Diesel trucks Diesel trucks Transport
Diesel Diesel Store
Electrical energy / plastic /
strapping / pallets
Electrical energy / plastic /
strapping / pallets
Package
Electrical energy / steam
autoclaved (coal ?)
Electrical energy / coal Make fired
bricks
Solar energy Solar energy / recovered
heat
Dry bricks
Electrical energy / water Electrical energy / borehole
water
Make green
bricks
Hydrating silo n/a Store
Electrical energy / diesel Electrical energy / diesel Crush and Mix
Diesel truck to plant Diesel truck / rail to stockpile Transport
Sand from mine Coal from mine Raw Materials
Lime from calcination plant Clay from quarry Raw Materials
Operating for
comfort
Energy
Matters
Going with the heatflow Going with the heatflow Going with the heatflow Going with the heatflow
Radiation 62% Radiation 62% Radiation 62% Radiation 62%
Evaporation 15% Evaporation 15% Evaporation 15% Evaporation 15%
Respiration 10% Respiration 10% Respiration 10% Respiration 10%
Cond Cond Cond Conduction uction uction uction 3% 3% 3% 3%
Conv Conv Conv Convection 10% ection 10% ection 10% ection 10%
Temp(environmental) Temp(environmental) Temp(environmental) Temp(environmental) = = = = 2/3 x Radiant surface temp 2/3 x Radiant surface temp 2/3 x Radiant surface temp 2/3 x Radiant surface temp ave ave ave ave + 1/3 Air temp + 1/3 Air temp + 1/3 Air temp + 1/3 Air temp
Achieving Achieving Achieving Achieving Comfort Comfort Comfort Comfort through through through through Energy Energy Energy Energy
Temperature
Humidity
Air Movement
Radiation
Metabolic Rate
Clothing
Acclimatisation
Age
Body Type
Body Condition
Health Condition
Air ions
7KHUPDO 7KHUPDO 7KHUPDO 7KHUPDO
1HXWUDOLW\ 1HXWUDOLW\ 1HXWUDOLW\ 1HXWUDOLW\
ಯಹ the thermal comfort target the thermal comfort target the thermal comfort target the thermal comfort target ಹ varies with the local seasonal temperature and
with the building typeರ ದ Prof. D. Holm, F.A. Engelbrecht : Journal of the South African lnstitution of Civil
Engineering, Vol 47 No.2.2005
ASHRAE Standard 55 ASHRAE Standard 55 ASHRAE Standard 55 ASHRAE Standard 55- -- -2004 2004 2004 2004
Tn = 17.6 + 0.31 x To Tn = 17.6 + 0.31 x To Tn = 17.6 + 0.31 x To Tn = 17.6 + 0.31 x To
ave ave ave ave
T(target) 80% T(target) 80% T(target) 80% T(target) 80% = = = = T(neutral) T(neutral) T(neutral) T(neutral) ± ±± ± 3.5 K 3.5 K 3.5 K 3.5 K
T(target) 90% T(target) 90% T(target) 90% T(target) 90% = = = = T(neutral) T(neutral) T(neutral) T(neutral) ± ±± ± 2.5 K 2.5 K 2.5 K 2.5 K
Walling
and
Energy
Efficiency
Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency
U U U U ದ ದದ ದ value value value value : : : : W/m W/m W/m W/m
2. 2. 2. 2.
K KK K
( ( ( ( how well it conducts heat) how well it conducts heat) how well it conducts heat) how well it conducts heat)
R R R R ದ ದದ ದ value value value value : m : m : m : m
2 22 2
K/W K/W K/W K/W
( ( ( ( how well it resists heat conduction) how well it resists heat conduction) how well it resists heat conduction) how well it resists heat conduction)
K K K K ದ ದದ ದ value value value value : : : : W/m.K W/m.K W/m.K W/m.K
( ( ( ( ability to conduct heat) ability to conduct heat) ability to conduct heat) ability to conduct heat)
Measuring the heat Measuring the heat Measuring the heat Measuring the heat
Absorb Absorb Absorb Absorb
heat heat heat heat
energy energy energy energy
(Re) (Re) (Re) (Re)radiate radiate radiate radiate
stored heat stored heat stored heat stored heat
Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal Mass Mass Mass Mass : : : : kJ/m kJ/m kJ/m kJ/m
3 33 3
.K .K .K .K
( (( ( Heat energy Heat energy Heat energy Heat energy storage ability) storage ability) storage ability) storage ability)
also known as also known as also known as also known as ಯ ಯಯ ಯVolumetric Heat Capacity Volumetric Heat Capacity Volumetric Heat Capacity Volumetric Heat Capacityರ ರರ ರ
* 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 ° °° °C = 273 K C = 273 K C = 273 K C = 273 K
Western Wall
in Summer
www.australbricks.com.au
www.thinkbrick.com.au
Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency
Bring in the mass Bring in the mass Bring in the mass Bring in the mass
Heat Heat Heat Heat source and sink source and sink source and sink source and sink for radiative, for radiative, for radiative, for radiative,
convective and conductive heat convective and conductive heat convective and conductive heat convective and conductive heat
exchange exchange exchange exchange
Passive
8olar
Design
lnsulation lnsulation lnsulation lnsulation
Shading Shading Shading Shading Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation
Orientation Orientation Orientation Orientation
Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal
Mass Mass Mass Mass
ಯ ಯಯ ಯAchieving thermal comfort, using Achieving thermal comfort, using Achieving thermal comfort, using Achieving thermal comfort, using
the sun the sun the sun the sunಬ ಬಬ ಬs daily and annual s daily and annual s daily and annual s daily and annual
cycles cycles cycles cyclesರ ರರ ರ
Climate Climate Climate Climate
Heat Heat Heat Heat
transfer transfer transfer transfer
Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal
comfort comfort comfort comfort
"A solar passive home, properly designed, sited, and built,
will make life a lot easier by working for you, day in and day
