Revised Edition

11 The CHART OF TRADITIONAL RADICALS

II

gives the number of each traditional radical, its independent form. [ti English name, and the location in the text of its independent forni 1 the firs reference number) and any alternate or combining forms treated separatel> (the second and third reference numbers). Numbers in roman type refer tc radicals included in the first character group of 1062 basic characters. P3gi numbers in italic type refer to radicals in the second character proup (pp 245-301). A chart of "modem radicals," based on the %%%&, appears nr the backend papers.
35. 3 - slow 337 36. 9 dusk 117 37. k big 50 38. -k woman 11 39. ;f child 18 40. roof 127 41. -.i thumb 186 42. #Is small 27 43. k,lame 59 44. P corpse 329 45. 4 ' sprout 465 46. mountain 95 1 1 riverp.245,442,560 47. 1 48. z i work443 49. +. self 273 50. 9 cloth 352 51. i shield 87 52. k coil 25 53. i lean-to 155 54. 1 march 847 55. j t clasp 141 56. % dart42 57. 5 bow218 58. 3 pig's head 80,997 59. 3 streaks 819
+

12. eight 98, 88.26 13. fl borders 20 14. crown 47 15. ; ice564 16. JL table 645 17. U bowl 464 18. n !inife 102,205

-

72. 8 sun 160 73. P say 82 74. f l moon 178 L tree 64 75. $ 76. k yawn 191 77. It toe 195 78. P chip 727.646 79. k club 183 80. +? don't 212 81. tk compare 567 82. d fur 293 83. PC clan 224 84. 5 breath 324 85. 7i: water 362. IS l 86. X fire 414. . ; J claws p.2-:. 3 . 2 s 87. J& 88. ji father 21 1 89. k crisscrosr 152 90. 4 bed 849 91. ) ; slice 927 92. % tooth 576 93. cow 260. I5 94. it; dog 541. p._'-LY

21. L ladle 137 22. E basket 143

3.1- divine 118 26. P seal 84,760
28. L. cocoon 24 29. X right hand 85 30. mouth 33 31. Cl surround 21

61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

-4heart 70, 67.p.248 3 . lance 43 P door391 i hand41.14 j_ branch 271 knockp.276.384 jr pattern 360 4 peck 1009 fr axe 262

96. 3- jade 62 97. 6. melonp.2Yl 98. Z tilep.271 99. i : sweet 1% 100. & ! b i d 248 101. R use 403 102. P field 23 103. iE bolt 245 104. f sick531 105. fi back 632 106. $ white 231 107. & skin 662

113. TT: sign 807,480 114. h traclt 488

190. 5% hair 946

118. St bamboo 54.55 160. f bitter549

204. ?$ embroider p.271 130. 1 1 1 . meat 928,326 131. % bureaucrat 491 132. b small nose 515 205. 206. 207. 208.

1 toadp.270 & tripodp.274
9.k drum p.261 L mousep.270

138.

b stubborn 31

? - big nose p.295 209. + 210. % line-up 1045

146. i4 cover 122

.

181. R liead 333 182. 1 wind 725 185. -if chief 266 186. -k scent 1044

212. 4% dragon p.275 213. 1 tortoise p.270

The CHART O F MODERN RADICALS (Dock crlclpopers) gives the set of rnodenz rodicnls likely to be most useful to the foreign student of Chinese - the set used to

READING AND WRITING CHINESE

READING AND WRITING

A Guide to the Chinese Writing System: The Student's 1,020 List
The Official 2,000 List
Revised Edition

by WILLIAM MCNAUGHTON and LI YING

Tuttle Publishing
Boston Rutland, Vermont Tokyo

Published by Tuttle Publishing of Boston, Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan

by Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc. -Revised-edition-0 1999 All rights reserved Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 77-77699 International Standard Boolc No. 0-8048-3206-4 First printing, 1979 First softcover edition, 1989 Revised edition, 2000, third printing

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface to the Revised Edition Preface 1. Student's Guide The Writing System Explanatory Notes How to Write the Characters The Pronunciation of Chinese 2. 1,062 Basic Characters and Elements of the Writing System
3. Remaining Characters of the "1,020 List" and the "2,000 List"

Alphabetical Index Stroke Count-Strolte Order Index

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION (1999 A great deal has happened in China since 1978. As a result.Anew edition should also incorporate the experien of nineteen years of use of the first edition by classroom students a teachers. and better access to contempor. and by independent students around the world. the Haizyzi Piizyiiz system is also universa employed in foreign newspapers. . wlgch is official in the Peoplc Republic of China.. foreign student of Chinese. The set of modern radicals chosen 1 presentation is that used in Haiz-Yi~zgCidian/Tlze Clzi~zese-Eizgl Dictiolzary. when the first edition Reading arzd 1Vritilzg Chilzese was prepared. should reflect those happenings and chang which have influenced the language and which have affected usage a idiom in the language.-- . and much has chang. SI of "modern radicals" have become necessary with the language ref01 and the simplification of the writing system which has been carried out the government of the People's Republic. The mc important revisions to Reading and Writing Clziizese are as set out belo The Yale system of romanization has been replaced in this edition the Halzyu Piizyilz system of romanization. magazines and boolts referring to Chi] 1 While the traditional system of 214 radicals is still presented in f~ -tl~is-presentation-is-supplemented-by-the-introd~1ction-of-tl1~set nzodeuz radicals which are most liltely to be useful to the contempor. regarding China's relationship to the world. va-ious editions since 1978). easier. Familiarity with such a set modern radicals will be extremely useful to foreign students of Chine for it will give them quicker. prepared by the English Department of the Beijing Forei Languages Institute (Commercial Press. A new edition seems in ord Such an edition. of course.

and modern systems differ in negligible ways from one another. With the 1. The overlap in actual content between the traditional system and the modern system is about 80%. and its place in the culture of the Chinese-spealcing world. The logic of modern systems. so as to lessen the burden of learning the new combination and to provide a review of the characters already learned. used as the basis for the organization of modern dictionaries and of indexes to modern dictionaries pho~leticallyarranged. many of wluch are vely good-to both English-Chinese and Zhinese-Chinese dictionaries. namely.100 new combinations. the basic 2.500 items-an adequate foundation for dealing with most contemporary materials. as being outmoded or otheiwise less Hcely to help students in their progress towards mastery of contemporary written Chinese. . Seventy new notes on usage have been added to enhance students' insight into the contemporary state of the written language.100 new combinations of characters have been introduced to give the user a better picture of the range of functions and meanings of the individual characters and to provide the user with a significantly larger vocabulary. and the 1. Furthermore. A popular feature of the first edition has been retained. and to more accurately reveal the present state of the language.000 characters. The basic system of presentation of the contents in Reacli~zg nrzd Writiizg Clziizese has not been changed. its relation to the spolcen language.400 combinations retained from the first edition. for it has worked well over the last nineteen years. the student using Rendirzg nizd Writiizg Clzilzese should have little trouble mastering the modern radicals.PREFACE lictionaries. is the same as the logic of the traditional system of 214 radicals. However. the introduction of new characters only in combination with characters already learned. Over 1. the student who worlcs his or her way through Rendilzg nizd Writiizg Clziizese will have a vocabulruy of about 4. the contents have been thoroughly revised to bring the contents up-to-date in idiom and usage. About 140 combinations have been deleted.

a consensus has be. 2. has playc -a-similar-role in-thestudy-of Japanese-for-yearsl-- . 3. that is. Florence Salcade (Tolc! and Rutland. I have been guidi by the following principles: 1. Vt. developed as to the 1.020 characters most useful for the student to lea first. ed. In addition. Among American teachers of Chinese. to begin with the most frequently seen c h a r x e and to proceed to the less-frequently seen onei. To present the characters in the order in which they are lilcely to 1 most useful. 1954).' I have preparc Rending ntzd Writing CIziizese to help students master both these lists rapidly and easily as possible. Miizi17zzci~z Vocnbz~knries of Written Clziize (New Haven: Far Eastern Publications. 1961).' In selecting and arranging the materials in this book..: Charles E. Kennedy. See George A.000 List". as determined by tl "Yale 1. revised edition. ed. Tuttle Co. % Guide to Reading and Writing Jnpmzese. a] memory. an official list of 2000 characters has been published mainland China for the purpose of adult education.Learning to read and write modern Chinese with reasonable fluency hi can now reach that goal with less strain on his or her time. To teach the student the most useful characters.. To teach the elements of the writing system -the 214 radicals a1 the "phonetics" (sound components) students will find most valuab in their study of the lists mentioned above.020 List" and the official "2. attention.

this gives the student the 1. this list has not been included in the present volume. I used earlier versions of this book side by side with the Yale Mirror Series textbooks to teach my Chinese language classes at Oberlin College. See Henry C. Kennedy has described as "a good foundation for the Western student of modern Chinese". look-alike characters. It should be noted that another list of 421 characters has been promulgated in China to cover technical terms used by the workers.PREFACE I. 5.. 1953). plus 500 characters officially designated in China as being of most frequent occurrence. The Yale guidelines. . These are the characters which students. are followed here. and different forms of the same radicaL3 The characters are presented in two groups. for the logic of the writing system is always the same and the vocabulary in the various series of elementary and intermediate textbooks is virtually identical. will be expected to learn in the first year. To break down the subject matter (the characters that make up the two lists) into units of information based on the most recent developments in programmed instruction and to arrange these units in order of growing difficulty. of study.. however. using almost any elementary textbook. because it is of only slight value to the foreigner studying modern Chinese.020 list" and the rest of the 2. or in some cases the first two years. which have become a standard in teaching Chinese in the United States.500 characters that George A.000 characters on the officially published China list. Teachers should find it quite easy to use this book with any of the other textbooks now popular in the United States. however. The first group presents the basic characters for adult students of Chinese and the elements of the writing system from which these basic characters are made. Through juxtaposition and cross-reference. The second group of characters contains the rest of the characters on the "Yde 1. To help students master the problem of "look-alike" characters. Fenn. In aU. Clzirzese Clznl-actem Easily Coizfiised (New Haven: Far Eastern Publications. I have tried to clarify the three main causes of the problem: look-alilce radicals. ed.

These quizzes do not usually take up mo than five minutes of regular class time. but Howard Spendelow and John Dove deserve speci mention for the amount and quality of their contributions.aclu~owledge theimportance to this work ( the earlier versions. Quite clearly. their ltnowledge of basic charact' components will help speed their acquisition of this group. a class can cover all the material in tl first character group in two sixteen-week semesters. I have incussed innumerable debts to studen who used these texts in earlier forms for many years in my Chinese class( at Oberlin College.. edited by George A. For valuable help I am indebted to various editors of the Charles I Tuttle Publishing Company. Far fro discouraging students. I assign six or seven characters a night as homewor We spend almost all our class time with the spolten Chinese and gramrn text. since tl presentation here uses these components in programmed sequences. Kennec Zorzgbic (New Haven: Far Eastern Publications. stimulate enthusiasm and to increase motivation. . Worlcing steadily at this rate. I should n/iiiz%nz Vocabt~lni-ies of Writterz Clzirzese. since the format of this character book enables the students to lea on their own. the characters and the writing system seem . Mo advanced students who have used this book in their first year of Chine. 1965).PREFACE When I teach. will have a tremendous advantage when they begin to study the characte in the second group. I generally quiz students every day on new characters enforce regular study habits. I am al: indebted to colleagues who have suggested changes and improvements -. The class will the know all the characters through Rend Clzirzese II and Read AOoz~tClziri as well as the frequently seen component radicals and phonetics. It has been my experience that students can be safely given Rendi~ nrzd Wi-itirzg Clziizese on their first day of Chinese study. and of Jiarzlz~~azi Jinrlzi (Peking: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe. 1954).

The widely used modern Chinese-English dictionary. (5) meaningmeaning compounds. These radicals are used both independently. Traditional dictionaries begin with one-stroke radicals and characters classified under one-strolce radicals. and use the radicals to supplement the phonetic organization of othel modern dictionaries. Classifying Chinese writing according to these six principles. and (6) re-clarified compounds. Haiz-Yzizg Cidiaiz (of which more will be said below) begins with one-stroke radicals and characters classified under them and ends. The Chinese also use radicals to organize traditional dictionaries. and then-classify-the-character under that radical in the dictionary or index. If we understand these six principles. we will be able to see why every new character we study means what it does. (4) sound-meaning compounds. Instead of seeming a capricious aggregation of strolces set down by an equally capricious pen. we can say that six-and only six-lcinds of characters exist: (1) pictures. and end with a seventeen-strolce radical and characters classified under it. the makers take every character which is not itself a radical. Every time a new character was created to represent some word of the spolcen language. determine which of the radicals within it is logicallv the most important. before a special category of eleven "left-over characters". In using the writing system to organize dictionaries or to create supplementary radical indexes for dictionaries. or as part of more complex characters.STUDENT'S GUIDE The Writing System The basis of the traditional Chinese writing sygem is 214 elements often referred to as "radicals". (3) sound-loans. use them to organize some modern dictionaries. with a fourteen-strolce radical and the characters classified under it. the character was formed according to one of six principles. the character . (2) symbols.

Some Chinese characters are symbols-some more. the words for "scorpion" and "10. Pictures. Soziizd-inenrzirzg conzpourzds.000" since there was little danger of confusing the two meanings in context. For example. the character for "eye" B like this rm. If this character is combined with the character Sif! "fish". You can probably see that it would have been inconvenient to write "10. "below". some less arbitrary-for the concept to which they refer. 13 . while another part gives a hint about "to wrap". now used to write "10. f. the modern character is a very stylized picture of what it represents We then have to look into the history of the character before we can see the resemblance clearly. or once was. is the pronunciation. 2. the result is a new character fib "salted fish".000. Some examples of "two". pronounced ba'o. and the "wrap" component (bdo) suggests the sound. Some Chinese characters stand for a word which is. Sourzd-lonrzs.000" were once homonyms. the character pronounced bdo. too.000" in the same symbolic notation used to write the numbers "one".Sometimes one part of a Chinese character gives a hint about the meaning. The "fish" component suggests the meaning. "two". Syiizbols. 3. This type of character. was borrowed to represent the companion homonym. The character for "man" is a simple sticlc drawing of a man h.STUDENT'S GUIDE will reflect a logical system for representing words and concepts: each new character will be a combination of familiar elements. The character$$. Sometimes two characters are put together to forrn a new character whose meaning derives from some d a." originally meant "scorpion" but was borrowed for "10. The character for "child" or "baby7'is a drawing of an infant with an open fontanel %. The character for "moon" used to look like this ) . pronounced the same as another but with a different meaning. 4. Sometimes. the context was relied on to malce the meaning clear. = "three". (The pronunciation of the romanization and tone markings used here are explained in the section beginning on page 27). 1. Some Chinese characters are mere pictures of things. 1 symbols are: k "above". Let us look at each of the six kinds of Chinese characters. a picture or symbol for one of two homonyms. For example. "one". like "feet" and "feat". and "three". Menrzirzg-nzenrziizg conzpozirzds. 5. though.

STUDENT'S GUIDE logic in the juxtaposition of the two component characters.mzzlzu.co~nponent to-suggest the-sound-and two-components-to suggest the mear~ing. ---- . and whether or not this had anything to do with reclarified compounds is uncertain. be simple sound-meaning compounds. Chao Yuen Ren treats reclarified compounds as a sub-class of soundmeaning compounds: see Marzdnrirz Prinzer (Cambridge: Harvard University Press.. 1961). Although the logic in such a juxtaposition is usually not obvious enough to allow you to figure out the meaning of a new character. 61-63. which is a picture of a roof and a wall. since there is a great deal of dispute about the correct interpretation and reference of z/zL. pp. In doing this. to be likable. The character k 'cwomany'beside the character j " " "child" forms 43. or to pinpoint the meaning intended in the particular context. in their new guise. Some of these re-clarified compounds will. to be good". a scribe has wanted to better "control" the meaning of a character he was using. Eventually someone added the "lean-to" radical . a character that means "to love" or "to be lovable. to distinguish the lung's court (@ tfng) from the ordinary citizen's front yard ( @ iEng). At various times in the history of the written language. 6. and some of them-if the re-clarified character itself was already a soundmeaning compound-will be sound-meaning compounds with one . was later re-clarified when it was used to represent "scorpion" (rather than "10. which we saw above. For example. the scribe could add to the existing character either to clarify the word to which it referred. either because the character-by sound-loan perhaps-had come to stand for a number of different words or because the word the character represented had a number of different meanings. the sixth of the six principles was something called zlzumzzlzu. it is usually a great help when trying to remember a character you have seen only once. the character for "sco~pion" %-. 1923). Reclnl-ified cor7zpourzds. Traditionally. The character @ ting stood for "court"-whether it was the Icing's court or the court in someone's front yard.000") by adding the "bug" radical & to produce the new character @ that always meant "sco~pion"and only "scorpion".~ Bernhard Karlgren identifies dozens of such characters in Arznlytic Dictiorznry of Clzirzese and Silzo-Jnparzese (Paris: Paul Geuthnel.

It has been slightly modified from the actual entry in this book to show the full range of information for characters in the first character group. KEY: 1. it has sometimes been necessary to add in toto to the strolce-order diagram of the main 5. 3. 10. used to organise the Han. stroke-order diagram pronunciation and tone character definition radical information radical number (an " H before the radical number means that the character is a "modem radical". 4.STUDENT'S GUIDE Explanatory Notes Below there appears an annotated character entry. 12. 6. the character character serial number strolce count if there is a difference between the actual number of strolces as written by hand and the official number of strolces used in traditional dictionaries. See the discussion of strolce and form discrepancy on pages 16-17.Yhg Cidianl The Chinese-English Dictionary: see below) character explanation character combinations with pronunciation and meaning Since characters may have more than nine strokes. 8. 11. 7. . 9. the official number will appear in parentheses here. 2.

13. Semicolons are also used after a character' romanized reading when a character's usage rather than the meaning i given. in classical Chinese. infinitives. (The element and serial number shown in this sample are provided only to show how a reference to an element added in toto will appear.=sometimes~exist between this traditional strolce count a . Simplified character Understanding the Entries You should try to Iceep in mind that a Chinese character is not what we think of as a word in English. and adverbs in English are. and that Chinese words for which the t kinds of syntacticrestriction. all considered one part of speech-any noun can be a verb. you may be mislec tion5 into too narrow an inte are provided for clari eallj represent only the most basic outline of a character's "meaning". or for clarit) quotation marks are used around character-compound definitions that a contextually proper in English but which cannot be derived from th characters themselves. Semicolons are used t distinguish meaning "groups". or adverb. bloclcs are grammatically logical. Most of the punctuation marks used in the characters' explanator.) If such a reference is missing. adjective. Since the more literal definition "red tea" would be meaningless. I have also adopted a fev c rules of my own to help the readerhtudent. Owing to the unavoidable use in this book of English articles. % h6ngch& I "blaclc" % tea a Stroke and Form Discrepancy Each character has a traditional strolce count based on the charactel placement in traditional dictionaries. In addition to their occasional use with slang terms. suffixes. For examplqtK~Chinese-use-a-character-forArec % and the character I for "tea" % to write what in English is called "blac tea".STUDENT'S GUIDE character an element that is itself a character. and the like. ctives. have used quotation marks in the definition of the character compound follows: . Small discrepancies-almost alwa of-onestroke=. However. either that element's stroke order is obvious or it can be found in one of the preceding two character entries.

STUDENT'S GUIDE the actual count used when the character is handwritten. 17 . Problems of correct character identification also result from the fact that typeset forms often differ from the handwritten forms that are usually learned first. has been rationalized according to the principle of "what you see is what you get". I have therefore treated as entirely separate elements. becomes P . Such anomalies have been eliminated from most modern dictionaries. when used as an element of another character. Hong Kong. because the traditional way of giving dates malces use of them. are now easier to use (see below for more on modern dictionaries). that is." These "stems" and "branches" are characters which are sometimes used in Chinese in various special ways of reckoning. Appearing in the small box below the character is "3 strokes (8 strolces)". and what once were different forms of the same radical are now treated as different radicals. The most devastating problem for beginner students. calculation. a combined form that appears separately in this text as character 76. Always compare a character in a typeset compound with its handwritten counterpart as you work through this book. is a change in shape and stroke count that occurs when a radical or character is used as an element to form a more complex character. and enumeration. They are also used in fortunetelling books and works of astrology in Chinese communities outside of the People's Republic. Numbers Also. therefore. Such discrepancies are indicated in parentheses throughout the presentation of the first group of characters. its independent form takes eight strolces. This means that although this form of the radical is actually written with three strolces. The student who delves into Chinese history will need to know these twenty-two characters.g. e. This treatment reflects more accurately the true nature of the writing system and has resulted in only about 40 characters being added to the text. thus. The typeset list below provides the most common of these variant forms. the radical Q . twenty-two characters are identified as "heavenly stems" or "earthly branches. however. those characters whose shape changes may pose an identificationproblem. The radical system. Dictionaries.5 For example. all characters with P as the radical component will appear among the eight-stroke radicals in a traditional Chinese dictionary.

FOI example.Xi21 "flour. and "cowrie" under "roof' -standing for the word biio "be precious." And we cal find new meaning-meaning compounds: % "jade" under "roof' for % 'tjade"..STUDENT'S GUIDE refer to the serial number of characters in the first group. Traditional principles used fol making characters have been retained in malcing up new short forms.for . Students whc understand the logic of the traditional writing system and who have mastered the components of its characters will find that they attain master} of the short forms much more easily." Other techniques of simplification include thc --cC The student may notice that the new sound-loan character is often formed as in the examples given here. y ~ ~ ~ f~ . has been simplified to f-7 mainly by substituting for the complicatec sound-component the simpler sound-component 7 ..~ i-z i~ a e mian a " . the traditional form $ $ I has been shortened by simply replacing the complicated sound-compound & with the simple sound-component . In the system of simplified characters. the traditional character & t E n g'Yoom hall". "crock". Simplified Characters In attempting to deal with the need for adult education and the complexity of the Chinese writing system. simply by removing the meaning elemen froin-all--old-sound meaning compound^ - . The "cow" radical appears in both the short and traditional forms because the original meaning of the charactel was "saclificial animal." Likewise. page numbers are for characters in the second group." and % . we can find new sound-loans g ~ ~ .~ . the mainland government has simplified many of the characters used for centuries.-face -.~ i."GWe can finc new sound-meaning compounds: Dl. xikg "elephant" for x i & g "to look like. be valuable.~ ~ l i. in the short form 4S5"sacrificen. for 1% xi2 "to scare.

written with the characters for "woman" -knu' and "person" h 1. For collateral presentation in this book. That dictionary is probably the most widelyused Chinese-English dictionary in the world and is deemed likely to be the dictionary most often consulted by users of Reading and Writing Chinese. There is no universally accepted adaptation. Such phonetic organization worlcs fine until you meet a character you don't know how to pronounce-a common experience for foreign students.Ying Cidian are identified in Reading and Writing Chinese by an " H plus the serial number in Ha-Ying Cidian's system of 226 radicals. a common expression for "woman" in the modem spoken language is the two syllable n8rL12. which the makers of the Han. according to the standard spelling (Hanyu Pinyin) of the Beijing pronunciation (Putonghua.STUDENT'S GUIDE Many modern Chinese-Chinese dictionaries are organized alphabetically. A l l such systems. So all dictionaries organized phonetically. are derived from the traditional system of 214 radicals. Character Combinations Individual characters themselves-each of which in general represents a single syllable of the spolcen language-may occur in combination with other characters to denote Chinese words and expressions of two or more syllables. and all follow quite closely the logic of the traditional system. published by Commercial Press in various editions since 1978). The radicals of Han. as used_F index Han. also have an index-an index organized according to some modern adaptation of the traditional radical system. The order of entries follows the English alphabetical order.Ying Cidian. "Mandarin") of the character.612. however. the authors have chosen the system of 226 radicals plus a supplementary category. And on the back endpapers there appears a chart of these 226 "modern radicals" phsa supplementary category. all of them overlap to a great degree. as just described. so different dictionaries use slightly different radical systems.Ying Cidian/The Chinese-English Dictionary have used to organize their dictionary (prepared by the English Department of the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute. starting with "A" and ending with " Z .Many of these common combinations are given in this book so that you will get used to seeing the . For example. however. of course (but it also happens with Chinese readers).

but the disyllable is an extremely important unit in modern Chinese. or as French. since the characters used in these combinations are restricted to those that have already been presented in the text. . by using a different meaningcomponent in each character. and the four-character expression is also important in anything above the level of "survival Chinese". Spanish.STUDENT'S GUIDE characters within important expressions and words. For example. a group of characters emerges. written or spolcen. Such a group of characters is called a phonetic series. Finally. Learning the combinations in which a character occurs can be a valuable aid to understanding that character. thirteen dialects of the Chinese language-spolcen languages which differ from one another as much as English. Moreover. Some examples are also given of a favourite stylistic device in Chinese-four-character set expressions. more or less. The Chinese Writing System as Cultural Artifact There are. 21 . To some extent it may be so. The remarkable thing about the Chinese writing system. of course. .& . mentioned above.463. each of which has a different meaning but contains the same sound-component. Phonetic Series When a certain character has been used to give the sound in a number of sound-meaning compounds. that Chinese is a monosyllabic language. Learning these four-character set expressions will be useful to the student in the same way as learning two-character combinations. and students have often found that learning becomes more rapid when they study such character groups. and it will also prepare the student to deal with them when he or she encounters them or similar four-character expressions in discourse. In the second group of characters we have therefore introduced common characters as part of a phonetic series. The different meanings are established. the 3 biio. practice with twocharacter combinations and four-character set expressions will tend to break down the illusion. which the writing system so insistently encourages. Italian and Portuguese differ. German and Dutch differ from one another. if the characters belong to an important series. these combinations provide review as well as usage examples. is the sound-component for a character "wrap" 6 number of common characters that appear in this book: +& .

