Presented by: DR. PROBIR KUMAR BOSE Professor, Department of Mechanical EngineeringJadavpur University, Kolkata-700032December 17, 2004 ► WHAT ARE BIOFULES? ● Renewable fuels from bio sources include-Ethanol, Biodiesel, Bio-Hydrogen, Biogases, Methanol. ►WHY BIOFULES? ●Sustainability●Pollutionthreat●Reduction of green house gas emissions ●Regional(Rural) development ● Social structure & Agriculture ● Security of supply. ►FIRST USE OF PEANUT OIL IN 1895 BY DR RUDOLF DIESEL→ ‘‘The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time .’’ 1912 (1855-1913) ■WORLD EXPERIENCE ON BIODISEL ► BIODIESEL IN EUROPE ●Biodiesel has been produced on an industrial scale in EU since 1992 largely in response to positive signals from the EU institutions. ●In 2001, it is estimated that some twenty plants produced around one million tones, mainly in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany ,Italy and Sweden. ►TOTAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN 2000 PRODUCTION (MT) FRANCE 328,000 GERMANY 246,000 ITALY 78,000 AUSTRIA 27,000 BELGIUM 20,000 TOTAL 700,600 The German biodiesel sector saw the biggest production increase of the five countries in 2000. Its growth rate was 31% with total production of 246,000 mt compared with 171,000mt in 1999. ► EU TARGETS FOR BIOFUEL BIOFULES YEAR MARKET BIODIESEL 2003 2.3 MMT BIODIESEL 2010 8.3 MMT BIODIESEL 2000 504 M$ BIODIESEL 2007 2.4 B$ ETHANOL 2003 8.3 MMT ETHANOL 2010 9.7 MMT Biodiesel growth: 25%/year, Germany/Austria-no tax, UK20% Lower tax, other countries 0-10% of diesel Tax. ► BIODIESEL PRODUCTION ►WHAT US PEOPLE PAY FOR IN A IN A GALON OF DIESEL DEC, 2002) Retail Price: $ 1.29/gallon Retail Price: Rs.26.00/L Taxes Distribution and Marketing Refining Crude oil : : : : 38% 11% 7% 45% COUNTRY


► NON-EDIBLE OIL POTENTIAL OF INDIA- NATIONAL OIL SEEDS AND VEGETABLE OIL DEVELOPMENT (NOVOD) BOARD, INDIA. OIL Neem Karanja Kusum Ratanjot Pilu Tumba Sal Mahua Mango Phulware Kokum Simarouba Jojoba Chullu Rice bran Nahar BOTANICAL NAME Azadirachta indica Pongamia pinnata Schliechera oleosa Jatrophacircus Salvadora oleoides Citrulluscollocynthis Shorea robusta Madhuca indica Mangifera indica Cheura Garcinia indica Simaruba glauca Simmondsia chineaca Prunus armeniaca Oryza sativa Mesua ferrea L. OIL POTENTIAL (TONNES) 100,000 55,000 25,000 15,000 17,000 17,000 21,000 180,000 45,000 3000 500 ----110 474,000 1 lakh quintal