out, instead of requiring you to constantly be working for it."
James Kachadorian, author of The Passive Solar House
Source: EECA: Energy-wise Renewables 11: Passive Solar Design for New Zealand
Passive buildings Passive buildings Passive buildings Passive buildings collect collect collect collect, , , , store store store store and and and and distribute distribute distribute distribute
heat heat heat heat from solar energy from solar energy from solar energy from solar energy
Radiation
collecting sunlight
through windows
and warming
interior objects,
then radiating the
heat into the interior
air.
Conduction
heat moves through
materials that are in direct
contact with each other e.g.
cavity walls
Convection
A heated surface e.g. wall or
floor, warms up the air around
it. As this heated air rises,
cold air sinks down to take its
place and repeat the cycle.
Sustainable Design Strategies for Perth – Think Brick Australia
Diurnal Diurnal Diurnal Diurnal
Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
Range Range Range Range
ื ืื ื 6 6 6 6 ° °° °C CC C
7 to 10 7 to 10 7 to 10 7 to 10 ° °° °C CC C
ุ ุุ ุ 11 11 11 11 ° °° °C CC C
Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal
Mass Mass Mass Mass
Benefits Benefits Benefits Benefits
Australian Sustainable Home Guide www.weathersa.co.za
11 °C
9 °C
9 °C
9 °C
9 °C
10 °C
12 °C
16 °C 9 °C
11 °C
13 °C
13 °C
13 °C
12 °C
16 °C
15 °C
“average of the monthly diurnal range for the
30-year period 1961 – 1990”
www.weathersa.co.za
Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency Walling and Energy Efficiency
Know your climate Know your climate Know your climate Know your climate
Thermal Mass Thermal Mass Thermal Mass Thermal Mass ದ ದದ ದ What to do What to do What to do What to do
Climate – winds, seasonal
temperatures, degree-hours in
comfort range, solar irradiation, sky
conditions.
Australian Sustainable Home Guide
Natural Elements – trees and
topography to direct summer
breezes and cold winter winds, and
to provide shading.
Windows and patios – as solar
collectors and vents. Purge at night
in summer. Balance glazing with the
thermal mass available. Use curtains
and shutters.
Location – know the greatest
energy consumption need. Use
“slab on ground” to increase
thermal mass of the floor.
Variation – use internal walls,
fireplaces, tiled floors or trombe
walls.
Insulation – use to
complement thermal mass and
ensure the envelope and ceiling
is air tight.
Materials – choose thermal
mass materials carefully,
considering thermal lag needs
and reflectivity of surfaces.
Behaviours – practices
needed to manage and control
the performance of the building,
and educate the occupants.
Empirical Results
Thermal
Mass
Performs
Emeritus Professor Emeritus Professor Emeritus Professor Emeritus Professor
Adrian Page Adrian Page Adrian Page Adrian Page
Professor Professor Professor Professor
Behdad Moghtaderi Behdad Moghtaderi Behdad Moghtaderi Behdad Moghtaderi
Dr. Heber Sugo Dr. Heber Sugo Dr. Heber Sugo Dr. Heber Sugo
Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs
Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia
Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research ದ ದದ ದ University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW
Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research ದ ದದ ದ University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW
Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research Thermal Performance Research ದ ದದ ದ University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW University of Newcastle, NSW
The brickwork and floorslabs act as thermal batteries,
absorbing heat from the internal air to keep the house
comfortable, requiring less cooling.
Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs
Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia
The brickwork and floorslabs store the heat from the sun or
internal heaters, releasing it at night, helping the home to
stay warm, requiring less heating.
Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs
Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia
“The results clearly show that the R-value of the walling system is only one of the
factors governing thermal performance, as significantly different performance was
observed for modules with different walling systems but very similar R-values. Thus,
the use of the R-value as the sole predictor of thermal performance should be
discouraged and replaced or used in conjunction with alternative parameters.”
A Study of the Influence of Wall R Value on the Thermal Characteristics of Australian Housing, Univ. of Newcastle
(Prof. A.Page, Prof.B.Moghtaderi, Dr. H.Sugo, S. Hands, 2009)
Cavity
Brick
Insulated
Brick
Veneer
Lightweight
Integrated
Construction
Insulated
Cavity
Brick
Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs
Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia Empirical testing in Australia
Thermal Modeling
Thermal
Mass
Performs
Empirical data correlates well with thermal models Empirical data correlates well with thermal models Empirical data correlates well with thermal models Empirical data correlates well with thermal models
Annual Energy Consumption of 132m
2
Modelled House in Region 1 :
Bloemfontein
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SFU BWU SFI BWI
Wall Construction Method
R