James-Traub..8 The foreign student should also consider that the logic of the Chinese writing system. is that a literate native-speaker of one dialect can write down anything he might reasonably want to communicate. something like that has actually happened. . from Leibniz in his work on the Calculus to Eisenstein on montage. initially vexed when they see that the Chinese writing system is somewhat more complicated than their own.. as sketched on pages 12-14 above.. and a literate native-speaker of any other dialect will immediately understand-although if the two tried to speak in their native dialects. A proposal was floated after World War II to -. with the Chinese writing system. has one of the highest literacy rates in the world (illiteracy in Japan is about one-fifth that of the United States). symbols.have traffic signs_aII over the world prepared in Chinese Although derided by Yale's widely respected sinologist. has stimulated a number of outstanding Western thinkers. . -. . with modern pictures.men working. Japan."ideograms". but the relative unimportance and the ephemeral nature of slang and regionalisms make this a trivial exception.STUDENT'S GUIDE including the modem form of it which is studied in this book. neither would understand the other. who called the suggestion "deranged". say. Kennedy. in the long run there is little diierence. and especially "~neaning-meaning compounds" now to be seen on traffic signs and other public notices around the world: school crossing. where the writing system is based on the Chinese system. the late George A. you can simultaneously write down a message in thirteen different languages!' There has never been anything else like it in human history.slippery True regionalisms and some dialectal slang are not reached by the writing system. That is. to master their own writing systems. Some foreign students.-78-(-74-79). "It's-Elementary. And Jarnes Traub notes that only slightly more than four percent of Taiwanese fifth graders and slightly more than ten percent of Japanese scored as low as the average American fifth grader on a battery of reading tests. while it does take some months longer for a Chinese child to master the writing system than it does an American or French child.'-'Ne~v-Yorlierr17-July 1995. think that Furthermore.

.. the authors feel that the "H" set may be most useful to modern students. . however.. for radicals which still function in written Chinese as independent characters. For example.no eating or drinlcing on the subway. .. universally intelligible to computer users around the world. of course. Such incantations may be of considerable help in recalling characters to memory three or four days after first encountering them. for example) these numbers serve the same purpose in Chinese.do not play boom boxes on the beach... . five. Every effort you make to memorize the number. . "sit down or you will bloclc the captain's view and make it difficult for him to navigate the boat safely!" Many computer icons.. say "knight-eye-cowrie" while writing ? "sell" (character 135).emergency fire exit. will pay off in time saved after you start to use dictionaries. when first learning a character.STUDENT'S GUIDE when wet.) This statement applies only to the radicals' serial numbers: the meaning of all radicals should be learned. this way. This number is the radical number and indicates where the radical occurs within the sequence of 214 (or 226) radicals. four. . in just four elements.watch out for deer. . You are also advised.steep hill ahead. Study Methods Each traditional radical introduced in this boolc is assigned a number in parentheses (radicals used to organize the modern HBn-Ying Cidim are identified. So far. whatever their native language. . There is a complex ideogram on the bus boats in Venice which clearly says.. . as noted.slow-moving vehicles... Just as it is a great time-saver with Western-language dictionaries t o know approximately where "F" occurs in the alphabet (and whether it occurs before or after " M . The pronunciation should be learned. lceep right. at least for radicals having two. or re-clarified compounds. by the letter "H" preceding the number). Say aloud the radicals while writing & a new character. or six strolces. or "grass-mouth-mouth-dove-yawn" while writing # "to be pleased" (character 194). three. You or your teacher should malce a decision early on about the question of which set of radical numbers you should try and memorize. .low-flying aircraft ahead. sound-meaning compounds. (All things being equal. . too are a modern form of ideography..no smolcing. to be conscious of all the radicals that appear within it. these international systems of modern ideograms have not developed sound-loans.danger of falling roclcs.

---. Immediately check your work against the correct pronunciation and meaning that appear in the text. the method has been developed and perfected through centuries of experience. Although Chinese people occasionally disagree among themselves about minor details. After working to the bottom of a page in this way. but you need not formally study these explanations unless (as sometimes happens) you become fascinated by the written Chinese character itself. Follow the stroke-order diagrams in this book in order .to acquire proper hab'lts early. Then try to write down the character. The rules below explain the method in general. . Cover the character with a blank piece of paper placed along the vertical line that separates the character from the box containing its pronunciation and meaning.STUDENT'S GUIDE You should read the explanation of the sources of new characters. How to Write the Characters The Chinese learn to write characters by using an easy and effective method. take note of the error or errors and write the character correctly several times before proceeding to the next one. and written the character incorrectly.presented . In that case you may want to learn all the explanations given and even to carry your own studies further afield into the various books which present such explanations in greater (and on occasion even fanciful) detail. reverse the procedure and try to write down the pronunciation and meaning while looking only at the character. The essential ingredient of this method is the fixed order in which the strokes of a character are written. and remember to keep your characters uniform in size. You can easily use Reading and Writing Chinese as a programmed textbook.

Top to bottom: 2.STUDENT'S GUIDE 1. Left to right: m i I I1 Ill 3. Upper left corner to lower right corner: .

Slanting strolce to the left before slanting strolce to the right: . Outside to inside: perpendicular strokes: 6.STUDENT'S GUIDE 4.

as in machine (except when appearing immediately after u-see end of this paragraph-or when appearing immediately after c. 4. d. u preceded by i or y. ai as in aisle. The following letters are pronounced lilce their English equivalents: f. like o in done. ou. above). (except in "sh") t. 2. z. 1. The following letters are pronounced as explained: b. The following letters are pronounced like the English sounds indicated: a (except as described in 8. t. or when preceded by j. like oo in moon but with the lips rounded and the tongue back. and e (except e after i or y: see 8. The Hanyu Pinyin system is as follows: 1. n. 3. textbooks. like o in so. and ui. and k but with less aspiration (cp. u preceded by j. like English p. 5. lilce ow in how.STUDENT'S GUIDE 7. and also not when followed by another vowel or pair of vowels. magazines. r. q. or by i or y). like p in spy. p. or zh: see 9. w. s. below). o as in worn. with more friction than the English h. The following combinations are pronounced like the English sounds indicated: ao. or x. books. u (but not ii. too. k. i. q. below). that is. below). as in fnthel-. Center strolce before symmetrical wings: The Pronunciation of Chinese The system used in this revised edition of Reading and Writing Chinese to write Chinese with Roman letters is the Hanyu Pinyin system which is standard in mainland China and is now used almost everywhere else in the world. s. lilce wei in weight. in newspapers. The following letters are pronounced as described: h. sh. m. and y. and so on. round the .like k sky. I. and g. like o in so. like tin sty.

like e in ye 9. o. the combination iu at the end of syllable is pronounced about lilce the American greeting Yo!. plus e. 6. lilce ii just described plus English e in yet. the resulting syllables chi and zhi are pronounced as explained i 6. .like e in yet. and yi i pronounced like the first syllable of easy. and c. To use this system of writing Chinese (Putonghua)with Roman letter the student needs to know about three further features: word-division. like ch just described but with less breatl and r. and n' is a kind of pun. that is. and with a tone.STUDENT'S GUIDE lips to say oo as in moon but try to pronounce instead i as in machirj (cp. tongue tip against back of lower teet nounced as described: e after i or y. below). above. zh. The following letters are pronounced as described: j. round the lips to say oo as in moon but try to pronounce instea i as in machine. ch. like English but with tongue tip forward where teeth meet. r. th occasional use of apostrophes. far back-like a j and pronounced together. and a after and before n. tongue very far back. like jjust describe but with more breath. and x. ii. Chinese is written in 'the real world' with Chinese character not-with Roman-letters.-. or z. like ts in it's hot. q. When i comes immediately after c. si is just a hiss. and whe i comes immediately after sh. and ii) in it. i. 7. e.-so-the-system-of-romanizaton hasnot-been-two1 . The following letters and combinations are pronounced as describe( sh as in shred. tongue flat against roof of mouth. it indicates that the mout and tongue are held in place while the consonant is pronounced with01 a vowel (but with a tone: see next section: we could say that 'th consonant becomes its own vowel').shirr . zi is jur a buzz. after i or y and before n (but not before ng). the resulting syllable shi sounds lik English but with the sh described above. and the placement of tone-marks (see belov over vowels when the syllable has more than one vowel-letter (a. tongue flat against roof c mouth. z. as i yet. very far back. s. but they slide towards the r sound and get a tone-rathe like the first syllable of gerbil and Churchill.respectively. like ds in cads. The letter u when followed by another vowel or pair of vowels I pronounced like English w.-10. ii in 8. when i comes immediately after ch c zh.ii.

based on the dialect of the capital. or most commonly studied. ma'is m + a pronounced in the second tone. the division into words is one of them.) Apostrophes are used. and so on. when necessary. should the expression for "overseas Chinese". could be read as jia nai or jian ai. if we count the 'zero' tone: see below). the standard.STUDENT'S GUIDE smooth' by those great creators and molders of language. mH is n z + n (as described above) pronounced in the first tone. When i and u appear together-as iu or as ui-whichever one comes second gets the tone-mark. As to the correct placement of tonemarks when a syllable has two or more vowel-letters in it. Thus. be composed of HUB qiBo or HuBqiBo? I recommend that the student follow the written HUB advice I give to my students of translation at City University of Hong Kong: look it up in a good dictionary. (Chinese) + qi5o (person or people living abroad). Tone In addition to its vowels and consonants. Pitch will normally be somewhere near the centre 29 . the situation is fairly simple. written over the syllable like the accent in French (see above). the system of tones in Putonghua ("Mandarin". 6. and o always gets the tone-mark except when the combination is ao or iao. thus a man's normal first tone will be a bit lower than a woman's. for example. in which case the a gets it. In Putonghua there are four tones (or five. These tones are indicated in Hnlzyzi Pinyin by the tone marks ii. The difficulty of learning these tones has been much exaggerated. have not been worked out. to avoid ambiguity. Note that it is only the contour of the pitch which determines the tone. a word in modern Chinese has a characteristic "tone". The tone of a word is very important because it allows our ears to discriminate among words that have the same vowels and consonants. fi. Beijing) is actually one of the simplest of all Chinese dialects. spoken language of China. The way in which the speaker uses the vocal chords to change the pitch can be written on a musical staff. and 6. Many details. The term jianai. therefore. like Hm-Ying Cidim! (It's HuBqiBo. Tones result from changes in pitch which the speaker produces with the vocal cords while pronouncing the vowels and consonants. In fact. one word. and practice and observation will help a great deal. the folk. For example. as below. so an apostrophe is added to clanfy: jim'ai. The letters a and e always get the tone-mark in combinations.

A Granznzar of Spolce ~lzinese-~Berlceley~Wniversity-of-~alifo1~ia-Press~l . It is intended to enable the student to pronounc words-in isolation. native spealcer automatically change the first of them to a second tone: h6n hilo become hEn hilo. Some very common words change their tone regularly. however.' The description of tones given here is the simplest and is the one mo: often presented in texts. Problems ( words in discourse are. We have indicated such changes in this book if the expression : a very common one. In nosmal speech the tone may disappear from a syllablc third tones in succession in a single expression.STUDENT'S GUIDE of the speaking voice and will vary according to the individual and his c her mood. and in these case we have indicated the tone appropriate to each expression. The musical diagram is from Chao Yuen Ren. depending on the tone of the following word. which you are urged to consult for mol specific information. more properly a subject for a textboo of modern spoken Chinese.

Learn to distinguish the "man" rad. A (152. from the "enter" rad.1. below).062 BASIC CHARACTERS character and means "man" or "person". .

. it is used in modem dictionaries as a rad. below -and also the form 2.g. 281a. "sideman") suggests the meaning. yE (6. it involves the confusion of at least three different characters.5-9 * BASIC CHARACTERS see p. Note that C has "down" and "twist" in it. The history of 4~ is very complicated. above) at one time suggested the sound. "man" rad. a H5). however. In the form A . The other stroke is not a rad. in traditional dictionaries. (e. but now it is not . the right half. (here.

as in 4th t2. in modem ." the "woman" rad. has a little hook on the bottom of it. Z 10 3 stroltes d. occurs in the character for "he. ~ . woman compound. It differs from the "down" rad. above) once suggested the sound. Note the logic in the writing system. occurs in the character for Tile "hook" rad. (38)(H73) -k is a picture -a rough stick drawing of a woman. "he. (3. suggests the meaning. and yE. woman. It occurs independently as a character and means "woman.BASIC CHARACTERS 10-14 4 C 4 S A . N ." -kA niirEn. the "man" rad." (7. above): the "down" rad has no little hook. Note that j u i i s not a rad. The "woman" rad. WOMANrad.

4 (260. In older forms. another form. ?. w) occurs as an independent character. sons and daughters. children . -71 occurs often as -71-k zinii. occurs only as a of characters.15-19 BASIC CHARACTERS s a picture. In older forms. it quite clearly resembles a child.is a picture. it is easy to cow with horns drawn from the front. form of the "cow" rad.

below). National Day 's Republic of China The "field" rad. Note that it appears also in several characters related to sillc (25 and 28.a large wound silk cocoon." 876. Dictionaries often note that this . nce. below).BASIC CHARACTERS 20-24 s sometimes gloss this character form of fB " ("to go around. is a picture of the typical Chinese (and East Asian) field . ply an arbitrary symbol October 1.

" Two of the dots remain. from the "silk" rad. originally was a picture of a coil of silk thread. above). % may be a meaning-meaning compound to suggest everybody's work. 24%).25-29 * BASIC CHARACTERS The "coil" rad. Learn to distinguish "coil" from the "cocoon" rad. the women's main work was sericulture (silk farming). t (p. was a drawing of silk thread. below). % (28. Note that the modem form includes the -"W-faa.-SeeZI74. A (24. whence "be tied." -W % hJolSi.%37-~-- in the fields. be very tired . and from the "dark" rad. bu the center dot has been replaced by a "hook' aic) a person of little The "silk" rad. suggest "small.

leathery (of food orpeople)." K ~ Umouth. (86)(H80) This is supposed to be a picture of the fire burning on the ground. occurs often in characters for action or movement. rip ) 33 3 strokes 1 '' ' '' H U ~&. This form of the "fire" rad. an isolent fellow. 4 '4 4" 4" / & . M O W & . (60)(H62) Note that the "step" rad. be blunt. The "stubbom" rad. 1 7 31 6 strokes G&. (138)(H184) I n early texts. to which a stroke has been added -supposedly to suggest movement. step. staring eye -an obstinate type. be tough. three people a -3.kGuzi. a measure for human beings. be stubborn. FIRErad. hole. above). it stood for a word that meant "to act stubborn. occurs only as a part of characters. A n rink64 population 5 a A s.. cut. . k i s clearly a picture of a man with a big." Originally.' 30 3 strokes BASIC CHARACTERS 30-34 /J ) CId. but not part of modem standard Chinese. The "step" rad. STEP rad. "very. below). opening. . the spoken word gin is dialect -used in certain localities. and sometime later the character was borrowed for h6n. above). (30)(H58) The "mouth" radical also occurs as an independent character and means "mouth. STUBBORN rad. In modem times. a step taken." Compare the independent form k (414. includes the "sideman" (4." It is a picture.Tn k6u r6n. to resist" -a word that probably was cognate with gin (31. was reclarified with the "step" rad. very This character is a sound-ioan for h6n "very. It is called "fire-dots" or "four-dots fire. b h b b I\\\ 34 4 strokes .

% (35 part of characters. The resemblance clearer in older forms of the topic to emphasize it.." In some ancient texts it specifically means "dove." The older forms of the character were clearly pictures of a .35-39 * BASIC CHARACTERS is a picture.IS H rad. 10) tailed bird. 75 is a sound-meaning compound .

(H defines yias "a retrievable arrow with string attached" and calls it "bookish. is a picture. below)." This fonn can also sometimes occur as a part of The "dart" rad. Note that "lance" has one more stroke than "dart. Zhui(39. W6 is "hand" + "lance. is a picture." at the bottom. above) is supposed to The "hand" rad." zhso is "side-hand" + .") Compare the "lance" rad." The "lance" rad. The weapon is also from zhso "look for" % (508.BASIC CHARACTERS * 40-44 This character is probably a sound-meaning compound. looks like this when it is an independent character meaning "hand. (43. In museums you can see that the old weapon called g5 had a blade like this at the lower end. below) and learn to distinguish "lance" from "dart.

area by an This character came to mean "you" by sound-loan.45-49 BASIC CHARACTERS an independent character and means "gate. doorway. The history of the character is too complicated to go into here. Nowadays 4k 4Pl nimen. hello! hi! how are you! .you (plural) nihrio.

Madam Ma AiAi' 53 4 strokes 'I'I&V. ku. bamboo 4-t . etc.Tnzh&(broadlnarrow: width). the "Son of Heaven. (118)(H178) This character is a good picture of the slender. or a "left" rad." the emperor YAO. (37)(H52) k is a man with arms extended: "big. a stick used by children as a toy horse ." klJ. rad. BAMBOO rad. heaven. Mrs. 287. above). day Heaven was anciently recognized as a diety in China. 75. the size:" cp. tender. every day k 7 ti. The clue is: is there a "one" rad.) 50 3 strokes k 51 4 strokes 52 4 strokes --C Fii. as if to say "the big and little of it. AMil fiiren. Mrs. bamboo. husband. 254a. duiishio (manylfew: how many?).6 zbiirni. Madam .. & 8~ giio2i' (tall/ short: height). drooping leaves of the bamboo. This character is supposed to be a picture of "an anthropomorphic diety. gentle ( w i t hA.% f . BIG rad. across the top? 4 54 6 strokes m .Tnzi.BASIC CHARACTERS 50-54 D & big. Ma. "bigman" k d&fi. yZo c o m p r i s e sH. 1051. 9 3. medical doctor (note that k "big" is pronounced d. 90) Learn to distinguish k from k (52. djyigo.ij in this expression) k A firen. St? zhirzi. below. 1 & qingzb6ng (lightheavy: weight)." kk ti&ti&. size (abstract nouns are often formed of antonyms combined. p.

'When bamboo takes the wind.55-59 BASIC CHAIZACTERS This form of the "bamboo" rad. it leans back gently like a man who . only occurs One scholar says.

Distinguish it The character is a picture. & "rice" (101.BASIC CHARACTERS 6 0 6 4 character: just memorize it. "grain" (65 below). and the feathers and notch are at the bottom. . The point of the arrow is at the top. below).

women . Distinguish "grain" from f$. a busy fellow .tiA rnjngSn. grain than trees. "arrow" k+ "grain" within their classes.65-69 * BASIC CHARACTERS stroke across the top to represent the head of ripened grain. "woman" & -all things which. is composed of iF. are generally shorter: arrows than spears.

No good! . used to address elders and superiors. above). Note that the top half of this character is f* "you" (49.BASIC CHARACTERS * 70-74 ?& is deferential. It's not good. 5% brihio.

(136. 2 0 1 .75-79 BASIC CHARACTERS I% was a picture of stairs leading down from the mound. reclarified with "mouth." (h "mound" =572. Dictionaries call zu6 drdu6. &. but "city" always appears at the far right in characters. pleasing -pref% it-is used by sound-loan-- -- direct address. T V brikB. Sound-loan. and impatient statements. 4 . 282b). should not kzxin. "left ear. be satisfying. seep. below) are the same." . In form. Not an independent form. "mound" and the "city" rad. below.

) above) and from "city" p (136. H124). in many modem dictionaries (i.. below). The top part." (Not accurate historically.BASIC CHARACTERS = 80-84 Yir is a picture of a hand holding a brush.is a rad. If. Learn to tell "Brush" + "say" = "book. . Such dictionaries Y u d has a stroke inside the mouth.e. perhaps to suggest the tongue moving. this explanation can help you remember the character.

In modem texts.85-89 * BASIC CHARACTERS The "shield" cad. 8 . is a picture.

GOLD isd (16'7)(HZ09. family name (H88) W h g i s classified in traditional dictionaries under the "jade" rad. to The old form of this character meant "to requite" because it was a picture of a kneeling man with manacles and a hand to mete out the punishment. .iobtio. report.BASIC CHARACTERS 90-94 announce." 3 3 ' F 8 strokes m. . seems to be w h g will be found under "jade" but in modem dictionaries will be found. It stands for "announce" by sound-loan. newspaper. a brush made of bamboo. is supposed to help with the meaning. to play. short form = H rad. 147) A 8k : s e s '& The "gold" rad." Often seen in characters for various metals or metallic objects. king.g bixin. "toys" suggests "to play. In such dictionaries. $ l i xi.. ball-point pen refill Re 91 12 strokes 92 4 strokes Z 4 W ~ Gking. more logically. occurs as an independent character and means "gold" or "metals. to amuse oneself A sound-meaning compound.writinginstrument Biis a meaning-meaning compound: "bamboo" + "brush" =the traditional Chinese writing instrument. under L whg." ~ I . characters in which the rad. . (bookish) gold and jade. 5 (62. % . above) suggests the sound. Y u h (72. tabloid i2Ekes $r $p 1 $E R P BB~brush. pencil-lead. perhaps because toys were often made of jade. a family name. The "jade" rad. "treasures" (short form in combinations only: 4 ) . &5 jin yii.gold. It will have to be memorized as "lucky" + "seal" + "right hand. metals. c ' & WAN. above) although wjng has one less stroke.

(vulgar. The "mountain" rad. in the center of gZng it suggests the meaning. to the other forms he has learned (26 and 88.40 shMc6u.95-99 * BASIC CHARACTERS ShZn is a picture." I. hilloclc "eight" rad. In the old form it is clearly three peaks sticking up.40 shZn gfing. mountain pass Notice the "mountain" rad. The rest of g a g is from an old character which gave 1. abusive) . above). often occurs independently as a character and means "mountain" and "hill. low hill. This is the form which-is-usually-seems-anindependent tortoise.

knife f i n .is classified 7J is a picture. (65. rice. below) Distinguish "rice" from "sift" $ from "grain" iF. maize.the form 3 .. KNIFE md. a family name.(64. . The horizontal stroke represented the water that stands in paddies.lead (the metal) ia. was originally a picture of rice growing in a paddy.9 qiZnb&pencil 100 13 strokes .in H . knife. n 4 diiozi. . rice-flour noodles Enb&chalk (for writing with) . I(119)(H159) The "rice" rad. and from "tree" &.BASIC CHARACTERS 100-104 Q m . below). above). i @ . RICE md. 5 % yiimi. Distinguish it from the "strength" rad. above). a (206. rice flour.seen in combinations. -(516. (18)(H27. Indian corn 101 6 strokes D & .

you build a village." A commentator says.105-109 * BASIC CHARACTERS P B liya." This character is also used by . (old expression) write up your "earth" ="village. "Where there's land by fields.

This character is a sound-loan.e. wristwatch The downstroke through the center of the rectangle suggests "middle. center. Originally. below).." "Earth" has been corrupted into "one" in the modem form." rfi *G zhdngxTn. to suggest the national ? !' 3a zh6nglfgu6. however. -?-at shdubiZo." i. core rfi 3 zhijnglf. As "nation. watch rad. China .wristwatch. This character may.BASIC CHARACTERS 110-1 14 0. a neutral nation rfi Zhdnggu6. "surround" rad. be a simple sound-meaning compound. it meant "nation" (see 114." it was a combination of meanings: "lance" (for the army) + "mouth" (for a language) + "earth. "standing in the middle.

then . one dictionary says. "If the applied-heat-to-theshell-until it-cracked.115-119 a BASIC CHARACTERS Supposed to be a meaning-meaning compound.

etc. h (515.. as money*7 were money in China. used by various peoples ( c e n t u r y. government VIP . "west" (130. money. The top commendation -&A gukEn. below).BASIC CHARACTERS 120-124 should lean to distinguish the "eye" rad. in characters for value. yellowish-white shell "with a fine gloss. from the "small nose" rad. below) as rad. 166. ~a a cowrie. As a 122 6 strokes modem rad.tionql. business transactions. C O W F I 123 7 strokes 9 A cowrie is a small. We find the "cowrie" rad. a g compound. it will be seen in the form a6 at the top of characters. cow. a family name. g-meaning compound: "hand" xT.

