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Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. 1. First law: If an object experiences no net force, then its velocity is constant, that is, the object is either at rest (if its velocity is zero), or it moves in a straight line with constant speed (if its velocity is not zero). This law is often called "the law of inertia". 2. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., F = ma. 3. Third law: When a first body exerts a force F1 on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force F2 = −F1 on the first body. This means that F1 and F2 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Newton's law of universal gravitation
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Mathematically, the law can be stated as,
where: F is the force between the masses, G is the gravitational constant, m1 is the first mass, m2 is the second mass, and r is the distance between the centers of the masses.
Rotational Form of Newton's Laws
Newton Rotational I: If the net torque acting on a rigid object is zero, it will rotate with a constant angular velocity. Newton Rotational II: This is not as general a relationship as the linear one because the moment of inertia, I, is not strictly a scalar quantity. The rotational equation is limited to rotation about a single principal axis, which in simple cases is an axis of symmetry. τ = I α, where τ is the torque, I is the inertia and α is the rotational acceleration. (A result of Newton's 2nd law of linear motion.)
Newton Rotational III: For every applied torque, there is an equal and opposite reaction torque. (A result of Newton's 3rd law of linear motion.)
Law of Falling Bodies
The law of falling bodies states that: 1. A falling body in a vacuum accelerates at the rate of 32 feet, per second (9.8 m/s) during each second that it falls. This acceleration is called the acceleration of gravity, which is expressed mathematically as g. (In air, the body accelerates until it reaches its terminal velocity which is a constant velocity at which air resistance equals the force of gravity.) 2. The velocity (v) of a falling body that falls from rest is found by multiplying g by the time (t) during which a body falls: v = gt 3. The total distance (s) a body falls is equal to half of the acceleration of gravity multiplied by the square of the time: S=gt2/2
Kepler's three Laws of Planetary Motion
1. The Law of Orbits: All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus. 2. The Law of Areas: A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. 3. The Law of Periods: The square of the period, T2, of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis, R3, of its orbit.
Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the load applied to it. Many materials obey this law as long as the load does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Mathematically, Hooke's law states that F=-kx, where: x is the displacement of the spring's end from its equilibrium position (a distance, in SI units: metres); F is the restoring force exerted by the spring on that end (in SI units: N or kg·m/s2); and k is a constant called the rate or spring constant (in SI units: N/m or kg/s2).
If the particles are falling in the viscous fluid by their own weight due to gravity, then a terminal velocity, also known as the settling velocity, is reached when this frictional force combined with the buoyant force exactly balance the gravitational force. According to this law the resulting settling velocity (or terminal velocity) is given by:
where: vs is the particles' settling velocity (m/s) (vertically downwards if ρp > ρf, upwards if ρp < ρf ), g is the gravitational acceleration (m/s2), ρp is the mass density of the particles (kg/m3), and ρf is the mass density of the fluid (kg/m3).
Laws of thermodynamics
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances. 1. Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature. That is, if system A and system B are individually in thermal equilibrium with system C, then system A is in thermal equilibrium with system B. 2. First Law of Thermodynamics: Heat and work are forms of energy transfer. Energy is invariably conserved but the internal energy of a closed system changes as heat and work are transferred in or out of it. The first law of thermodynamics may be stated thus: Increase in internal energy of a body, U = heat supplied to the body, Q - work done by the body, W. 3. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: This law states that in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. This is also commonly referred to as entropy. 4. Third law of thermodynamics: The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches zero. The entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically zero, and in all cases is determined only by the number of different ground states it has. Specifically, the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero temperature is zero.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves. 1. The law of conservation of energy: This states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. However, energy can change forms, and energy can flow from one place to another. The total energy of an isolated system remains the same. 2. The law of conservation of momentum: This states that the total linear momentum in any isolated system is constant, provided that no external force is applied and regardless of other possible changes within the system. 3. The law of conservation of angular momentum: It states that when no external torque acts on an object or a closed system of objects, no change of angular momentum can occur. Hence, the angular momentum before an event involving only internal torques or no torques is equal to the angular momentum after the event. 4. The law of conservation of charge: Charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. The net quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge in the universe, is always conserved. 5. The law of conservation of electric charge: This law implies that “at any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node”, or “the algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero”. Mathematically, we can state the law as a continuity equation:
Q(t2)= Q(t1) + QIN - QOUT Where, Q(t) is the quantity of electric charge in a specific volume at time t, QIN is the amount of charge flowing into the volume between time t1 and t2, and QOUT is the amount of charge flowing out of the volume during the same time period.