► WHY BIODIESEL IMPORTANT FOR RAILWAYS? ● Indian Rail has very large available land. ● Biodiesel will help Railways to ▪Improve upon emission norms ▪ Reduce diesel cost ▪ Contribute to Environment protection. ► WHAT IS BIODIESEL? Biodiesel - is vegetable oil processed to resemble diesel fuel. Technically Biodiesel is vegetable oil methyl ester. It is produced by removing glycerol molecule from vegetable oil and by introducing methyl group to the acid part i.e. made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol. Most of the oils, edible& non-edible are suitable. Selection of feed stock based on availability, price and policy. ► IMPORTANCE OF BIODIESEL ●Environment friendly ●Clean burning ● High Cetane value ● High Lubricity ● Comparable BTU content ● Renewable fuel ● No major engine modification ● Readily mixes with diesel ● Ready to use in diesel engines ● Increase in engine life ● Biodegradable and non toxic ● Easy to handle and store ► FORIGN INVESTMENT ON PLANTATION OF BIODOESEL ● Daimler offers help for Biodiesel. ● The Maker with a German Development Bank will provide 620,000 EURO′s for two pilot projects for biodiesel in the country ● The project aims for produce biodiesel from the oil seed Jatropha Curcus. ●Two plantation of Jatropha Curcas would be set up. ● A 20 acre plot in Sub humid Orissa.● A10 acre plot in semi-arid, Gujarat. ► POTENTIAL AND CONCEPT OF BIODIESEL IN NORTH EAST INDIA Against the backdrop, prudent steps by the North East Region′ s people may make them the enviable world leaders in matters of biodiesel in the days to come. ● Bio-diesel from nahar seeds has immense scope in NE Region. This tree is known as Nageswar in Hindi. Diameter of stem at the base is just about one foot only and height about 40 feet. Nahar timber is also one of the hardest and heaviest, known as Indian Ironwood. The seeds of the tree contain about 75% of pale yellow-coloured oil which is non-ediable.It is estimated that more than a lakh quintals of nahar seeds are produced annually in the State of Assam alone .Nahar trees can be planted on the wasteland, roadside and in the forests. Also a blend of 5% of nahar seed oil with 95% of petroleum diesel works very efficiently even for a long period. ● Bio-diesel from Jatropha seeds has the same scoope.These plants can grow on poor degraded soils and are able to ensure a reasonable production, not grazed by animals and is highly pest and 2

disease resistant. Nut yield between 2 and 6 years , based on soil and rainfall conditions. Yield vary from 0,5 to 12 T/ yr. based on soil and rainfall conditions. Production of about 5 tones per hectares can be expected under optimum conditions. Seed contains 55-60% of oil. 0.75 to 2 tones of biodiesel could be expected per hectare per year from the 5th year onwards. ►RESEARCH WORK CARRIED OUT IN NORTH EAST Prof. Konwer with Prof. Baruah developed a process of conversion of nahar seed oil to petroleum like crude oil in AAU, Jorhat. Oil extracted from the seeds of the plant was by form to be similar to mineral crude oil. ►CURRENT LABORATORY FLOW SHEET MeOH+ NaOH→ FEED TANK→ REACTOR→ SETTLING TANK→ BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL, UNREACTED Na OH, Me OH



OIL Me OH KOH ↓ ↓____________________↓ ↓____________ ____________↓ ↓ ↓ TRANSESTRIFICATION ↓ ← STANDING SEPERATION → ↓ ↓ UPPER LOWER ↓ ↓ Evaporation of Me OH Evaporation of Me OH ↓ ↓ Washing Glycerine ↓ Biodiesel


BASIC CHEMICAL REACTION AND PRODUCTION CH2COOR′ │ CHCOOR′ 3ROH │ CH2COOR′ 60 Kg Oil 6.78Kg Alcohol CH2OH Catalyst │ ────→ CHOH │ CH2OH 0.60Kg Na OH 6.5Kg Glycerin RCOOR′ │ RCOOR′ │ RCOOR′ 58 Kg Biodiesel

► STANDARD FOR BIODIESEL FUEL PROPERTIES Flash point Density at 15°C Water and Sediment Carbon Residue Sulfated Ash Viscosity at 40°C Kinematic Viscosity @ 40°C Sulfer Cetane Cloud Point UNIT °C Kg/m3 DIN 51606 SPECIFICATION 100 min. 0.875-0.890g Cm¯3 at 20°C 0.30 max. 3.5-5.0 0.01max. 49 min. US ASTM SPRCIFICATION 100 min. 0.860-0.890

Vol.% Wt. % Wt.% cSt. m 2 /sec Wt.% °C

0.050 max. 0.05 max 0.02 max. 1.9-6.5 (3.5-5.0)* 10¯6 0.05 max 40 min. 3°C 4

Copper Point Total Acid Number Free Glycerine Total Glycerin Cold Filter Plugging point