" plainclothes man father. street clothes. even more kb dn'bin'n.125-129 * BASIC CI-IARACTERS to make the explanation helpful. Now it is used by .to shit. "civvies. i W gibg hcio. be better. defecation C$-bihyi.

or 4 % yGoha'o.a. important person (usually a government official) -%% ya'obli. above). Distinguish the "wine" rad. otherwise. in the forms of I and a ) The character is a picture of a bird in a nest and originally meant "to nest. H (363. be good friends. below)." It is used for xi"west" by sound-loan. Cp. to want.130 6 strokes * ) . this form is almost always "net" -and in H. always so. be eager to improve yourself traditional dictionaries. -" BASIC CHARACTERS 130-134 - west (H166.. essential - &A ya'orEn. . be on good terms. Y & . or else. "wanted?' 73 important. 73 (122. Characters in which xliseems to be the radical will be found in traditional dictionaries under the "cover" rad. "earth" k (86). his lord. to ask for.

The modem formis very stylized (you can-analyze it into "earth-left-ladle"). above). is the form P -92) Lrio.. = 201. but we lcnow it is there because zhdis classified under d 2 "old" in traditional 58 . =%. is a picture of an old man with long hair and a cane.135-1390 BASIC CHARACTERS 'mound" rad. When the form ccurs far right in a character. it is always Dictionaries call "city" hq* yciu drdu6. say the dictionaries. (78. below. "right ear" (2% = 210. It may be hard to see in zhd the "old" rad.

from the "box" rad." The character is a picture. r (145. "city" gives This character is formed of two "ten" rads."twenty. The student should learn to distinguish the "basket" rad.BASIC CHARACTERS 140-144 In the sense of "metropolis. below). Note that niiin is sometimes written -If. This character is normally read aloud simply as Z-t-~?rsh-. The two are almost identical and. indeed. have become the same rad (15) in H. . written together." this character is a sound-meaning compound.

and tin). iron.145-149 BASIC CHARACTERS we assume the box is tipped on its side. the right-hand side of the box is not drawn in. metals . classics" of Confucianism. copper.

277h) and in the short forms for 1(452) and (p.in is a picture of a slope. primer A 3 nishdu. identified as rad. (11) (Tn H. in modem texts. put your hand in. below) and Iff (p. 23) Distinguish "enter" from A ( ~ 2 ) . L (137. very Originally this character stood for a word meaning "peace and happiness. get started. above)." Now the character is used by soundloan.j i i i t i t i n . 264h below)." It was a meaning-meaning compound: "sweet" + "mate. = rad. Printed form: -\r -k 9 qikii the seventh night of the seventh lunar month -the one night of the year. besides HI3 there is a look-alike form J ." the highest of heavens (the Westem world has "seventh heaven") 1 152 2 strokes A RO.ni m0 s. 22. with A (2. as the short form for & ch.BASIC CHARACTERS 150-154 150 2 strokes Ql. cliff. 256b). (27)(H13) H. In H. above). be profound the first sylla~le of &&me (sh&mme). seven The student will want to distinguish -k from the "ladle" rad. The student will want to note that this character is usually seen. 154 2 strokes . to start well. be written in a forceful hand. SLOPErad. make a beginning A$-1$. A nikdu. EBTER rad. what? SHE!N. but H22 is the rad. j y j * X & &$ & HbJ.ing. that the legendary lovers "the Cowboy" and "the Weaver Girl" get to spend together ttk 151 2 strokes ~ f nine i. only in K (308."Ninth Heaven. entrance A Pq riim6n. according to myth. slope. h j F .in En. & "3 9 shokes - ~m. "factory" (p.to enter.

below). "lean-to.155-159 * BASIC CHARACTERS (154. woods. sgn (p. 281b. below). which also means "forest." Emme)." Cp. 266a. . f (531. see p. Y r i n . what? ( S h E m e i: commonly written now a! L. above) and from the "sick" rad. [for I f ." will most r Lin is a meaning-meaning compound: "tree' beside "tree" = "forest.

curiosity d to be a sound-meaning .BASIC CHARACTERS 70-74 "say" rad. or 3) the two will This character is a meaning-meaning gives you a hint that it refers to some object made of wood. Qiis said to be a meaning-meaning compound. or 2) the inner line in "say" will be incomplete. be curious. be interested in odd tliings or just in many things hiioqixin. R (82. but it is not clear why "big" + "be able" should suggest "be weird." @% iiiioqf. above): 1) "sun" will be taller and thinner.

b fin . nine cents &i.165-169 a BASIC CHARACTERS meaning-meaning compound. "the sun tangled in the branches of a tree" is supposed to suggest "sunrise" and. qirin.k jingirin. ancient. money (people). 7 ' ~ e i jid . therefore. .

thus. to this extent or degree NC?inormally appears in the construction "ngi + 'measure"' or "nC?j+ 'measure' + noun" (cp. that one fJir l E nC?me. three . & i l zl]C?i sC?. above)." individual (adjective) Z I l s. 170.. in that case. t should learn to recognize both .this. fJF$4 nC?igC?. Zl~di normally appears in the construction "zl16i+ 'measure"' or "zl~C?i + 'measure' + noun" (cp. 170 and 172.that being so. this one & zllC?me. in this way. to that extent or degree ther way to write % (28. in that way. above).so. above)..that. in this case.ingC?.BASIC CHARACTERS * 170-174 "number+ ge + noun.

' as one would two panels of a double door.youmayhave-to~nder both-rads. like the mouth. Early dictionaries call this character a meaning-meaning compound and say." Not in current use as an independent cllaracter. you cannot be sure whether this form is the "moon" rad. or the "meat" rad. The root meaning of h i is "to join or close. .175-179 * BASIC CHARACTERS gathered around a single space." dictionary. befo~e you find a character. H puts all such but not in traditional dictionaries. "to close. (326).

"follow" A (319). gEn (87. under f "left hand. * have. The "tluee-dots water" rad.BASIC CHARACTERS 180-184 st forms show a hand taking hold of meat. "knoclc" k (384)." from the other form form is called f.F" dots water" (for A. three-dots form ofte HZn is a sound-meaning compound. Later lexicographers lost so yciu came to be classified unde (in H. has not (done something) ."club. Distinguish "club" from these characters: "branch" & (271. above) suggests the S l ~ f i is a picture: a right hand holds the club. below). and "slow" A (337). Shii. "pattern" (360)." is not now in common use. suggests the meaning.

and the "thumb" was z hand drawing on a bow. below).185-189 * BASIC CHARACTERS ST 9 MshFn. w the dot added to indicate the thumb. rank The "thumb" rad.5. whence "to shoot Xis is a sound-meaning compound. &t b0aX1d. You're welcome. position. & El jiri. ' a n m o w on a bow. Thank you. L o fit well (clothes) 9 shFnRn. above). and "then" $ (596. is a picture of a hand. the & x'Exi. to fit well (clothes) hzsht'n.a ''lucky day" on tile traditional ." "side-hand" 3 (14. Leam distinguish "thumb.

t h i n k of the upper part as his This character is not at present used as an independent character. to like .BASIC CHARACTERS * 190-194 te that the lower part of this character is "man" rad. & i k xihuZn. . If it helps you to remember character.

S R l . howeve is-~eonizedsaradThechatta-alsooccurs independently and means "green" qing(l98.195-199 * BASIC CHARACTERS re of a foot. $TI? sh6 qing. to keep up with." Qing by itself. keep pac Note that Uie bottom half of "green" resembles "moon. gsnshang. above) gives the sound. From above) gives the sound. Who's paying? .

BASIC CHARACTERS * 200-204 Bi] ." "Leisure" may be an extension of meaning. which loolcs lilce a meaningmeaning compound: "put a tree across . the moon shining through a craclc in a gate. as in English a rest is "a break. originally meant "crack. break." Now usually = I??.

"put your baclc" into a job. 118 . it is classified under rad. above) E rh sipinijli. 7J (102. very few. specific. four horsepower rh m d i . In H.205-209 * BASIC CHARACTERS e student should distinguish "strength" m the "knife" rad. difference Xd A bjErEn. A (178 bove). other people X l l E b i 6 t n . i i . D o n ' r b u y i t ! 1 1 3 XI1 $big. be taracter is classified in traditional ictionaries under the "moon" rad. do something "with all your might" differentiate.

Learn to distinguish tlte "don't" rad. This character is not in modem use except as a short form for L gin (215. from -4-mi. elders (as in a district) The character is supposed to be a picture of a woman in irons. The relation of that to its present meaning is unclear.BASIC CHARACTERS 210-214 X# fui80. pronounced . in which usage it is. of course. below).

a violin bow) an arrow stayed on the bow.. oldest brother. Learn to distinguish "mother" from the "don't" rad.gdngzi. also used to address politely a lnan about your bbiogZ. above) for sound. 4 fimmu'. eye for &liiis a pictuie o f a woman with two dots t c emphasize the breasts. hence "to pity In modem use. is a picture of a bow. 4 4 % mmu'qin.215-219 * BASIC CHARACTERS Zhen (213. bow (e. 5 3.mother X . which Bemhard Karlgen calls "a vulgar corruption" (Analytic . -# (212. older male cousin such that The "bow" rad. your father and mothe k 4 dl?@. this character has been replaced by $.g.parents.

oldest sister. be unable to &!LC biZornSi.BASIC CHARACTERS 200-224 z& Srdi. or of two sisters . second younger cousin ka-ka jiEjie. older sister k k a diijii.301b). also used to address politely a woman about your below) and from % (p. cannot. younger female cousin such that tl~e two of you are children or grandcl~ildren of a brother and a sister. ' T wdikE.

225-229 a BASIC CHARACTERS Ek shduzhi. toilet paper $IL"it. bjozhi. newsprint The cliaracter is a drawing of a man with a . newspaper.

Some modem dictionaries call the "wrap" rad. or parts of the character. above) and from tile "nose" rad. usually appears wrapped around other rads.BASIC CHARACTERS 230-234 This character is said to be a picture of a child with open fontanel. El (160. 6 = 454). below). The student should distinguish "white" from the "sun" rad. -k 3." bjbzi t6ur -top of the character 'bao' (63 = 509. 8 (515. $ = 257. bjitiZn. & '7 niirsli. wooden ladle .io. As part of a cilaracter. " 63 $32 %. in the daytime The character is a picture of a wrapper. below. the "wrap" rad.

opponent #3& duiz!?6ng. to make a custolns . adversafy. to set a clock mother's side - $L+k ba'oshui.duishdu.235-239 * BASIC CHARACTERS ')f 7 duile. That's right! "N3.

BASIC CHARACTERS 240-244 talk and laugh together. above: "be correct (in the mind) about. of the ages extra one (one too many) %Z guizhcing. long journey ?la% qiZnlim& a superb horse.4! qiZn lz many miles. be done twice. be valuable 3 7 ch6ng le. gives a clue that the character stands for a number. 'F. an antique.i . an old fart as 243. eternal. gi. a horse that can run many miles 'F. to understand. The "ten" rad. with the addition of the . get repeated f ?& gtlddng.Tngfi." Note that in form it is identical to 243.

to bear a daughter 3. my late husband F .245-249 BASIC CHARACTERS 2 burshi. green horn . a fault A xi&fiT. xiZnti?in. "No!". inborn shSng n&r. green hand. innate.shSngshbu.

h Z (250. above) gives the sound.BASIC CHARACTERS 250-254 ives the sound in a aracters (usually as The "child" rad. gives tile meaning. child (colloquial) 11% gti~ h in the fields W . T 23 hZtdng. children T S3 % xiiiohZr." .

be famous as a part of other characters. .255-259 BASIC CHARACTERS kk-4 xikgming. full name $2 yGuming. . . .

5 -&X ga'osii. (legal term) to appeal to a . L e a n to distinguish "cow" from w0 "noon" 4 (594." 4L-& ba'oga'o.ingsii. a lecture The "axe" rad." wlich equals about 1. to tell. to report. This form occurs as a part of characters and also as an independent character. above)." The character was a meaning-meaning compound: "cow" + "mouth" suggested the device.BASIC CHARACTERS * 260-264 This character is a picture (cp. a report. The character now stands also for a measure of weight. to inform %%L siishu6. The original meaning of this character was "muzzle for cows. By soundloan it means "inform. is a picture. to relate LM sll. a jin or "catty. 15.

4 % dfioxi. from the "head" rad Sj. (333. to know %# da'oxiZ. $ 2 ~shGudii.265-269 BASIC CHARACTERS The student should distinguish the "chief' rad. to thank 8 .to congratulate -f 8 z11EjyLuidsh&this lot of hooks f da' xit7. dil (610. .a bit larger . below) and from the "face" rad. capital city h8 zhidfio. below) "Chief' was originally a picture of a head with horns or some big headdress.

above. below). this was probably a symbol. &? zlu'zi. has been reclarified wit11 the "tree" rad. from si FJ (275). "follow" A (319). Learn to tell "self" from "already" 5 (274.a pen As a cyclical character ("heavenly stem"). is likely to be . The meaning "self" is probably by sound-loan. 271. " In this character. from "club" "knock" k (384.(hee) branch -&* yizlu'bi. Z zllqi. below).BASIC CHARACTERS 270-274 "branch" rad."bosom" or "intimate" * characters with which tf. ' (360). and from "seal" & (760).

suppose. I y51g(278. Okay! Bravo! Fine! fsk&itiltC niz11idSo ba. You know. The student should to distinguish sifrom 273 and 274. *G is a sound-meaning compound. .icl-t2Ehi0 ba.275-279 * BASIC CHARACTERS originally supposed to have been a ing of a fetus. above) suggested the sound. with a large head and d up lower part. .

" an evil mind hsi b. t 9% hEixii. +JL o'ng xi6ng. (118.." Other meanings by sound-loan. 3. (respectful) your older . rw * s h &.at' % . 5:00 Tile "rain" rad. a "black heart.ii bfi En.%.inliii. is a picture of raindrops falling from clouds.6 wU dijn zl16ng. above) + "mouth" = "to explain (orally) the divination cracks. cannot & is a meaning-meaning compound: the "divine" rad.BASIC CHARACTERS 280-284 .

97 hcio dud le. Much better! 9 duaxis.l nn 06 .285-289 * BASIC CHARACTERS 4 3 . Many thanlcs! 9"k shiioni. young + .

%% mgobi. evil The "earth" rad.Sf- guidiiinzi. a piece of land. above) suggests the sound.if% hiinm50. guf (291. seven dollars -% W yikuZ t i k .%1. above). (wool) sweater . Distinguish from 3 "hand" (41. fine body-hair (on people) . a field M5o is a picture of an animal's pelt. gives the meaning. -k%+t qikuZ q i k .BASIC CHARACTERS * 290-294 9) once suggested the g6u pEngy6u. (dialect) d ' i trick. to be a friend indeed %. writing brush %% niiioyi.

" $$ Ddnuing. The "heart" rad.295-299 BASIC CHARACTERS aracter may stand for a word cognate 4. all together ? # Zhcing Gdng. to Older forms have "clasp" (141. Tokyo . and @ ed as "to examine in the mind. above. Chinese Communists (from ? El # b 2 Zhdngguci) meaning. can be (as it often does). above) -# yigdng. means . It soon came to mean "tall buildings: capital.

5 zrii wd kib.BASIC CHARACTERS 300-304 check out something put in plain view.as I see it % 8 7 bfi zii le. to no longer exist. ready money 8 3 k . on a 3Rsk xiinqijo. to be .

husband and wire part of a cltaracter. conscience kW liSngh80. above). i has the extra dot at the top. Litkg the "stubborn" rad. 306 is the independent . 1i5ngxinn. a tael of gold h iL li8ng k6uzi.% &? yi liiingjinzi.305-309 * BASIC CHARACTERS The student should distinguish liiing from % (31. two dollars --I. be well f L 8 ~ htA%k liiing kuii qi'in. be good.

for food or money . (colloquial) gossipy .." i. so that you can parrot the teacher's words without really understanding them. cooked rice &$ti. gives the meaning.BASIC CHARACTERS 310-314 Fin is a sound-meaning compound. of Shdis a picture of a tongue sticking out of a @ % xudshd.e. above) suggests the sound. above) is. & { t i . The "food" rad. mIfin. to learn "by tongue. y i i ~to~beg . Ting (3 11. (308.

315-319 * BASIC CHARACTERS This character sltows a hand holding a to intercede le yawn" rad. above) in . (to suggest the opening mouth) combines with gE(217.

to eat ptbtl$. (324. food. to the "breath" rad. exhalations. things to eat L h strengll and exertion.trequire I ~tbreath. below) and meant "breath.%Ill %El gEgu6. vapours." It was probably by sound-loan that it came to mean "to beg. to give a party ?jig sliu6k5. one by one an audience. various nations -%I* gSbvSi. every one. pl pc CEJji. to get people's attention). everybody (used in addressin %% qingkS.G cliide d6ngxi.BASIC CHARACTERS 320-324 g E . an (informal) emissary. to eat *~tti c / i i h . 324 4 strokes . beg for food P~ 323 6 strokes /k 1 ' ' p )=. vapours. li. BRE4TH rad. each person . (84)(H109) The cliaracter is a picture of breath passing off in waves. an eloquent fellow sent to win others to your point of view 322 3 strokes his character once was identical." %+> qisl~i. exhalations.

325-329 * BASIC CHARACTERS a%. $L sl~Fngqi. (326. that is the only way we know that this form is "meat." fiE h ningl?. already. a family name 328 12 strokes . has a different form (928. above). -G. (178. vitality." I 4 strokes (6 strokes) 3 " 10 strokes Ifl *tl *t/ *t flL flk under the "meat" rad. this f o m is H. meat. as a i independent character. 118 whethe it originally meant "meat" or "moon. personal energy. to be able to C%NG. The "meat" rad. below). ability fik $4 nnngg:ciu. it is identical in form to the "moon" rad.v ROU. occurs as a part of characters. (130)(H118) Note that when the "meat" rad. above). relationship between great-grandparents and greatgrandchildren through the male line.to get an. however. As part c a character. h4EAT rad. yuiinqi. rad.

willingness often being a matter of the heart.e.BASIC CHARACTERS * 330-334 . +G'Efi xiiyu$n. traditional form.heart's desire i18Eii qingyuiin.$g h u M . not of the head. a water-source). "Water" was corrupted into The character was a picture of a man's head. to receive a guest The character originally was "slope" + "white" + "water" and meant "spring" (i.voluntarily ..

that is used as a part of characters. (=H65).335-339 * BASIC CHARACTERS The old form of the "tone" rad. was a mouth blowing on a flute -a pretty good way to suggest "tone. (For the said to be an object . accident identical in form to the "follow" rad. In modern dictionaries like H." The modem fonn has been corrupted into "stand" over "say." titought"). This is the form of tlte "claws" rad. above) and may want to review the entry under 319 for clarification of their relation. these two forms are put together as one rad. (319.

now you don't") 8 t chkjngyjn. other. now it's here. now it's not (idiomatically: "now you see it. The "two" is often explained philosophically: "two" = "another. The "two" rad." and kindness is the most important virtue toward others. "F % zh2 kkjn. (bookish) frank and open speech or remarks 344 8 strokes E? .. at first sight "F 4 "F % : z l 1 Z yciu zl~Z int?.BASIC CHARACTERS * 340-344 It is supposed that this word ren and the word rsn A ''man.. is a reclarification. then. be human" are cognates.

to sing gvl hBcl~. (artist's expression) to dr "heart". to start % Q xiEsl~Bng. but it is seen as a sound . to sing for a living LIU fi sh'ingge yu4 last month thousand people LC A sl~ing qiin r&n. & ' k 3 sixiing. chin:: (344. "81 1 : cl~. above) suggests the sound. a chorus (group of singerr =fi118 nljichjng.in.to be nearly a 1 % sl~ing xu& to go to school L shingm8. to get on a horse." .345-349 BASIC CHARACTERS The "mouth" gives the meaning. "head" was corrupted to "field..inggB. thought modem Chinese.

peak of a cap. paper towel The top part of this character is the cover. small towel. hat. cap s'iI.tER bima'or.i-7. to use someone else's name (353.BASIC CHARACTERS * 350-354 The character is a picture of a small piece of $ ?lt shdujin. above) gives the sound. ~FI . rna'ozi. % % rna'on6ng. face towel zl$in. visor il:zkes $j $fi $g r9 r9 . cap of a pen % +% rna'osh6.

" the dove rad. anew. represented the bird's "horns. fresh Tile original meaning of this character was "owl." The "grass" rad. above) gave Z$ t yiji.355-359 a BASIC CHARACTERS %d/r ch6ngxin. to change or develop every day Not in use as an independent character in -- . again. helped furthe fix the meaning. person belonging to a different El ?l(r F1 Z$ rixin yud yi. and jiir (229.

lush $3I?? jiiliui. cocktail party @ : $ jiiyi. an alcoholic. tipsy . Tlte student should distinguish I % jiigui. This is Ute independent form The "wine" rad. reception running water. to drink tea %% cliidiiin. tea party. wino. is a picture of a wine-jug. the horizontal stroke inside represents the liquid in it. mild high from drink.BASIC CHARACTERS * 360-364 6%> cliiclii. refreshments %I?? clidiui.

.365-369 - BASIC CHARACTERS the hand is supposed to be grabbing the ea hence the meaning "to grab." 4%4? gild& to get.io. the best thing tc 1-0. to obtain &?if zuih. the greatest.

? You don't mean.." X i & njnda'o. It couldn't be that. J-r & shjngii. in difficulty $h%$ niind6." Not in modern use as an independent character. the riglithand element is "dove. In $k jjjn. . This is tile same word as 370. hence "to be in difficulty. ? $k$@jijnnjn. difficult. rarely The character is a picture. the character is reclarified with the "stubborn" rad. the right-hand element is "stubborn. below).BASIC CHARACTERS 370-374 picture of a man with his hands tied behind his back. d i i c u l t to get." in BP-njn. above. ravine 374 10 stroltes A - * &*+ * .. The student should distinguish jijn from n j . rare.. (372.

gives the meaning. Eorigin. gives the meaning. be easy CBng (377. The meaning "to change" is an easy extension of "chameleon. A popular variant is h.llly meant "chameleon" and was picture of the chameleon. to be intelligent. the "ear" rad. . C6ng (378 above) gives the sound. the "heart" rad. above) gives the sound.375-379 * BASIC CHARACTERS This is said to be a picture of an old wamir flag -"Stop!" . 378 11 strokes understand. $ b r6ngyi.from which the meanin "must not" derives." The measng "easy" is probably by sound-loan." The charactc is a sound-meaning compound.

BASIC CHARACTERS * 380-384 3 k jinsl~@ng. this life .

above) + the "child" rad. (138. = "filial and drink extravagantly .385-389 * BASIC CHARACTERS rad.

population. landlord h%5ii? fkgzi. three housellolds Door" gives the meaning. sexual intercourse (between husband and wife) . Usually printed 9 . room h%q fkgshi. above). household 1P A $ s5n 116rEnjiZ. house.BASIC CHARACTERS 390-394 fiZcombiies meanings: "pig" under "roof' This character is a picture. fig (392. above) gives the sound. h%$ ffjnddng. The student should distinguish it froin "corpse" P (329. P hiik6u. building.