v
a
l
u
e

(
x
1
0
0
)

/

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

M
a
s
s
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
K
W
h

p
.
a
.
R value
Thermal Mass
kWh p.a.
Annual Energy Consumption of 132m
2
Modelled House in Region 2 : Pretoria
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SFU SFI BWU BWI
Wall Construction Method
R

v
a
l
u
e

(
x
1
0
0
)

/

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

M
a
s
s
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
K
W
h

p
.
a
.
R value
Thermal Mass
kWh p.a.
Annual Energy Consumption of 132m
2
Modelled House in Region 3 : Musina
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SFU SFI BWU BWI
Wall Construction Method
R

v
a
l
u
e

(
x
1
0
0
)

/

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

M
a
s
s
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
K
W
h

p
.
a
.
R value
Thermal Mass
kWh p.a.
Annual Energy Consumption of 132m
2
Modelled House in Region 4 : Cape Town
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SFU BWU SFI BWI
(Cavity)
Wall Construction Method
R

v
a
l
u
e

(
x
1
0
0
)

/

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

M
a
s
s
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
K
W
h

p
.
a
.
R value
Thermal Mass
kWh p.a.
Annual Energy Consumption of 132m
2
Modelled House in Region 5 : Durban
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SFU SFI BWU BWI
(Cavity)
Wall Construction Method
R

v
a
l
u
e

(
x
1
0
0
)

