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Generator Protection

Manoj Barsaiyan

• A) Unit scheme: (NON GCB SCHEME) •

In this scheme no switchgear is provided between the generator and generator transformer, which are treated as a unit; a unit transformer is tapped off the interconnection for supplying of power to auxiliary plant.

Generator circuit breaker scheme: In this scheme a generator circuit breaker is provided between the generator and generator transformer. unit transformer is tapped off before the GCB for supplying of power to auxiliary plant. B)

Generator grounding practices .

Generator grounding practices .

Generator grounding practices .

Generator earthing practices .

Field. sensed by the low forward relay (32g) gives the trip signal to the unit breaker & field breaker after a time delay. keeping UAT charged through GT In non GCB scheme.UT CLASS-B TRIP • • Mechanical trips Avoid over speeding of turbine due to steam entrapped in turbine. only GCB and field is tripped.GT. • • • • Class C Trips only Gen CB .UT LCV CB are tripped. HV CB. generator.TRIP LOGIC OF GENERATOR PROTECTION • Two independent channels with independent CT/VT inputs/DC supply/trip relay CLASS A TRIPS • • All electrical trip Trip turbine . field. Turbine trip signal is given first and the active power. In GCB scheme.

(All the system tripped) FIELD. FIELD.CLASS OF TRIP Class A BREAKERS TO BE TRIPPED UNDER VARIOUS CLASSES OF TRIPPING GCB SCHEME NON GCB SCHEME (additional LV CB between Gen and GT) A1: GCB. FIELD. Class C HVCB (Generator under House load ) .UT LV CB.FIELD BREAKER Initiated by Turbine trip & Low Forward /reverse power.UT LV CB. to release the trapped steam. FIELD BREAKER.HVCB.UT HVCB. Generator circuit breaker tripped & Auxiliaries charged from the grid through GT&UT) HVCB (Generator under House load ) Class B HVCB. TURBINE (Generator circuit tripped & Auxiliaries charged from the grid through GT&UT) GCB. TURBINE (All the system tripped) A2 : GCB. TURBINE LV CB.

Different generator protections • • • • • • • • • • • Differential protection Stator E/F protection Stator Inter turn fault protection Negative Phase sequence protection Loss of Excitation Rotor E/F protection Generator O/V protection Pole slip protection Low Forward Power Reverse Power Generator Back Up Impedance Protection .

Differential Relay GEN WDG R Current flow in relay secondary circuit in case a fault occurs in side the equipment. .

GT. Restricted Earth Fault Overall Differential includes Generator.Differential Protection • • • • • Generator Differential UAT Differential Overhead line Differential G. and both UAT .T.

there is distinct difference between the current at neutral and terminal ends of winding. • This difference is detected by Differential relay .Differential Protection • The relay operates on the principle of circulating current system • The current entering and leaving the protected zone is determined by CT • During a fault.


7 A 0.7 A N .7 A 0A R 0.UNDER HEALTHY CONDITION R 10000/1 A Y B CT 7000 A 0.7 A Y B 7000 A 0.

UNDER FAULTY CONDITION R 10000/1 A Y B CT 2000 A 0.7 A Y B 7000 A 0.7 A N .2 A 0.5 A R 0.2 A 0.


and relay would operate. which will drive a current. A current relay connected to the CT provided in grounding transformer secondary circuit.STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REF) covers normally 85-90 % of the stator winding. A voltage relay connected to the open delta in generator voltage transformer as the earth fault across in the stator winding the voltage balance disturbs and operate the relay. The voltage will appear across the resistance and relay shall operate. A voltage relay connected across the grounding resistors. Earth Fault Protection through grounding. . As there is an earth fault there would be voltage across the resistance.


• Third harmonic voltage scheme .100% Stator E/F protection For large machines there is a requirement for detection of earth fault occurring anywhere in the stator winding • Low frequency injection scheme.

• cost of the implementation tends to be high due to the cost of the injection equipment.Low frequency injection scheme. • In this scheme a sub harmonic voltage is applied via an injection transformer connected in series with the neutral earthing resistance. • A relay which monitors the sub harmonic current is arranged to operate when current increases due to an earth fault on the stator winding. .