395-399 BASIC CHARACTERS 35+ zhvjn. up to the present time 4 P z11ish. ' a n adult .io. to change into American money & A cl~dngrdn. room B d fhgwii. l~ouses. at least d? wiizi. a place of great & && duicl~dng Mgijin. buildings XI1 $ k l h bj6 you LiZn-di.

to have hidden motives or an axe to grind 4+ f i zuciycing. to have an effect on. The student should distinguish it from "pattern" 2 (360. above) gives the sound in tliis j&% ftj& cheng xii7ng8town and country Cl~Zngchcng. Rll$ . f i IC big y6u ycingxin. above).BASIC CHARACTERS 400-404 chgng (399. the Great Wall The original meaning of this character was "to cross." it was a picture of a man with crossed legs.

gives the meaning."Mandarin" language now like "corpse" P (329. above) suggests the . above). above) ' b (137. and fU (404. The "gold" rad." The meaning "nun" appears . this character was an" beside "man" and meant .405-409 BASIC CHARACTERS - compound. near.

volcano %k guihud. . automobile carbonated drink." The meanings "which? what" are by sound-loan. passenger train. PIRErad (86)(H83) The character is a picture of flames rising. fire." whence "place. stock exchange !&$ kZcht5. What about me? d kd nf djyi. This is the independent form of "fire dots" (34." i%7k qishui. will-o'-the-wisp (literally. therefore R 814 jiZoyisu6.gas. 4 Ql. wool overcoat "Door" and "axe" here are supposed to combine to give the meaning "to build a living place. above) A$ hudchE. $4Y% sudyi.BASIC CHARACTERS 410-414 here warns that the character may be a wd ne.%$ qichs. soda water : & a x HUG. (railroad) train kJ-l hudshZn. bus 7 strokes :% 413 7 strokes 1 'p 1 . steam The character combines meanings: "water" +"breath" (vapor) = "steam. "ghost-fire") -& 414 4 strokes .

the bows of a boat. (bookish) boat and car.captain. T#i xi. above) once gave the sound. 8 y5n (99. master of a ship n b L 5 chuiIIshdu. above) gives the meaning.ichuiII. to disembark i$& qfchujn. a very fast boat .415-419 * BASIC CHARACTERS $I-$ zl~duchF. steamship #a& churinzl15ng. prow IR& Eizhdu. Zhdu (415.

above). . Originally the right half was identical (the similarity is still clear). and the character one time gave the sound.BASIC CHARACTERS 420-424 The left half of "go" is "step" (30.

below.4 2 5 4 2 9 * BASIC CHARACTERS meaning compound: "suddenly" (342. next time 1-16 . c6ng xigo. since 3:00 4:t:i. Compare 427. how? why? 5 $I% bfizgnrne. K1%@ ccing s5n diEn zhcing. above) +"heart" (mind) = "bewilderment" = the questions "how? why?' &A zgnme.l. to go home T EJ xiiihuf.from childhood The character is supposed to symbolize going around something until you return to -the-starting-point--.not very The character is a picture of one man following another.-rn % hufjiii.

c6ngl. zh8n (281." The modem character is somewhat corrupted. (156)(H189) The character originally was a meaningmeaning compound: "man" + "foot. I suggest we leave. The meaning "to come" is by sound-loan. walk WALK rad.BASIC CHARACTERS * 430-434 & 7: zu6xia'. Z ~ Uto . above) The "stand" rad. customarily (in the past) ii.xxijlili.Ing.train station 1% qichc?zl~&I.Ti. A$+& hu6cl1c?zl1&I. to sit down zu8cl1u8n. I : & $. Let's go! Let's get outta here! 7 strokes .stationmaster 1 . the fuhlre s a cup (now "cocoon" a . T $. bus station +& I% zi&~zh. He's left. to travel by boat &b#& zu6EijX to travel by plane This character originally meant "wheat" and was a picture of growing wheat. P k T dz6uie. klle z6u ba.& wBiIili. above) gives the sound. to come down . gives the meaning. 24.

pronto. suggests the meaning. is supposed to help with the meaning. the "walk" rad.435439 * BASIC CHARACTERS character. in one day. zhii 0' 8 dinxE (bookish) in the morning or the cvening -prctty soon -0' yidiin. breakfast 1 18 . right away ziofm. The "sun" rad.

to divide the labor This character is a picture of threads mn across a loom.4 && giigD. . "the old country. job &L miigrTng. r ( $ g6ngzu6. free time Engdng.BASIC CHARACTERS 440-44. Not in modem use as an independent character. to pass away." one's native This character is a G6ng is a picture of a carpenter's square. work. to die &k giit0. carpenter 2 k g6nO&.

Not now used as an independent character." The other meanings The character is a picture of a net. The explanation of hu2n is very complicated and unsatisfactory. It occurs as part of characters to give the sound.445-449 * BASIC CKARACTERS "silk. . appears in this character without its top dot.

5 6 454 - - 3 - TOU. (on) the day after tomorrow The character is a picture of a flask. a bulb (of garlic). gives the meaning --lili 4 yi t6u nji. The meaning "bean."fi A . pea" is by sound-loan. a measure-wordfor certain animals Ddu (453.the head. above) suggests the sound. a sufCix used to form nouns and noun-phrases.in back $6 .1 lead" rad. the 4. wood %&53 11dut6u.a cow &gf! miit6u.BASIC CHARACTERS 450-454 TlGs was one or the punishments prescribed $&fi l~dutiiin.

suggests that the meaning is numerical. to ask after someone k4G huih8u."etc.~~e~~mmon people "monkey. above) gives the sound.~&!5ob-Z~ing. time required to cook BG (231. %. the "one" rad. The present .455-459 * BASIC CHARACTERS &'I 4G wgnhdu." "elephant..

in H. cannot stop 3t . to advocate. .iinifin. ( 1 7 ) ( H 3 8 ) Ifin is a picture of a bowl. plan I Y wenzhir. a lifetime K h . idea. the rad.of 4 in traditional dictionaries is '.next year b. f (87.BASIC CHARACTERS * 460-464 3% zhOzhjjl. bowl.the tllird one .a hundred years. is * " * M 464 2 strokes ncngnifin. above). BOWL rad. first. to propose A& zlliyj. to stump with a question k 6 4 % zl~%uzl~~i.djyi.the fourth day $ 5%disfinzh8.. the first $ Q A disi tifin.

ou6. to sweat $46 dEngI~du. cow +& dengda'o. to wait for . It occurs as a part of characters to give sometimes tile sound jut sometimes tile sound guai (or kuai). 391. horses.465-469 a BASIC CHARACTERS & @ chii.dEngwiii. to go abroad k!i $5 chfil~llin.$ +$-% m i njfi y k g dEng. be sub-standard drawing his bow or fitting tile thimble before he draws. . . by the time that..

BASIC CHARACTERS 47011. "Faster. little by . Watch your step! "Take care of yourself!" (said to a departing The character originally was a picture of +%-I% r h r h . be very sharp ' k kA kuifidih." Ek miinzciu. sharp knife jx'tk Eikuifi.74 (lk%Jkuifidfio. be very fast. (bookish) slowly. please.

(see 115. to sing a song 4$ rib zudqii. documents. above).above). to compose (music) te of a vessel (the "flask" rdc rs.475-479 * BASIC CHARACTERS the "sheep" rad. to catch fire i?+wgnjiin. papers -The rad:is-now-the "say~rad~(82. The flowers have been . & k zhjohud. Q d4 chkgqii. The form h e x is used as a part of characters and does not occur as an independent character.

week ombines meanings: "to join" ." +-? IibZ.BASIC CHARACTERS 480-484 two "hands" + "to lower. to worship.

. Not in modem use as an independent character.485-489 BASIC CHARACTERS & bdsdng. (by guest) Don't bother seeing me off. (by host) Excuse me The character is a pichlre of a monkey.

in the midst of i E b zhsngzhi. large. be important iE%fVi zh6ng ci1Ti33. & % ya'ojin. from "using.BASIC CHARACTERS 490-494 and the original meaning was "scorpion. below). honest .in the midst of eating iE& zhSngzG. great" E (496." It is used to mean "ten thousand" by sound Learn to distinguish the "bureaucrat" rad. taking" & (406. above) and from "chief.

Logically. is "basket" or "box" &.495-499 BASIC CHARACTERS rad. the internal stroke is the "one" rad." In moder~ dictionaries. but formally. above) in some dictionaries. above). under the "lid" rad. (443. under "lid. to classify it under 3 works better. (37. midnight Jii was traditionally classified under the "work" rad. distorted." -$"& bhy2. 3 (117. but in H. above). the rad. E i* supposed to have been a picture of "a large carpenter's square. with handle. (a .

BASIC CHARACTERS 500-504

+ "heart" at the

CHAI, to send; to commission; official 2 % 3 chibuduQ almost the same X I chiibie, diierence & @ chZshi, work, job, official assignment

kZmSn, to open the door kZchi7,to drive a car 7 k M' 3 si~uikZle, The water's boiling.

RFI P1

BB

505-509

BASIC CHARACTERS

or other thread in this process, and g u b (504, above) gives the sound. Not in mode use as an independent character.

5%-ai

S&

d i h y i k s , 3:15

# . %$ J zl~iiobuzl~io, can't find -A-3 -- - -T d zhiiodao to f i n d - - --- -A+ zl~iiosl~i, to go job-hunting; to pick ;

-

1-32

BASIC CHARACTERS 5 10-5 14

The "foot" rad. gives the meaning; b;Jo (509, above) suggests the sound.

The top part is supposed to show the bone in

This character is the "bone" rad. minus its lower part, the "meat" rad.

The "mouth" rad. gives the meaning in this character; gua' (512, above) gives the sound. This character occurs in a number of characters to give the sounds guo or huo.

515-519 * BASIC CHARACTERS

lling through below it "cull" (517, below) a "tree" $. (65 and 64,

dictionaries under the "sW rad. (516, above). The "claws" are supposed to represent a hand picking fruit from a tree,

diiinc;ii, to order dishes (in a
i & %

yfd2o c5;a course (of amea1)-c;iidi, plot of vegetables

di&, (dialect) a tiny bi

BASIC CHARACTERS 520-524

The character is "knife" with an additional stroke to call attention to the blade. %J 3 7 dioren, knife-blade; crucial point

The "heart" rad. gives the meaning; rZn (522, above) gives the sound. ,% & rBnsh6u, to endure, to "stand" rBnxin, hard-hearted enough (to do such-and-such a deed) ,% %@ rBnbuzhii, unable to bear
3%

525-529

BASIC CHARACTERS

gives the meaning; the rest of the characte shi(224, above), once gave the sound. In

k4 dizi, background, origin, foundatior k 7; d 2 2 , underneath, below
If-kniiindi, year's end

BASIC CHARACTERS 530-534

$&
530 13 strokes

'
7

'0

LO, road,kind, sort; family name
The "foot" rad. gives the meaning; the rest of the character once gave the sound. &% lfiguci,to go past b& ~ 6 ~ 1to 0 walk , && szfi,train of thought

, ,
8 .$

.$&

f
531 5 strokes

i pf-

fi, sick SICK md. (104)(H127)
The character represents a man stretched out on his bed, whence "be sick." Compare the "bed" rad. (849, below). Niis not in modem use as an independent character.

h
532 4 strokes 533 5 strokes
I

N&, inside NEj is a picture of a man entering a space
. marked off by the "borders" rad. (The

hjh h neidi, interior (of a country) i f l X. h s& ti& ncj, within three days
2

traditional rad. is "enter," not "man.")

--1
9

h A n E n , my wife (old-fashioned,
sexist)

fi**

B&G, fish W , the third ''heavenly stem" Bing looks like a picture of a fish tail.
h% bingding, the third in a series; thiid category

%
I0k e : s ::

=-7-

6& 6

B ~ Gsickness, , sick The character combines the "sick" rad. for meaning with birg (533, above) for sound. & Y84 k&bing, to see a doctor; to exa,ne a patient ?kY84 shsngbing, to get sick, to come down with a disease

535-539

BASIC CHARACTERS

-%IS yiEng xin, a letter IS% xifing, envelope

The character has "cloth" for meaning, b;ir (231, above) for sound. Not in modem use as an independent character.

-$?A yi b&g rgn, a group, a band, a

BASIC CHARACTERS * 540-544

o7i. dztiiu, to take the lead, to set an

The student will note that the "dog" rad. = "big" + "dot." Care should be taken to distinguish "dog" from "big" k (50, above) and from k "extremely" (74, above).

ng is a picture of a scale in balance.

4$ ; pfngchiing, ordinary 4 + pingd6ng, equal 4%pjngyuiin, a plain (flatland)

545-549

a

BASIC CHARACTERS

T $ cFngd;Ing,ding-dong

finished+donef~r'~--------

--

the #+fQ b h g6ng. to age. repeated = "bitter against bitter:" "to recriminate. wrong impression 4%$ cudzi. incorrectly written character. above) suggests the sound. t sense of hearing he original meaning of this character was "meat dried in the sun." and the top part of the old character was a picture of meat.BASIC CHAFtACTERS * 550-554 Bi. to work (in an office). reclarified Bi& (550. ." In modem times. The "bitter" rad.in is supposed to combine meanings. to 1 % 1 ! Bngiu6. to wrangle. The sun can still be found in the modem character. illusion." 45% cu6ju6. The meaning "ancient" derives from the earLier meaning "to age. to dispute.

(109. The rest of hug is supposed to represent something hidden in the clothes or hugged against the . above).flying fish ral yCw.I?. Eiyli.555-559 * BASIC CHARACTERS form the "gown" rad. (religious term) eternal . fishnet pposed to be a picture of thus suggests "go on ant 7 k t f i yingshzng.ing.

yyi tiZo yii. Often printed : . above) for sound with "eternal" for meaning. (For the independent form. terms.) This form occurs only as a part of Yiingcombines y3ng (475. see p. conditions h 4 564 2 strokes Note the similarity between the "ice" rad. so.245b. reclarified with the "water-dots" %L. a fish C+%biiintiZo. above. brief note 4l%. in this way. which is another form of this rad. and the "three-dots-water" form of the "water" rad. .i+ tiZojiirin.6. like this -4%. has two dots instead of three. S$$-zl~Eyiing.BASIC CHARACTERS * 560-564 Compare 442. In modem use. The "ice" rad.

hurrying to catch heaven's times and seasons and .k shduci.k& cfyio. the first time thcrc are two similar objects side by side.565-569 BASIC CHARACTERS . three times %?. as scrabbling with their hands X.k s h ci. . second most important L.

.. Peking & A 7 xiSngzudle. northeast BEijing. .. Beijing.y 6u. approximately f 4 y6uB right ear & .BASIC CHARACTERS 570-574 E5 I% xinSn. zud siyciu xiSng.. to think incorrectly zudshdu. the North chEngb6i. north of the city ddngbei. southwest I% + % nSnji.. e. X f &. zud ..g. keep on thinking about it fi#i xuewt?i. South Pole I% Nhjing. left hand zudy6u. Nanjing (the city) * 3b % 3kjb &jb jb* b6ifang. ..(Chinese medicine) acupuncture point . f. to do something repeatedly over and over.

apparel "gown" rad. ! i clothing. h (109.ikdu. above) has been conupted into I. PS 4 mgn~ri. apparel !?% chuihzhuci. is a picture.575-579 * BASIC CHARACTERS The "tooth" rad. incisor K 4 quihyri. -nevertheless. the condition of an old person's teeth !?& chuZndrii. clotiling. Yuih is. dog's fang 8~7 y. "earth". canine tooth. the age of an animal according to the appearance of its teeth.classified-in-~aditional- - .

" have been conupted from the original picture. In modem usage.BASIC CHARACTERS 580-584 The "bowl" rad. this character is only seen as fib W lijjiin. to cause a riff between fib* 1fgK strange. weird filrl~]1fij6. in this character used to be The top parts. to part from (intending to be gone for some time) simply to reinforce the idea of getting . "lid" + "cruel. bid farewell to.

as in English) a severe test 148 . baptism. mathematics &4k suishli. amount X Q shicuut'. to go straight k t & xili. (figurntively.585-589 BASIC CHARACTERS X A shcrnu. (person's) age wash your hands of something. (of a criminal). number.

to take a mid-day nap 4. so that's the reason. . if only." comes by sound-loan. Don't blame him 1 f 5 5 &guriillui.. T? xiiwii. right." and it combined meanings: "meat" (slightly deformed) + "dog" + "fire. ' & k 4 j 593 12 strokes RAN. Compare the "shield" rad. don't blame. like this This character originally meant "to mast. not only ddjoyuh. weird $4 *I&4bbi6guZ tii. no wonder. noon. All other meanings are by sound-loan. the seventh "earthly branch" The character once meant "to knock against" and was a picture of a batteringram. afterward *B bjrfin. complaint 'I&%% guriibudc. + - .BASIC CHARACTERS * 590-594 . peculiar. above). ?&%it rfinhdu.(2 bGd&. cynical remark. it is only seen as + I ' 5 5 q@urii. siesta. afternoon ir? zh+ngwii. 1 wish that KUJ to work in the fields The character appears to combine meanings: "right hand" + "earth" = "to work in the fields. certainly WfT.# @ @ f \\\ ++ 594 4 strokes & t ." nap." "So." In modem Chinese. "nooner. high noon q I@ wiishuj. so. (87. I . like this.

511. permission 8 xtIdu6. to make a vow (to a god). many things <+AxtIyu. in this world.595-599 BASIC CHARACTERS 3 T xtIk.class hour- 4k shishang.in. to permit. to + T* xiiikd. on earth 1-50 . veery many. Class dismissed. textbook -i%nifLk?shi.5. C& kEb.

section. Shangl~ai 4 14? blifen. Customs ih? % Djz/idng/irii. between baryons -ifi-T [zhsngzi. Mediterranean L%% Shringlirii. "light ones" -see 1051 for $E "be light"]) nal borders. meson (term from physics: particle of intermediate mass. portion. customshouse. the Yellow River .BASIC CHARACTERS 600-604 *A jisrli. department iing ht?. "heavy ones"] and leptons I ?[qingzi. part $1' [I? blimgn. to intervene. boundaries %%/%I hriiguh. get involved fiT jiszi.

family name && liZnzhe. Distinguish it from "face" 6 (610. below). can do nothing but 9 . but. right away.continuously. just.&e 1 . continuous. continuously & ft liZnzhZng. 1 m. even. company (military).605-609 * BASIC CHARACTERS 605 17 strokes 1 $& 1 . company comm-ander liZnmZng. 5 irqiE. especially Eris a picture of a beard. but. $f zhjyiju.&@. yet. !if zhih2'0.to comect. can do nothing but 9 . and moreover fi rZn'ir. only $FBI tgbii. including. only 1 9 $? zhidi. however . special. promptly 1 : 5 strokes ZHi. can do nothing but 7 % h-sE.

r. width by * (656.. (on) New Year's Eve .. social standing. .yiw.BASIC CHARACTERS 610614 6 -f m'&zi.. to remove I t 2' . but in mainland Chinese Note that this character is now commonly short form of 872. seen as tl~e h& cl~irqii.face.ii.in addition to I'k3 c11limI. below. below).A 9b chir le. in addition to.

landscape.615619 * BASIC CHARACTERS S jiiingshiin. (by metonymy) nation One authority explains: ''The sun 9 as it 9% zhEngqfj. to work hard for I?& jingzh6ngnet weight . rivers and mountains.

chamber of commerce fE Huimh.ing~ importer shiinghui. to tallc nonsense.merchant ship i & zf $ jink6usl1. the Muslim people of China . "to mess around" "Nonsense!" "Bunkum!" $#& sh.BASIC C W C T E R S * 620-624 $ 4 1hiishu5. $A & hfil&i.ingchuZn.not know what you are doing.

Democratic Party A$? rcding. the Huai River . party newspaper & x CKKN. political party. Communist Party b % chinyd. g . Chinese Nationalist Pnrty. zl1inqi6. Kuomintang &A: & Mkzhtlding.5. property h d chiich&. product. to behead.to produce. to behead a zcInqi. to cut to pieces The character is explained as "a chariot wit! axes in it.625-629 BASIC CHARACTERS 20 strokes - @ . production output && $ G6ngchinding." $t-tf zhSnsl~du. propertyTEal estate) zW. family name I R :& Gu6rmkding.for a short time 1 I / I temporary . to produce. D ~ Gassociation. join or be admitted to a political party (or to the Party) :g r)K dangblo. .@1T Huiiil~E.

for sure The student should distinguish this character from "slow" and "follow" (337 and 319. standard.BASIC CHARACTERS * 630-634 As to the short form of $. zhiinshi. be long (in time) rad. that is. Not now used as an independent . see also p. on time 71tq shiiizhin. level q8 zhiinbrio. 261a." Not seen now as an independent character. k (195. sound-loan. back to back. above) -faced away from each other. 7%k ydngjili. eternally. permanently & A chhgjiii. Hence the idea "back.

to explain. to clarify @ 6 zh6ngm$ stud above) -but in traditional dictionaries as i .8 $ . & tingjiiing.ingmfng. to attend a lecture S k Vl ji.

autobiograplly traditional form.would create an ." has two more bugs: &: (see When the use of 3.BASIC CHARACTERS 640-644 $ zizhu&. presumably twice "reclarified.

to constitute m.table. to constitute a majority -!&-3!??$=iiii. TABLE md. army corps 7 A jiinrgn. Nowadays. to occupy B 1'2 $ zhjn pijnyi. iakZ&i1Gd=&idTf I&. CHIP rad. to occupy.bright. to show %jf8 lijngxiing. army. %R chiji. state your views 2% 7 ti& lia'ng 1e. above). advantageous ZHAN. jiis most likely to be encountered as the short form for % "bow many" (419. (78) The character is supposed to be a picture of bone chips. military affairs 7 jiinrcSng. bright and shining. flA ?% mi7glijng. tea table 1 2 strokes / / I D& chip. corps commander 7 $ jii. to take unfair advantage. 3 (1 17. soldier g $ junguEn.fi z11iny6u. The student should distinguish it from "legs" IL and from "ma with amputated foot" IL (57 and 58. (16)(H30) c i s a picture of a table. (Its independent form is 727. to own. below).shi. above Reading pronunciation j f . This for111o C "chip" occurs only as a part or characters. 646 5 strokes (4 strokes) I I I m G . The student sllould distinguish from the "dusk" rad.military. well-lit.645-649 * BASIC CHARACTERS a. become clear This character is often written k in moder~ texts B 3 & zhjn du6shii. above). military discipline and bearing 4 . (Beijing opera) strike a pose. It's already daylight. military officer 7 & jiinzhing.

to move. .. to merge om the "leeks" rad. more than before 7 % yud I j i yui.BASIC CHARACTERS 650-654 S4F yonxing.. to encroach A# yudfii. to implement (two tlungs) at the same time *& hgbing. certainly not F R bingqig. actually not. to be in motion $ yudjid. to become more and 4kX g&y& to dare to F% bing bu. moreover F M bingxfng. A k .

. with reference to me 8 & ducSyii. 3 . yiishi. 261a)."to have your hands tied." t a shave and a haircut .. Inore than distinguished from ciUthorn" ?i (p.to rebel &$ z r i o i i i .655-659 * BASIC CHARACTERS &a$zrio qichb to manufacture cars &d d o f h . thereupon X-k yii r r b the way I see it . 3 .. sl1irsl16u.to make love Now often written 7 .

fruit tree $3f& shlizlu. establish $ 3 f H . to set up. woods .BASIC CHARACTERS * 660-664 %$ifgucishir. sl~irlin. tree branch Al shlai. a grove.

is composed two "sprout" rads. In the modem form. above). (465. one of these -feetisconupted into-"few:"9 4T bcxfng. however. pace.inIi.bczi. side by side. above). form. The form here is the independent form. go on foot 9 -3. ' suddenly become hostile foot in two successive positions to suggest motion. step .in. The commonly used : 992 below. to suggest "grass" sprouting up. Tile student has learned another form of "grass (192. is e l l & bi.665-669 * BASIC CHARACTERS This form of the "grass" rad.

" As a part of characters.BASIC CHARACTERS * 670-674 "tiger-pig. & tznhuii. O-iji jiishuci. to i talk. have a heart-to-heart talk. a pig fierce as a tiger." Not in modem use as an independent character. ) : d A . People say.. heart-to-heart talk $k41 thdiio. statement tj." Other meanings are derivative.xih. B 1L zhiinjii. "hand" gives tbe meaning "to take in the hand. this character usually indicates the sound dan or (672) here bas the sound value tan. ) < ( : . to talk about 674 I 1 strokes : . above) gives the sound. . X i (670. to occupy (by force) = "to blaze." Thus: "wild boar.

above). at the bottom gives the meaning. which has been corrupted from liD (149. k? wjnzi.@. Not in modem use a an independent character. below) -compare tile upper left-hand comers. small ball . the sound is suggested by the rest of the character. fish-ball (food) Distinguish $1. .675-679 BASIC CHARACTERS The "earth" lad. 9~ yiiwjn. pill. (1042.

BASIC CHARACTERS 680-684 X Tii L siu'rcing. the look of a city ht?ishi. black market Na'o combines meanings: "to fight in the mar1<etplacen ="to make a disturbance." .

In modem use.685-689 * BASIC CHARACTERS 1% E yintik. The student should distinguish this charact from yiUtochange. 687.e the side that gets the sun (cp. above).be careless. be easy" % (376. shade of a tree l'24B yinbd. tiger's lair . 6 kk m&n&ihiihii. i. replaced by 687. be overcast i i f It& sl~dyin. be kfi hExuE. below). private parts This character originally meant "south s l o ~ of a hill" or "north side of a riverbank".