/

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

M
a
s
s
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
K
W
h

p
.
a
.
R value
Thermal Mass
kWh p.a.
Annual Energy Consumption of 132m
2
Modelled House in Region 6 : Upington
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
SFU BWU SFI BWI
Wall Construction Method
R

v
a
l
u
e

(
x
1
0
0
)

/

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

M
a
s
s
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
K
W
h

p
.
a
.
R value
Thermal Mass
kWh p.a.
SFU = steel frame dry wall uninsulated
SFI = steel frame dry wall insulated
BWU = brick wall uninsulated
BWI = brick wall insulated
Source : Thermal modeling by Structatherm (Howard Harris), March 2009, using VisualDOE and the DME / CSIR approved
132m
2
house with insulation to SANS 204 Part 2 DTS levels.
Empirical data correlates well with thermal models Empirical data correlates well with thermal models Empirical data correlates well with thermal models Empirical data correlates well with thermal models
•Insulated brick walls produce the lowest energy consumption in all
regions
•Uninsulated steel frame walls produce the highest energy consumption in
all regions
•Uninsulated brick and insulated steel frame walls produce similar
consumption levels (the thermal mass in bricks is included in the price)
•Insulating a brick wall reduces energy consumption by 24% on average
•Low thermal mass walls produce 25% more energy consumption on
average than brick walls
•High R value walls did not produce optimal results in any region
Source : Thermal modeling by Structatherm (Howard Harris), March 2009, using VisualDOE and the DME / CSIR approved
132m
2
house with insulation to SANS 204 Part 2 DTS levels.
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
R
e
g
i
o
n

1
:
B
l
o
e
m
f
o
n
t
e
i
n
R
e
g
i
o
n

2
:

