In this paper, a new motion controller for a
quadrotor aircraft is introduced.

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In this paper, a new motion controller for a
quadrotor aircraft is introduced.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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*

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez

1

and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela

2,

1,2

Instituto Politcnico Nacional-CITEDI, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, B.C., 22510, Mexico.

moreno@citedi.mx

Abstract In this paper, a new motion controller for a

quadrotor aircraft is introduced. A reformulation of the

control inputs of the dynamic model is discussed and then

the control algorithm is given in a constructive form. The

stability proof of the state space origin of the overall

closed-loop system relies on the theory of singularly

perturbed systems. Numerical simulations corroborate

the viability of the proposed control scheme and the

conclusions concerning stability. A set of simulations

under practical conditions is also presented, where the

system is affected by different types of disturbances and

nonlinearities such as noise and actuator saturation.

Keywords Quadrotor, Trajectory Tracking Control,

Exponential stability, Singular Perturbations, Numerical

Simulations

1. Introduction

The study of the design and applications of unmanned

aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been an important topic over

the last few years. The current and potential applications

of these vehicles are extensive, such as surveillance, rescue,

espionage and entertainment, to mention a few.

UAVs can be controlled automatically to track a ight

plan. From the theoretical point of view, UAVs are quite

*

Work supported by SIP-IPN and by CONACyT Project 176587.

challenging since in most cases they are underactuated

systems, which means that these systems have more

degrees-of-freedom than control inputs.

The quadrotor is an UAV with six degrees-of-freedom

and only four control inputs (four rotors). The control

of the quadrotor is difcult because the nonlinearity of

its dynamic model [1]. It is not possible to control all

of the states at the same time. However, one can select

some states to be controlled. A possible combination of

controlled outputs can be the translational position and the

yaw angle. The roll and the pitch angles can be controlled

indirectly by introducing stable zero dynamics [2], [3].

Many methods to achieve attitude stabilization and

trajectory tracking control have been proposed in recent

years. In [4], the authors proposed a partial state

backstepping sliding mode controller using a simplied

model of the quadrotor. In [5] and [6], the application

of the backstepping methodology to the control of

quadrotors was revisited, showing that motion control can

be achieve within the Lyapunov function framework. In

[2], [3] and [7], a visual feedback is added to achieve

stabilization of the system at the desired conguration.

An experimental evaluation of a control approach was

discussed in [8]. The work introduced in [9] proposed a

neural network controller for the robust trajectory tracking

control of the quadrotor posture. It is assumed that the

model is partially known and that the system is subject to

wind disturbances. By using the Newton-Euler formalism,

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

1

www.intechopen.com

International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems

ARTICLE

www.intechopen.com

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013

1 Instituto Politcnico Nacional-CITEDI, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, Mexico

* Corresponding author E-mail: moreno@citedi.mx

Received 07 Nov 2012; Accepted 26 Jun 2013

DOI: 10.5772/56785

2013 Gonzlez-Vzquez and Moreno-Valenzuela; licensee InTech. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative

Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use,

distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez

1

and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela

1,*

Motion Control of a Quadrotor

Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

Regular Paper

a backstepping-based controller was introduced in [10]. In

[11], the feedback linearization technique is used to

derive a tracking controller. An analysis of the internal

dynamics is included in that work. More recently, in

[12], a modied sliding mode term is designed with the

aim of controlling the attitude of a quadrotor aircraft

subject to a class of disturbances. A motion controller

composed of six nonlinear PD loops is introduced in

[13]. The controller guarantees that the error trajectories

are uniformly bounded. The design of a controller based

on the block control technique combined with the super

twisting control algorithm for trajectory tracking of a

quadrotor aircraft is introduced in [14].

The recent textbooks [15] and [16] can be consulted

for further references on the history, modelling, motion

planning and control of quadrotors.

Control approaches, such as feedback linearization,

backstepping, sliding modes, adaptive control, to mention

a few, match the idea that the resulting closed-loop system

should satisfy Lyapunovs theory. As an alternative,

the theory of singularly perturbed systems has also

been recognized as a powerful tool in the analysis and

design of controllers for different kinds of systems such

as electromechanical, biological and electrical, see for

example [17] and [22]. Essentially, this technique is based

on analysing the convergence of the solution of a set of

differential equations in two (or more) time scales.

Recent applications of the theory of singularly perturbed

systems in the derivation of controllers for mechatronic

systems can be found in [18], [19], [20] and [21]. The

derivation of the controllers only considered the existence

of gains assuring the time scale separation while numerical

simulations and real-time experiments conrmed their

practical viability.

The theory of singularly perturbed systems is

well-adapted to the design of trajectory tracking

controllers for quadrotor systems, since control laws

can be easily synthesized by using different time scales.

The error dynamics obtained by using a controller

inspired from time scale separation should satisfy a

set of conditions to guarantee that the error trajectories

really converge to zero as time increases. The theory of

singularly perturbed systems established in [17] provides

a rigorous framework to prove the convergence of systems

with different time scales.

In the next section, references about control designs for

quadrotors inspired in time scale separation are provided.

A motion controller was proposed by Zuo [23], which

is based on using a new command-ltered backstepping

technique to stabilize the attitude and a linear tracking

differentiator to eliminate the classical inner/outer-loop

structure. The work by Bertrand et al. [24] deals with

the regulation problem and the time scale separation by

introducing an angular velocity controller in terms of a

perturbing parameter together with the angular velocity

commands. Esteban et al. [25] propose a control scheme

for a radio-controlled helicopter. Stability proof is based

on using a three time scale separation.

The design of control algorithms for quadrotor aircraft

which ensures tracking of a desired time-varying

trajectory via the theory of singularly perturbed systems

still requires study since literature related to these subjects

is limited.

In this document, a new control algorithm is introduced.

The proposed controller has been derived by using the

following time scale separation ideas:

Differential equations with fast time scale are generated

by using an angular proportional-integral velocity

controller.

Differential equations with medium time scale are

generated by a kinematic-like scheme, which generates

angular position commands.

Differential equations with slow time scale are

generated by the translational position controller.

The translational dynamics is controlled indirectly by

designing proper orientation commands. As seen later,

those commands are designed under the assumption

that the angular position is null.

An advantage of the proposed scheme is the addition of

integral action, which is helpful in compensating model

uncertainties and external disturbances. The overall

closed-loop system stability is studied rigorously by using

the Lyapunov theory and stability of singularly perturbed

systems [17].

The present document is organized as follows. Section 2 is

devoted to the quadrotor dynamics and the control goal.

The proposed motion control algorithm is described in

Section 3. Section 4 provides the proof that the state space

origin of the resulting closed-loop system is exponentially

stable. Section 5 describes the simulation results, which

have the purpose of conrming that by using the proposed

scheme the quadrotor matches exponentially a desired

translation chaotic trajectory and a desired periodic yaw

angle.

Simulations considering that the system is affected by

perturbations and nonlinearities that appear in a practical

implementation are provided in Section 6. There, the time

scale separation introduced by the proposed controller is

also conrmed. Additionally, Section 6 presents the results

by using a desired translational helicoidal trajectory.

Finally, some concluding remarks and discussion on

further research are provided in Section 7.