6 yOyI.BASIC CHARACTERS 690-694 "child" rad. to grant. give The "head" rad. here suggests the meaning 3 3 % yOsu211. -7. -3.(18. to make advance plans 6 6 bGim&to saddle a horse . above) and the "spear" rad. % (840. below).

ir there to help develop this meaning. personal. The meaning "hope" (the most common moden use of tlus character) is by sound-loan.695-699 * BASIC CHARACTERS The "crisscross" rad.-. is supposed to show the loose mesh of a cloth. hope. to suit. closely related to hr 9 hr+ qiGshGn. ancient times 1-70 . get red-faced w i t h anger or other excitement 4Ehr qinqic. to hope for mjngwi?ng. to pay a visit to. of importance to a . $ ixiwing.. prestige jEi Ji kinwing. algebra giidiii. favorite of an important 8kL~ liSnhGng. to blush.-qichhti. to go well with dGshCxuE. call on Ji ?LA hdngrGn. the "cloth" rad.

pocket &!& mddZ. gives the meaning in this character. d Z (699. to 46 $ hujuu6. to follow closely $7 jiBt6u. (colloquial) to contact (somebody).to accept If "man" + "ladle" suggests "alchemy" to you. gunny sack !& sl1uid5i.BASIC CHARACTERS 700-704 The "gown" rad. chemistry ~ & 4 6 gBngySI~uii.peanut --$-$& yjs11B huii. "Alchemy" = "to transmute. cnn help you remember the character in any case. junction $&% jiBsl~du. above) gives the sound. to connect. historically not accurate. b hu. lcnow about $&$fi % jiBt6ur.to set off fireworlts . joint. "concubine. theiefore.7sl1Bng. to industrialize & . a bunch of flowers %kj&f&~gIluii. you can use that as a mnemonic for huii. bag. @ jiBzl~e.sleeping bag QiS is explained: "to stand" + "woman" = a woman who stands when her husband or wives of superior status are present." This explanation. 0 $? k6udZ.to catch.

to close a business (for a holiday or vacation) . category #$-+ xiiixui.705-709 a BASIC CHARACTERS part is an old meaning-meaning compound itself. to drop out (of school) xiiyi." "to make sounds. a musical instrument + "club" = "to strike the musical instrument with a stick." -liiDi6relass (~esulLingGo~~i-a classification).

BASIC CHARACTERS 710-714 . new style $$% sl1iyZng. the "baclcto-back" showed two feet that had climbed The "fie" rad. general. to light a lamp %k@ husddng. above) gives the sound. style. style 4 & xinshi. colored lantern (653." .b is supposed to combine "nose" + "heart" to suggest "to breathe. . fashion.form. type The "flaslc" used to be a pedestal. above) + "sun" to suggest "all tlte places the sun shines:" "universal. model. gives the meaning here.lag d8ndEng." (The significance of SHI. deng (712.

harvest -1lk-L-shdugdnms. ! 2 diindEng. thoughts of love . be universal. "Ten pecks" is by f 4 pdtting.7 15-7 19 * BASIC CHARACTERS meant "a big bell" and was a a hook at the top by which the hung. electricity llkh shdurir. "Mandarin" Chinese 4 8 tdngud. to go through. the feeling of early spring. a notice falling under the rain. telephone '@ $ dijnqi. youth cl~PiintiZn. electric light '@% diiinhuJ. to pass in a parliamentary meeting 4 &ttjngzhT. i ."%<% PPiitdngI~uJ. to earn JIL& shducl16ng. income. ~ L o infonn. be widespread or common I. springtime &-& chiinyi.to-knockoffworl~ *&qingchiin.

broad jump 91&%Ttia'ol~Eng. a good omen The "foot" rad. palpitations $&Asl~%En. above) is supposed to give the sound. (Read the note in 118. and "table" was a small stool. zhio (720. to skip a line. c11Cis composed of the "slow" rad. above).BASIC CHARACTERS 720-724 divination. 9189 tia'oyujn. omen 7%Ib yirzl~a'o. "Man" + "stool" is a good way to . ILjfi zl~a'otou. signs of tl~e times & dL jizha'o. to commit murder Cl~ir. to change *sWk ~ l t i a ' oheart . + the "table" rad. Originally "slow" was a picture of a man. gives the meaning.

725-729 * BASIC CHARACTERS The dictionaries say that f h (682. above) gives the sound. you have already learned (646.- & chiiti. above). The form here may occur as an independent corrupted from an earlier "man" rad. and "man" + "bone chips" is supposed to suggest death. to set questions (for an exam) 1-76 .. the "bug" gives the rad.

an error) . be cool % <$ zhfiolihg. cold water. to correct (as. unboiled water & ljij Mgiyuh.BASIC CHARACTERS * 730-734 Alternate form: %. i%<k li-kuai. to catch cold <%7]C ljhgshui. American currency iE giiizl~dng.

735-739

BASIC CHARACTERS

D originally meant "veins in jade" and was a sound-meaning compound. dGoli, reason, logical basis; doctrine lixi2ng, ideal, be ideal

"Water" gives the meaning; qing (198, above) gives Ule sound.

-$is:-=

3% yi qing h cl~ii, be very clear f$3% chiichii,be clear; be neat

The "word" cad. gives the meaning; ji(273, above) gives the sound.
--;L~E jizl~ii, to fix i t l 'i e X iT d --" -

.-,----

from studying abroad

BASIC CHARACTERS * 740-744

The meaning "to summon" comes by combining "mouth" for meaning wit11 dZo (102, above) for sound.

The "sillc" rad. suggests the meaning; zliiio, sl~iio (740, above) gives the sound. ./P% jjGsli&, to introduce

For the basic meaning, "pipe," the "bamboo" rad. gives the meaning; gujn (407, above) gives the sound. Other meanings are by sound-loan. $ E gujnli, to manage

character; gujn (193, above) suggests the
it%%

qukgiio, to urge

i@~% quiinsliu6,to advise

a&

kqujn, be safe; safety

4?f$ k q u j n diyc Safety first! %% kdfng,be secure, be steady

-

745-749 * BASIC CKARACTERS

An (744, above) suggests the sound; the
"tree" rad. suggests "table." Bf L "f- bin iinzi, to ltandle a legal case % $ Ang'iin, plan, program L4+ jnjjiin, law case

BASIC CHARACTERS 750-754

le top part is a slightly abbreviated "tall" d. (75, above), which, as the student will member, is a picture of a tower. Ding 19, above) gives the sound. =f tingzi, kiosk, pavilion

<-$h dngzhi, to stop (doing something)
@$ tingchb to park .I-$ R dnghu6, cease-fire

:BI-$ zhziinting, zziinting, to suspend; (sports)

In the case of du6, the "meat" rad. gives the
the sound. In modem times, only read sui (for t l ~ e dynasty or tile family name).

755-759

a

BASIC CHARACTERS

l&uQ suTslu; at any time I&i i suijw;in, attachi

(166, above) suggests the sound.

BASIC CHARACTERS * 760-764

The student has learned the independent form of the "seal" rad. already (84, above). The form here only occurs as a part of characters. Distinguish "seal" kom "self' I,"already" '5, and si €5(273-275,

The character is explained as "a man at the top of a cliff, looking down at something that has fallen off."

k wBixiiln, be dangerous, danger &% xiilnxi.5, nearly, almost

A&

liiinxiiln, natural barrier (e.g., a

A$

&iE

hdusl~f, be thick ilduda'o, be generous A& hduyj, kindness, thoughtfulness Rnkk hduliilnpf, "have thick skin on your face," i.e., be brazen

of "oppose, be discordant." It is counted here as 6 strokes, but is often actually

765-769

BASIC CHARACTERS

R can mean "early" in the sense "early in
the day" or "early in the year." One modem scholar (Guo Moruo) thinks it is a picture of a stone tool used in ancient times to break the soil for cultivation.

IY-jiiiw,$n, to investigate in detail, to try-a

scene. to make a list memorize.BASIC CHARACTERS 770-774 ffj & jijnzhr. background % % jingxjjng. knapsack -% % bEijing. landscape . scenery. to cany on the +% shdubZi. B&. write a character in simplified form. to recite. simply. frankly ffj % jijnxi6. sight Ending. be simple Kj %? kZ dtkzi. back of the hand -% $3 bdihio. write a simplified version (as of a book) for beginners ffj % jikdjn.

. . all the same. result. The outcome was. .775-779 BASIC CHARACTERS F l % tdngyhg. lane. alley (note pronunciation of F l) 8t2 5 jiigui. neverti~eless $ I Fl hhtdng.

I & scitool exercise. academic problem "fFi$' yjnxi. to study. marriage ceremony d l -L yiimiio. weddirtg. to do research in cllEngdiio. feather i$' 7% ) .BASIC CHARACTERS * 780-784 &k4@ lihiin. to praise . to divorce 4@42 liiinli.

785-789 * BASIC CHARACTERS $?I% phgcng.. North China Republic of Cluna no h i t . Logically. to audit (a course) i& JI inyuE. . The % l k Huzi bgi. by the month i&EjnD. iPtl+ insh&be on time f % R a Zh6nghuC Minguci. to make a big and produce nothing .

Ed%. fool. & d. enthusiast & %-? shfi djizi. be in a daze %& i . or *t!k and 9 stand for cognate 3~-FdZzi."bookworm" &X. to stare like a fool.stupid person.Ti zjijjiilL to stay at home where (he/she/it/they) went .BASIC CHARACTERS 790-794 sound.

to make a regulation &+fL xjiiogui.795-799 * BASIC CHARACTERS 1% guiquiin. social relations years (is.k& sh8hui.k2 sllEjj50. schooI regulations $. time creeps by) I 799 5 strokes I I 1 1 .. society $. reprimand CE guidfng.

iO. fatherland zichurin. to pay attention to d B i l zl~rinkZ.. to tell a person's fortune a$+ m& zl1Ozl16ng. (is. . open out $15: huiizl~in. to substitute o'gdng.) %k% % tisgui. ancestor. i n place of. to open out b h zl~. a show (of paintings) 10 strokes / - $ fifor.. susbtitute workman dZti. to emphasize guhzi~ir. command su&nu'ng. scapegoat LishZn.. to get down a bet ?kf? zhiyj. substitute.inchii. be handed down fiom one's ancestors $n 9 strolces .BASIC CHARACTERS 800-804 $++ nu'ngling. to represent. representing. order. scapegoat fl @ % "3 12 strokes *** $ $1 j ' Zil. in place of .. X zirfu. to pay sharp attention to +$A xixi.to unfold. family name 4 5 . ancestor zligu6.

"to lose face" .805-809 BASIC CHARACTERS &)I& ditiliiin. "to lose face" & A diiir&n.

government. administration & I % $ zl~i?ngti.3$ 9 strokes 1 ZK~NG. In traditional eld" rad.politician (pejorative) .q to welcome 4%yfngjit?.g~ nerve. nerves . political. to receive or welcome an object (the "down" rad. in H. mental disorder gk..).BASIC CHARACTERS 810-814 seal was a symbol. system of government && zl~dngjii?.iJlb& sh6njTngbTngsdisease of the nervous system. the left half of the The two halves combine to give the ik& hu&yin. i~bdsl16njin. it is itself a rad. government circles &$ zhi?ngkd.

8 15-8 19 * BASIC CHARACTERS . to clear. to pay off (an / T r k firsl~lng.l+?-$ fiqing. merchant . (your) residence (polite $ f A giirtn.

in. nomination . shadow.) thrown over his shoulder. appointment. shade yJngsh6.BASIC CHARACTERS 820-824 U& I$% yinying. canying some object (Ule "left" rad. Originally the character was a picture of U 1 e standard canying pole wit11 an object fixed to each 4%rdn~ni. to counterfeit The character seems to show the "knight" rad.hiring and firing IEQ rdnming.

be in detail Tcti: kgx.gxi. *?@ xij. "fine.825-829 a BASIC CHARACTERS Originally xihad "sillc" + "head" = "hair. square root classified in dictionaries under "mouth" (33 st a variant of shf(828." therefore. Alas! i?$F fmggEn. unfortunately." Head was corrupted. .

$ p & qqiwdi. flavor wZnwdi." The character 834. is now usually used in this sense. below. from which comes the meaning "to branch off.Itili: wdiju6. sense of taste . precinct house : L@ .BASIC CHARACTERS 830-834 k4k da'sh&ambassador . to appoint. 9 P & . style.n&. to branch off. manner. smell. flavor iBL& 1u2nzh5nn. qjpji. manner style 9 strokes . to distribute 9 . political party 1 & 4 pjichiisuci. T& k f p . pjitciu. to think over. to levy. to ponder 04% wdida'o. he a good imitation (of a painting or sculpture) The character is a picture of a stream dividing. school or sect.f~dkgpji.

assistant %@ sliZ.w'hg.835-839 * BASIC CHARACTERS D h # zhirsl~du. court of law Gf F A yiyusn. to take into account. assistant 1 7 % zhqjiijo. to obey .to imagine. teaching assistant Dh$! zlilili. have consideration for. hospital ilRX ffcdng. rough plan. preliminary idea 2 kF A fiyuiin.

business. foreign affairs %+k yZwii.BASIC CHARACTERS 840-844 student should learn to distinguish the + $ w ~ i i b f . servile disposition .without fail )L+$ fdwii.to serve.be servile. professional work h O & ndxing. service 9b+k w w j i w i i .

chair back ish it from the "slice" rad. 250a). or Bed" is now written ed chuiing (p. qjiing is ependently only as the * .845-849 a BASIC CHARACTERS ?$ kSobSj.

"evening." "Don't" and "no one" are by sound-Ioan. late." mu gets reclarified with ." The bottom "grass" was corrupted into "big. therefore. For "evening.BASIC CHARACTERS 850-854 The old form had "grass-sun-grass:" the sun in the grass.

be generous ? C L gku&r(jng. to tolerate . ?CL@ kujnhdu.855-859 a BASIC CHARACTERS Hujn undoubtedly was a picture of the animal to wluch it refers. Not in modern use as an independent character.

coefficient % & xi.BASIC CHARACTERS 860-864 k I ' % % tiiyhgxf. the solar system % 4k xisl~li. county seat & ? f gEngsl~d. be completely unarmed. commune &I% gEngsl~& minister (diplomatic) difficult? What's the problem? % tieding. magistrate of a xian !'%&& xxijncl~dng. to decide definitely & i l ' s11lciu wUL clin tie. be defenceless .inzl~ing.

865-869 BASIC CHARACTERS expression (= a common .

especially -ft-.next in order.other (also written -ft-'2when it means "otl~erthing" for '2. leisure .BASIC CHARACTERS 870-874 K-ft. see p. second &4& qftE.y6uqi.k qfcj. spare time. $9Pi? yixiin.

to permit. %& chBnD&n. he suitable. to assent ydnd. perinission yiinc6ng.875-879 * BASIC CHARACTERS " at top and bottom. satisfactory The student should distinguish this character from k h g "he high" % (952. be adequate %JK ch6ngzii.R jL?$ ylinsli. below). know yourself and know your enemy k* jc.ir~g. be sufficient .

BASIC CHARACTERS 880-884 - .tcingyi. to unify. barber's clippers . to propel AkT tuizi. unity promote.

be -4& yjsl~gngmi. pertain to topography.goping. peace .be peacefill.885-889 BASIC CHARACTERS things.quarl of rice -H-+ shdn.

. to weep one minute and laugh the next) kuriild.fi.. as usual '. happiness .<$' zhiochZng.. <&A?.. zhio B (740.BASIC CHARACTERS * 890-894 an ascend-and-descend machine) Ri"sunW Q is for meaning..h66r..&h..doone thing one minute and another thing the next minute (e. hd6r. passport F . htizl180....g. be happy. & t f i R&tfi K hd Er kd hfi Er xiio.

ing Quh. "The Yellow Springs" (land of the dead) & % h - '@ 3fi dijnhu$jfi. spnng water -Lf& g i n qu." &dc qujnshui.situation .895-899 a BASIC CHARACTERS (for "pure") + "water" = "spring. telephone office j6shi.in. sweet spring water RdL Hu.

above) suggests the sound. right angle . Now usually written fi .$3 hiosti. be dissatisfied R E rnanzii. (139) A % ' & qis4 complexion 45. facial expression d% & chiinsti. &ffi zllijii. spring scenery The character is supposed to show a tree in a box.in. to satisfy R & nliinyi.BASIC CHARACTERS 900-904 e" rad.io. gives the idea "be empty." 3. complexion. COLOR rad. be satisfied he character is a picture of an animal's horn. be lustf~11 Ilk & liZns6. whence "difficulty." % R b~im.

The top part -now "left-one-sun" -once was -a-characterthatgavethe-sound~In-usenow as the short form for 909.5. Distinguish from 91 1. below. to understand (i$& jiEfZng. to liberate :R@+ jiiTngji6.ir zhirnZoyL knit a swe $ : t i & zhizdo. personnel department combinations $R& zizh.ing. to kill. .t o consolidate. This is the same word as 908.L. weaving suggest the meaning of this character. above. solution 7 & fiZoji6.905-909 * BASIC CHARACTERS @+k jiiTju. to explain A+ rEnshizi. (mathematical) t&. to solve. section chief 3 ' 6 zziih. The character is reclarified with the "step" rad. below.

be mixed up. to verify . be in disorder $& zidiin.BASIC CHARACTERS * 910-914 %@ fuzB.ihuci. model. sundries C LL z. dictionary of characters && diingii. historical R46 diinfm. example & ?& cl~Idiin. to check a list of goods & %f cl~iidui.ilu. be complex @% z.in. classical allusion.

dried cabbage .ing. DI in some compounds (as I% d Z h g .in.in. bring up. winter solstice dBngc. unlimited (in writing). to estimate 4 I'k y6uxi. to withdrew money RI ciqiSn." $3 Irk wLxi. be limited. proposal d%& -$chlT.915-919 * BASIC CHARACTERS I'kZ xi.indiig. to move (in a meeting). 263a) I ? % ti'&. be infinite. preserved. limit. "Ltd. to set a limit IrkP si.inli. to move up (the date of an another nation) kg CX ddngzhT.ii. t o defend against (I%: p.

at people] don't see the This character is a picture of a man in an enclosure.'a lBngi1~6. above) and note that they cltaracter is explained: "to feed a prisoner to be kind. The student should be careful to distinguish "dish" from the "blood" rad." Usually written 8 . (922. above)." w (132. .Not in modem use as an independent character.BASIC CHARACTERS 920-924 ." The student should compare Q to the bottom part of hB "what?" (387. and from "eye. from "net" W (637. whence "prisoner. below). unsalable goods The character is a picture.

temperature # wdnxi. review.photograph % lZ # mingxinp~iin. study g5. # zha'opiin.i w?i.925-929 BASIC CHARACTERS & wsndi. It's my hlm! BP. postcard as in "movie star." etc 2% .

to look forward to Note that the right side of tlus character is not the "club" rad.In modem use. to have a vacation IE'n4 jiriyri. false tooth. dit6u sigli xiiing. to expire .BASIC CHARACTERS * 930-934 $4 qiink. X. this jiJ11as been replaced by 932.. above. rather than & i l k & * yii shi w G zhEng. denture &-% yiqi. This is 931. above). a meeting) mfng yud.g. (183. behavior $%T jixing. JiJis classified in traditional dictionaries under the "right hand" rad.lk 2 qiwiing. to hold (e. to get out of the "rat race." not to "fight the world" $gh jidGng. with false intent &lE f&~gjiS. Lower (my) head and . (I) raise (my) head and look at the bright moon. reclarified with the IK& jiJyf. below.

be passive %jfll -f. .935-939 * BASIC CHARACTERS words and conceive the meaning. to make use of crjnzii.jFll fili. i.lke a text too literally #-*A ..be lucky. be auspicious $11 fl liycing. existence with one of the Earthly Branches and with years in the duodecunal cycle . t. socialism $I~%'J bdidcing. to exist. % sl12huizhiiyi. compound interest jni.e.

to limit.BASIC CHAIZACTERS 940-944 I'lr+b] xijnzhi. restrict $ : $11 zl~uiinzlli. be despotic kaogir. to do archaeological research .

land. dependent territories. to consult. attributes . qualities.tl~en. so the traditional form became %. to consider & j i ~ caguzin.-late~o~ another reclarified it wid1 another bug.945-949 a BASIC CHARACTERS &% c&kBo. to sightsee at -reclarified-it-witha-ttbug.

shipping route. to fly. to sail.k Iiizh8nggbrigade commander . to pick up. tf2 hhgk6ng.l$-Jl% shiqii. . flight route $k%T ldxing. to travel M . hh.BASIC C W C T E R S * 950-954 This is a form of -f used in accounting (to minimize the possibility of enor or fraud). aerial 9 4 . aviation.T hhgxing. air-.. above) and from c11Gng"fi up" 5 (879. sincere" k (878.xijn. collect from yfin "to consent. to take a hip. to navigate At%?.

to announce.*tri-7." the character 4$ is often used (see p. to be an impatient type. 265b).~.jfxingzi.955-959 * BASIC CHARACTERS . . a In the senses "to spread.

BASIC CHARACTERS * 960-964 "8& lluiinq( to incite. to shout 485k huiinqiin. to change money Tk48 gZl~uiin. to stir up "I"& jia'ol~uiin. heel of a shoe . to barter for something 4 86 @ ? A hua'n jir hua' sl1u4 in other words x'EgEn. to get something by exchange. to change 484% huiinqii.to cry out.

cigarette. smoke from kQ ! k . prestige..965-969 a BASIC CHARACTERS In yiin we see the "pattern" rad.pipe (for tobacco) @I % yiinguui. respect yiinds.opium addict.. the "slope' rad. fireworks %-Jill xiiingyiin. face." Not in modem use independently. nicotine fiend kQ k yiinhui. G yinmiin. and the "streaks" rad. The relevance 01 "pattern" and "streaks" to "decoration" is lope.

be indispensable xiqid.gGo.BASIC CHARACTERS 970-974 In China. be essential. extensive Ib4t zhjqih. be worth some money. need bixi. amount of rent. be . rent traditionally was land rent and was paid in grain. hence the "grain" rad.% ' %4i %% sBya'o. rental ~.to need. to demand "Canton") Province && gujn. advertisement f i k guringda'. in ifa& zijin. to require.be big. numerous.

" and thl "grass" rad.is supposed to be armor: "armor" + "lance" = "weapons of war. gave the meaning. T l ~ student e will recognize tlie right half.to loaf. of course. the rest of . This character used to mean "grass.975-979 BASIC CHARACTERS look at surreptitiously ?&M t6uxiJn. as the "lance" rad. to evade tax This cliaracter is a meaning-meaning compound. Tlie otlier part ."one" + "left" in the modem character . to shirk &$R t6usl1ui.

warning qrSL jjngba'o. fire alarm jingclig policeman jingchjjii. warning signal k % liudjjng. Compare the form of "halt" which you have already lenmed (171. to warn. ? L k h6ngt6ng7copper 1'2. above). bronze statue . caution" = "warn." %+kjingga'o.tdngxia'ng. police station %% cl~. The form here is the form once used as an independent character (but not now in use independently). to look into The "l~alt"rad.BASIC CHARACTERS a 980-984 Jingcombines meanings: use "words" to induce "reverence. ofiginally was a picture of a foot halted at a crossroads.ika'n.

church $d ' 2 3 yi tZng Zl16mgwEnk6. personally.985-989 * BASIC CHARACTERS PL% chiil-ii. in person . (185." weal and woe & & jjioting. to suffer %& kiicl~ir. to bend at the waist. to bow 5 311 g6ngqin. hardship -&% giinkii. Clunese - language class Ile "torso" rad. "the sweet and the bitter. above) gives the S & g6ngsl15n.

z2o 7. penis. m G .wine from Shaoxing (widely recognized as very good Chinese wine) I\ \'I - -F-- -FI. to right a wrong. be happy. static electricity 1 : F i jingz11&be motionless.iuu& It's snowing. snowfall @. bud cries. family name $5 ?% giioxing.% ~4 ni$ojja'o. to resurge %?%@ Sha'ow3gji0.*618) 1 f 1 1 fl ffl 99 1 16 strokes fm? -$8.family name B 1 : L iinjjng. used as an insult in old novels (note pronunciation) . ( Jt) xu8r&i(r). to rehabilitate somebody (after unjust conviction or punislunent) . biidsong diiio.g xi. be quiet jingdih. snowflake $A. be static + * 990 16sV0kes 2& +&' $&' 4 fia fiT(-&198. snowman flB @ zhiioxuc?.BASIC CHARACTERS * 990-994 + + J~[NG.i% xuc?l~uii. gives the meaning. be happy ?%& xjngjih. to begin.-$8f - -G. to rebuild 4k?%fuw3g8be revived.cA0.grass The "grass" rad.bequiet.

The student will simply havc to remember that "pig's head" over "water" -=-lti "prosperity.yu5n (p.995-999 BASIC CHARACTERS Compare $-?. the forms 3 and 3 are also classified are not helpful." The characterisnowused . In H.259a).

above). harmful bugs two dots resembling tile "eight" rad. (88. to kill (someone) 9 $2: hh.iichGng. to murder. .pests." and the character is explained: "to divide a lizbzi. to get scared sh2hji. to study Chinese characters use as an independent character.BASIC CHARACTERS * 1000-1004 $*ih hjipzi. The two dots mean "to divide.

yjnli. solar calendar r&m. always. l u ~ ~calendar ar & $. through the years This character is a picture of the old scoop or measure which was used to measure out "pecks.1005-1009 BASIC CHARACTERS that crisscross the paddies.lil&. is in liUto i'%@-y. It is perhaps for this reason that the "slope" rad." W u is now primnrily seen in use as the short form for 1'4 (679.in.lj. . above).

to be . nk%?xxizode. department chief (in a government ofice) %. tender spot B.BASIC CHARACTERS 1010-1014 #% kI7xu4 science *& kI7zhjng. liberal arts 3% tcingku. a Chinese culture hero. kt6ngxji0.C.#w6nkI7.). to know quite well. to know of &+F xxi2oshi. be happy 3% & tdngchir. to proclaim 3 T ~ n .ii. to know. sore spot.

