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Performance Monitoring for Optimization

T K Ray
Senior Faculty Member

Power Management Institute

NTPC Limited
rayt3@asme.org

1 March 2011

T K Ray NTPC

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Presentation Outline • Boiler Efficiency • Air Heater Performance • Performance Assessment using Field Instruments

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Heat gained by boiling water 38%

•Loss due to moisture in air. •Loss due to moisture in fuel. •Loss due to comb. gen. moisture.

Fuel Energy 100% Hot gas

•Dry Exhaust Gas Losses~ 4.6%

Flue gas

•Heat loss from furnace surface. •Unburned carbon losses. •Incomplete combustion losses. •Loss due to hot ash.

Heat gained by SH & RH 38% Heat gained by economizer & air preheater 11%

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Boiler Efficiency… For utility boilers efficiency is generally calculated by heat loss method wherein the component losses are calculated and subtracted from 100. (Boiler Efficiency = 100 .3: Air Heaters BS – 2885 (1974) IS: 8753: 1977 DIN standards T K Ray NTPC 4 1 March 2011 .2: Coal Pulverizers ASME PTC 4.Losses in %) Commonly used standards are • • • • • • ASME PTC 4 -1998: Fired Steam Generators ASME PTC 4.

Heat Loss method η = 100 − L *100 Hf +B 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 5 . Input /output method & e he − m & i hi ) (m ∑ η= *100 Hf +B ii.Boiler Efficiency determination The % of heat input to the boiler absorbed by the working fluid i.

bar (abs) Proximate Analysis & GCV of Coal Combustibles in Bottom Ash and Fly ash 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 6 .Parameters required for computing Boiler Efficiency • • • • • • • AH inlet and exit FG O2 / CO2 /CO AH inlet and exit FG temp Primary / Secondary air temp at AH inlet Dry/Wet bulb temperatures Ambient pressure.

12 0.51 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 7 .93 0.04 0.56 1.Boiler Losses Dry Gas Loss Unburnt C Loss Hydrogen Loss Moisture in Fuel Loss Moisture in Air Loss CO Loss Radiation/Unaccounted Loss Total Heat Loss Heat credit Boiler Efficiency Typical values 4.44 87.50 3.29 2.89 12.53 0.

DFG Loss (kJ/kg of fuel) = [ 100 C S ( + − C in _ A )] * 30 .63 for bituminous coal 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 8 . AL known K ~0. 9 * 100 O2 in / CO2 in measured. 6 (T fg − T air ) 12 ( CO 2 + CO ) 100 267 DFG Loss (%) = Seigert formula: T fg = AL * C pa * (T fgt − Tair ) C pg *100 CO 2 _ in K (T fg − Tair ) %CO2 + T fgt CO2 _ out = 90 * CO2 _ in AL + 90 AL = = − CO 2 _ out 2 _ out CO * 0 . 9 * 100 O 2 _ out − O 2 _ in 21 − O 2 _ out * 0 .

• DFG loss computation should be based on FG temp in AH outlet common ducts leading to ESP. 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 9 .• Typically 20 0C increase in exit FG temp ~ 1% reduction in boiler efficiency.

88(T fg − 25) + 2442+ 4.2(25 − Tair )] 100 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 10 .Wet Flue Gas Loss (kJ/kg of fuel) = M + 9H [1.

CO2.034N2 C S [ + − Cin _ A ) CO2 + CO 100 267 N2. S=% in fuel 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 11 . CO=% volume in dry gas C.88* (T fg − Tair ) h =kg moisture per kg dry air M a =Dry air for combustion kg/kg of fuel Ma = 3.Moisture in combustion air loss (kJ/kg fuel)= M a * h *1.

CO=% volume in dry gas C. S=% in fuel 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 12 .Incomplete gas (CO) loss (kJ/kg fuel)= 7 CO C S 12 *[ *( + − C in _ A )] * 23717 28 3(CO 2 + CO ) 100 267 23717 kJ/kg = CV of burning 1 kg of carbon in CO to CO2 CO2.

Combustible in Ash Loss • Measure of effectiveness of Combustion process and Mill performance cA • Loss in kJ/kg of fuel: * 33820 100 • c= % of carbon in ash • A= Mass of ash kg/kg of fuel • Carbon burnt to CO2 =33820 kJ/kg (8077 kcal/kg) • Compute Boiler efficiency loss % due to c in Ash 23717 kJ/kg = CV of burning 1 kg of carbon in CO to CO2 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 13 .

86 * 100] / [Coal FLOW * GCV * 1000] Coal Flow Rate Coal FLOW Tons/Hr Total Coal Mill Power MP kWh GCV of Coal Kcal/Kg .HEAT CREDIT Heat Credit due to Coal Mill Power = [MP * 859.

00 Fuel moisture ±1. anal. anal.50 Error in calculated SG Efficiency.00 ±0. of coal (C) ±1.Probable measurement errors and resulting errors in efficiency calculations Measurement Parameter Heat value (coal) Orsat analysis Exit FG temp Inlet air temp error.03 ±0.00 ±0.10 ±0. of coal (H) ±1.30 ±0.00 Ult.10 ±0. % ±0.00 Ult.50 ±0.02 ±0.00 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 15 .50 ±3. % ±0.

