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Welcome to the A&P Test 1 Study Guide.

1. Subdivisions of A&P:
A. Anatomy: Study of the structure of body parts.
1. Gross Anatomy: Study of shit you can see.
2. Micro Anatomy: Study of shit you can’t.
3. Cytology: Study of cell anatomy.
4. Histology: Study of tissues.
5. Developmental: Study of what your parts have been doing
since birth.
6. Embrology: Study of human embryo.

B. Physiology: Study of what said body parts do.


(Chemistry, Physics, Math)

2. Positive Vs. Negative Feedback:


A. Negative Feedback: Response counters stimulus.
example: Human blood glucose regulation system. Should be clear.
B. Positive Feedback: Response enhances original stimulus.
example: Labor contractions. Pressure on cervix --> signal to
brain --> brain releases oxytocin --> oxytocin stimulates uterine
contractions --> baby out.

3. Homeostasis:
Homeostasis is the maintaining of stable internal conditions. If your body is not in
a stable state (homeostasis), you are diseased.

4. Anatomical Position:
Feet apart, palms facing forward, looking straight ahead. You must orient yourself
with the body. What you see as “the left side” is actually the right side, and vice versa.

5. 52 Regions & Abdominopelvic Cavities:


Can be found on page 6 & 10 (respectively) in your lab manual. Sorry, not typing
that shit out and the pictures I found were all way too big.

6. Forces on Anatomical Structures:


A. Compressive: Stuff gets pushed together.
B. Torque: Stuff gets twisted.
C. Tensile: Stuff gets pulled apart or, made tense.
7. Cavities:
There are two major cavities, and 6 smaller ones.
A. Dorsal Body Cavity
1. The dorsal body cavity is divided into two subcavities:
a. Cranial Cavity: It holds the brain.
b. Vertebral Cavity: It holds your spinal cord.
B. Ventral Body Cavity
1. The ventral cavity is annoying because it is also divided into two
subcavities which are then further divided.
a. Thoracic Cavity
1. Pleural cavities (lungs)
2. Mediastinum
a. Pericardial cavity (heart stuff)
b. Superior mediastinum
b. Abdominopelvic Cavity
1. Abdominal cavity: Stomach, liver, spleen.
2. Pelvic cavity: Bladder, rectum, reproductive organs.
C. Smaller Cavities:
1. Oral and Digestive: Mouth and alimentary canal.
2. Nasal: Nose and sinuses.
3. Orbital: Eye sockets.
4. Otic: Ear canal “balance and fluid”
5. Synovial: Lubricates for movement.

8. Hierarchy of Tissues:
cell --> tissue --> organ --> organ system --> organism

9. Directional Terms:
Inferior or Superior (lower or higher)
Proximal or Distal (closer or further from body, *use for limbs only)
Anterior or Posterior (closer to the front of you or closer to the back of you)
Medial or Lateral (closer to the middle or further from the middle)
Superficial or Deep (closer to the surface or deeper under the skin)

10. ORGO Molecules & Building Blocks:


Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon compounds.
There are four types of organic molecules:
Carbohydrates : Are made of a carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1
ratio.
There are 3 kinds of carbohydrates.
1. Monosaccharides - 1 carbohydrate.
2. Disaccharides - 2 monosaccharides joined together.
3. Polysaccharides - Mad long chains of simple sugars.
Lipids
There are 3 kinds of lipids.
1. Neutral Fats - 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol.
2. Phospholipids - 2 fatty acids and a phosphate.
3. Steroids - 4 hydrocarbon rings.

Proteins
There are hella proteins.
They are made up of the following things:
1. Variable group (this can change)
2. Amino Group (NH2)
3. Carboxyl Group (COOH)
4. A Central Carbon
There are 2 big types of proteins: Fibrous and Globular.
1. Fibrous: Strand-like, structural, water insoluble.
ex: collagen, keratin, elastin.
2. Globular: Compact spherical proteins, water
soluble, chemically active, functional proteins.
ex: enzymes, antibodies.

Protein Structures:
Primary: Amino acids are in a chain.

Secondary: Alpha helix (coils) or beta pleated sheet (folded


paper).

Ternary: A whole bunch of secondary structures on top of


one another.
Quarternary: 1 or more polypeptides.

Nucleic Acids
Are made up of nucleotides.
Each nucleotide contains three components:
1. Phosphate ring
2. Sugar (ring) - Pentose (5 carbon sugar)
3. Base: Adenine, Cytosine, Thiamine, Guanine
DNA & RNA are nucleic acids.

11. Carbon Characteristics:


Carbon is the shit for the following reasons:
1. Carbon can form large complex molecules.
2. Carbon is electroneutral
(it always shares electrons, and can never be an ion)
3. Carbon has 4 valance electrons in it’s outer shell
(it can bond to mad shit at once).

12. Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment:


Basically, these two dudes decided to shoot some alpha particles at a sheet of gold
foil. Most of them went through, only about 10% didn’t.
This told us that atoms are made up mostly of empty space (90%).
It also told us that nearly all of an atom’s mass is in it’s nucleus.