1015-1019 * BASIC CHARACTERS jijndizln. to ioolc into % sl1zic116ngy~0.. bug-lulling chemical (i. insecticide) .e. to speak or act cautiously (literally. to check.

city 1024 .kilnxi.BASIC CHARACTERS 1020-1024 $ A jingxi.6 5 cl~gngyi. Beijing opera &I%. to attend a play "city" which occurs as a part of characters Jki.

a "bad egg" (that is. && qujnji. be hue . a bad zhSnchting. be sincere. to concentrate j&% T% xiid&. to assemble $& f jfzhBng. complete worlts (of an author) %-a' jfhui.1025-1029 a BASIC CHARACTERS boats (1022. to gather. to lay an egg I~ujidjn. above).

BASIC CHARACTERS 1030-1034 Distinguish fi from pin "be poor" /a 180 fiyu5. "claws" + "coil. at the bottom gives tile meaning of this character. The rest of the character. to brealc an agreement own sweet time (to do something) The "big" rad." once gave the .

1035-1039 BASIC CHARACTERS Yi is a picture of a tree. This is the same word as 1036. green leaves t u h t i . above. organization . 1036 is seldom seen. This form is the form in common use today. % % liyZ. the strokes at the top represent its foliage. The character is reclarified with the "grass" rad.

" Tile meaning "who? which?'occurs by sound-loan.BASIC CHARACTERS * 1040-1044 tile lid is on. shoe polish . 'Wliich is right? {h sliljtdu. gasoline : % : h xidydu. $I~&riIllP shti slij shti Ej. 3. be done. petroleum qfydu. (453." This character is 1 1 like the "flask" rad. The basic meaning of this character is "be coolced.

attire.1045-1049 * BASIC CHARACTERS ss. costume - .

habitual $ S 2 gingzhcing.BASIC CHARACTERS 1050-1054 customary. All agree that . light industry $Sfi fh ig qing Eryijii. be easy to do explanations. some fanciful. weight $ZL $ qinggdngyd.

in. be determined. to fall (leaves) I@:ci jiAnglud.1055-1059 * BASIC CHARACTERS 37. aspiration .. "heart's desire" W . & 1udxid.\.& Mngzl~i. to fail an exam #k. "Comrade" LiinhEgud.& zhuSngzhi.ii. resolute & & zl~l. to land (airplanes) 3%luddi. ambitions. one's intention. United Nations .&Mi zhiyuln.i.

corporation siJiK chauffeur." + riginally this character.BASIC CHARACTERS 1060-1062 S U is supposed to suggest "to revive" by means of suggesting a good meal: "fish" "grain" = "a good meal. Soviet Union gdngsi company. meant "to revive" and was 1060 reclarified with the "grass" rad. driver silfng. (for vegetables. %. like 1060. (military) commander .Jl$ SUli. above.in.

020 List" and the "2.000 List" .REMAINING CHARACTERS of the "1.

positive .REMAINING CHARACTERS ji. be energetic.

illicit sex D B G . to ransom. to study dfibe'n. to AN.REMAINING CHARACTERS Xi]. be treacherous. 11igIi riverbank a c e & DU. to redeem. to prolong. to j ! & ST +r . rext-book sf& Jm. be crafty. to recite. to investigate. to decide. traitor. to add to. high cliff. to revise for publicnion -g SHU.

REMAINING CHARACTERS ces. wells. and musical beats .

abcess. ulcer A% Mj\. to rescue % C H U m G . outrageous! Bunkum! G cL 'is CHUANG. to rob. yard (of c~ot~i a)counter .? d+'ifiE qiyOu dli. sore. to lay in neat piles. . C H U m G . or marker ~ iHow . to snatch &*4L qisndiir.. to begin.. can it be that .REMAINING CHARACTERS Q I m G .

be d~splayed. to spread out. lo drsplay. successron. to author together.REMAINING CHARACTERS ZIIU. dynasly. .

bond. cave. hole. diploma DONG. circle. deed. to destroy Q U m . break apart. to imprison. to encircle. fold (e. pen.REMAINING CHARACTERS H U ~to .. incisively . contract. JUAN.g. JUAN. of sheep) Q U m .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

to hire. be liired Often seen with the "side-man:" .REMAINING CHARACTERS GU.

be exhausted.ing. J&. to congregate Qm. as much as possible. duty m. ring. to seduce 3 7 ZHi. to expect (Distinguish + 1010. them TOU. classification. to lead on. to coil up. pledge ZHi. to mislead $$# yduji*. be accomplished T h . grain. her. to classify. to move. to sell. disposition. to go through Biit shitdu. r~ transport Ji. plate. to put fust B-. job. to exhaust.iidu. crowd (% and may appear in the form A% rsnqnqlin. attitude. attitude. arrive at . to reach. dish. to encircle. to oversee. category DA. to abandon. family name I % ylinji. a particle similar to h 5 : (nounlpronoun)'s.grain in the ear. bracele Sometimes written & i i % x i ~i i l& n ~to &embroider % YOU. a crowd I. to flourish. family name P a . manner r. cloud. him. substance. low (said of a fire) YUN.to embroider H U a . it. I . $ 4 8 8 lliioxi. price. be elegant.to lift (a heavy object) palms up (not above the head). tub. be feeble in ability. season (of the year).herd. really ZM.) Lao. to distribute.R E G - CHARACTERS BAN. to expect J & . material. get drenched windstorms or rainstorms FA. to appoint. to question. a measun for games d -1. to Lransport. above). (bookish) to pawn. manner m. to reach SS'I d m o .

(political) power .REMAINING CHARACTERS QUAN.

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

be scared with someone. secondary .REMAJNING CHARACTERS for (a person's social) class. h 'ajinghuii~~g.

ii.REMAINING CHARACTERS 1 " L qkuZnzh. width. breadth .

to iron. to get a . poplar tree qingtang. be putrid to heat up.REMAINING CHARACTERS df ill y'bgshir. consommi i % Ilk fiibji.

to spare (space. order. to Ji. to stab. be "thorny. splinter.REMAINING CHARACTERS be evenly distributed. be frequent 3%4& qinjign. BfNG. mechanic Z H h .to report on your work XU. family name . to transmit $ 1 1 4 shBzl~i. to enlarge SHI']. to expand 4R k kuddi?. above). be inferior. technique. sequence $ % xBtvtin." unpleasant CHOU. ~ ithorn. a bullet. time. money) m. technology 4 (5 QiN. diligent.%8Ry6ujiz1ii?nn"rove-andstrike" (=guerrilla) war JbI. barely fX fll jinjin. weapons & bin@. at the time that . device 41%jish8. be hardworking. E D h .. art. fishbone.to hurl. to pierce. to tell a story. 168) . merely $ ? Sm. to repay. soldier.craft. occasion. used to write foreign words (the short form = H rad. to murder. T h . art of war fi. barely. war. date (f~uit tree) YA. skill 4kr jigiing bkillrd worker. . profession. jujube. remuneration ZAO. (bookish) to pledge with wine iiiii& chdujin. introductioii (to a book).. preface. be hardworking and thrifty IWO. foreword i Distinguish cifrom "bundle" $ (657. boundary.

be muddy. to the end of. to prevent jintdu. (woman with broom:) wife. to saturate SHE. ASYE zli6nHiii. to pass through. .j--b H f j ~ lo . after all FU. be connected with Z H ~ N Gend. t~usbandand wife 2 p 33 . to ford. mix up.REMAINING CHARACTERS I'nh zlizl~i. wl~ole . to fool around: IdJN. * ky Efi. be foolish.

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

restraint. arrangement RR zh130. pearl. be graceful.to grab dB4:+ hudde. gravel. fertilizer HAN. be baggy.('fge'ngzud. be marvelous. brave man CHAO.e. to fry (in oil. region % . a family name HI z11U116ng. be hoarse. to go out (a fire. to restrain. disaster (often written %) '$ X hdnzZi. sand. order. hi% dGing. beard of grain. & y. source zH~. to extinguish. to confiscate. a measure for seconds (of time or angles) BU. sequence Z U .y0. 1 ~ to ~ wrangle 1 Z W .REMAINING CHARACTERS M E .spring (of water). to till 8b. to sound gravelly. bead W&J$. bright red.boundnry. a family ZHO. susnpdn ~1117.. the Han (Chinese) race. to quarrel. farming ~ ~ chdondo. to wipe out S ~gauze. to dig a well %i'% hdol~dn. to make G&NG. to rehash SHA. to loose. to info] I I W m . to lay out. to keep within bounds. to wish. to parboil 4 9 :lG clijbsib to copy C M O . order. to copy. to obtain MIAO.in. to plow. source 8 8 yudnqudn. foreign lands I . family MIAO.+fSr clldo 1~ngf. be beauliful.be vermillion I I c M O . be K ZHU. smallest part. be slender. abacus m. . to pray. stirring all \ the time) fiY. drought I section. lights). spinning (i. slieer cloth W @ fdngshj. making thread) $9 HUB.

a family name . oul" onfucius.REMAINING CHARACTERS is form is used as part of suffix: "away.

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

R E W I N G CHARACTERS 4EB jlising reclangle .

by mistake.REMAINING CHARACTERS mistake. lead astray to do a job for you (often .

to patch up. Y m G . to replenish 2 s I XIA. to gain Yi. TORTOISE rad. good health. to get in the way fbng'zii. copyright SHU. be weak 3iW b6rud. to deal in 11. art + &9 I yishh & art 44- I BO. toad. (p. a measure for editions. fly-swatter Ci.298a). bad guys Uf. to obstruct 1 3: E N G string %. to arrest BkdK bdhud. chaff . printing plate. to sl~ift I B h J . mouse. notebook. I siiofin. 207) I(ANG. health(y) MiN. to catch hold of. be dry and pulpy. (171) Now used as the short form for ilt 1 . printing block. MOUSE rad. shell (as. edition h'h+?ibbnqubn. . to fill in $51 tiiinbd. small box BU. be weak F h . GRAB rad. first. statement. BAO. DAI. tortoise. a ci (old style "tz'u") poem B o . pedlar BO. rat.&I. board. be broad or comprehensive (in knowledge). family % k f ijia'nkzing. (205) (the short form is H rad.REMAINMG CKARACTERS . of all Icinds. to shift @ yiddng. n turtle's). armor. 1 G . to grab. term. to win. (20Wf125) ?i5$ shdbdi. be "wooden" (lifeless) B h . ledger 3 bDji. word. to capture JIA. be thin. to seize. the first "heavenly stem" Bi]. to peddle. fly (insect) ~tfi~gpii. TOAD rad. booboeeping &-& I ~ icraft.

REMAINING CHARACTERS 37 S b. a treasure .iob2i.

REMAINING CHARACTERS FENG.be abundant. ngying. to toady to . fruitful.

REMAINING CHARACTERS sornetl~in~ off the surface of a .

millsto~le in front of you. tip visits. be uptight.REMAINING CHARACTERS to grind. tow . column.

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

m o w t&#.machine. to work hard . mowliead. jixiei. mechanism .REMAINING CHARACTERS B WIy~jngjin.

R E G - CHARACTERS .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

REh4AlMNG CHARACTERS .

lose he'ut CH'I.REMAINING CHAMCTERS ZGhui. be bnght red. loyal. bxe .Cn.

to rent land to farm 41aAdi3nn6ng tenant farmer .REMAINING CHARACTERS DIAN.

vi. surges. bands. to breathe siteins. undershirt. T-shirt 4M pingtan.REMAINING CHARACTERS n. anc sllares of stock . be level 4fl hU. gangs.

isl~i. feces. SHI.REMAINING CHARACTERS out. secretion &Jil l. shit. break through. to defecate .

B?& liinii. get nngry .REMAINING CHARACTERS .

to contribute wine. MIXED WETI! rad. (192) .REMAINING CHARACTERS Jii& juSnku5nn.

balance pan .REMAINING CHARACTERS chengpin.

EMMNING CHARACTERS ill 4 + bi116.to close with hook and line .

REMAINING CHARACTERS potent (as medicine). suddenly .

REMAINING CHARACTERS ~nold wirh rhe fingers di'.in. embanhnent . dyke.

.

REMAINING CHARACTERS (as. of houses): neighbotl~ood .

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

REMAINING CHARACTERS with a "chop." family name &$JL qingzliir. to celebrate .

REMAINING CHARACTERS 1v2i11~6n. to console .

down. to bum. iveight on a steelyard 4% & % ji5nzh0. build % .to bum.REMAINKNG CHARACTERS $ & \\\ X T . to hammer. copper %$. building k P . to fuse .build.tin. cake $8E x7jiBng tinsmith $$k RAN.6.$an. -~ m to ram .f& 4 5 C H U ~hammer. to smelt $?k* r6ngh. . set on fire %%jkrrjnsl1i70. to set on fire RONG.

REMAINING CHARACTERS .

remains (of the dead) .REMAtNING CHARACTERS IGtirTn. soul. be outdoors spirit.

REMAINING CHARACTERS QIM. be shallow. superficial: .

uneven No pronunciation. above). and the short form @ of 4 %j& "to lift" . "folk" (624. f t min. "country" (350. be full of holes and bumps. above). 139. tile short form 3 of R xizng.REMAINING CHARACTERS W f3 % -Y jbta biping. H rod.

the use of forms from the so-called "grass script"-a lcind of "Chinese shorthand"-such as ?J for . such as for yi "to heal. the use of one part of a complex character to stand for the whole character." Five." as in X niin "be difficult. Taiwan and Hong Kong still use the traditional characters." and for @I. g2." and as in X$ for %' duj "to face. for example. like the organization of dictionaries." of % for lic'to depart from. To learn only these short forms. 1979: 2. is organized exactly like a traditional dictionary except that the dictionary's makers have modified the traditional radical system to get a new system of 250 radicals-a system which can be very quiclcly learned by anyone who lcnows the traditional system presented in Reading and Writing Chinese. which were printed before the process of simplification began. such as & for & ch6ng "bug. is a great mistake. students effectively cut themselves off from much traditional Chinese literary and historical material (except where such material has been reprinted on the mainland in short-form versions) and have cut themselves off from many of the Chinese boolcs available in Western libraries." Three. In so doing. in mainland China. such as % for @. The modern. the traditional 214-radical system of organizing dictionaries did not worlc as well as it had.STUDENT'S GUIDE following. the use of simple variant forms which were already widely used in casual and informal wiiting." of @ for $ ! $ En "to rouse. to devise a new character in which the repeated element appears only once. encyclopedic dictionary. might be a good thing.216 pages). too) as the basis for this book's presentation. Modern Dictionaries After the simplification of many characters. classic." Four. Officially adopted simplified forms have been included since students who want to read what is now published on the mainland will have to learn them sooner or later. however." Two. Ci Hai (Shanghai: Shanghai Dictionary Publishers. too. where the character is composed of several repeated elements. Furthermore. One." We have used the unsimplified forms (most of which are still in use. 19 . a measure-word or "enumerator." and ? J ? for % dong "east. worm" and I& for & du2n "brealc into segments. t6u "head. simplification in one area led to the perception that simplification in another area. the replacement of a complex element with a simple E for #k element such as X -as in ~kfor f i huiin "be pleased.E m2 "horse.

.

This kind of index arrangement reflects the nature of the Chinese writing system and therefore provides a convenient visual review aid. here. followed by characters sharing that element and having the same reading. . the character that provides the ley to the phonetic series appears first. Exceptions to this arise in the case of phonetic-series listings. If a character is in the first character group. when using this index. radical. to scan up and down a group of characters sharing the same spelling. its number in the sequence of 214 radicals is_-given Characters in the second group are referenced by the page number (pp. Since the tone of the key character may sometimes be numerically higher than that of a character in its group. that character's series number (1-1062) is given in roman type. 245-301) set in italic type and followed by the letter n or b to indicate whether the character appears on the left (a) or right (O) side of the page. A character with two or more pronunciations will appear under each pronunciation.All characters with the same Hnrzyu Pinyin spellings are listed in order of ascending tone. the student should make sure. If a character is also a traditional in superscript.ALPHABETICAL INDEX Hnizyzi Pilzyiiz system of romanization.

A-BU

-A
1
B
a 1

I'T
Orv

-.

iii iii iii iii iii B n B n B n iin Sin iing iing 30 go 50

?% Aft,

L k%
/A

&

2
d*
3

d

%
R& S I R
GF

bZn bgn bgn biin biin biin biing bang bang biing biing biio b b bgo biio biio biio biio b8o biio biio biio bei b6i b8i bei bEi bai, bEi bai bai bai b&i bEn ban bi bi bi bi bi bi

dPQ
d k i n k

4+

9 6 ?iZ
%
?$

#&

3
&
#& i& $ ;

w
4%

4%

2
9 s

I&
-B

Y!

Xi

3%
$ @ : #%

bii bSi b6 bii ba b5, bii bii bii bii bii, bii bii bsi b5i b5i b&i biii biii biin biin

/\
/L \I

& !
:It. 2 1 ;

e
pe:

4
3t

5

-'ot
444%

M
4 6

@
$j e l

4 k
3

&
$ ig

$ 3

ItE #?
&

8
k
tt;

I na

jlk $

bi bi bi bi bi bi biiin bign bib biiin biiin biiin biiin biiin biiin biiin biiio biiio biiio biiio bii: bing bing bing bing bing bing bing bing b6 b6 b6 b6 bd bd b6 b6 bii bii bii

p.2736 p.255a p.255a
494 950

p.289b
575

p.253b p.253b p.253 b
126

p.268b
667 550

p.297a
5 16IG5

p.264b
946Ig0 110 111 208

p.262b
56415

p.282a
533 534

p.271 b p.272a
653

p.288b p.273b p.252b p.245a p.264a p.270a p.270a
632'" 118'5

p.270a p.270a

ALPHABETICAL INDEX

bii bii bii bii bii bii

73 668 .f; 958 (6 p.265b 603 ar 4 p.270a

T $

-Cci % cii $8 c5i if cii .Sjf' cli Rif c5i -% cii & ciii $ cii 3 c cli X can & c2n ciin % cin % ciing & cing & cing & ciio % cio 9 H c a o c80 -% CB % ci? I cE fi ci: IRll c6 % c6ng @ c6ng chii, 5L chS, chi3
n i% -

JiE

ch6ng jfE chbng {& ch6ng & ch6ng j & ch6ng 5 k p.284a ch6ng 771p.288a cheng 3 1 5 626 cheng V p.298a p.300b chi VC p.M8b 344 chi $+? 596 p.257b chi ; $ p.249b 345 chi S p.249 226168 chi, chi K 358 chkng & 88916" chi JC~p.269b chkng 368 chi & 517 chiing j $ p.261b chi p.289b ching, 995 chi $k p.267b ch5 chi 6 518 ching & p.264b chi d 945 chkg B ~.287bI!'~ chi p.294b chiio & p.254a ch6ng p.254a chiio $9 p.265a ch6ng % C p.279a chiio $9 p.265a chdng, 4Q p.248b chiio 9 p.265a ch6ng p.2486 chSo $A p.254b ch6ng d chdng & p.266a chko A p.254b p.280a chE 41215g chdu e h \ J6 ' Lk' 46Y5 ch6u i j ~ 1-92LchB-'R-pr279b-c~I~u-~&-chdu % 992 chi? diik p.279b p.281b ch6n I p.294b ch6u ffl p.259a ch6n iZi p.2826 chdu p.259a ch6n E 491"' ch6u d p.259a ch6n 1 76616' ch6u p.262a ch6n % . p.278b chBu 328 ch6n d p.264b chii & p.249a ch8n 8 784 chii 4n p.281a chEn & i p.269a chii 1$5 chii $# chEng, $4 784 p.291b chkng chii % !I

chi5 @ chi5 & chi5 % chl, & chii, chli chii $6 chi5i % chin & chSn @& chiing 8 chiing 4 chlng 8

981 914 361 501

<

*

BU-DIAN

chi3 % chi3 f*iq h chii, chi3 k chii, chii E chii 63 chuiin 1 1 1 chuiin {<{ chuiin (< chuiin 75' chuBn 4$ chu&n chuiin v% chuiin % chuiin $ chuiing & chuiing 8 '8 chuiing X @ chuiing, $11 chuiing chuiing 8 chui vk chui k chui 3k chui $ & chiin % chiin %chiin $& chuB j& chuB & chuB L . ci 1 ci $J ci % ci 3k ci jlt ci $4 ci ;k cBng & cijng ,a cijng Jl@

cBng c6ng CBU cii cii cii cui ciin ciin ciin cuo

M .f%

426 427

; & p.290b & p.263b
i % p.286a % p.296a 4% p.294a

&- 938

f
& +

18GJi 554

#- p.249b
-D-

dii, d5 dii dg dB & dii, dB .ff dii k diii % dji 7 diii 9 diii 4 diii diii 9 diii k dji @ diii diii zsi diii & diin $2 diin f i d%n diin $$ diin a djn 4% diin i& diin ; S diin @ diing, diing, d5ng

882

p.284b p.256b
520 50j7 791 727" 64678 699 700

p.294b
50j7 540

4e

p.248a
359

p.270bi7' p.257b p.257b
772

p.262b
437 590 674 664"' 1026 545

*

diing diing dl0 diio diio diio diio diio diio diio diio de d6 dC, de, d6i d6ng dEng d8ng dGng di di di di dl di di di di di di di di di di diHn diiin diiin dijn diiin diiin

p.297b
625 102i8 20518 429

p.246a p.266b
267

p.260b p.249b p.2972
234 965 296

ALPHABETICAL INDEX

diln diao dilo dilo dilo dilo dig diE di6 di6 di6u ding ding ding ding ding ding dong dong d6ng diing diing d6ng d6ng d6u diiu d6u dbu d6u-17dii dii dfi dii dii dii dii dii dii, dii duZn duiin

'8 717
-7 5

#
$4
4

9
&

&
4 1,.
i &

7

h
$1'
;I

2

k
$ ; $ -

3
%J

F l

3
#
d

*P &

-&
3 3

&. @
4~
5%

$3

p.281a 219 p.266b p.259b p.289b p.288a p.292a p.293a p.297a 805 519 p.247b p.247b p.247b p.274aZoG 424 91 165 p.286b 243 244 845 p.251a 140 1009G8 p.282b 453Is1 67919' 140 p.250b p.2856 p.258b p.247a 798 p.290b p.283b p.274a p.274b 566

duln duiin dui dui dui dui diin diin, diin du6 du6 du6 du6 du6 du6

$k
@

% 3 5 -uf
V&-

A $3

3
$I%

11% %

fln fiin fan fan fang fang fhg fiing fiing fang fang fang Ei fei f&i

Pd I?&
$6

-6'i

E
Yj
% l %
1%

W
$$

& IB
9%
fiC

%

fa f5 fii fa, fii, fii fa fan f h fan fiin f fin ffin

4% -%

4

2
$ 1 1

R
11IR

Bl

3: d

fen,En & En f6n $. En 4 & f6n tit En 16 E En @ feng -5 -feng-gEng J!$ fEng & feng, Eng& feng %feng 4t Eng 3% feng 8 % f6 at; f6u 5 f6u fii

DIAN-GUAN

fil

fii f6, fi

fii
fii fii fii fii

4 % a:* 4 k

8 7

sf;
;M.