Unburnt Carbon Loss (Controllable) • Cunburnt is a measure of effectiveness of comb. process • Cunburnt includes the unburned constituents in FA and BA • Focus to be on FA due to uncertainty in repeatability and representativeness • +50 PF fineness fractions to be < 1% 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 16 .

coal reactivity Insufficient excess air in combustion zone Air damper / register settings Burners design / condition Burner balance / worn orifices Primary Air Flow / Pressure T K Ray NTPC 17 .Unburnt Carbon Loss • • • • • • • • • 1 March 2011 Type of mills and firing system Furnace size PF fineness (Pulveriser problems) Coal FC/VM ratio.Influencing Factors .

Dry Gas loss reduction requires • • • • • Boiler operation at optimum excess air Cleanliness of boiler surfaces Reduction of tempering air to mill Reduction in air ingress Cleaning of air heater surfaces and proper heating elements / surface area 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 18 .

Air Optimization .

heat of FG is absorbed through one half. The accumulated heat is released to the incoming air as the same surfaces pass through other half. As it revolves. 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 20 .Air Heater in Fossil Fired Plant The rotating cylinder packed with thousands of sq m of specially formed sheets of heat transfer surfaces. The heat transfer cycle is continuous as the surfaces are alternately exposed to the outgoing gas and incoming air.

1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 21 .76) Flue gas temperature drop (~2200C) Air side temperature rise (~2600C) Gas & Air side pressure drops The indices are affected by changes in entering air or gas temperatures.Performance Indicators • • • • • • Air-in-Leakage (~13%) Gas Side Efficiency (~ 68 %) X – ratio (~ 0. their flow quantities and coal moisture.Air Heater .

rotor goes outward and downward T K Ray NTPC 1 March 2011 22 . • Direct – flow of air through gaps between rotating and fixed structure • Leakage ≈ gap area x (density x ∆P)1/2 • Entrained –air in elements carried via rotation from air side to gas side Rotor Turndown – HE grows radially more than the CE.AH Leakage • The leakage of the high pressure air to the low pressure flue gas due to – Differential Pressure – increased seal clearances in hot condition – seal erosion – improper seal settings.

Leakage paths Increased AH leakage leads to Reduced AH efficiency Increased fan power consumption Higher gas velocities that affect ESP performance Loss of fan margins leading to inefficient operation and at times restricting unit loading 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 23 .

AH Leakage • Typically air heater starts with a baseline leakage of 6 to 10% after an overhaul • What we measure is mainly leakage through radial seals at hot & cold end • Leakage through circumferential seals is substantial and has a major effect on heat transfer but nominal effect on APC • Leakage is expressed as a % of inlet gas flow and not a % of fan input flow 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 24 .

Calculation • • This leakage is assumed to occur entirely between air inlet and gas outlet Empirical relationship using the change in concentration of O2 or CO2 in the flue gas AL = = CO 2 _ in − CO 2 _ out 2 _ out CO * 0 . 9 * 100 21 − 5 . 7 = 17 .Air Heater Leakage .8 = * 0 .FG Moisture) 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 25 . 9 * 100 O 2 _ out − O 2 _ in 21 − O 2 _ out * 0 . 9 * 100 5 . 1 % • Method of determination of O2 or CO2 should be the same at inlet and outlet wet or dry (Orsat) • O2 dry = O2 wet / (1.7 − 2 .

Data Collected / Measured O2 or CO2 in FG at AH Inlet O2 or CO2 in FG at AH Outlet Temperature of gas entering/leaving air heater Temperature of air entering/leaving air heater Diff. Pressure across APH on air & gas side CO2 measurement is preferred due to high absolute values. 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 26 . In case of any measurement errors. calculation is small. the resultant influence on lkg.

Factors affecting APH performance • • • • • • • • • Operating excess air levels PA/SA ratio Inlet air / gas temperature Coal moisture Air ingress levels Upstream ash evacuation Soot blowing No. of mills in service Maintenance practices 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 27 .

Presentation Outline • Boiler Efficiency • Air Heater Performance • Performance Assessment using Field Instruments • Use of Performance Evaluation Software 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 28 .

Factors affecting Boiler efficiency • Design • Coal Quality • Operating parameters – Mill Performance .PF Fineness – Burner-to-burner PF balance – Excess Air Level – Water Chemistry – Boiler loading • Component condition – AH Performance – Boiler Air Ingress – Furnace / Convective section Cleanliness – Insulation – Quality of Overhauls 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 29 .

• Diagnostic tests are required for the following – Root cause analysis of different problems – Identifying reasons for boiler inefficiency – To verify the feedback from online instruments 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 30 .Boiler & Air Heater Performance Assessment • Accurate determination of Boiler Efficiency & Air Heater performance poses many challenges. but there’s a need to obtain representative & accurate performance data & trend the same. • ‘Acceptance Test’ accuracy is not cost justified.

The Diagnostic Tests • • • • • • • • • • • Clean Airflow Tests Dirty Airflow Tests Iso-kinetic Coal Sampling PA Flow Calibration Furnace Exit HVT Traverse Air In-Leakage survey Insulation survey Furnace temperature survey Boiler Efficiency Tests AH Performance Tests Boiler Tuning & Optimization 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 31 .

org 1 March 2011 T K Ray NTPC 32 .Thanks rayt3@asme.