Notation: The variables and constants are represented

by lowercase letters, Roman letters and Greek characters,

x, IR. Vectors of dimension n are dened by bold

lowercase letters and bold italic Greek letters, i.e., x,

IR

n

. The matrices of size n m are dened by italic capital

letters, i.e., B IR

nm

. I

33

denotes the identity matrix of

size 3. An over dot placed on a variable, vector or matrix,

indicates differentiation with respect to time, i.e., x IR

n

.

For x IR, we have that c

x

= cos(x), s

x

= sin(x) and t

x

=

tan(x). The notation arctan(x) IR means the standard

inverse trigonometric function for all x IR.

min

{A(x)}

and

Max

{A(x)} denote the minimum and maximum

eigenvalues of a symmetric positive denite matrix A(x),

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 2

www.intechopen.com

for all x IR

n

, respectively. x =

x

2

1

+ + x

2

n

stands

for the norm of vector x IR

n

. For vector x or matrix B

with an arbitrary dimension, its transpose is expressed by

x

T

or B

T

, respectively. The cross product of two vectors

a and b IR

3

is represented by a b IR

3

. A specic

element of a vector or matrix is invoked by index notation,

for example, x

2

, B

34

IR.

2. Quadrotor dynamics and control goal

2.1. Quadrotor dynamics

The equations of motion of the quadrotor are studied

in the recent textbooks [27], [16] and [15]. The

quadrotor dynamics is represented by a set of six ordinary

differential equations of second order. In order to

represent the quadrotor dynamics, we have used three

differential equations derived in the inertial frame and

three differential equations derived in the body frame. The

inertial frame is denoted by E and the body frame as B. In

Figure 1, a detailed representation of the quadrotor aircraft

is given.

However, as discussed in [23], [28], [30], [31], [32] and [33],

the quadrotor dynamics can also be represented by using

three equations for the translation dynamics obtained in

the inertial frame E and three equations for the orientation

dynamics obtained in the body frame B. Neglecting

the aerodynamic effects and the gyroscopic torque, that

motion representation in state variables is given by

d

dt

p = p, (1)

d

dt

p = gz

e

+

T

m

R()z

e

, (2)

d

dt

= W(), (3)

I

f

d

dt

= I

f

+

a

, (4)

where the constant m is the mass of the quadrotor, g is

gravity acceleration, p = [x y z]

T

IR

3

means the linear

positions with respect to inertial reference frame, =

[ ]

T

is the vector of Euler angles, which represent the

roll, pitch and yaw angles in the inertial reference frame,

I

f

= diag{I

xx

, I

yy

, I

zz

} is a matrix that contains the inertia

constants, = [

x

y

z

]

T

IR

3

is the vector of angular

velocity with respect to the body reference frame,

z

e

=

0

0

1

which is used for compactness of the notation,

R() =

+ s

+ c

clockwise/left-handed rotation with x-y-z convention, the

lift forces f

i

generated by the four propellers can be

arranged in the vector

f =

f

1

f

2

f

3

f

4

,

which will be considered the control input,

T = f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

=

1 1 1 1

f , (5)

is the total thrust and the vector

a

=

0 l 0 l

l 0 l 0

f ,

represents the torques applied to the quadrotor, which are

generated by the lift forces of the rotor propellers.

Additionally, concerning the equation (3),

W() =

1 s

0 c

0 s

/c

/c

.

In order to guarantee the non singularity of W() for =

/2, we assume that the quadrotor does not perform

acrobatic manoeuvres.

Notice that the relationship (3) from angular velocity in the

body frame IR

3

to the time derivative of the Euler

angles in the inertial frame IR

3

has been obtained from

the equation [29]

d

dt

R() = R()S(),

where

S() =

0

z

y

z

0

x

y

x

0

.

Throughout this paper the vector IR

3

will be denoted

either as the orientation or as the angular position of the

quadrotor.

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

3

www.intechopen.com

2.2. Control problem formulation

Considering the vectors p

d

(t) and

d

(t), which are the

desired Cartesian position and the desired orientation,

respectively, the vector

=

d

(t) (t) (6)

is the orientation error and

p = p

d

(t) p(t) (7)

is the Cartesian position error.

Roughly speaking, the control problem consists in

designing a control algorithm f (t) IR

4

such that the limit

lim

t

(t)

p(t)

= 0, (8)

is guaranteed for a compact set of initial conditions of the

quadrotor state variables.

As will be seen later, the specication of the desired

position p

d

(t) should be differentiable at least up to order

four and the desired angular position

d

(t) should be

differentiable at least up to order two, while the desired

roll angle

d

(t) and desired pitch angle

d

(t) should

introduce stable position error dynamics, with the angle

specication of the desired yaw

d

(t) assumed to be at

least twice differentiable.

3. Development of the proposed algorithm

The proposed controller f IR

4

has a complex structure.

It will be described in a constructive form. First, consider

that the control law f has the structure

f = B() (9)

where IR

4

is a signal to be dened and

B() =

1

4c

0

1

2l

1

4

1

4c

1

2l

0

1

4

1

4c

0

1

2l

1

4

1

4c

1

2l

0

1

4

. (10)

Matrix B() is obtained under the construction

B() =

0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

1 1 1 1

0 l 0 l

l 0 l 0

1

.

which is singular for

) = 0 or

cos(

) = 0.

The matrix B() in (10) satises the following:

Property: Consider any vector IR

4

. Then,

1 1 1 1

B() =

1

c

1

, (11)

where

1

is the rst element of the vector IR

4

.

is obtained.

By using property (11) it is possible to show that under the

control law (9) the quadrotor dynamics (1)-(4) becomes

d

dt

p = p, (12)

d

dt

p = gz

e

+

1

m

R

13

R

23

R

33

1

R

33

, (13)

d

dt

= W(), (14)

I

f

d

dt

= I

f

+

r

, (15)

where

1

IR is the rst component of IR

4

and

r

=

[

2

3

4

]

T

IR

3

contains the other ones.

The block diagram implementation of the proposed

controller can be appreciated in the Figure 2. As will

be seen in the next section, the proposed scheme has an

inner loop of angular velocity control and an outer loop of

translational and angular position control.

3.1. Control of the angular dynamics

We solve the problem by using the following controller

r

= I

f

d

+ I

f

d

+ K

pw

+ K

iw

, (16)

d

dt

=

=

d

, (17)

where the K

pw

and K

iw

are 3 3 positive denite matrices.

It should be noted that this control structure matches

the PI velocity controller for the robot manipulators

reported in [35], which is adapted from the structure

of the well-known PD+ motion controller [34]. The

addition of integral action has the advantage of improving

the rejection of time-varying disturbances and model

uncertainties.

To guarantee that the actual orientation (t) converges to

the desired orientation

d

(t) (to be explicitly computed

later) the following kinematic-like controller is adopted

[26]

d

= W()

1

[

d

+ K

po

], (18)

with K

po

a 3 3 symmetric positive denite matrix.

Thus, the angular error dynamics is given by

d

dt

= K

po

+W()

, (19)

I

f

d

dt

= I

f

K

pw

K

iw

, (20)

d

dt

=

. (21)

The only equilibrium point of system (19)-(21) is given at

the state space origin, that is,

= 0 IR

9

.

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 4

www.intechopen.com

velocity

tracking

controller

quadrotor

kinematic-like

posture

controller

f

B

p p

, ,

, ,

inner loop

outer loop

, , , ,

-1

Figure 2. Block diagram of the proposed motion control algorithm which is based on a primary model-based angular velocity tracking

controller and secondary kinematic-like translational and angular position controller.