I
4K

fii fii
f5 fii

4K
Q

s
r;l

9 1 1
%

fii fii, fii f i i fii
fii

nr; ?fi 44. %-%
I & $5

fii
fii

fii fii fii
fii fii

R
4f+

* fi
X

giin gb g5n gsng g&g ggng giing gsng ggng gang giio giio g50 g80 giio giio g50 ge ge gc ge g8 gi:

fii fii fi
giii g% giii giii giin giin giin g5n giin, grin gitn g8n

%

t%e
gi gi: g& g6i g6n gEn gen geng gEng g6ng g6ng gong g6ng g6ng g6ng

-F P
-G926 734 4% p.296a % p.295a $ 5 617 -kf 144g9 -7- 8751 RS p.247a #? p.247a in? p.247a & p.247a

iik

g6ng g6ng g8ng g6ng geng, g6ng gong g6u giiu g8u g6u g6u g6u g6u gii @I gfi gii gii fi gii gc gc g6 g G gfi gii ga gug guii guii guii guiii gu% guiin guiin gu& guiin gu8n gub

85
i -

G

K
4%

988 p.286b 14155 297 p.255a

& p.255b

p.28lb p.249b 978 4 290 35: 634 : & p.275b I& p.275b 168 W p.276a -r(& p.276a El 169 -h& 441 -IL p.284b & p.295b K p.284b & 373I5O 817 % 511188 & p.261a?07 4% p.2556 & p.255b 1 p.284b J k . ~.281b~ J$ p.294a # p.246a 469 592 fit' 504 inF 505 infl 506 $ 407 742 408

5

$4

ALPI-IABETICAL INDEX

guh guh guiin guHn guiin guiin gubg gubg gui gui gui gui gui gui gui gui gui gui giin giin gu0 gub gu6 gu6

h H hfii hZhiii hC hiii hln h h h h hiin h h h5n hiin hbg

280'03 h6n %k 32 hBn tbk p.264a hing, p.296a hBng h6ng % p.255b hdng, % p.255b H hdng h0ng : ! $ p.264b 9 p.272a 3 448 hdng b 697 2%-602h b u A l & -457-huiing% 250 hdu */k p.276b % 251 h6u R p.276b hdu, hbu % p.283b I001 ep.271a hbu & 763 hbu $2 452 $ p.290b in 154?' hii 4 p.284b *& p.251b hii Q 893 in p.247a hii & p.263a .;;fl 182 hii +A 620 $2 p.265a hi3 $A 62 1 ilk 953 -- hii F 66914'

769 105 193 $@l 796 i p.257b 5q$ p.257b 748 & 972 422 % p.287b p.269b 8 R 795 & p.270$13 & $ p.288b $16 p.268a /$ 291 I".' 3% 124 & p.299b %? p.294a 4% p.264a 8 4 p.276a 23. 514 A 114 8 597

hang hao hlo ha0 h5o hao, hiio hiio 116 h6 hi hi

%T 4211" -.- p.288b Q
p.294b 19 690 L 69 1 /$% p.288a . I . r 823 $T 557 16 p.2896 4 ? 176 p.245a 387 388 4% p.287b % 65Il5

* -?

g

hii hC hii hii hii hul hu2 huii hug huii huii huii hu5i hu&i huiii

ha, hB hi hi hE

.$It
hu5n huln hub huiin hu5n huiin huh uiin huHng huiing hulng huang hulng hui hui hui hui hui hui hui, hui hui

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268a 4 e L 507 321 598 - . .269a kiio 496 kE % p.jlng-!!-p.2686 Ici /ft 679 k5 4 p..269b $ p.270b 2 952 PA 5 689 846 % 942 % 1010 %2 p.276b ju jing 3% p277a jii jing F % p.262a 649 jiii 382 jiii 35250 jiii fi 26269 jiii & 580 jiii ?* p.255b kiing k 898 klng $-934-Rh~-&-p258b 6 289 k&o & p.268b kg 5E p.277a 364 p.295b s'.247a U 464" p.. p.282b jiin jiin Y $ p. E p. p . juiin ju&n #+ jurin 4% juE Jk jui & jui 1 jui & jui $3 ji5 jig jig ji5 jig jin jin jin jin jin jin jin jin jin 3f. Jm .ALPHABETICAL INDEX jilo jig jiE jii jii jii jii jii jii.270b @ p.283a jii jin 4 484 jk jin jing d 299 jii jing 774 jii jing 444 jii E 445 jii jing jing $2 p.256b jii + .264a p 84'" 5 76OZ6 & p.265a & 778 gk 4% Wt 221 jing jing jing jing jing jing jing jing jing jing jing # i if: 8 * : t . p.601 $ 701 jiii jiii & 631 p.Ib 8 2 % J Z &k % & juiin dfi ju&n .2776 k5 & & -K4% p.294a jii .255b lciing & p.256a k.294a kiin @ 356 krin & p.292a jiii & 94'67 j ii 2 p. % .2686 kE d p.298b T 77 p. j i jig jig 552 423 I% p. p.268b kilo 4% p.285a jiii $6 p.264a 503 711 p.263ajGp jin & p. n i juiln 5% juiin.248a kE 4g 671 kE ?8 p.268aI7Vki 300 kiii $ k 747 lch cIj 229"' kiln 3 p.285b % 121 f i p.262b jii F 492 j ii .-.252a JU +& p.

247b p.261 b 731 p.295b 647 17 p.275b p.JIAO-LIN k6n k6n k6n k6ng lcdng lcdng lcdng lcdu lc6u kfi lcii kii kii kii kuii kuii kuii ku% kuiii kuiii kuiii lcuiii lcuiin lcuiin kuiing lculng kuiing Icuiing lcui l&n leu6 lcu6 ic~a la la 1% 15 lli liii Iln 1611 l h liin 1ln liin 1iin liing liing 1Ho Ilo 150 lFl0 120 le ie 1Bi 16i lei lii lii lii l6ng li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li li liln liln lih liiin liiin liiin li6n liiin liiin liiing liiing. liiio liiio lii 1iE 1iE lie 1iE lin lin.288b p.298a .282a p.248a p.293a 1003 305 756 p.247b p.266a p. liiing lilng lilng liiing lilng liiing lihg liiing liiing liiio liFlo.256a p.295b p.266a 307 p.275b 1059 606 585 p.275a 156 p.254b p.268a p.298b p.299a p. lin lin 105"' p.248b p.298a p.289a 1004 1005 1006 1007 p.

297a ma r4. 1 6 1 1 .289algP miiin 6 % 610°176 & 675 miin nth p.2936 Nf p.299b f 676 & 903 mi50 p.292b - .272a .-730-mei-------% 589---m6-3 .271b % 530 miin .270a205 # p.E 472 mi20 8 p.91b .292a m6ng 3 p293b ming %Ti p.248b p.259a P p. 3 0 1 bliin liin.2976 miiin b p.2656 2 % p.273b mi & p.262a miio 8 354 ming % 256 9 p.249a mi p.271b 998 m2n 4% p.p .260b $ 285 Sfi p.275a2" p.287a miIn + 127"O mji ? i 133 miIn $8 p. 1 6 lu6 lu6 $& +k p.286a & p.265a @ p.& p.275a $4 394 1 2% m6i % p. & .295b 751 $2 p.273b i$L 832 m6i % p.266a -MmZng % p.300a %.252a mii 157'0° mi 101119 mI @ p.248a W p.249a mi I & p. m6 i$ p.272a min 921f08 954 miio 1 353 min 1 p.272a m6i & 116 mZi 4% 223 min P? 4516g men %"J 46 mEn.299a 284 4% p.275b m5o 84O1I0 miS . & p.248a mii A6 p.275b m b &-29382--milo-fi--p.299a miso 4 9 p.301b mii k 184 m6 $ p.248a + $ & p.251bIg7 miii iniii $ p. ling i n ling ling ling ling liii 1 1 liii lii liii 16ng 16ng 16u 16u 16u lii la lii lii lii lii 1ii lii lii lii 18 1 8 1 fi 16 18 18 lii 18 luIn luiin 1iiZ liin- p.249b mi p. 149 #& p.296a miio 4P p.266b migo ? p.285b m6 d p.265b m5ng $ 1 69 & -8091g8 U p.295a miio ? .299a p.271a m5n % p.292b ming V l 380 % 999 me 159 ming 800 I P p.274a ".285a rn2 5 35187 mi 5 5 p.260a m6.260b 3 207 0 p. 36 mi 47" mI 46 p.280a miio $ 7 p.293a 5 & p.274a p.275a miii % 135 miiin L 439 p.294a mil p.263b m6i p.301b 739 i l p.271b min I % 624 R p.288a miiin % p..290a lning p.ALPHABETICAL INDEX lin ling ling.25cCb & p. men P 4 p.hi p.271b mln 471 migo 9 2 p.1055 X 1056 I t p. liin lu6 1 1 .

273b pM a6 p. ou 6u ~5 PB p6i p i f t p.273b pi5 I 14 pin 4% p.272b p6i J% p.256b pln & p. pBn " k p.245a pi pi PF.273a pBng d& p.250a pli A 833 pli 8~ 834 p8n + & p.301 b pgng & 785 piing lkl p.264b pi& pi5 dibk p. 146 pi x 245Io3 pi6n 4& p.283a prio 4 6 3 p.253b piiin 16 p.2670 pen.274a pen & p.272a .nle nin ning niii niii niii ndng n6ng nting nii nii nii nU nu8n niiE niin ou 6u. pa0 & .260a p6ng flfl 209 p5ng 4f$ p.272b p80 36 510 piio.254b pi 4tk p. piLn f: 927g1 piiio % 957 pi60 2% p.273b p6i 1% p. pi ! 8 p.261 a prii b$ p.300a piin $K p.255a pi h 662'07 : & p.258a p.253b pirin 4 E 126 piiin.272b plo J& p. na n8i niii niii nrin nrin nrin nrio n80 niio ne nB.LIN-PIN m6 mo mc? m6 mti ma 1n6u mdu m fi mfi ma ma ma mii mii mii mii mii nri nii nii n8.258a pi Fb pi.260b piin $11 p. nBi n6i nBi nBn n6ng ni ni ni ni ni nirin nirin niln niiin niring ni8o nil0 .273b pno d& p.253b piHn % p. p.

257a . qi8 k & 930 qi6 qr d 163 qin 4E qi 3$ p.271b 100 451 167 p.291a riin % p.264b qiiio J5 cli 3& p.288b qing $$ Cli ? & p.272a $4 478 % 365 % p.277b rlo.254a p.277b k p. 251 584 p.277b 1028 h 432 $ pa pb Pfi k k p. riio t 3 17 d& p.254a qiiio & qi p.253b qiE.290b qiii 4 k qiii p.2606 S 4 % .245a p.300a 1917"uiin qiii q qii qii qii qii.273b p.272a qiii R - % p. 4% $? j~k 2% & 9k i& p.257b - qiiing p.245a p.295b 989 r6n JL 591° 730 r6n 4= 341 r6n 821 923 * .271b 698 -R12 k 230 p.263b p.262b-rBn-*473 -p.264a qiiin qiiin qiln qiHn qiiin qiiin qiiin qian qi5n qiiin qiln -f.246a p.297a -p.277a qiin Y p.252a qiao & qf % 871 qiao L 1 k p.258a p.280a p.ALPHABETICAL INDEX pin pin ping ping ping ping Pd Pd P6 Pa Pb % p.263a rlin 8 593 215 rh i % p.245a p.285a 707 1051 riing 198174 riio f i k p.299a qin % qi------?~-l 045"'L--qin-3% /-L 322 qin 5 ST 4 qing ~i % 324" qi I% qing 413 qing cli & 325 6 qing ~i A% p.% p.256b p.297a p.257a p.249b $ 7 qing S T & 435 qing @ qi % 1052 p.2716 p.254b p.277b quC x/i p.qii Clii qii qii qii 746 1017 p.276aGG qiiing 384GG qiang qiiing 714 4 84gg0 quan # ! p.272a p.282a qi6ng % ~i % p.259a p.252a riio r C %& 678 736 rEn h 2' 199 r6n 4 4' p.257a 543 p.276a quC p.285a quE k k p. d & IF $ @ & 4% i n k.

stio si? si? sEn shii shii shti sh5i shiii shiin shiin shiin shh shiin shiin shiing shting shting shiing shiing shiio shiio shiio shb sh8o shiio shiio she shi she shB she sh6 shi? shi? shi? shi? sh6i shEn shEn shEn shEn shin shEn shin. skg sting s80 s80.ri?n ri?n rBn ri?n rEng ring f i r6ng r6ng r6ng r6ng r6ng r6u riju r6u r6u r C i 1-6 rii ruiin mi riin rub ru6 sii. shen shBn shBn sh6n shBng shsng shEng sh8ng sh8ng shing shing shi?ng shi?ng shi?ng shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi shi slii . sii s8 siii. siii siii siin siin siin s h skg.

279b shiin J p.246b shii $% p.272a sui 2 18379 si A 24?" sui shii shii $$ 83 SI & 1008 sui shii @ p.245b sui.250b si 41% p.289a shui jhi 239 sui sh6u @ p.278a sii sli6u 3.4lG5 shuIng J ? p. shii -$k 586 s6ng shi $ p. 4 9 & p.f% 661 s6ng slii $ 711 shii W i p.272a sii sh6u ~lk 718 shuiin & p.289a si 1 F i .726 @ p.295b s6u shi b shuii $11 p.293a p.269a sii i 480ii3 shuiii p.280a sii shi 963 sliu% sii sh .280a sii shi slii R p.280b 411 p.283b 5 642 % I& 7 % J? % ! ' 6 4 4 755 499 p.287a p.295a 3 % 33735 & p.287a $ 264 d p. p.267a s shi huii 4$ p. sui sh6udk-.2630 p.% 348 siin shii 8~p.292a p. 807Ii3 shuiii $ t p. 3 i Z .289a sii sh6u 3 14G4 shui 7 1 C 36285 suiin sh6u 266Is5 shui j 181K5 suln sh6u 339 shui il& 539 suln sh6u 4? p.261a p.285b sii sh6u ! 1042 shuiing 1023 sii sli6u p. # p. 2 5 O a s l i u 6 ~ t 2 4 O s u i l % 7 5 4 shii p.246a si 4 1062 siin shii & p.247a si 3 665 su6 shii shii p.294F0' si % 873 shii .290a shiin @ p.285b s shi ijL.286a p.297b si .2466 147 455 275 p.p .280b p.262a s6ng slli & 943 shii i?i.271a tnk p.ALPI-IABBTICAL INDEX slii 38915' shii 8 948 si shi -iE 599 shii 949 si slii W p.267a siin sliU J$& p.280b % 1061 #. p.250a p. p.294b $ 521 8 p.272b shuiii.280b p.250b sf & 728 dW W 6 @ $ il:* .278a .280b .657 s6ng slii 680 shii .277b sui sli6u $ p.270a20hi slli $ 316 shii 1 3? si shi shi -jr 13433 shii.299a 264 485 p. % i p.267a su6 SI b 28Iz0 su6 shii L 1041 shii ? k -! 1042 s1 $ 174120 su6 J j " I.258b sliuiing % p.262a s6u shi 2 246 shii ! k ? p.284b p.253a shu6 tilp p.253a shuiii till1 p.285a shii $.291a p.

248a p.288b p.301a 996 p.@ tiin 1. $ ti5n *& ti5n .253b 8G3? p. t 6 n g g t6ng fi t6ng ? & t6ng $& t6u 46. ti80 & tiiio 1 B ti80 4% ti50 <fl tic lie tie J ! & ti8 &k ting $& ting & ting ting & ting 4 * ting t6ng & t6ng $9 tBng 3% t6ng fl t6ng.284a p.284b 1039 881 p.283b wii w8 w8 wl wli w iin wiin w5n w 8n w b w Bn w6n w8n w 8n w iin wLng w5ng w8ng . t6u t6u 4% t6u 5% tBu i & tii % tii tii t i i tii tii tii tii ta.c t5n t8n & t8n 3 E tiin 4% tln $k tln & tiing f% tlng 3% tgng & t6ng ?@ t5ng $& tang tHng t8ng % tiing + & t8o fB t8o ig t8o -$+ tiio Q ti rt+ t6ng tBng Il& t6ng i & t6ng. a -1C P % $% & & % 4& 8% -% p. tBng n b * % 7 ti &$ ti $I] ti J$ ti $4 ti 4% ti & ti F 4 ti +$ tiiin X tiiin .269b p.250b p.248a p.294b p.283b p.SHI-WANG -Ttii i & tH 4 L tii & ti7 t8 3 % tl F$ t5i f : tiii I t ? t5i 4 6 tiii k tiii j& tHn .7 t8n #?$ tBn $ .rdti5n W tiiio.275a p.5. tii tii tu5n tui tui tui tiin tiin tu6 tu6 tu6 tu6 tu6 & b Sfr & f 01.269b p.301b p.290a p.

292a +$ p.276a 44 p.297b 553 826 782 190 587 14Y3 860 968 p.-w6i-%w5i 4& w5i w6i "" jn wen wen w6n & win Ji.260a wii p.300b wii p.258b 825 p.278a p.298b p.281a xi 202 xi p.278a p.300b Pi"r p.258b wii p.295b 203 762 p.251b p. wiing w5ng wiing whg whg w5ng w6i & p. % @ 710 p.286a 148 867 p.294b 3606' xi p.281b 247 p.257b wii 270 wii p.252a 25 130 & 1019 I 1020 a 9 xi5 3% xi5 1 : xi5 xi5 xi9 it~i xih 4 xih k.289b JL . x i h e xiiin %k xi5n.2586 p.290a xi p. % & & irh d i5 6 fi f 4% .281b p.292a wii p.291b p.284a $i p.28la wii 446"? wii 63712? wii ~. i i = & wei w6i R w6i w6i w6i wii d$ w5i @? w6i Ifr w6i & w6i fi w5i 4 2 w6i % w5i w5i & w5i %wii.266bl?~ p. .278a p. w6n $2 w6n h ? wen M1 w6n 46 a wen w6ng wij 696 w6 92 588 w6 w6 wii p.281a xi p.284a 397 p.263a J% 497 841 & p269a -X11736 p.251a 8 p.282b xi xi xi xi A& xi xi xi xi xi xi xi xi xi xi xi5 48 @ $4 4% f 2ki b .259b xi p.268a 896 861 303 p.tir 695 % p.288a 6O7I 21280 749 p.256a wii p.ALPHABETICAL INDEX wiing wiing wiing w5ng whg.2686 p.300a p.288a p.296b & p.-A-884xih & xi5n fi xi5n % xih P d xih in xiiin 83 xitin xih % $ .295a p. . xih % xiiin xiiin I' w p.282a 8 500 3.251a p. xih j(rfi xi&.255a L 58 5 7 375 % p.286a wii wii 761 wii wii 2131 875178 wii 876 p.296a wii 222 wii 831 459p.I% 5 23 B 200 p.271a xi P-7 $ i .264a 2& 1033 .284b p.277a 351 p.259b xi 924 xi 925 xi xi p.298b 919 1221~ p.281a wii p.%i & E F 4 El .

2976 57G9? "4 & 2 & 8k % 0 & d k &\ 3 F p.299b 3 595 -rl % p. 4 $ p.266a p.280b p.WANG-YAN xiiin xiiing xihng xilng xiiing.p.277a p.285a p.291b 776 p. xl xii xii xii xii xii xii xii xii xuiin xu6n xuln xuiin xu6 xu6 xu6 xu6 xiin xiin xiin xiin xiin 5 ' ~ p.261a 402 1014 56 269 p.288b & p.263b 5% p.248aQ5 @ a= a 34 k h s d % 777 253 574"6 922j4' 993 TP p. y l Yl yiin yiin y6n yln yln y6n yhn y6n I @ 7% p.298b xi6 xiii xiii xiii xii xii xl xii k f ? & p.289b p.278a & 295 & 706 % p.252b @f 767 t 38IJQ .280b p.263a p.299b +? 1044f86 .258a p. .iq > . xing xing xing xing xitjng xitjng xi6ng xitjng xidng xi5 xil .293b p.280b p.247a Ifi p.258a 6 p.295a p.255b 6 8 45% p.268a 672 3 p. xilng xihng xilng xiiing xiiing xiiing xihng xihng xilng xilng xihng xilng xilng xiiing xiiing xilo x i xilo xiiio xi30 xiiio xilo xi60 xilo xilo xB xi6 xi6 xi6 xi6 xi6 xi6 xi6 xi6 xi5 IF% $ @ $8 915 349 350 294 xi5 xie xi& xin xin xin xin xin xin xin xin xing xing xing xing xing xlng xing xing xing.XlU % p.277b p.2776 940 -YYB YR Y& YE YZ YB yl.+& p.262a *i p.287a 824 890 1040 793 643 644 & p.246b 2Yd2 385 939 11.250b r3 ~r p.245b tti dl1 I$ &A 3k $5 p.286b 3 1 1 p.266a %.283a 964 347 923IJ3 1 h C p.288b 969 8 p.256a .284a p.262b p.289b p.

300a p.254b ylng k 278 Q p. ying % ying fk ying & ying iig ying ilC. yin $k yin k & yin tp ying.256a y fi 7692 .267a ~-76%-p.2466 yin 6 yin 495 yin El 486 4B p.261a 131 p.2936 1016 p.f.258a yiin .$i% p.3006 yiin yiin in yiin i n p.p.249a p.283b 2!i5' 1012 p. y6u p. X 4.293b p.2646 yiin 8F.248b yiin 8 966 yiin &? 967 y h K k p.281a ylng yiing % 686 ylng yiing yiing yiing ylng yBng yBng yiing yiing yHo yao ylo ylo yiio yfio y5 0 % ylo yiio yiio yiio ylo yiio yiio YB YE YE YE 4% I 3 3 % $5 h A.261b 687 115'23 475"3 611 p.299~ 561 562 158 53 p.269b B 685 yin -$ + yin A yin 4k yin 51 yin yin.281b ybu %%. y6u kk y6u 2 y6u $2 y6u 7 c y6u '8 Jy6u & -y 6u-4t$yciu & y6u kb y6u g P ydu h ybu $ i y6u Ei y6u iC yau . i & & 2 0 2 % q L A& §& % q & & p. k . yingg.ALPHABETICAL INDEX yiin 99 B p.p. ying $4 ying d y6ng 4% y6ng 7jc y6ng fi ybng ih ybng 3 ybng % .267a 25289 p.

249a p.2696 & p. p. yii YC YG yii ~6 yii yii yii YG yu8 '7% yu8 KI yu8 T % yiin 9 yiin 2 yiin S yiin k yiin.280b & p.286a 912 863 k p.2626 p.266a 1 % .2616 p.2786 p.253a p.2606 p.2656 474 8 304 e$ p. zal ziii ziii zln ziin z6n ziing ziing ziing ziing zHo zEio z50 ZBO ZBO ziio ziio ziio z6 z6 z6 z6 z6i yii yuiin yuan y uiin yuan yuan yuiin yuln yuln yuBn yuBn y uBn yuln yuan yuln yu8 yue yus yus p.2866 p.280a 438 % p.259a 3 ~i p.253a I ! & 977 zBn zEng z8ng z6ng zhii zh6 zhii zhii zhii zhiii zh5i zh% zhiin zhln zhiin zhln zhiin zhgn zhln zhiin zhiin zhiin zhiing zhBng zhEing zhiing zhiing zh5ng. zhiing zhiing zhiing zhiing zhiio zhlo.YAN-ZHAO yii YG yus "I2 T .255a .246a -#$ p.279a p.258a p.260a p.294a p.273aS7 33P7 740 p.279a 226168 227 p.2906 342 p.262a % p. yiin $ yiin 3 yii yii Y3 yii YC YG yii YG yii YO z z5 zl ziii z ziii.260a p.2696 X p.279a p.249a p.254a p.246a 28 1 p.280a & p.2616 p.245a p.260a p.2836 & 655 fill p.254a 32. p.279a 648 433 802 627 628 p.280a f p.2826 & p. zhho zhio zhBo zh5o zhiio zhiio 425 328 p.266a # p.2800 k k p.2546 476 508 p. zBi -.2786 p.

27laZM zhii 31934 d k p.265a zhii 2 396133 zhii ?ti p.278b p. L k 225 3L -8 p.247a zhuii 5f p.295a L 493 4E-p:268a % 659 Jk 814 & p268a 252 899 =C p.271a R S p. zhEn zh6n zhen zhen zhen zhEng zhEng zhEng zheng zheng zhEngzhing zheng zheng zheng zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi p.262b zhui $+? p.289a & 301 d& 973 & p.256b 271K5 d k 272 p. .259b zhui 9r.278b 3 p.290a 4% 302 88 9b !a zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zI1i zhi zhi zhi zhi 265 p.283a & 139 4 172 .281b zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi zhi.286b zhii 3 k p. zhei zhEn zhEn 891 892 720 p.293b & p.618 aij'.256a 4 % p. 907 @k p. zhbng zhdng zhiju zh6u zh6u zh6u zl16u 1057 zhii 1058 zhii i % 866 zhii & p.266b & 476 E p. D 607 J .269a @ p.(fi p.278b .267b zhuhg @ Ip.p. zhi zh6ng zh6ng --zh6ng-?%zh6ng zhbng zhbng zhdng.256b zhuiin 112 zhuiin .$+I p.& p.269a $ St . L 19577 k 4- \ zh6u zhdu zhdu zhBu zhBu zhii zhii zhii zhii zhii zhii zhii zhii zhii -A F Rzr 2k s- &k # i 2 % fi.269a % p. zhE zh6 zhZ.256b +& 525 1 1 k .284b $& p.259a zhuiing 3 p.278b I p.294a 4 6 p.255a 944 % p. L * Sf- 3 $$ zhEn zhEn zhEn zh6n zhEn.2786 ? ' .291b zhiin - Q % .249a dI p.262b zhui .ALPHABETICAL INDEX ZIIBO zhiio zhlo zhiio zhe zhE zhi.l p.249a 3 E 1022 $L p.267b zhub p263bzhuiinU 108 zhuiin % p.257a zhuiing 2 242 zhuiing $3 636 zhuiing zhuiing 82 p.