THIRD HARMONIC VOLTAGE SCHEME • This scheme utilizes the third harmonic voltage produced by non linearities within the generator. • Under healthy conditions. this voltage causes the circulation of third harmonic capacitive charging currents resulting in third harmonic voltage appearing between the neutral of the generator and ground. . the third harmonic voltage between the neutral and ground will reduce to near zero-value. • When fault occurs close to the neutral of the generator.


Operate zone Blind zone Operate zone B UPPER THRESHOLD SETTING OF RELAY PRE-FAULT REFERENCE LEVEL A LOWER THRESHOLD SETTING OF RELAY O 0 x Y 50 100 EARTH FAULT POSITION (% stator winding –measured from neutral) .

• The relay operates if the magnitude of the third harmonic voltage is a) Less than OA/or b) more than OB .• Thus the location of fault anywhere from x to y represents a blind zone.

2) Monitors the third harmonic voltage of neutral .The problem of blind-zone is overcome by providing two protection system operating simultaneously 1) The one system monitors the fundamental component of the neutral voltage.


each relay element covers the blind zone of the other and the combined protection system will detect earth faults anywhere on stator winding .• With the combined protection system.

As long as there is no turn to turn fault both the currents will be equal and no resultant current will flow through relay. If a turn-to-turn fault develops. are connected on the circulating current principle. .Stator Inter-turn protection • Interturn faults in a generator with a single winding can be detected by observing the zero-sequence voltage across the machine terminals • In case of large generators stator windings are sometimes duplicated owing' to the very high currents which they have to carry. The CTs. then the stator currents will no longer be equal and a current proportional to the difference in two currents will flow through the relay R.


.UNBALANCED LOAD /NPS • A three phase balanced load ( i. negative & zero phase sequence condition • The positive sequence components are similar to balanced load.e. • Zero phase sequence reaction produces no armature reaction no reaction field. generator stator ) produces a reaction field which rotates synchronously with rotor field system. Any unbalanced condition can be resolved into positive.

. • Voltage inducing in the rotor at double frequency. • Eddy currents are very large and cause severe heating in the rotor.C field(rotor). alternate electromagnetic torque unsatisfactory vibration in stator core.UNBALANCED LOAD /NPS • The negative sequence components are similar to positive sequence system except that the resulting reaction field (armature reaction) rotates counter clockwise to D.

for turbogenerators this rating is low( 10 to 15 % of the continuous mean rating.time heating is of interest during system fault conditions. . positive sequence). the heat dissipation during such periods is negligible and the heat generated can be considered to be retained entirely within the thermal capacity of the rotor. • For short.e.i.NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE PROTECTION • A machine can be assigned a continuous negative sequence current rating.

NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE PROTECTION Using this approximation it is possible to express the heating by the law: I2 2 t = K Where I2 = Negative sequence component ( per unit of MCR) t = Time (seconds) t K = Constant proportional to the thermal capacity of the generator rotor. I .

NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE PROTECTION • The protection should have a time delay characteristics which is as near as is practicable to the heating characteristics of the machine. • The protection should contain an alarm feature which operates at a setting slightly lower than that of the tripping element. .

0 Sec Alarm .NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE PROTECTION Negative Sequence Network Shaping Circuit Integrator Comparator Starter Definite Time 0. T.3 Sec AND Trip C. INPUT Starter Definite Time 5.

as a general ‘backup’’ feature. These relays are in no way related to the thermal characteristics of the generator and are intended to operate only under fault conditions.OVER CURRENT PROTECTION • It is usual to provide overcurrent relays of the IDMT pattern to generators. .

OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION Over voltage may be caused by the following contingencies: • • • Defective operation of the AVR Operation under manual control with the AVR out of service Sudden loss of load (due to line tripping) may cause the over-speed of TG set. .

LOSS OF EXCITATION • Loss of excitation results in a generator losing synchronism and running above synchronous speed. The main flux is produced by the wattless stator current drawn from the system • . It will operate as an induction generator.