3.2. Control of the translational dynamics

By using the denition of p(t) in (7), the translational error

dynamics can be written as

d

dt

p =

p, (22)

d

dt

p = p

d

+ gz

e

1

m

R

13

R

23

R

33

1

R

33

. (23)

Now, in order to design a way to stabilize exponentially

the system (22)-(23), let us assume that

(t) = 0 =(t) =

d

(t), t t

0

. (24)

Assumption (24) will be relaxed later when the stability

analysis is presented. It is clear that in practice,

either asymptotical or exponential tracking of the desired

angular position

d

(t) can be guaranteed.

Invoking assumption (24), the translational error

dynamics (22)-(23) becomes

d

dt

p =

p, (25)

d

dt

p = p

d

+ gz

e

1

m

R

13d

R

23d

R

33d

1

R

33d

, (26)

where the d subscript in R

ijd

means that the signal R

ij

depends on

d

. Equaling the right-hand side of (26) to

some control vector

p1

IR

3

we have

p

d

+ gz

e

1

m

R

13d

R

23d

R

33d

1

R

33d

=

p1

. (27)

It is worth noticing that

p1

= [

p11

p12

p13

]

T

IR

3

.

If the desired Euler angles are specied so that equation

(27) is satised, the translational error dynamics (25)-(26)

is then given by

d

dt

p =

p, (28)

d

dt

p =

p1

. (29)

Therefore, the selection of the PD structure

p1

= K

pp

p K

dp

p (30)

stabilizes exponentially the translational error dynamics

(28)-(29).

Let us rewrite equation (27) as

R

13d

R

23d

R

33d

1

mR

33d

= p

d

+ gz

e

p1

=

1

, (31)

where

1

= [

11

21

13

] IR

3

. It is possible to look at

the equation (31) as a nonlinear algebraic equation system

where the unknown variables are

d

(t),

d

(t) and

1

(t)

IR, while

d

(t) is arbitrarily specied. A solution for the

nonlinear algebraic equation system (31) is given by

d

=

d

(t)

d

(t)

d

(t)

arctan

d

m

11

1

c

d

m

12

arctan

d

m

11

1

+ s

d

m

12

d

(t)

, (32)

1

= m

13

= m[ p

d3

+ g

p13

], (33)

where

11

,

12

and

13

are obtained from (31).

Notice that the computation of

d

and

d

is necessary

to implement the control law

r

in (16), since they are

required in the desired angular velocity

d

in (18) and

in the desired angular acceleration

d

which is explicitly

given by

d

= W()

1

[

d

+ K

po

] +

d

dt

W()

1

d

+ K

po

.

(34)

At the same time, the calculation of

d

and

d

requires the

signals

p1

and

p1

, which, under denition (30), depend

on the unmeasurable signals

p and p

(3)

.

In order to respect the assumption that the only measured

signals are those of the state [p

T

p

T

T

]

T

IR

12

, the

following denition of

p1

is proposed:

p1

= K

f 1

[

p1

p2

] (35)

p2

= K

f 2

[

p2

[K

pp

p K

dp

p]], (36)

where K

f 1

and K

f 2

are 3 3 symmetric positive denite

matrices. Thus, the larger the numerical value of K

f 1

and K

f 2

, the faster the convergence of the signal

p1

(t)

to [K

pp

p(t) K

dp

p(t)]. Therefore, the closed-loop

dynamics of the translational error (28)-(29) can be

recovered in an exponential way.

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

5

www.intechopen.com

The explicit denition of

d

,

d

,

d

and

d

are provided in

Appendix since they are necessary to compute

d

in (18)

and

d

in (34).

The rest of this section is devoted to explaining the steps

to be followed in order to implement the proposed motion

controller.

3.3. Summary of the control algorithm

Next, we provide a summary of the equations to

implement the proposed trajectory tracking controller.

Specically, we provide the steps to achieve a program for

numerical simulation purposes.

Step 1: Specify the desired signals for translation

position p

d

(t) and desired yaw angle

d

(t), which

must be four and two times differentiable, respectively.

Step 2: Compute the translational errors p and

p

Step 3: Compute the signal

p1

through the linear lter

(35)-(36).

Step 4: Compute

1

in (33)

Step 5: Compute

d

,

d

, and

d

. The explicit

expressions for

d

,

d

,

d

,

d

are provided in Appendix.

Step 6: Compute

d

and

d

in (18) and (34),

respectively.

Step 7: Compute the signal

r

= [

2

3

4

]

T

IR

3

in

(16)-(17).

Step 8: Finally, with

1

and

r

compute the effective

control action f in equation (9).

In the next section, a theoretical framework for the

exponential stability of the overall closed-loop system is

provided. Firstly, the closed-loop system is obtained and

then stability will be discussed by using the theory of

singularly perturbed systems [17].

4. Overall closed-loop system stability via three time scale

Consider the following parametrization of the control

gains

K

pw

=

K

pw

1

, K

iw

=

K

iw

1

, (37)

K

f 1

=

K

f 1

1

, K

f 2

=

K

f 2

1

, (38)

and

K

po

=

K

po

2

, (39)

where

1

and

2

are positive constants denoted as

perturbing parameters, which satisfy

2

>>

1

> 0. (40)

Therefore, it is possible to show that the overall

closed-loop system can be written as

d

dt

p =

p, (41)

d

dt

p = p

d

+ gz

e

1

m

R

13

(

d

, )

R

23

(

d

, )

R

33

(

d

, )

1

R

33

(

d

, )

, (42)

d

dt

=

, (43)

2

d

dt

= K

po

+

2

W(

d

, )

, (44)

1

d

dt

= I

1

f

[

1

(

2

) I

f

+ K

pw

+ K

iw

], (45)

1

d

dt

p1

= K

f 1

[

p1

p2

], (46)

1

d

dt

p2

= K

f 2

[

p2

[K

pp

p K

dp

p]], (47)

where, by virtue of the angular velocity error

in (17),

(

2

) =

d

(

2

)

, with

d

dened in (18). Notice

that we have written (

2

), since

d

(

2

), in order to

emphasize that the perturbing parameter

2

is present into

the denition of

d

. It is worth noticing that the vector

d

IR

3

is obtained from (32) while the scalar

1

is dened

in (33).

The overall closed-loop system (41)-(47) has the standard

form of a singularly perturbed system with a three time

scale, which has been conveniently derived through the

parametrization of the controller gains (37)-(39).

The stability proof of the system(41)-(47) and the obtention

of the time scales are based on the following steps:

The rst step in the stability proof, by assumption (40),

is the separation of the system in a twofold time scale.

Thus,

x =

x

s

x

m

z =

p1

p2

,

which at the same time represents the states with fast

time scale.

For the second step, exponential convergence of the

solutions x(t) is proven by considering that

x

s

=

x

m

= .

Thus, we have that x

s

represents the states with slow time

scale, x

m

are the states with medium time scale, while z

denotes the states with fast time scale. Notice, however,

that the slow time and medium time states in [x

T

s

x

T

m

]

T

are

both slow in comparison to the fast states in z. Our main

theoretical result is established as follows:

Proposition 1: Consider the singularly perturbed system

(41)-(47). Then, there always exists

1

> 0 such that the state

space origin of the closed-loop system (41)-(47) is exponentially

stable with

1

>

1

> 0.