+% zuZn.%I-IAO-%GO zhtin zhuij zhu6 z1 zi zi zi zi zi zi zong z6ng -@.250a $ a? p.246b @ p.% & 2 4 : R % -3- ? $k il Sm z6ng ? $ . zti b zii 2k z6 K zuiin.267b 436 343 179 572 p.! z6u k zii jfa zti $R 26 $ .267a 430 p.289a % p. zuiin zui p% zui zui zui ziin ziin zuci zuB zu6 zu6 zuB zuB zu6 & 366 % p. z6ng # .267b 4 f k 1 8 k & d .

Where a discrepancy existl count the strokes that are actually made as you write the character b hand rather than use the "official" count traditionally used in Chines dictionaries. The index has been organized by the strolce count-strok order system rather than the traditional radical system because mastery c the latter requires considerable time. whereas the strok count-stroke order system can be used by a student almost immediately. . the ability to count correctly th number of strokes and learn the little tricks familiar to every first ye: . student of Chinese will come naturally.) Characters in thjs index are groupe according to the total number of strokes in the character. "appears to be widely use in China today. not a slull assumed of its users. for reference or reviev any character in this boolc whose pronunciation he or she does not l a 0 1 or is unsure of. Mastery of the radicals is one of th goals of this book. beginning wit characters having the fewest strokes (1 to 3 strokes) and concluding wit those having the most strolces (18 or more).downw~cLto~theright. is also a system that. you should first count the number of strolte in the character under consideration.2)~ahoriZontal_ angle-th. including any strok .-." In order to use the index. As you learn new characters an how to write them from the diagrams.. as George Kennedy says. (For example.STROKE COUNT-STROKE ORDER INDEX This second index of characters is arranged by strolce count and strok order and therefore enables the student to find. the shape I i counted as one stroke rather than two. You must then determine into which of the following four categorit: the first stroke in the character falls: 1) a dot.

it will appear before a character of twelve strokes of which the first is a dot and the second a horizontal stroke (&). 4. Note that characters whose first element is the common "grass radical" * are classified in the stroke count-stroke order system as if the first stroke were a downstroke. Dot Across Down Left I ' I or or or or -? < All characters with the same number of strokes are subdivided into these four categories of "first strolces. and so on." Much like an alphabetical system. left) into which the second stroke of the character falls. or 4) a left. including angles that begin this way.STROKE INDEX begins with a left to right horizontal. The system of reference to characters and page numbers is explained in the introduction to the Alphabetical Index on page 304. 2. down. including angles that begin with a vertical. these categories are further ordered according to the category (dot. On pages 300-301 of the text itself are introduced all Hnrz-Yi~zgCidinn radicals which have not been introduced earlier. . A complete chart of Hnn-Yilzg Ciclialz radicals appears as the back endpapers. across. with the exception of characters that appear in modern texts only as parts of other characters. All of the characters appearing in Rending nlzd Writing Clzilzese are given here. The index does. 3. however. 3) a vertical strolce. though this differs from the writing diagrams in the text. downward-slanting stroke. if one character has twelve strokes and its first and second strokes are "dots" (&) . include all forms of traditional radicals. For example. To summarize: 1.

2566 e 5 8 275 274 6 f 9 63 1 24 1 99758 4 K a 5 'F g7 10 84754 8 0 ~ ~ 2 1857 8751 n h a n k 10218 20619 522 58 5943 /\ IL h 4 {{ 261' 571° 152" 49 p. - i 613 56415 88" 181" 12740 378 4714 171i6' 3 Af -w- % k A Z X 2.245bM 56047 P -t t 5 E 1 4 3 E C 22'4 689 145= 842G 760'~ 7617". .STROKE INDEX 1-3 strolces [. L f . 18641 1464 596 15P7 142 14155 5037 p. 136IG3 35 1 44348 8632 13433 612 5 19 150 . -k 3486 1O0gfi8 48O1I3 39270 952 .261 b p.I i 7 -. 4 9({{ 2552 30G0 8 1959-44247 G: P p1 1 n 1 7 [I 4 strokes ['I .2812 85'9 p. $ .281a [I I A /\ 1 l4 2428 98" 232?O 64516 151 682 677 11736 233 5 L k R A 3 3 A i 2 .f - i ._ I L b - 136 55 1-1Xz5 137" 346 2013 2l3[ 3330 205j8 35250 46417 9SdG 465J5 274' -_ 4. 1 . -f- 11 9 U 3 d 5 K 'f7 A 4 '' 11. 155~~ p.

273aS7 k fi d k h 5 strolces .301 b 375 22483 262" 308 878 p.5 STROKES k @ 42 4-t tlJ a 4 j ~ 475 It: 4. f?7 19176 p.300A 703 p.1-3.281 b p.281 b 341 p.4.281 b 810 581 p.

271 bQ8 496 77 533 1449g 599 h EL E 9 h * Zt .STROKE INDEX $- ?I Jb % 33 J E .300b p. p.246b 493 25 245lo' 432 p.247a 869 409 p.271 b p.

260b 477 822 51513' 793 922Id3 418 41513' 42 1Id4 p.5 .247b 19 12 787 28120 174"" 7 stroltes .282b p.282b 229134 p. 7 STROKES 901'39 p.282b 709 p.246b p. 6 .

f.300a 220 238 p.282b .245a 797 p. %k p.262a 305 p.STROKE INDEX A % i 4n .t $4 % 3.

8 STROKES 8 stroltes .7.

2 78a 41 1 588 p.247b 39172 i& 5% .273a p.285a p.245a p.284b 344--- b Q 4% fi a $Irk % .285a * M R-S_ nr.2686 3$ 8% 4 D w - 410 p.J+I 4 & $$ p.234 2 % .r' E r9 an SF..285a 223 265 538 4b $4 p. p.284b 78 p.264a 536 230 . & - .263b p. j & 4% i f 1 1 C 893 309184 ~.284b ['I .249b p.266b 383 9416' 3 15 800 750 %% 8P 33 fit 4 4% )ff? .263b p.267a p.247b p.265b 839 209 p.255a p. $ 1 1 R % 4 i L lq i f g M [I] &j p.279b p.2736 p.300a $+[I 1 $ 3 & & e 5 k -+ 4% k -& 339 618 517 p.284b 688 R & ..2688 877 p.lk - 376 p.2852 321 p.285a p. 1055 663 p.285a834 p.2546 p.285a 577 p. 2 .2626 61 I p.7~--+-830 p.259b p.253a -5 3 % 367 h k Jr p.2-5. 255a p.250a p.260b p.301 b p.285a & .284b 704 p.256a p.270b p.264bI7O p.269b p.267b 913 96 169 p.301 b p. % S % p.272a p.285a 485 2 % 8 & a . L $It 4- tk @ & $ k 60 p. .S T R O K E INDEX a.281 a 451G9 380 p.%E ilk & ! + 779 p.

9 STROKES 848 p.285b 397 p.285b p.248a p.285b 25 1 915 1030 1053 417Ifl3 .8 .

+ 1 p.286a p.286b ?@ .263a 940 p.274a p.252a % p.261 a p.268b 4p.287a & p.259a 364 p.2726 41k 936 @ p. IXL .257a -kt @ A .260a 1001 745 p.287a b p.259b 60 1 p.263b p.269a @ p.-- % g $ C % & 11% rtr f& p.266a i $ p.274a 726 1000 p.288a p.286b 374 p.256a $& 104 1-p.257a p.263a 792 p.300a & 3 11 p.266a J + -~28% 44 p. $ R 2% 4E 4% 4% 4% A I % .273b p.287a A p.STROKE INDEX w n 3P -P g p.286a 8 Rifi @ )I5 a& I 7 % p.272a 7 % p.286a p.287a 4% p.286b 602 390 p. $ @ % -p 2 8 6 a ----i ~ - n 4 2 .274b 955 908 974 72518? 487 126 p.286a 855 10 strokes ['I .

Mi 4& +k $A $3 M 4 x 4 : X 4% 4& $5 . .. E-I * 3 % S SYF d @ J~G.H m E . L & & 6 i g i & -8f * % fit5 p A $k . +k % * I & i 9 .

& A 973 p.288b 1041 p. l i @ .289a $8 627 639 658 81 p.255b 4 % p. 673 187 p.263b H 993 p.266b 674 736 p.289a j & p.250b 603 962 622 p.2726 476 p.267a +& p.274b p.259b 696 626 582 157'0° p.257b 170 457 563 710 p.I* it% $1~ 4% $& 2 2 d & I% 11 stroltes @ & - ['I 731 + $+ 795 747 386 p.263b 619 & iR 4j q 43 4b 42 [-I g 3- p.277a 4% 953 7 % p.280a $2 . % R p.* ig .2656 % p.288b p.277b dfp 140 4~ p..288b p.272a 8 $ - 561 p.STROKE INDEX i6 44 P I t& ifL 4 8 43 4 g +% .279b ik $& : e n (.289ap % 957 &1054 3 604") % 370 qf+ 540 8 617 $& 702 R p.288b p. 256a dfk p.254b @ p.248a w p.266b % p.281a k$---. + .260b a~c 3 ! k 4 k @ 6 % + : 7 % p.277a p.246a & 6 1 3.260a ?IF p.288b p.2886 4Fp.280a p.246a 46 p.270b 8O9lg8 p.269a p.251 b 4 6 p.289a p. p.--& -5 --2 -p a 3 6 .300a p.288b ! L p.273a 44.p.264a 1PG 225 ?& p. .288b p.275a p.248a G 4k .300b ? & I . p.288b p.288b fik 327 $4 p.263a 595 317 826 p.266a p.265b ! 1 4 p.245a p.257a B--p.+- i * % i .279a p.3.

290a p.290a p.10.2506 p.248b p.259a p.290a p.263b .270a 290 p.259b 484 p. I I STROKES p.267a p.263a 780 741 906 825 p.2476 975 700 883 71 765 505 378 p.290a p.290a 416 p.290a 932 p.290a 753 p.290a 9941q6 558Iq5 p.262a 296 427 945 p.253b p.

291a 803 p.291 b p.257a p.256b p.246b p.253b 5 % & 4 i g p. 9% ? $ i d & @ 38rrr g i & i & $ G& .)h: p.290b p.291a p.291 b p.253b &% g [-I .255a & 651 &----.279a @ p.261 b p.I+$ f? f%.267b 7 14 328 p.2906 p.291 b 870 p.290b 525 107 p.253b 267 p.% p.291 b p.259a p.269b 4 9 & & .254b p.291a $ p.280b p.279a p.262a & 930 $!k p.291a .246b 3k 652 & p.254b $ 3 p.271 b 916 p.261 a 754 687 p.254b 621 p.260a 264 650 p.256a 4% 4% 4% p.245b % e $1 rsi ' & ?ij.270a p. 259a ~g * el p.270a .269a j ? p.270a p.266a p. & jk -3 $8~ < + " 1 $+ $ 6 & p 2 5 7 'a 885 p.249b p.. & e 5 & $6 $3 & :.264b $4 p.p269a 3 % 1012 & 190 i % p. 3 $11 i& j & p.291a p.290b p.258a p.248a p.264a p.254a ik 4 4% p.278b p.291 b 712 633 228 p.290b p.252a 1005 .290b p.290b p.290b p.291 b p.290b p.273a p.STROKE INDEX 12 strolres 4% ? & [-I % .291 b p.291a p. $ ? Y m ' 4 g p.291 a >% 995 % p. @ i p.290b p.291a $fi 90 $ k p.269a p. t-.291a % p.251a p.267a 4 % & 4% 3$ & .264a p.290b 300 1011 p.264a p. & I% 5 % I% 1% & I bv 3 7 A re % AT$ 569 p.263a $ ? p.250b & p.

245b 665 419 .276b 423 4% %& %B & : " t $& & & : a $8 %I + + l $ 909 p.245b p.292b p.12.245b p.250a p.292b p.292b p.292b 177 p.292b p.257a p.280b 880 778 p. 13 STROKES j$- % 11lJj 43 A $ 6 $f% p.

I .258b 873 1047 p.293a p.STROKE INDEX -$? $ $ 3 x @ J el& at% & % A Y .293b .fi!l.261 b p. & 9 $ii n$.293a 693 *& 3 % Rk 8% 8% D L %- 2 .251 b k t ? 66 8 p. # p.293b #& p.276a 935 p.279a p. 4cCp 545 1019 p.293b 539 977 p.293a 717 285 p.293a p.249a p.253b 876 p.269b p.259a 449 p.293b 892 b % .267a 3$ p.254b p..272b 4$ p. - a p. 1g If& p.275b p.251 a p.247a 817 p.250a %L *P -- .256b p.-- 9 @ $ r5 ok 3% d a$ &i St" d 4% % & I _- % @ 3 an .274a206 948 p. &% BI p.293b A p.276b 197 72 1 530 1018 p.276a 1027 314 p.293b p.261 b E L p.293b RP p..267a $ z $ p.2 7OaZo5 1056 1037 p.293b 1 [-I p @ 7 @ % 7 % [I] p.245b p.293b 499 p.252a p.274b p.p.293a p.280a 490 979 243 p.274b 292 p.249b p.248a % p.liia $$ % ! & 4% J . g [) 6 ix 1 340 832 4 p.266b 1049 d? & d I ? t i % 4 *& 3 % @ X 2- 3 $ .265a 8 p.2626 p.273a 479 691 p.293b 36 p. 250a p. #k 4 % - .245b 3 2 .293a 737 295 p.2466 447 p.261 a p.261 aZo7 579-.254 b p.293a p. & 8 $ 4 % ..279b p.279a p.293b @ p.260b 4%--1 00 %330 & 584 f& p.262b p.277a p.274b p.260a p.293a p.

.

295b p.252 p.296a p.273b p.267a p.2646 p.254b p.2956 p.264b 4 3 % p.254a p.295b p. 249a p.259b p.250b p.260b m p.295a 784 636 644 p.259b p.295b 673 4% & A ~ t g & g 54j g i g @ @ Pi p.254b p.259b -?El $% p.279b p. $ f & if4 %& 8 35 & i& 2 4 4 k I p.252b $ .278b p.I :z && - & p. p.25Sb 1039 996 p.296a 4 6 p.277b d ih p.296a 4 8 p.296a 3 p.295b p. g g [) 202 p.249~1 A p.296a 3k p.260b p.296a $2 854 4&----439S .267b p.295b p.296a @ p.246a 6 1 5 p.249b d p.269b p.296a 4 l l & g 3 $4 % 5 4 % 982 984 742 521 p.296a p.271a % p.273b p.257b p.295b p.t 42 .295b p.273b p.251 a 236 p.295a209 p.2956 628 p.295b p.280b +$ 562 +$p.295a p.276b $A .262b 4 p.273b p.258a p.2 p.2736 49$7 4& +% ?& p.254a p. h k b 4% d& ti % p.259b 40 @ .274a 1028 p.249a &% I-' g 3% i$j 15 strokes ?& & [.STROKE INDEX 1 4 4t a 4 4.271b 777 p.2796 p.280a 347 989 963 p.f% ! p.255a r& 755 .252b p.260a 999 I & i % @ & d & g & $ $ - $#--p.250a p.256b p.274b 135 678 p.296a .295a p.261 Ah ern $ I % 751 p.

14.248b 555 244 p.274a 312 p. 15.297a 16 strokes . 16 STROKES am sn d 11% b $& ?kg. L A% p. AI~ j & .259b p.248b 1013 713 p.297a p.

271a 1060 p.255b 97 p.268b 585 p.258b p.298a p. @ 22 $k 4 86 1 p.2986 p.270azi3 -g3499 1 253 p.276b p.5t Ilk Q fik R& Q4 d h .275b p.265a p.298b p.268b p.246a p.259a p.297b p.267a 188 706 544 48 1 p.297b p.298b 282 p.297b 1014 p. 4 % 111 [-I .298a p.258a p.2986 n.262b 448 R & $jk 2'C F .298a 1015 p.298a 635 p.249a 1052 p.298a 37 1 p. ?jf s 9c p. K 4% % i ! p.271a S fi& fig @ {g$ i & $6 C.298b p.298a p.262b p.276a p.294aZi4 p.298a p.270b p.271a p. .297b p.273a a$ & c Z& Jl$ & 9 If$ % F~4R A* & k a fi% @ % % !I 537 705 379 1059 359 p.298b p.258b p.266b p.258a p.246a 605 'K-p398b18 and up [.298a p.297b p. & % 4k.260a p.280a #$ d g ?& p.277a p. K $6 & jE @..% 9% 17 strolres % [I] % p.I .Iki M p.257b p.257b .251a p.280b p.298b p.297b p.298a p.STROKE INDEX %% flHj 4 % ~4 v % .298b p.300b p. I .298b p.fn 1 92 % 4% 9% 0 %? & $ + - $? $ i ! 4 -T % I .

268a p.266a I % p.252a @ .251 a p.280b 806 p.250a p.247a p.299b p.299b p.18 $ 1 STROICES AND U P $% 743 796 194 $ % p.270b p.293b $k Str + $ p.10.276b .249a p.299b p.251 a 7 2 % - a $8 laa f ! # Jj7 @ *+It tlir Ffi $ J : 4% 2 3 % 356 1016 729 506 p.296b p. 1061 & 980 ?& p. 17.

STROKE INDEX a 4% t f i rir $A q i % % 2 % % IE iiij % p.300a p.300a p.252b 77 1 p.278a p.270a p.279a p.300a p.254a p.275b p.279b p.254b .

Q sun 160 104. 47. "top of f i p. 45. 84. % yawn 191 121.__ -11. one 8 3. middle 112 106. W wind 725 122. 41. 3 streaks 819 21. 62 1 ctep 30 19. % ( k ) heaven (tender) 52 (53) 91. slow 319. 3 ( 7 ) cliild (--) 18 32. t twistp. 6 fur 293 113. (h ) silk 28. "top of -fi" p. 300 26. P (on the right of characters) city ("right 79. - 4 t heart 67 : I bed 849 i to die 68 /. 9 dusk 117 65. ( " ) small 27 ear") 136 35. "fire-dots" 34 38. ' "top of & " p. ?c march 847 -437. 300 63.337 22. JL table 645 (p.g&$q &. ti. dot61 2.k.* ) claws p. O borders 20 20. h strength 206 997 71.( I. 4 bow218 29. 7 "top of -7 . JL legs 57 30. 3. R surround 21 16. ' i breath 324 110. 44. 281. 301) 72. J . P seal 84 33. 42. 5 . " p. (n) 102. "back-turned stroke" p. fl moon 178 119. $ horse 35 characters) mound 76.. 174 78. mountain 95 crown 47 61. W say 82 105. 4 walk off 875 95.-. JL see214 108.. X right hand 85 36. '1.) divine 118 17. 300 66. ' a heart70 3932ladle-137---8-?--+peck-1009 - " . cow 260. 48. 43.301 74. coil 25 ("left ear") 76 77. f (on tile left of 75. 5i father 211 109. 3 hand 41 112. 1 down3 4. 6 club 183 120. 15 111. 9 wrap 232 27:-n-(+-) knife (--)-lo2 28. -? "lop of $ " p. 300 6. A ( A ) man (enter) 2 (152) 67. 1. f sick 531 128. -5126. f "three-dots water" 181 The Chart of Modem Radicals . k. -k woman 11 31. 87. ((( river 442 34. 1 ' knife 205 60. 301 90. fi cowrie I23 107. k fire 414 5 pattern 360 iS square 392 P door 391 i (side-) sign 480 (cp. 1 115. compare 567 124. -340. li stand 105 127. 1 . It toe 195 103. 49. H132) 88. € ( 6 ) self (--) 273. % not73 ' 1 59. k clan 224 123. K foot (lengdl) 857 118. L ! knock 384 : slice 927 114. A follo~v. JL (. 7 k water 362 _ . 300 7. 85.88 68. P corpse 329 24. ' I ' sprout 465 18.. 1~ bullet 677 23. 301 125. . 4 (side-) food 309 25. ( ) eight 98. J left 1 5.-k axe 262 --. 86. Icing 92 89. 116. 4 (side-)man 4 64. 46.*.lean-to 155 roof 127 il gate 45 i halt 171 r worlc43 L (k ) earth (knight) 86 - 83. cocoon 24 80. ' "topof?"p. 273 (338) 117.cave57- - . X "bottom of X " p. (275) 73. U bowl 464 81.

129.2jl 159. f i hemp 157 222. % I cauldron. i i : redp. 212. -% green 198 203.12223. bitter 549 187. roll. 6 beard 609 170. 2950 140. C tongue 313 178.sweet 144 136. B thornp. 213. 281 152. 301) 163. & dmgonp. k ? i small nose 515 181. and a reference to ila rrenrrneol in Reading and 1V1-iri~r!: Cllirrese. % wings 781 184. irs fomi cir ti~rnir. Z rock 664 137. 4 f ( = )bamboo 54 (55) 179. * "top of $ p.tp of p. i i : sign 807 133. t k teethp. 5 jade 62 132. deer 809 . W tiger 669 174. W head 333 171. 270 226. . "top of 5 "p. % cull 517 198. is. & bug 641 175. r? field 23 143.. e net 637 146. 282 191. . L rice 101 160. ' k food 306 . 4 ear201 164. 245-301). 4 bud 994 153. Z reach 396 + -8202. dictionary d$$+IS / Tlrc Cl~blese Enelis11Dic. 301 204. 4 gold 94 210. d words 38 186.the Stud! GU&. Numbers i l l Ruman type refer to radical5 ii~cluded in the first character proup 01' basic characters. C mortar 229 180. Pape ntlmherr in italics refer to mdic:11>i n 111s second character group (pp. f spear 840 156. 289 189. -$. ff walk434 190. R gown 109 162. /e foot 196 197. The CHART OF kIODER\ RADICALS gives rile \! \ten1 of modem radicals 11~i.11. 270 208. 6 fish 558 -9211. 4 "top of & 166. 301 131. I pig 389 195. 296 207.d In 111i. " p. E wine 363 194. R eye 120 142. a . 4 (side-) gold 94 (cp. k bundle 657 193. 3 "side of 4 " p. & 5th heavenly stem 497 139.zl. 262 169. 301 165. % ? tone 335 $ hide 369 & am.p. 271 199. 301 135. % ghost 291 217. "b. Q dove 39 209. 214.11 221. R mouse p. % 1029 177. 9 stretch812 145.5c . & skin 662 154. I (side-) gown 910 (cp. & wheatp. dish 921 147. L ( E )stubborn 31 -I- 216. z?? go 432 134. d flask453 192.gain65 150. valley 373 200. * ( ) also @.. R snakep. 3E inferiorp.10218. b early 756 188. 268 220. I h melonp. & from 799 144. 3k business 623 141. fi horn904 + -6157. & tall75 219. The chart gives the nomher of each radical. 8 torso 185 201. 262 168. fi back 632 155. are 246 ' i ? hone 511 scent 1044 . " 1721 5% light 748 173. 215. iE bolt W a. Ei ( S ) cover (west) 122 (130) 167. 5 village 106 196. . 3i drum p. . -ib wrong 654 206. E bureaucrat 491 . 1 3rain 283 205.Hl61) 130. 257 176. t toadp. 275 138. (1. X black 280 -13224.line-up I045 161. H209) 148. crockp. h blood 922 182. % hair 916 . 205 " 185. 26 1 225.rio~rif~~ discussed . f: boat415 183. ' $ big nose p. )sheep 115 (475) 158. k ! white 231 151. k mow 63 149.

In this new. undergraduateprograms in Chinese. Seventy new notes on usage appear. definition.S. one of the best-known U. as well as information that clarifies ofien-overlooked aspects of the writing system.Reading and W t i n g Chinese has been the standard tan for foreign students and self-teachers of the Chinese writing system since Tutde &st published it in 1978. and there is a chart showing how to write each character.100 new combinations of characters have been added. increasing the total vocabulary significantly. efficient. the pronounciation. completely revised edition. For each of the basic 1.95 . L i Ying was born in Beijing. She has taught at Beijing's Capital Normal University and now teaches at Hong Kong University. and derivation are given.500 items. with examples of the use of most characters.062 characters. He is the author of numerous books and journal arricles on Chinese literature and language. William Maaughton began the research that led to Reading and Wn'ting Chinese when he was the founding teacher of Chinese at Oberlin College. Over 1. She has a BA from the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute and an MA from Middlebury College. enhancing students' insight into the contemporary state of the language. where he was the founding program leader of the BA (Honours) in Translation and Interpretation. Since 1986 he has taught at Hong Kong's City University. the experience of the book's use in classrooms has been drawn on to produce a more convenient. and up-to-date introduction to the Chinese writing system. Hints for memorization and cautionary cross-references to look-alike characters are provided here. to about 4. ISBN 0-8048-3206-4 US $1 8.

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