P
r
e
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Brick Wall Uninsulated
Brick Wall Insulated
Steel Frame Uninsulated
Steel Frame Insulated
Source : Thermal modeling by Structatherm (Howard Harris), March 2009, using
VisualDOE and the DME / CSIR approved 132m
2
house with insulation to SANS
204 Part 2 DTS levels.
Base assumption : Incremental cost of insulating brick wall and steel frame to
SANS 204 DTS levels is the same.
Low thermal mass walls cost the
consumer 24% more
Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs Thermal Mass Performs
Thermal modeling in South Africa Thermal modeling in South Africa Thermal modeling in South Africa Thermal modeling in South Africa
On show
Thermal
Mass
Performs
Putting Thermal Mass into practice ! Putting Thermal Mass into practice ! Putting Thermal Mass into practice ! Putting Thermal Mass into practice !
5 Stars Steelframed, colourbond roof,
ecoply cladding, concrete
slab
250,000 120 fabABODE
5 Stars Lightweight steel studwork 199,000 135 EcoFab1
5 Stars Steelframed, insulated fridge
panels, clad with
Colourbond
Not quoted ! 121 The Pinnacle
6 Stars Steel fabrication Not quoted ! 113 Yrent
6 Stars Steel fabrication Not quoted ! 175 Villa Vista
6 Stars Steel fabrication Not quoted ! 177 The Sunhouse
6 Stars Steel fabrication Not quoted ! 194 The Benchmark
8 Stars 8 Stars 8 Stars 8 Stars
Clay brick (cavity insulated) & Clay brick (cavity insulated) & Clay brick (cavity insulated) & Clay brick (cavity insulated) &
tiles tiles tiles tiles
249,694 249,694 249,694 249,694 183 183 183 183 Jade 808 Jade 808 Jade 808 Jade 808
Energy Rating Energy Rating Energy Rating Energy Rating Primary Matl Primary Matl Primary Matl Primary Matlಬ ಬಬ ಬs ss s Cost (A$) Cost (A$) Cost (A$) Cost (A$) Size (m Size (m Size (m Size (m
2 22 2
) )) ) Name Name Name Name
8 Star 8 Star 8 Star 8 Star house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick- -- -
rockwool rockwool rockwool rockwool- -- -clay brick rendered internal) clay brick rendered internal) clay brick rendered internal) clay brick rendered internal) ದ ದದ ದ Perth, WA Perth, WA Perth, WA Perth, WA
www.thinkbrick.com.au
Key Features Key Features Key Features Key Features
Double clay brick, insulated cavity Double clay brick, insulated cavity Double clay brick, insulated cavity Double clay brick, insulated cavity
Superior acoustics. Superior acoustics. Superior acoustics. Superior acoustics.
Thermal comfort all year round. Thermal comfort all year round. Thermal comfort all year round. Thermal comfort all year round.
Cool in summer, warm in winter. Cool in summer, warm in winter. Cool in summer, warm in winter. Cool in summer, warm in winter.
Cross ventilation, ceiling insulation and Cross ventilation, ceiling insulation and Cross ventilation, ceiling insulation and Cross ventilation, ceiling insulation and
thermal mass in living room, with internal thermal mass in living room, with internal thermal mass in living room, with internal thermal mass in living room, with internal
feature wall and tiled floor. feature wall and tiled floor. feature wall and tiled floor. feature wall and tiled floor.
Shading on the north, east and west windows. Shading on the north, east and west windows. Shading on the north, east and west windows. Shading on the north, east and west windows.
High rated appliances. High rated appliances. High rated appliances. High rated appliances.
Grey water recycling. Grey water recycling. Grey water recycling. Grey water recycling.
Solar water heater. Solar water heater. Solar water heater. Solar water heater.
Rainwater re Rainwater re Rainwater re Rainwater re- -- -use. use. use. use.
No mechanical heating and cooling. No mechanical heating and cooling. No mechanical heating and cooling. No mechanical heating and cooling.
www.thinkbrick.com.au
8 Star 8 Star 8 Star 8 Star house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick house built with insulated cavity wall (clay face brick- -- -
rockwool rockwool rockwool rockwool- -- -clay brick rendered internal) clay brick rendered internal) clay brick rendered internal) clay brick rendered internal) ದ ದದ ದ Perth, WA Perth, WA Perth, WA Perth, WA
Designing for Climate
Thermal
Mass
Performs
http://www.designingforclimate.com.au
Linda Ginger, CEO
Ross Maher,
Sustainability Manager
http://www.designingforclimate.com.au
8AN8 204
Energy Efficient
Buildings
SANS 204 : SANS 204 : SANS 204 : SANS 204 :
Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency
in Buildings in Buildings in Buildings in Buildings
SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings
Part 1 : Energy Efficiency Requirements
SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings SANS 204 : Energy Efficiency in Buildings
Part 1 : Energy Efficiency Requirements
Building Design to Achieve Optimal Energy
Usage lntensity
First Approximation for Walling DTS Rules
Optimisation of Walling DTS Rules
SANS 204 ದ Working Group
Building Design to Achieve Optimal Energy
Usage lntensity
Purpose and Function of
the Building
Climatic Conditions and
other factors
Building
Size
Determines
inter alia
+
Occupancy Type
Density
Activity
Pattern
(time/duration)
+
Orientation,
Shading
Heat
Load
Profile
Ventilation Decision
Adaptive model
T TT T
n nn n
= 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To
ave ave ave ave
17.8°C < T
n
< 29.5°C
Natural
80% fit
Tn Tn Tn Tn ± ±± ± 3.5K 3.5K 3.5K 3.5K
OR
Artificial
90% fit
Tn Tn Tn Tn ± ±± ± 2.5K 2.5K 2.5K 2.5K
Thermal Comfort Range
(day, month, season, year)
Determines
inter alia
Occupants use of HEATlNG
and COOLlNG ENERGY
Orientation
Shell
Thermal
Resistance
Shell
Thermal
Capacity
Heat Loads
Thermal
Comfort
Range
Building
Design /
Layout
Shading
Climatic
Data
Specs for
Optimal Energy
Usage lntensity
of all
components at
least life cycle
cost
Thermal Model
First Approximation for Walling DTS Rules
Purpose and Function of
the Building
Climatic Conditions and
other factors
Building
Size
Determines
inter alia
+
Occupancy Type
Density
Activity
Pattern
(time/duration)
+
Orientation,
Shading
Heat
Load
Profile
The optimal shell
applies to large and
small variants of each
occupancy type
Occupancy types
grouped ito 12hr & 24 hr
pattern
Use old CSlR
approximate
climatic data map
Ventilation Decision
Adaptive model
T TT T
n nn n
= 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To
ave ave ave ave
17.8°C < T
n
< 29.5°C
Natural
80% fit
Tn Tn Tn Tn ± ±± ± 3.5K 3.5K 3.5K 3.5K
OR
Artificial
90% fit
Tn Tn Tn Tn ± ±± ± 2.5K 2.5K 2.5K 2.5K
X
Tn = 23 Tn = 23 Tn = 23 Tn = 23°C constant C constant C constant C constant
Group occupancies further by
ventilation type
First Approximation for Walling DTS Rules
Climatic Conditions and
other factors
Use old CSlR
approximate
climatic data map
Thermal Comfort Range
(day, month, season, year)
Determines
inter alia
Occupants use of HEATlNG
and COOLlNG ENERGY
X
First Approximation for Walling DTS Rules
Orientation
Shell
Thermal
Resistance
Shell
Thermal
Capacity
Heat Loads
Thermal Model
Thermal
Comfort
Range
Building
Design /
Layout
Shading
Climatic
Data
Specs for
Optimal Energy
Usage lntensity
of all
components at
least life cycle
cost
Use nominal
surface
density
proxy for
low/high
mass
Run models on
selected cases to
test approximations
and assumptions
Consider prior
research done to
test efficacy of BCA
provisions on 5
occupancy types
Possible
expansion of
existing R value
table to include
all occupancy
types and
climate zones
Publish in SANS 204
Edition 2
First Approximation for Walling DTS Rules
Part 2 & 3 : Application to Buildings with Natural or Artificial Environmental Control
4.5.2.1 4.5.2.1 4.5.2.1 4.5.2.1 External walls
1,10
, with a surface density
2
of less than 240 kg/m
2
, shall have the following minimum R-value
3
for
all occupancies listed in SANS 204-1, except A5,D1,D4,J4 which have no minimum R-value requirements :
a) for climatic zones 1 and 6, a total R-value of 2,2; and
b) for climatic zones 2, 3, 4 and 5, a total R-value of 1,9.
lnternal walls, in buildings with external walling as above, may have low or high surface densities.
4.5.2.2 4.5.2.2 4.5.2.2 4.5.2.2 External walls, with a surface density greater than 240 kg/m
2
, and for occupancies given in Table 1
4
, shall have
the following minimum R-value
6
:
Table 1 ಧ Minimum total R-values
9
for external walls with surface density greater than 240 kg/m
2
Unclassified (A5,D1,D4,J4)
5
1,4 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,9 1,4 lndustrial (D2,D3,J1,J2)
8
1,4 0,5 0,9 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,9 1,4 Residential (E1,E2,E3,E4,H1,H2,H3,H4,H5)
1,4 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,9 1,4 lnstitutional (A1,A2,A3,A4,C1,C2)
1,4 0,5 0,9 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,9 1,4 Retail buildings (F1,F2,F3,J3)
1,4 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,9 1,4 Office buildings (B1,B2,B3,G1)
6 5 4 3 33 3 2 1
Climatic zone
R-value (thermal resistance)
7
m
2
K/W
Occupancies
NOTES
1. External walls are defined as the complete walling system, as measured from
the outer skin exposed to the environment, to the inside of the inner skin
exposed to the interior of the building, and does not include glazing. The