Proof: The proof of Proposition 1 is achieved by verifying

the conditions of the theorem 9.3 in [17]. The proof of

Proposition 1 is set down in the following ve items:

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 6

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1) The closed-loop system (41)-(47) has a unique

equilibrium point at

[ p

T

p

T

T

T

]

T

[

T

p1

T

p2

]

T

= 0.

2) One important step in the application of theorem 9.3

[17] is to verify that the subsystem (45)-(47) has isolated

roots of the form

z = z

= h(t, x),

with x = [ p

T

p

T

T

T

]

T

and z = [

T

p1

T

p2

]

T

,

for

1

= 0. The above expression is known as

quasi-steady-state solution [17]. Hence by substituting

1

= 0 into (45)-(47) we have that any isolated root

z

IR

9

satises

= K

1

pw

K

iw

, (48)

p1

= K

pp

p K

dp

p, (49)

p2

= K

pp

p K

dp

p. (50)

It is noteworthy that the isolated root (49) evaluated

in (31)-(33) gives the specic value

d

for the desired

orientation.

3) The system (41)-(47) and the isolated roots (48)-(50)

have bounded partial derivatives in compact sets.

4) By considering

1

= 0 and using the isolated roots

(48)-(50) in equations (41)-(44), the following slow

dynamics system is obtained:

d

dt

p =

p, (51)

d

dt

p = p

d

+ gz

e

1

m

R

13

(

d

, )

R

23

(

d

, )

R

33

(

d

, )

1

R

33

(

d

, )

,(52)

d

dt

= K

1

pw

K

iw

, (53)

2

d

dt

= K

po

2

W(

d

, )K

1

pw

K

iw

. (54)

As previously mentioned, the states

x = [x

T

s

x

T

m

]

T

= [ p

T

p

T

T

T

]

T

are slow with respect to

z = [

p1

T

p2

T

]

T

.

The local exponential stability of the state space origin

of the slow dynamics (41)-(44) can be derived by using

again a time scale approach, interpreting x

s

as slow

with respect to x

m

. For the sake of simplicity, we have

stated such a result in Proposition 2, which will be

given later.

5) To obtain the boundary layer system, the change of

variable

y = z h(t, x),

is dened. Let us remember that x = [ p

T

p

T

T

T

] and

z = [

T

p1

T

p2

], with z

By deriving y with respect to = t/

1

and setting

1

=

0, we obtain the boundary layer system

d

d

y

1

= I

1

f

K

pw

y

1

, (55)

d

d

y

2

= K

f 1

[y

2

y

3

], (56)

d

d

y

3

= K

f 2

y

3

, (57)

which is a linear system. The Lyapunov function for

system (55)-(57) is dened as

W(y

1

, y

2

, y

3

) =

1

2

y

T

1

I

f

y

1

+

1

2

y

T

2

y

2

+

1

2

y

T

3

y

3

, > 0,

whose derivative with respect to the fast time scale is

given by

d

d

W(y

1

, y

2

, y

3

)

=

y

1

y

2

y

3

K

pw

0 0

0 K

f 1

1

2

K

f 1

0

1

2

K

f 1

K

f 2

y

1

y

2

y

3

.

By invoking Sylvesters theorem, the condition

<

4

min

{K

f 1

}

min

{K

f 2

}

Max

{K

f 1

}

2

guarantees the inequality

d

d

W(y

1

, y

2

, y

3

)

1

W(y

1

, y

2

, y

3

),

1

> 0.

Therefore, because (55)-(57) is a linear system, we have

sufcient conditions to claim that there is an arbitrarily

large compact set B

such that

[y

1

(0)

T

y

2

(0)

T

y

3

(0)

T

]

T

B

implies that

[y

1

()

T

y

2

()

T

y

3

()

T

]

T

0

as the scaled time .

By theorem 9.3 [17], there are sufcient conditions to claim

that there exists

1

such that

1

>

1

> 0 guarantees

that there is an arbitrarily large compact set R

A

of initial

conditions where the trajectories of the overall closed-loop

system (41)-(47) achieves the following limit

lim

t

x(t)

z(t)

= lim

t

p(t)

p(t)

(t)

(t)

(t)

p1

(t)

p2

(t)

= 0.

holds by using the control algorithms in Section 3.3.

The proof of Proposition 1 is based on the assumption of

the local exponential convergence of the slow dynamics

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

7

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Accordingly, this step can only be carried out if the

matching procedure was already performed for the rst

error image. Therefore, only areas that were not removed

during the rst matching procedure are extended by

corresponding areas of the subsequent error images.

Otherwise, the noise (falsely detected areas) would cause

an enlargement of incorrectly detected areas. The red short

dashed rectangles in Figure 8 mark 2 examples of such

corresponding areas. Resulting areas that are too large

are removed from the error images I

n

and I

n+1

. This is

indicated by the areas in the right lower corner of error

image I

n

in Figure 8. As can be seen, the resulting error

image I

n

from Figure 8 is used as input (error image I

n

) in

Figure 7. Without the extension of the areas, the midmost

candidate in Figure 7 would have been rejected.

As some real moving objects are sometimes not detected

in an error image as a result of an inaccurate optical ow

calculation or (radial) distortion, the temporal matching

would fail. This could already be the case if only one

area in one error image is missing. Thus, candidates that

were detected once in 3 temporal succeeding error images

and 4 greyscale images (original images), respectively, are

stored for a sequence of 3 error images subsequent to the

image where the matching was successful, cf. Figure 9(a).

Their coordinates are updated for the succeeding error

images by using the optical ow data. As a consequence,

they can be seen as candidates for moving objects in

the succeeding images, but they are not used within the

matching procedure as input. If within this sequence

of images a corresponding area is found again, it is

stored for a larger sequence of images (more than 3) and

its coordinates are updated for every succeeding error

image. The number of sequences depends on the following

condition:

=

c+ c

c c

| c = c

2 c | c = c,

(13)

where c is the number of found corresponding areas and

c is the number of missing corresponding areas for one

candidate starting with the image where the candidate

was found again. If < 0 > 10, the candidate is

rejected. Moreover, the candidate is no longer stored if it

was detected again in 3 temporal succeeding images. In

this case, it is detected during the matching procedure.

An example concerning to this procedure is shown in

Figure 9(b). As one can imagine, error image I

n

in

Figure 9(a) is equivalent (except area-extension) to I

n+1

in Figure 7, whereas error image I

n

in Figure 9(b) is

equivalent to I

n+2

in Figure 9(a).

For a further processing of the data, only the position

(shown as small black crosses in the left lower corners of

the rectangles in Figures 7 and 9) and size of the rectangles

marking the candidates are of relevance. Thus, for every

error image the afore mentioned information is stored

for candidates that were detected during the matching

procedure, for candidates that were detected up to 3 error

images before and for candidates that were found again

(see above). On the basis of this data, candidates that are

very close to each other are combined and candidates that

are too large are rejected.