13. Hydrolysis vs. Dehydration Synthesis:


In the simplest terms:
Hydrolysis: You add a water molecule and it breaks it down.
Dehydration synthesis: A water molecule is taken away and a new bond
is formed.
Easy to remember: Dehydration = Loss of water
Synthesis = Something new is made.

14. Chemical Structures of ORGO Molecules:


Refer to 10 & pictures on your handwritten notes.

15. Subatomic Particles


charge mass location
protons + 1amu nucleus
electrons - oamu orbit
neutrons 0 1 amu nucleus

16. Enzyme Naming and Characteristics:


1. Enzymes act as a catalyst to speed chemical reactions.
2. Enzymes bind to a substrate (what the enzyme acts on)
3. Naming enzymes is easy. Ex: Lactase breaks down Lactose. If it’s got an -ase
at the end of it, it is an enzyme - ex: Amylase, Lactase, Whateverthefuckase.

17. ATP: Functions, Classifying, Structure:


1. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate (stored energy in phosphate bonds)
2. Structurally, ATP is an adenine-containing RNA nucleotide to which two
additional phosphate groups have been added.
3. You should have a picture, but in words it looks like this:
phosphate - phosphate - phosphate - ribose - adenine
*Note: The initial RNA nucleotide is in bold, the 2 additional phosphates are italicized.

18. Organelle Matching with Functions:


A. Cytoplasm - The fluid stuff all the organelles hang out in.
B. Mitochondria - “Power plants”. ATP Production
C. Ribosomes - “Protein Factory”. These bitches make protein.
D. Endoplasmic Reticulum - “Subway System” - Membrane channels, surface for
enzyme activity (protein shit happening here), compartmentalization
E. Golgi Apparatus - Purifies, packages & modifies proteins made by rough E.R.
F. Lysosomes - They break shit down.
G. Cytoskeleton - Support and movement of the cell.
H. Centrioles - form cilia and flagella (things that move the cell around)
I. Nucleus - Control center of cell, contains DNA & RNA
J. Nucleolus - Loops of DNA that code for ribosomal RNA, and make ribosomes.
19. Types of Energy:
A. Energy is the ability to DO WORK.
A. There are 4 types.
1. Chemical Energy - energy stored in bonds.
2. Electrical Energy - movement of charged particles.
3. Mechanical Energy - involved in moving matter.
4. Radiant Energy - electromagnetic waves.
B. Energy Classifications:
1. Potential Energy - energy of position (stored energy).
2. Kinetic Energy - energy of motion.

20. Types of Bonding:


There are four types of bonds.
1. Covalent Bonds - equal sharing of a pair of electrons. 2. Ionic
Bonds - transfer of electrons (one takes, one gives)
3. Polar Covalent Bonds - unequal sharing of electrons
4. Hydrogen Bonds - bonding between hydrogen atoms and anything else.

21. Cancer Cell Characteristics:


Cancer is uncontrolled cellular division.
Cancer cells don’t die. Cancer cells are also undifferentiated.
Sometimes it spreads, sometimes it doesn’t.

22. Phases of Mitosis:


1. Interphase: 90% of cell cycle, doubles up on organelles.
2. Prophase: Chromatin turns into chromosomes, nucleus
disappears.
3. Metaphase: Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
4. Anaphase: Identical chromosomes split in half and move to
opposite sides.
5. Telophase: Nucleus reappears, chromosomes go back to
chromatin
5a. Cytokenesis: Actual division of cytoplasm via cleavage
furrow.
23. Atomic Mass and Number Problems.
Alright, this shit does not need to be as hard as he makes it. EASY POINTS HERE.
Things to know: Atomic mass is always the bigger number, atomic number is always
the smaller number, every single fucking time so don’t get confused. If the atom has a
charge (+ or - anything at the top right) it’s the addition or loss of electrons: the number of
protons always stays the same. The atomic number gives you the number of protons. The
atomic mass minus the atomic number gives you the amount of neutrons.

How about some examples:

11

22 Na
You see this on the test; this is what you should know:
The element in question is sodium.
The atomic number is 11. Therefore, there are 11 protons.
The atomic mass is 22. Atomic mass minus atomic number = # of neutrons.
22-11 = 11. There are 11 neutrons.
There is no charge on this atom, so there are also 11 electrons.

20 +3

40 Ca
You see this on the test; this is what you should know:
The element in question is calcium.
The atomic number is 20. Therefore, there are 20 protons.
The atomic mass is 40. 40 - 20 = 20. Therefore, there are 20 neutrons.
You know electrons are negatively charged & there is a +3 charge on this atom.
THAT MEANS 3 ELECTRONS PEACED OUT. There are 17 electrons.