requirements for glazing are included elsewhere in this standard.
2. Surface density is used in this edition as an approximation of thermal capacity.
3. Research to determine the optimal combinations of thermal capacity and
thermal resistance is underway and will result in a revision of section 4.5.2, in
further editions of this standard.
4. Details of the occupancy types listed in table 1 can be found in SANS 204-1.
5. The unclassified occupancy types A5, D1, D4 and J4 have no minimum R-value
requirement.
NOTES
6. As an indication, a thermal resistance of 0.5 m
2
K/W is typically achieved with a solid clay brick double
wall, 212mm thick plastered on both sides up to 12 mm, or a 230mm thick wall of similar materials,
plastered on both sides, containing a 50mm air cavity. A value of 0.4 m
2
K/W can be achieved with the
latter combination of materials, but without the air cavity.
7. Thermal resistance added to masonry walling to achieve higher R-values should be placed on the
external skin, or in the cavity. Thermal resistance should not be added to the inside skin of a masonry
wall.
8. The requirements for industrial buildings (D2,D3,J1,J2) will only apply if the building is to be heated or
cooled via dedicated equipment. If the building is not heated or cooled in this way, there will be no
minimum R-value requirements.
9. Designers should consider that interstitial condensation occurs in walling systems which are not able to
accommodate moisture migration. The selection of vapour barriers and appropriate construction
materials, including insulation, is important for the thermal efficiency of walling in climate zones where
damp and high relative humidity is experienced.
10. Internal walls, in buildings with external walling as above, must have high surface densities, typically
greater than 120kg/m
2
, in order to provide sufficient thermal capacity.
Optimisation of Walling DTS Rules
Purpose and Function of
the Building
Climatic Conditions and
other factors
Building
Size
Determines
inter alia
+
Occupancy Type
Density
Activity
Pattern
(time/duration)
+
Orientation,
Shading
Heat
Load
Profile
The optimal shell
applies to large and
small variants of each
occupancy type
Occupancy types
grouped ito 12hr & 24 hr
pattern
Ventilation Decision
Adaptive model
T TT T
n nn n
= 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To = 17.6 + 0.31 To
ave ave ave ave
17.8°C < T
n
< 29.5°C
Natural
80% fit
Tn Tn Tn Tn ± ±± ± 3.5K 3.5K 3.5K 3.5K
OR
Artificial
90% fit
Tn Tn Tn Tn ± ±± ± 2.5K 2.5K 2.5K 2.5K
Group further on ventilation type
Optimisation of Walling DTS Rules
Climatic Conditions and
other factors
Use accurate
computer based
climate maps
Thermal Comfort Range
(day, month, season, year)
Determines
inter alia
Occupants use of HEATlNG
and COOLlNG ENERGY
Determine the
extent of
seasonal
influences
Optimisation of Walling DTS Rules
Orientation
Shell
Thermal
Resistance
Shell
Thermal
Capacity
Heat Loads
Thermal Model
Thermal
Comfort
Range
Building
Design /
Layout
Shading
Climatic
Data
Specs for
Optimal Energy
Usage lntensity
of all
components at
least life cycle
cost
Run models on selected
cases to determine optimal
CR curves
Determine optimal
placement of thermal
resistance ; wall
thermal capacity split
for DTS tables ; critical
wall area to internal
volume ratios ; wall
orientations
Optimal DTS
Rules to achieve
the desired CR
product and life
cycle cost for each
occupancy type
and climatic
condition
Publish in SANS 204
Edition 3 / NRCS
Due end Due end Due end Due end
Sep Sep Sep Sep
Optimisation of Walling DTS Rules
Optimal CR Product Curve
Clay Brick
is Best
Clay Bricks Clay Bricks Clay Bricks Clay Bricks
Providing Providing Providing Providing
peace of mind peace of mind peace of mind peace of mind
for centuries for centuries for centuries for centuries
KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS
The The The The building building building buildingಬ ಬಬ ಬs shell s shell s shell s shell is a key determinant of the energy usage intensity. is a key determinant of the energy usage intensity. is a key determinant of the energy usage intensity. is a key determinant of the energy usage intensity.
The optimal shell utilises The optimal shell utilises The optimal shell utilises The optimal shell utilises thermal capacity and thermal resistance thermal capacity and thermal resistance thermal capacity and thermal resistance thermal capacity and thermal resistance in in in in
combination. combination. combination. combination.