• The machine will continue to generate power. the value being determined by the load setting of the turbine governor. the currents flow in the damper windings and also in the slot wedges and the surface of the solid rotor body. . • Slip frequency currents flow in the rotor.

.• The generator is not designed as an induction generator- (a) Abnormal heating of the rotor (b) Overloading of the stator winding • Operation as an induction generator brings no immediate danger to a set.

• The active power delivered as induction generator will be slightly less than the prefault load because of the speed regulation characteristic of the governor The rotor currents are proportional to this power output and heating is proportional to the square of the rotor current. • .

. A 60 MW unit with conventional cooling will not be heated excessively by asynchronous operation at full load for 5 minutes. 1.• It is clearly desirable to examine the characteristics of each machine.

rather than by an increase in physical size. Higher machine ratings are obtained by more intensive cooling techniques.2. . such as hydrogen and water cooling. The effect is to reduce the thermal time constants and in particular the ability to withstand abnormal conditions.

3. . A 500 Mw set should not be expected to operate asynchronously for more than a maximum of 20 seconds.

• When field failure accompanied by U/V.AVR control fails. • Under voltage is experienced by unit auxiliaries due to heavy MVAR flow from the system.CAUSES OF LOSS OF EXCITATION • is treated class A tripping. .Accidental tripping of FB. 2.This is sensed by voltage monitoring relay. 3. 5.C supply to the excitation system.Open circuit in the field.Loss of A.Loss of field to the main exciter 6.A short circuit in the field.field fails without a serious voltage drop is treated as class B tripping. 4.

FIELD FAILURE PROTECTION • • • Generator runs as induction generator heavy reactive loading of stator slip freq induced currents in rotor Methods of detecting Field failure : • • • Under current relay in field circuit Reactive power monitoring Impedance relay .

• The relay operates when the field current drops below a preset value. The relay must have a setting below the minimum exciting current. which may be 8% of that corresponding to the MCR of the machine. .

OFF-SET MHO RELAY • The quantity which changes most when generator loses synchronous is the impedance measured at the stator terminals .

5% of rated power TTR-A TTR-B ESV/IV closed Trip relay > A relay reset •Delayed tripping of generator after 2 seconds of power <0. .5% of rated power to evaluate the mechanical of steam entrapped in the turbine and eliminate the chance of over speeding of turbine.LOW FORWARD POWER PROTECTION VT Healthy T 2 sec & & To T GG o G G Low forwarded Power detected < 0.

GENERATOR REVERSE POWER PROTECTION VT Healthy T1 2 sec Reverse Power detected & To 286G Turbine trip Channel 1 Channel 2 ESV/IV closed > T1 = 2A/37G T2 = 2B/37B T2 50 sec & .

2.Turbine stop valves closed and reverse power detected 2 seconds. • In steam turbine under normal operation there is a continuous flow of steam through the machine. Any losses due to turbulence will be converted into heat. 1. .Reverse power detected for 50 seconds. which will be continuously carried away by the steam. 3.Turbine tripped and reverse power detected for 2 seconds.• This protection acts under the following conditions of operation.

the turbulence losses in the trapped steam may then build up a high temperature condition in low pressure stages. generator fails to trip on low forward power) while set continues to run at full speed. .• If the flow of steam ceases(control valve close due to any protection. leading to softening and distortion of blades.

• • • . STAGE 2(2 sec) It gives generator trip command . Second stage comes in to service if trip cause persists.7 seconds. It is having two stage operation STAGE-1 time delay of 1. This is only possible if fault lies b/w generator and breaker. Normally when the first stage timer operates and opens the generator breakers. the trip cause should cease to exists.) Hence generator backup protection is designed. Trip main and middle breaker leaving unit to house load protection.GENERATOR BACK UP IMPEDANCE PROTECTION • For all line faults generators are the main feeding elements which are to be protected against persistent fault.(this is not the house load operation which is being implemented from SWYD on frequency low. (left uncleared by outgoing feeder protection scheme.