24. Acids, Bases and Buffer Systems:


1. Acids: Acids donate an H+ ion to a solution. If you’re being asked a question about
acids/bases and the chemical you are looking at starts with H, it is probably an acid.
ex: HCL, H2SO4. Both acids, both start with H.
a. If the pH is less than 7, it is an acid.

2. Bases: Bases accept H+ from a solution. If you’re being asked a question about
acids/bases and the chemical you are looking at ends in OH, it is a base.
ex: NaOH is a base.
b. If the pH is greater than 7, it is a base

3. Buffers: Buffer systems are systems that maintain the balance of acids and bases
within our bodies. In other words, buffer systems help us keep our pH in check.
ex: Carbonic acid / bicarbonate system that will be covered in question 33.

25. Anion & Cation Definitions.


1. Anions: Ions that have more electrons than protons, thus giving them a negative
charge. They “give” electrons.

2. Cations: Ions that have more protons than electrons, giving them a positive
charge. They are the “takers”.

26. C, O, H, N.
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen are the most abundant atoms in living
things. Burn this shit into your head, it is definitely on the test and is an easy point and a
half.
27. Matching: Osmosis, Diffusion, Filtration, Facilitated Diffusion.

1. Osmosis: Diffusion of H2O across a selectively permeable membrane.


2. Diffusion: Movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low
concentration.
3. Facilitated Diffusion: Diffusion with the help of a carrier protein.
4. Filtration: Transport that depends on hydrostatic pressure.

28. Ability of materials to get through membranes:

Stuff that can get through:


1. Small molecules (think O2, CO2)
2. Lipid-soluble molecules will go right through the membrane.
3. Charged particles and lipid insoluble particles go through special
channels
*If something is mad big it probably won’t go through.

29. Factors that influence the rate of diffusion:


1. Distance.
2. Size of concentration gradient (higher gradient = faster movement).
3. Molecule size (the smaller it is, the faster it’s going through the
membrane).
4. Temperature (warmer = faster).

30. Matching
Pinocytosis, Phagocytosis, Exocytosis, Endocytosis, Receptor-Mediated:
1. Pinocytosis: “Cell drinking” - The absorbing of liquid with dissolved
solutes.
2. Phagocytosis: Large, solid material taken into cell, engulfed by
pseudopods.
3. Exocytosis: Movement of bulk materials out of cell - go to surface via
vesicle.
4. Endocytosis: Movement of bulk materials into cell.
5. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis: Intake of specific macromolecules using
cell receptors.
31. Situation: How materials move beaker-to-something********
On the study guide, this question is cut off so I have no fucking idea what he wants. I
recommend studying the notes from lab 3, particularly objectives 3 and 4. I will update
this section as soon as Dr. D responds to my email.

32. Cell Membrane Characteristics:

The cell membrane, which is also sometimes called the plasma


membrane is (in simplest terms) a phospholipid bi-layer with a whole
bunch of little proteins floating around in it.
The lipid bi-layer consists of phospholipids (those little lolly-pop
shaped things with a
phosphate head (it’s charged and it likes water)
and a fatty acid tail (not charged, hydrophobic).

The phosphate head attracts water so it makes sense that it is on the inner
and outer surfaces of the membrane. Google “fluid mosaic model” for a good
picture.

33. Carbonic Acid/Bicarbonate System:

Easy points here. The carbonic acid / bicarbonate system can be described clearly
in this equation:
CO2 & H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ & HCO3-
Long story short: Human blood pH must remain within a range of 7.35 and 7.45. Any
more or less than that and we’re gonna have some problems. If the concentration of
hydrogen ions (H+) in our blood begins to rise (blood is becoming too acidic), it
combines with HCO3- (bicarbonate) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). This increases the
pH. Conversely, if there aren’t enough H+ ions in our blood (the blood’s pH is too high
[basic]), H2CO3 gives off some of it’s hydrogens, which increases the
concentration of H+ and lowers the pH.
THE CARBONIC ACID/BICARBONATE SYSTEM IS A
BUFFER SYSTEM.
34. Cytoskeleton Characteristics:

The cytoskeleton is literally the skeleton of a cell. It is the surface on


which all of the organelles sit. It is made of internal rods that kind of just
hang out in the cell.

There are three types of rods:


1. Microtubules - largest rods, hollow tubes, made of tubulin.
These rods are responsible for maintaining cell shape.

2. Microfilaments - smallest rods, made of actin.


These rods are responsible for the movement of the cell
membrane (endocytosis and exocytosis), muscle movement,
and intracellular mvmt.

3. Intermediate fibers - middle sized rods.


These rods resist tensile forces.

35. NA+/K+ Pump:

The Na+/K+ pump is an example of Active Transport.

Explanation: Carrier enzyme Na+/K+ ATPase is an enzyme that pumps three


sodiums into the cell and 2 potassiums out of the cell pretty much all the time.

Na+/K+ pump creates an electrochemical gradient.


This creates a difference in charge and difference in chemistry:
These changes drive other movement.

*You guys probably have better notes on this than I do because I don’t draw pictures.

AND THAT IS IT!