Clay masonry Clay masonry Clay masonry Clay masonry is high in thermal capacity and includes an inherent level of is high in thermal capacity and includes an inherent level of is high in thermal capacity and includes an inherent level of is high in thermal capacity and includes an inherent level of
thermal resistance. ln some cases, additional insulation will be thermal resistance. ln some cases, additional insulation will be thermal resistance. ln some cases, additional insulation will be thermal resistance. ln some cases, additional insulation will be required. required. required. required.
Life cycle Life cycle Life cycle Life cycle energy consumption is mainly from energy consumption is mainly from energy consumption is mainly from energy consumption is mainly from operating operating operating operating the building. the building. the building. the building.
Embodied energy Embodied energy Embodied energy Embodied energy should be reduced, but be careful of comparisons. should be reduced, but be careful of comparisons. should be reduced, but be careful of comparisons. should be reduced, but be careful of comparisons.
Passive Passive Passive Passive solar design solar design solar design solar design makes optimal use of makes optimal use of makes optimal use of makes optimal use of SA SA SA SAಬ ಬಬ ಬs natural s natural s natural s natural elements and elements and elements and elements and
naturally occuring naturally occuring naturally occuring naturally occuring materials. materials. materials. materials.
The The The The climatic conditions climatic conditions climatic conditions climatic conditions of the building of the building of the building of the buildingಬ ಬಬ ಬs location need to be carefully s location need to be carefully s location need to be carefully s location need to be carefully
considered and a considered and a considered and a considered and a thermal comfort range thermal comfort range thermal comfort range thermal comfort range determined. determined. determined. determined.
KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS KEY LEARNlNG POlNTS
Clay masonry and flooring has Clay masonry and flooring has Clay masonry and flooring has Clay masonry and flooring has high thermal capacity high thermal capacity high thermal capacity high thermal capacity to : to : to : to :
Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate internal temperature fluctuations internal temperature fluctuations internal temperature fluctuations internal temperature fluctuations
Reduce / increase Reduce / increase Reduce / increase Reduce / increase absolute internal temperatures absolute internal temperatures absolute internal temperatures absolute internal temperatures
Delay Delay Delay Delay heat transfer (thermal lag) heat transfer (thermal lag) heat transfer (thermal lag) heat transfer (thermal lag)
Single Single Single Single- -- -minded focus on thermal resistance minded focus on thermal resistance minded focus on thermal resistance minded focus on thermal resistance can be can be can be can be detrimental to energy detrimental to energy detrimental to energy detrimental to energy
usage and overall sustainability of the building. usage and overall sustainability of the building. usage and overall sustainability of the building. usage and overall sustainability of the building.
Sustainable design and construction practices need to be complem Sustainable design and construction practices need to be complem Sustainable design and construction practices need to be complem Sustainable design and construction practices need to be complemented ented ented ented
by the by the by the by the behaviours of the behaviours of the behaviours of the behaviours of the occupants occupants occupants occupants. .. .
A truly A truly A truly A truly sustainable sustainable sustainable sustainable building / product should be assessed in 3 dimensions : building / product should be assessed in 3 dimensions : building / product should be assessed in 3 dimensions : building / product should be assessed in 3 dimensions :
Environmentally Environmentally Environmentally Environmentally
Economically Economically Economically Economically
Socially Socially Socially Socially
High Thermal
Capacity
Available
locally
Reduces
primary
energy
Low
Embodied
energy
Long
lifecycle, low
maintenance
Acoustically
sound
Aesthetically
pleasing
Indisputable
track record
Preferred by
most
Recyclable
Natural
Product
Fire
Resistant
Renewable
Resource
Permanent
colours
Easy to
insulate
Non-toxic
Non-ozone
forming
Non-hazardous
waste
Thermal
Resistance
Provides
security
T TT T
H HH H
A AA A
N NN N
K KK K
Y YY Y
O OO O
U UU U