Generator backup impedance stage-1 86 G 286 G >1 386 G To trip Generator main breaker To trip Generator middle breaker Generator back up protection trip relay Trip main and middle breaker Generator backup impedance stage-2 >1 286 G 386 G 486 G To trip generator field breaker Turbine trip .

If an earth fault occurs. is an isolated d. comprising the winding and the armature of the exciter with any associated field circuit breaker.c. circuit which in itself need not be earthed. • . no fault current will flow and the need for action will not be required.ROTOR FAULTS • The field circuit of a generator .

• Danger arises if a second earth fault occurs at a separate point in the winding. and therefore produces an unbalanced field forces on the rotor and results shaft distortion if fault is not cleared quickly . • Unbalanced magnetic forces on the rotor results in violent vibration of the rotor. . causing the current to be diverted. which may damage rotor.

C. Injection method c) D.ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION Three methods are available to detect this type of fault: a) Potentiometer method b) A.C. Injection method .

Exciter Field winding Sensitive voltage Relay POTENTIOMETER METHOD .

• The potentiometer method comprises a center tapped resistor connected in parallel with the field winding. the maximum voltage occurring for faults at the ends of the winding. • An earth fault on the field winding will produce a voltage across the relay. The center point of the resistor is connected to earth through a voltage relay. .

the tapping point on the potentiometer is varied by a push button or switch.• A ‘blind spot’ exists at the center of the field winding. this point being at a potential equal to that of the tapping point on the potentiometer. It is essential that station instructions be issued to make certain that the blind spot is checked at least once per shift. . • To avoid a fault at this location remaining undetected.

A. INJECTION METHOD Exciter Field winding Auxiliary Supply Sensitive Relay 64 .C.

. through an interposed capacitor and a relay coil. the secondary of which is connected between earth and one side of the field circuit. • An earth fault anywhere in the field winding will give rise to a current which is detected by the relay.• It comprises an auxiliary supply transformer.

• The capacitor limits the magnitude of the current and blocks the nominal field voltage. preventing discharge of a large direct current through the transformer. .

ADVANTAGE • This scheme has the advantage over the potentiometer method in that there is no ‘BLIND SPOT’ in the supervision of the field system. .

DISADVANTAGE • The A. . injection method has disadvantage that some current will flow continuously through the capacitance of the field winding to earth. • The current may flow through the machine bearings. causing erosion of the machine bearing surface.C.

and if this is done the capacitance current should be harmless. it is common practice to insulate the bearings and to provide an earth brush for the shaft.• Nevertheless. .

r.c. injection method are avoided by rectifying the injection voltage. .c. • The d. output of the transformer-rectifier power unit is arranged to bias the positive side of the field circuit to a negative voltage w. the earth.• The capacitance currents associated with the a.t.

• The negative side of the field system is at greater negative voltage to earth. • The current is limited by including a high resistance in the circuit and a sensitive relay is used to detect the current. . so an earth fault at any point on the field winding will cause current to flow through the power unit.

.• The fault current varies with the fault position. but this is not detrimental provided the relay can detect the minimum fault current and withstand the maximum.

GENERATOR ROTOR E/F Slip ring Field winding Diode wheel Main exciter Rotor E/F relay 500MW GENERATOR .



Field winding


Auxiliary Supply

Sensitive Relay


• The capacitance currents associated with the a.c. injection method are avoided by rectifying the injection voltage.

• The d.c. output of the transformer-rectifier power unit is arranged to bias the positive side of the field circuit to a negative voltage w.r.t. the earth.

The negative side of the field system is at greater negative voltage to earth, so an earth fault at any point on the field winding will cause current to flow through the power unit. The current is limited by including a high resistance in the circuit and a sensitive relay is used to detect the current.

but this is not detrimental provided the relay can detect the minimum fault current and withstand the maximum. .• The fault current varies with the fault position.

MECHANICAL PROTECTIONS • Protections that initiate turbine trip:: – Liquid in terminal box – High cold gas temp. – High exciter hot air temp. – High seal oil temperature from cooler – Stator Water conductivity high – Stator Water Flow Low • GCB and FB open on low forward power. .