The Stefan–Boltzmann law, also known as Stefan's law states that the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a black body per unit time (also known as the black-body irradiance or emissive power) is directly proportional to the fourth power of the black body's thermodynamic temperature. Mathematically, the law can be stated as P = AeT4 where P is the power radiated by the object A is the surface area of the object e is called the emissivity and its value depends on the properties of the surface is called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant T is called the black body's thermodynamic temperature
Wien's Displacement Law
The Wien's Displacement Law state that the wavelength carrying the maximum energy is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of a black body, i.e, λmax T = b where, λmax = Wavelength of maximum intensity ( meters ) T = Temperature of the blackbody ( kelvins ) b = Wien's displacement constant = 2.8977685 ± 51 × 10-3 meters·kelvins
1. Ideal gas law: An ideal gas is defined as one in which all collisions between atoms or molecules are perfectly elastic and in which there are no intermolecular attractive forces. The ideal gas law relates the variables of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas within a closed system. The ideal gas law takes the form: PV = nRT, where: P = Pressure of the confined gas in atmospheres V = Volume of the confined gas, in liters n = Number of moles of gas R = Gas Constant, 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K T = Temperature in Kelvin 2. Boyle's law: Boyle's law states that the absolute pressure and volume of a given mass of confined gas are inversely proportional, if the temperature remains unchanged within a closed system. Mathematically this is: where, P is the pressure (Pa), V the volume (m3) of an gas, and k is a constant
Because the formula is equal to a constant, it is possible to solve for a change in volume or pressure using a proportion: P1V1 = P2V2 3. Charles's law: Charles's law states that if a given quantity of gas is held at a constant pressure, its volume (V) is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (T). Mathematically this is: V= kT where k is a constant. Because the formula is equal to a constant, it is possible to solve for a change in volume or temperature using a proportion: V1/T1 = V2/T2 4. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gay-Lussac's Law or the pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas at a constant volume, the pressure (P) exerted on a container’s sides by an ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (T). P = kT where k is a constant. Because the formula is equal to a constant, it is possible to solve for a change in volume or pressure using a proportion: P1/ T1= P2/T2 5. Avogadro's law: Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle) states that, under the same condition of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules. Avogadro's law is stated mathematically as: where: V is the volume of the gas. n is the amount of substance of the gas. k is a proportionality constant.
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the conservation of charge and energy in electrical circuits. 1. Kirchhoff's current law (also called Kirchhoff's first law, Kirchhoff's point rule, or Kirchhoff's junction rule): “At any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node”, or “the sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero”. This law deals with the principle of conservation of electric charge. 2. Kirchhoff's voltage law (also called Kirchhoff's second law, Kirchhoff's loop (or mesh) rule, and Kirchhoff's second rule): “The directed sum of the electrical potential differences (voltage) around any closed network is zero”, or “the sum of the emfs in any closed loop is equivalent to the sum of the potential drops in that loop”, or “the algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total emf available in that loop”. This law deals with the principle of conservation of energy.
Ohm's Law deals with the relationship between voltage and current in an ideal conductor. This relationship states that the potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it. The constant of proportionality is called the "resistance", R. Ohm's Law is given by: V = IR
where, V is the potential difference between two points which include a resistance R. I is the current flowing through the resistance.
This law states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. For two spherically shaped charges the formula would look like:
where: F the force on each charge, + indicates repulsion, - indicates attraction k the electrostatic constant q1 the quantity of charge 1 measured in coulombs q2 the quantity of charge 2 measured in coulombs r the radius of separation from center of one charge to the center of the other.
Faraday's law of induction
Faraday's law of induction, states that the magnitude of the electromotive force (E or emf) induced in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux that cuts across the circuit.
Lenz's law is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy. Lenz's law states that an induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in magnetic flux.
The Laws of Reflection
If the reflecting surface is very smooth, the reflection of light that occurs is called specular or regular reflection. The laws of reflection are as follows: 1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflection surface at the point of the incidence lie in the same plane. 2. The angle, θi, which the incident ray makes with the normal, is equal to the angle, θr, which the reflected ray makes to the same normal. 3. The reflected ray and the incident ray are on the opposite sides of the normal.
Principle of Superposition
The principle or law states that the displacement of any point due to the superposition of wave systems is equal to the sum of the displacements of the individual waves at that point.
The Inverse Square Law of Light
The inverse-square law for light intensity states: The intensity of illumination is proportional to the inverse square of the distance from the light source. So, Intensity, I = Power/Area. Surface area of a sphere is then the intensity on a spherical surface a distance r from a source radiating a total power P is: I = 3P/4 r2.
Radioactive decay law
The rate of decay (number of disintegrations per unit time) is proportional to N, the number of radioactive nuclei in the sample. It is given by: dN/dt N The negative sign signifies that N is decreasing with time. is called the decay constant, that is the probability per unit time that a given radioactive nucleus will decay.
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