Using Actual

Optical Flow F

n

Using Subsequent

Optical Flow F

n+1

Actual Error mage

n

Subsequent Error mage

n+1

y

x

Error mage

n+2

(a)

Using Actual

Optical Flow F

n

Using Subsequent

Optical Flow F

n+1

Actual Error mage

n

Subsequent Error mage

n+1

y

x

Error mage

n+2

(b)

Figure 9. Preventing rejection of candidates for moving objects that were detected only in a few sequences. (a) Storage of candidates

for which a further matching fails. These candidates are marked by a blue dotdashed rectangle. The green dashed rectangle marks a

candidate for which a corresponding area was found again and the red short-dashed rectangle marks a candidate with successful matching.

(b) Storage of candidates for which a corresponding area was found again. The 2 areas drawn with transparency in error image I

n

indicate

the position of the candidates, but they are not part of the error image.

Notation Description Unit Value

g gravity acceleration [m/s

2

] 9.80665

m Quadrotor mass [kg] 0.141

l Distance between the

quadrotor centre of

mass and the rotation

axis of propeller

[m] 0.175

I

xx

, I

yy

Moment of inertia

along and

[kg m

2

] 2.1 10

3

I

zz

Moment of inertia

along

[kg m

2

] 4.2 10

3

Propeller parameter

related to the reactive

torque

[m] 10.2 10

3

Table 1. Description of the quadrotor parameters.

Figure 3. Actual quadrotor path p(t) using

1

= 1.0,

2

= 0.5 and

simulation time of 300.0 [sec]. The grey point represents the initial

position.

(51)-(54). In order to relax such an assumption, the explicit

proof of exponential convergence of the slow time states

x

s

= [ p(t)

T

p(t)

T

(t)

T

]

T

and the medium time states

x

m

= (t) is provided as follows:

Proposition 2: Consider the singularly perturbed system

(51)-(54), which represents the slow dynamics in the proof of

Proposition 1. Then, there always exists

2

> 0 such that

the state space origin of the closed-loop system (51)-(54) is

exponentially stable with

2

>

2

> 0.

Proof: The proof of Proposition 2 is achieved by verifying

the conditions of the theorem 9.3 in [17]. The proof of

Proposition 2 is set down in the following ve items:

1) The closed-loop system (51)-(54) has a unique

equilibrium point at [ p

T

p

T

T

T

]

T

= 0.

2) The quasi-steady-state solution

z = z

= x

m

= h(t, x

s

)

is given by the isolated root

= 0. (58)

3) The system (51)-(54) and the isolated root (58) have

bounded partial derivatives in compact sets.

4) The slow dynamics is obtained by substituting the

isolated root (58) into the system (51)-(53), and

invoking the equation (27), i.e.,

d

dt

p =

p, (59)

d

dt

p = K

pp

p K

dp

p, (60)

d

dt

= K

1

pw

K

iw

. (61)

Let us consider the Lyapunov function

V( p, p, ) =

1

2

[ p +

p]

T

[ p +

p]

+

1

2

p

T

[K

pp

+ K

dp

2

I

33

] p +

1

2

T

K

iw

, (62)

with > 0 small enough so that

K

dp

I

33

> 0.

The time derivative of V( p, p, ) along the trajectories

of the slow dynamics (59)-(61) is given as

V( p, p, ) =

p

T

[K

dp

I

33

]

p

p

T

K

pp

p

T

K

iw

K

1

pw

K

iw

, (63)

The right-hand side of equation (63) is globally

negative denite for a small enough > 0. Finally, it is

possible to prove that the inequality

V( p, p, )

2

V( p, p, ),

with some

2

> 0, is satised for all [ p

T

p

T

T

]

T

B

r

.

Therefore, the state-space origin of the slow dynamics

(59)-(61) is exponentially stable. In other words,

lim

t

p(t)

T

p(t)

T

(t)

T

T

= 0

with exponential convergence rate as time t increases.

5) By deriving

y = z h(t, x

s

) = x

m

h(t, x

s

)

with respect to scaled time = t/

2

and setting

2

= 0 in (54), the following boundary layer system

is obtained:

d

d

= K

po

(64)

which is exponentially stable for all K

po

> 0.

By theorem 9.3 [17], there are sufcient conditions to claim

that there exists

2

such that

2

>

2

> 0 guarantees

that there is an arbitrarily large compact set R

B

of initial

conditions where

lim

t

[ p(t)

T

p(t)

T

(t)

T

(t)]

T

= 0.

1 and 2 is the existence of control gains (37)-(39) so as the

local exponential stability of the closed-loop (41)-(47) is

assured. Additionally, Proposition 1 and 2 guarantee the

existence of perturbing parameters

1

and

2

such that

2

>

2

>>

1

>

1

> 0,

which can be used as a tuning guideline.

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 8

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Figure 4. Slow time scale states: the position errors p(t), translational velocity errors

p(t), and integral of the angular velocity error (t) for

the different values of the perturbing parameters

1

and

2

. Medium time scale states: orientation error (t) for the different values of the

perturbing parameters

1

and

2

. Some of the signals are scaled in magnitude in order to improve their visualization with respect to the

other ones.

Figure 5. Fast time scale: Time evolution of y

1

(t) =

(t) + K

1

pw

K

iw

(t), y

2

(t) =

p1

(t) + K

pp

p(t) + K

dp

p(t) and y

3

(t) =

p2

(t) + K

pp

p(t) + K

dp

p(t)

for the different values of the perturbing parameters

1

and

2

. Some of the signals are scaled in magnitude in order to improve their

visualization with respect to the other ones.

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

9

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5. Simulation results

We have used the Matlab and Simulink toolboxes to

implement the system described in Figure 1. In the

simulations we considered that the initial conditions of the

quadrotor and the controller are null. The parameters of

the quadrotor are given in Table 1.

The desired position is dened as

p

d

(t) =

x

d

(t)

y

d

(t)

z

d

(t)

= a

o

x(t)

y(t)

z(t) + 1

IR

3

, (65)

where x(t), y(t), z(t), are obtained by means of the

Rabinovich-Fabrikant equations [36], that is,

=

o

z 1 + x

2

+ x

x

3 z + 1 x

2

+ y

2 z [ + x y]

IR

3

, (66)

being = 0.1 y = 0.3. Besides,

o

= 0.2, a

o

= 1.

Initial conditions are x(0) = 0.16, y(0) = 0.1 and z(0) =

0.1. The signals p

d

, p

d

, p

(3)

d

and p

(4)

d

are obtained by a

successive time derivative of p

d

(t) in (66) and substituting

in these the right-hand side of equation (66).

The desired yawangle

d

(t) is dened as the time-periodic

function

d

= a

1

sin

2

1

1

t

+ a

2

sin

2

1

2

t

IR , (67)

with

1

= 30 [sec],

2

= 4 [sec], a

1

= 0.5 [rad] and a

2

= 0.1

[rad].

Control gains have been selected using the

parametrization (37)-(38) and (39). In particular,

K

pw

=

1

1

diag {0.005, 0.005, 0.075} ,

K

iw

=

1

1

diag {0.005, 0.005, 0.075} ,

K

f 1

=

1

1

diag {25, 25, 25} , (68)

K

f 2

=

1

1

diag {50, 50, 50} , and

K

po

=

1

2

diag {5, 5, 5} , where

1

= 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, (69)

and

2

= 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5. (70)

On the other hand, the gains of the translational controller

are given by

K

pp

= diag {2, 0.75, 10} ,

K

dp

= diag {3, 1, 20} .