Mg KOH/g Wt.% Wt. % °C

1 max. 0.50max. 0.02 max. 0.25 max. -

3B max. 0.80 max 0.02 max. 0.24 max. Summer max. 0 Winter max. <−15

► SOME IMPORTANT PARAMETERS OF RAW AND TRANSESTRIFIED JATROPHA OIL PARAMETER JATROPHA OIL JATROPHA OIL E DIN 51606 TRANSESTRIFIED STANDARD DENSITY (g cm¯3 at 20°C) 0.920 0.879 0.875-0.890 Flash Point (°C) 236 236 >110 Cetane No. (ISO 5165). Viscosity mm2 at 30°C Neutralization number Total glycerin(%) Free glycerin (%) Phosphorus (ppm) Sulphated Ash (%) Methanol (%) 23-41 52 0.92 290 (17 in degummed oil) 51 4.84 0.24 0.088 0.015 17.5 0.014 0.06 >49 3.5-5 (40°C) <0.50 0.250 0.02 <10 <0.03 <0.3

► BIODIESEL-WHY LOWER EMISSIONS? ● Biodiesel has high cetane ● In built Oxygen content ● Burns fully ● Has no sulphur ● No Aromatics ● Complete CO2 cycle ► EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS B20 emissions reductions compared to petroleum diesel Carbon monoxide Unburned hydrocarbons Particulate matter Sulphates NPAH Mutagenicity ► 20% 30% 22% 20% 50% 20%

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS (Emissions by combustion engine -100B) EMISSION CO HC PM SOOT PAH CO2 NOx S REDUCTION (%) 67 30 68 50 85 100 +/-2--6 80-100

►PETRO- DIESEL CO2 CYCLE (13 pounds of fossil CO2 released per gallon burned) ► BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE ( No fossil co2 released ; No global warming ) 5

BUS POWERED ALTERNATIVE FUELS ● WIDE ACCEPTANCE ▪ By diesel vehicle industry - Audi, BMW, Case, Claas, Deutz, Iseki, John Deere, Kubota, Massey-Ferguson, Nissan, Puegot, Renault, Same, Seat, Skoda, Steyr, Valmet, Volkswagen, Volvo ▪ By the fuel trade; e.g. ELF, Texaco, Shell, Total ▪ By the end user- bus companies, taxi fleets, forestry enterprises, railroad, boat owners ▪ A total of 128 production sites(capacity 500-120,000tons/annum)

● LUBRICITY- MAJOR BENEFIT ▪ Long term engine wear extensively studied in Europe & US ▪ EXXON STUDY→B20 provide significant, quantifiable improvement in wear film forming ability- 93%Film (B20);32%Film (Diesel) ▪ EPA rule (Jan. 2001) to bring down sulfur content in diesel from 500 ppm to 15 ppm by 2006 ▪ Lubricity test have shown that up to 2% of biodiesel is enough to make any distillate fuel fully lubricious. ● FUEL CONSUMPTION ▪ Biodiesel contains ~ 10% oxygen ▪ Brake-specific fuel consumption figures: Petro diesel 0.43 lb/HP-hr B20 0.44 lb/HP-hr B100 0.50 lb/HP-hr ►BIODIESEL IS REALITY NOW ▪ Large number of surveys done ▪Variety of feed stocks tested ▪ Transestrificatiion developed on commercial scale ▪Biodiesel specs. By ASTM & others ▪ About 40 million mile testing ▪ Approved by auto OEM′s ▪ Tax structure in place in several countries ▪ Future projections firmed up ▪ Legalisations in place in many countries ▪ INDIA HAS TROPICAL ADVANTAGE ▪ ENORMOUS WASTE LANDS & CHEEP FARM LABOUR ▪ BIODIESEL CAN BE SUCCESS STORY ► US RAIL ROAD BIOSIESEL ▪ Sierra Railroad in California, oldest company ▪ First to use biodiesel as fuel ▪ 1500 locos to be converted ▪ Ned 30 million gallon of biofuels/year ▪ 3.5 lac acres of land farm ▪3000 additional jobs ▪ Shall meet EPA norms for 2006