(71)

The purpose of the numerical simulations is to conrm

that the actual quadrotor trajectories p(t) and (t)

converge to the desired position trajectory p

d

(t) in (65) and

to the desired yaw angle

d

(t) in (67). In addition, with the

presented simulations the time scale separation introduced

by the controller is veried. The simulations show the time

evolution of the slow time scale states

x(t) =

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

x

3

(t)

p(t)

p(t)

(t)

,

Figure 6. Time evolution of the norm of the slow time scale states

x(t), the norm of the medium time scale states z(t) and the

norm of the fast time scale states y(t) for the different values of

the perturbing parameters

1

and

2

.

the medium time scale states

z(t) = (t)

and the fast time scale states

y(t) = z(t) h(t, x(t)) ,

where the quasi-steady-state solution h(t, x(t)) is given

explicitly in (48)-(50), being

x(t) = [x(t)

T

z(t)

T

]

T

:= [ p

T

p

T

T

T

]

T

.

More specically, the fast states are

y =

y

1

(t)

y

2

(t)

y

3

(t)

(t) + K

1

pw

K

iw

(t)

p1

(t) + K

pp

p(t) + K

dp

p(t)

p2

(t) + K

pp

p(t) + K

dp

p(t)

.

Figure 3 shows the actual quadrotor path p(t) for a time

interval of 300.0 [sec] and the control gains previously

dened with

1

= 1 and

1

= 0.5. The desired trajectory

corresponds to the attractor system given by (66).

The rest of the Figures show the response of the system for

the different values of the perturbation parameters

1

and

2

. In particular, a simulation has been performed for each

combination of the perturbing parameters (

1

,

2

), which

gives a total of 20 simulations.

These simulations have been carried out in two nested

for loops. Each iteration corresponds to a simulation

with a combination of parameters (

1

,

2

). In the outer

for loop, the parameter

1

is increased and in the inner

for loop, the parameter

2

is increased as (69) and (70),

respectively. The results are shown in different coloured

lines. For each colour, lighter lines mean the former

simulations and darker lines mean the latter simulations.

Figure 4 depicts the slow time scale states, given by

position errors p(t), velocity errors

p(t) and the integral

of the angular velocity error (t). Due to the negligible

differences between the compared signals,the plots of p(t)

and

p(t) are overlapped for the different values of

1

and

2

. In addition, the convergence of the signal (t) for the

different values of

1

is barely affected. Figure 4 also shows

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 10

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Figure 7. Total applied force T(t) and applied torque

a

(t) for the different values of

1

and

2

.

quadrotor

f

sensor

a

s+a

controller

position

wind

traslational 8 angular signals

+

+

yaw

desired

trajectories

ideal

model

noise

Figure 8. Block diagram of the simulations with practical

disturbances.

the medium time scale states, which are given by the

orientation errors

(t),

(t) and

. The main observation

is that the convergence rate is increased if

2

is decreased,

which is predicted by theory in Proposition 1 and 2.

In Figure 5, the time evolution of the states with fast time

scale y(t) can be seen. Notice that the smaller the value of

the parameter

1

, the faster the convergence of the signals

y

1

(t), y

2

(t) and y

3

(t). Another important observation is

that the parameter

2

has no effect on the convergence of

y(t), which is consistent with Proposition 2.

Figure 6 shows the time evolution of the norm of the slow

time scale states x(t), the norm of the medium time scale

states z(t) and the norm of the fast time scale states

y(t).

The results in Figures 4, 5 and 6 conrm that the

perturbation parameter

2

has more effect on the

convergence of the medium time scale states, while the

perturbing parameter

1

causes the signal y(t) to converge

to zero much faster than x(t) (the slow and medium time

scale states).

Finally, the total applied force T(t) and the applied torque

a

(t) for the different values of the parameters

1

and

2

are depicted in Figure 7. It is appreciated that both signals

are well-behaved for all time.

6. Simulations with practical disturbances

Simulations have been carried out incorporating the

effect of practical disturbances. In Figure 8, a block

diagram showing the incorporation of disturbances in the

simulations is provided. The blocks are described as

follows:

Controller. This block corresponds to the controller law

described by equations (9), (16)-(17), (18), (32)-(33) and

(35)-(36).

Saturation. This block limits the forces generated by

the propellers. The lower limit is 0 [N] and the upper

limit is 1.0 [N]. It is worth noting that this nonlinearity

provides only positive control action, which has the

physical meaning that the propellers keep the same

direction of rotation at all times.

Low pass lter. This block is represented in the

Laplace domain and is referred to as the low pass lter

a

s+a

, which has the purpose of modelling the actuator

dynamics. We have selected a = 20, which means a

response of

5

a

[sec] for a step input.

Sensor. Noise is added to all translational and angular

measurements. The signals are updated with a rate of

100 Hz.

The maximum amplitude of the noise in the

translational displacement is 0.01 [m]. Similarly,

the maximum amplitude of the noise in the

angular displacement is 0.05 [rad]. Additionally,

the amplitudes of the noise added to the time

derivative of the translational displacement and

angular displacement are 1.0 [m/sec] and 5.0 [rad/sec],

respectively.

Wind. We have added perturbing forces to the

propellers, which emulate the effect of the wind over

the quadrotor propellers. The perturbing force applied

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

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Figure 9. Left hand-side plots correspond to the results for the chaotic-type trajectory in (65)-(66). Right hand-side plots show the results

for the helicoidal trajectory in (72).

to each propeller has the direction of the thrust force

and is dened as f

w

(t) =

1

20

mg

4

sin(2t/5) [N].

Under the conditions described above, two different

translational position trajectories have been numerically

simulated:

The rst one corresponds to the equations described by

the Rabinovich-Fabrikant system in (65)-(66).

The second one is the helicoidal position trajectory

which is usually found in the literature and described

by

p

d

(t) =

x

d

(t)

y

d

(t)

z

d

(t)

1.7 cos(

1

12

t)

1.7 sin(

1

12

t)

1

320

t + 1

IR

3

. (72)

The purpose of using a chaotic-type desired position

trajectory as the one in (65)-(66) is to assess the

performance for a ight with acrobatic characteristics. The

desired yaw angle

d

(t) specied for the simulations with

disturbances is given in (67).

The gains used in the simulations are in (68)-(71). The

different values of the perturbing parameters

1

and

2

in

(69) and (70), respectively, were used to prove numerically

the threefold time scale separation.

Figure 9 depicts the actual path p(t) performed by the

quadrotor, the norm of the desired translational velocity

p

d

(t), and the norm of the actual velocity p(t)

for both simulations. Specically, the left hand-side

plots correspond to the chaotic-type desired position in

(65)-(66), while the right hand-side plots stand for the

helicoidal position in (72). The perturbing parameters

1

= 1 and

2

= 1 were used.

The purpose of showing the velocity signals p(t) and

p

d

(t) in the lower plots of Figure 9 is to appreciate the

complexity of the manoeuvres that are encoded for each

type of desired position p

d

(t) and to assess the tracking

accuracy of the controller in both simulations. We can see

that an acceptable performance is achieved.

By using both types of desired position trajectory p

d

(t)

and the different values of the perturbing parameters

1

and

2

, Figure 10 describes the performance of the position

error x

1

(t) = p(t) (upper plots), the orientation error

z(t) = (t) (middle plots) and the signals x(t) = x

s

(t)

[blue], z(t) = x

m

(t) [black], and y(t) [red] (lower

plots). Some of the signals have been scaled in magnitude

in order to facilitate comparison.

From Figure 10 it can be appreciated that for

1

= 0.25 and

any value of

2

the signal y(t) converges to zero much

faster than x(t) = x

s

(t) and z(t) = x

m

(t). For any xed

value of

1

, it is observed that the states z(t) = x

m

(t) are

the most sensitive to the variations of the parameter

2

.

The left hand-side plots of Figure 11 describe the forces

f

i

(t) generated by the propellers for the chaotic-type

desired position trajectory p

d

(t) in (65)-(66) and all

the combinations of perturbing parameters

1

and

2

.

Likewise, in the left hand-side plots of Figure 11, the

respective results are shown for the helicoidal desired

position trajectory p

d

(t) in (72). The dashed line in each

plot indicates the value

1

4

mg. Notice that the forces f

i

(t)

show slight changes from one value of

2

to the other. An

increase of high frequency contents in the forces f

i

(t) is

observed for small values of the parameters

1

. The reason

for the high frequency components is the amplication

of the noise present in the measurements of position

and velocity. Another important observation about the

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 12

www.intechopen.com

Figure 10. Left hand-side plots correspond to the results for the chaotic-type trajectory in (65)-(66). Right hand-side plots show the results

for the helicoidal trajectory in (72). The position error x

1

( x [blue], y [red] and z [black]) are observed in the upper plots, the orientation

error z (

[blue],

[red] and

[black]) are given in the middle plots, and the norm of the slow time scale states x(t) = x

s

(t) [blue], the

medium time scale states z(t) = x

m

(t) [black], and the fast time scale states y(t) [red], are depicted in the lower plots. A darker tone in

each colour means a bigger value in the parameter

2

. The changes in the parameter

1

are indicated in the third axis of each plot.

actuator response is that the presence of saturation seems

to have little effect on the stability of the closed-loop

system. However, for very small values of the perturbing

parameters the system may become unstable.

The numerical results shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11

allowed verifying that the threefold time scaling is still

present in spite of the fact that practical disturbances are

affecting the overall closed-loop system.

7. Concluding remarks and further research

The proposed trajectory tracking controller allows

choosing any desired translational position p

d

(t) at least

four times differentiable, and any desired yaw angle

d

(t)

at least two times differentiable. The desired roll

d

(t) and

the desired pitch

d

(t) are designed as functions of the

quadrotor states and the output of a second order linear

lter.

The overall closed-loop system stability is proven by

using the framework of the theory of singularly perturbed

systems. This analysis suggested that by using high-gain

angular velocity control, the coupling between the

translational error dynamics and the angular error

dynamics is diminished.

Numerical simulations conrmed that the motion

control objective is satised with the proposed scheme.

In addition, the different time scales introduced by

the controller were numerically veried under ideal

conditions and under the situation that the system is

affected by different types of perturbations that appear in

a practical implementation.

A possible disadvantage of the proposed approach is the

use of Euler angles to represent the orientation dynamics

in equations (14)-(15), which implies that the matrix

W() loses rank for = /2(2n + 1), being n =

1, 2, ,. A way to avoid the problem of singularities is

to chose a non-minimal representation of the orientation

such as the unit quaternion. See references [37], [38]

and [39] for examples of the unit quaternion in robot

control. Application of the unit quaternion to the proposed

two-loop control scheme requires a full redesign of the

controller and therefore is left for further research.

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

13

www.intechopen.com

Figure 11. Left hand-side plots correspond to the results for the chaotic-type trajectory in (65)-(66). Right hand-side plots show the

results for the helicoidal trajectory in (72). Using different combinations of the parameters

1

and

2

, the plots show the time evolution of

the forces f (t) generated by the propellers. The vertical axis of each plot shows the applied force. Notice that the forces are limited as

0 f

i

(t) 1.0 [N]. The increase in the colour tone corresponds to the increase in the parameter

2

. The changes in the parameter

1

are

indicated in the third axis of each plot.

Another problem that is left for further research is the

estimation of

1

and

2

in Proposition 1 and 2, respectively,

which can achieved by using a Lyapunov function.

8. References

[1] Gomes S.B.V., Ramos, J.G.JR.: Airship dynamic

modelling for autonomous operation, 1998

IEEE International Conference on Robotics and

Automation, Leuven, Belgium, May 1998, pp.

3462-3467.

[2] Altu g E., Ostrowski, J.P., Mahony R.: Control

of a quadrotor helicopter using visual feedback,

2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and

Automation, Washington, USA, May 2002, pp. 72-77.

[3] Altu g E., Ostrowski J.P., Taylor, C.J.: Control of

a quadrotor helicopter using dual camera visual

feedback, International Journal of Robotics Research,

2005, 24, (5), pp. 329-341.

[4] Bouabdallah S., Siegwart R.: Backstepping and

sliding-mode techniques applied to an indoor micro

quadrotor, 2005 IEEE International Conference on

Robotics and Automation, Barcelona, Spain, April

2005, pp. 2259-2264.

[5] Madani T., Benallegue A.: Backstepping control for

a quadrotor helicopter, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International

Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems,

Beijing, China, October 2006, pp. 3255-3260.

[6] Madani T., Benallegue A.: Backstepping sliding

mode control applied to a miniature quadrotor ying

robot, IECON 2006-32nd Annual Conference on

IEEE Industrial Electronics, Paris, France, November

2006, pp. 700-705.

[7] Hamel T., Mahony R., Chriette A.: Visual servo

trajectory tracking for a four rotor VTOL aerial

vehicle, 2002 IEEE International Conference on

Robotics and Automation, Washington, USA, May

2002, pp. 2781-2786.

[8] Castillo P., Dzul A., Lozano R.: Real-time

stabilization and tracking of four-rotor mini

rotorcraft, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems

Technology, 2004, 12, (4), pp. 510-516.

[9] Nicol, C., Macnab, C.J.B., Ramirez-Serrano A.:

Robust neural network control of a quadrotor

helicopter, CCECE 2008-Canadian Conference on

Electrical and Computer Engineering, May 2008,

Niagara Falls, pp. 1233-1238.

[10] Mian A.A., Daobo W.: Modeling and

backstepping-based control strategy for a 6 DOF

quadrotor helicopter, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics,

2008, 21, pp. 261-268.

[11] Das A., Subbarao K., Lewis F.: Dynamic inversion

with zero-dynamics stabilization for quadrotor

control, IET Control Theory and Applications 2009, 3,

(3), pp. 303-314.

[12] Zhang R., Quan Q., Cai K.Y.: Attitude control of a

quadrotor aircraft subject to a class of time-varying

disturbances, IET Control Theory and Applications

2011, 5, (9), pp. 1140-1146.

[13] Hernndez-Guzmn V.M., Molina-Mndez J.,

Nieto-Martnez J.: Nonlinear PD control of a

quadrotor aircraft, International Journal of Innovative

Computing, Information and Control, (2010), 6, (4), pp.

1699-1711.

[14] Luque-Vega L., Castillo-Toledo B., Loukianov A.:

Robust block second order sliding mode control for

a quadrotor, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 39,

No. 2, pp. 719-739, 2012.

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www.intechopen.com

[15] Cai G., Chen B.M., Lee T.H.: Unmanned rotorcraft

systems, (Springer-Verlag, London, 2011).

[16] Valavanis K. (ED.): Advances in unmanned aerial

vehicles: State of the art and the road to autonomy,

(Springer-Verlag, London, 2007).

[17] Khalil H: Nonlinear systems (Prentice-Hall, Upper

Saddle River, 1996).

[18] Alvarez-Ramirez J., Santibez, V., Campa R.:

Stability of robot manipulators under saturated PID

compensation, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems

Technology, 2008, 16, (6), pp. 1333-1341.

[19] Liu H., Hao K., Lai X.: Fuzzy Saturated output

feedback tracking control for robot manipulators:

A singular perturbation theory based approach,

International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 2011,

8, (4), pp. 43-53.

[20] Wang L., Book W.J., Huggins J.D.: Application

of singular perturbation theory to hydraulic pump

controlled systems IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Mechatronics, 2012, 17, (2), 251-259.

[21] Moreno-Valenzuela J., Santibez V.: Robust

saturated pi joint velocity control for robot

manipulators, Asian Journal of Control, 2013, 15,

(1), pp. 64-79.

[22] Naidu D.S.: Singular perturbation methodology in

control systems (Peter Peregrinus, London, 1988).

[23] Zuo Z.: Trajectory tracking control design with

command-ltered compensation for a quadrotor,

IET Control Theory and Applications, 2010, 4, (1), pp.

2343-2355.

[24] Bertrand S., Guenard N., Hamel T., Piet-Lahanier

H., L. Eck: A hierarchical controller for miniature

VTOL UAVs: Design and stability analysis using

singular perturbation theory, Control Engineering

Practice, 2011, 19, (10), pp. 1099-1108.

[25] Esteban S., Gordillo F., Aracil J.: Lyapunov based

stability analysis of a three-time scale model for a

helicopter on a platform, 17th IFAC Symposium on

Automatic Control in Aerospace, Universitas Studii

Tolosana, France, 2007, 17, (1), pp. 467-472

[26] Siciliano B.: Kinematic control of redundant robot

manipulators: A tutorial, Journal of Intelligent &

Robotic Systems, 1990, 3, pp. 201-212.

[27] Castillo P., Lozano R., Dzul A.: Modelling and

control of mini-ying machines, (Springer-Verlag,

London, 2005).

[28] Hamel T., Mahony R., Lozano R., Ostrowski J.P.:

Dynamic modelling and conguration stabilization

for an X4-yer, 15th IFAC World Congress,

Barcelona, July 2002, 1, (2), pp. 846-846.

[29] Sciavicco L., Siciliano B.: Modelling and control

of robot manipulators, (Springer-Verlag, London,

2000).

[30] Kim J., Kang M.-S., Park S.: Accurate modeling

and robust hovering control for a quad-rotor VTOL

aircraft, Journal of Intelligent Robotic Systems, 2010, 57,

pp. 9-26.

[31] Tayebi A., Mcgilvray S.: Attitude stabilization of

a four-rotor aerial robot, Proc. of the American

Control Conference, Washington, USA, June 2008, pp.

3356-3361.

[32] Pounds P., Mahony R., Corke P.: Modelling

and control of a quad-rotor robot, Proc. of

the Australasian Conference on Robotics and

Automation, Auckland, New Zealand, December

2006.

[33] Madani T. Benallegue A.: Sliding mode observer

and backstepping control for a quadrotor unmanned

aerial vehicle, Proc. of the American Control

Conference, New York, USA, July 2007, pp.

5887-5892.

[34] Paden B., Panja R.: Globally asymptotically stable

PD+ controller for robot manipulators, International

Journal of Control, 1988, 7, (6), pp. 1697-1712.

[35] Moreno J., Kelly R.: Velocity control of robot

manipulators: analysis and experiments,

International Journal of Control, 2003, 76, (14), pp.

1420-1427.

[36] Rabinovich M.I., Fabrikant A.L.: Stochastic

self-modulation of waves in nonequilibrium media,

Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (JETP),

1979, 77, pp. 617-629.

[37] Campa R., Camarillo K., Arias L.: Kinematic

modeling and control of robot manipulators via unit

quaternions: Application to a spherical wrist, in

45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp.

6474-6479, 2006.

[38] Campa R., De La Torre H.: Pose control of

robot manipulators using different orientation

representations: A comparative review, in 2009

American Control Conference, pp. 2855-2860, 2009.

[39] Sariyildiz E., Cakiray E., Temeltas, H.: A

comparative study of three inverse kinematic

methods of serial industrial robot manipulators in

the screw theory framework, International Journal

Advanced Robotic Systems, 2011, 8, pp. 9-24.

Appendix: Explicit expression of

d

,

d

,

d

and

d

By using the property

cos (

d

) =

_

1 +tan (

d

)

2

_

1/2

,

and noticing that

1

= m

13

,

let us rst rewrite

d

in the form

d

=

_

_

arctan

_

c

d

_

s

11

c

12

13

_

arctan

__

c

11

+ s

12

13

_

d

_

_

=

_

_

arctan

_

_

_

s

11

c

12

2

13

+

_

c

11

+ s

12

2

_

_

arctan

__

c

11

+ s

12

13

_

d

_

_

.

Salvador Gonzlez-Vzquez and Javier Moreno-Valenzuela:

Motion Control of a Quadrotor Aircraft via Singular Perturbations

15

www.intechopen.com

By using

u

1

= s

11

c

12

,

s

1

=

_

2

13

+

_

c

11

+ s

12

2

,

u

2

= c

11

+ s

12

,

s

2

=

13

,

the desired angular position becomes

d

=

_

_

arctan

_

u

1

s

1

_

arctan

_

u

2

s

2

_

d

_

_

.

Thus,

d

and

d

have the structure

= arctan

_

u

i

s

i

_

,

whose rst time derivative is

d

dt

=

s

i

u

i

u

i

s

i

u

2

i

+ s

2

i

and second time derivative is

d

2

dt

2

=

_

u

2

i

+ s

2

i

[s

i

u

i

u

i

s

i

] 2 [s

i

u

i

u

i

s

i

] [u

i

u

i

+ s

i

s

i

]

_

u

2

i

+ s

2

i

2

where

u

1

= s

d

11

c

d

12

+

_

c

11

+ s

12

d

,

u

1

= s

d

11

c

d

12

+ 2

_

c

d

11

+ s

d

12

d

+

_

c

11

+ s

12

d

,

s

1

=

_

s

2

2

+ u

2

2

,

s

1

=

[s

2

s

2

+ u

2

u

2

]

s

1

,

s

1

=

s

2

1

_

s

2

s

2

+ u

2

u

2

+ s

2

2

+ u

2

2

[s

2

s

2

+ u

2

u

2

]

2

s

3

1

,

u

2

= c

d

11

+ s

d

12

+

_

s

11

+ c

12

d

,

u

2

= c

d

11

+ s

d

12

+ 2

_

s

d

11

+ c

d

12

d

+

_

s

11

+ c

12

d

,

s

2

=

13

, s

2

=

13

, s

2

=

13

,

with

p1

= K

f 1

_

p1

p2

,

p1

= K

f 1

_

p1

p2

,

and

p2

= K

f 2

_

p2

_

K

pp

p K

dp

p

__

.

Int. j. adv. robot. syst., 2013, Vol. 10, 368:2013 16

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