►RAIL ROAD TEST PROGRAM ON BIODIESEL (1999) ▪4000 HP (2984KW) gas turbine powered passenger locomotive ▪ Several biofuels tested ( REE, SME etc.) ▪ Turbine maintenance cost compared ▪ Energy content, compatibilities, emission, cost compared to diesel ▪ Emission data studies ▪Cost / Km/Unit energy (power) calculated ▪ Biodiesel holds future in railroad applications ▪ Remarkable reduction in emission ►BIODIESEL AND ECONOMY ▪ An increase of $1 per barrel of crude oil prices adds $425 million to our oil import bill ▪ Oil import constitutes a major part of our trade deficit and has an enormous impact on our economy and creation of new jobs ▪ The US dept of Enegy estimates that each $billion of trade deficit costs the US 27,000 jobs ▪ Developing a strong market for biodiesel would have tremendous economic benefits ▪ Investment in biodiesel technology may ensure that we have transportation fuel options and we will not be so vulnerable 6


▪ Annual growth rate ~6% compared to world average of 2% ▪ Oil pool deficit & subsidies Rs 16,000 crores , Rs 18,440 crores ( 1996-1997) ▪ Current per capita usage of petroleum is absymmaly low (0.1 ton /year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in Malaysia ▪ Even Malaysia’s figure would be beyond our paying capacity ▪ Our domestic production would meet only 33% of demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-11 ▪ INVESTMENT IN BIOFULES MAKE STONG ECONOMIC SENESE ► CAN BIODIESEL WORK IN INDIA ? ▪ India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 16% of the human population and 17% of the cattle population ▪ India is one of the largest importers of edible oil ▪ Where do we find the oil for biodiesel ? ▪ A sustainable source of vegetable oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel ► JATROPHA / NAHAR MAY BE THE ANSWER ? ● According to the Economic Survey (1995-96), Govt. of India, of the cultivable land area about 100-150 million hectares are classified as waste or degraded land ● Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Ratanjyot,wild caster) thrives on any type of soil ▪Needs minimum inputs or management ▪ has no insect, pests& not browsed by cattle or sheep ▪ Can survive long periods of drought ▪ Propagation is easy ▪ Yield from the 3rd year onwards and continues for 25-30 years ▪ 25% oil frpm Seeds by expelling; 30% by solvent extraction ▪ The meal after extraction an Excellent organic manure (38% protein, N:P:K ratio -2.7:1.2:1) ► JATRPPHA PLANTATION ( Study by Agro-Forestry Federation – Maharastra,1991) ● Jatropha is a hardy plant.● Well adopted to arid, semi arid conditions. ● Low fertility and moisture demand. ● Grow on stony, shallow or even calcareous soil. ● Propagated through seed or cutting. ● Tolerate to scanty to heavy rainfall. ►JATROPHA PLANTATION ● 5-6 Kg seeds / hectare≈ 2500 plants / hectare ● EXPECTED YIELDS Year after planting Expected yield per ha. Kg. (rain fed crop) 1st --2nd 250 3rd 1000 4th 2000 th 5 3000 6th & onwards 4000

Expected yield per ha. Kg. (irrigated crop) 250 1000 2500 5000 8000 12000

►ECONOMIC SURVEY ON BIO-DIESEL (According to an economic survey conducted by Govt. of India) ▪The cultivable land area of about 175 million hectares has been classified as waste or degraded land, which is suitable for cultivation of some of the plants like Jatropha curcas etc. ▪ If 100 million hectares of this waste land is brought under cultivation, 150 million tons of seeds can be produced yielding up to 37.5 million tons of oil which is almost an equivalent amount of the diesel being consumed in the country at present. ▪Even if one person is employed per hectare of land, 100 million additional jobs will be created for cultivation alone and in addition ,there will be jobs in the 2000 extraction units of 250 tons capacity, for crushing the seeds. 7

►EFFECT ON RURAL ECONOMY ●Seed price -Rs. 4/Kg. ● Seed yield 3000Kg / hectare ● 5 hectare plantation /family ● Rs 60,000. / year income. ● Additionally: ▪Waste lands converted to productive national assets.▪ Creation of jobs in downstream processing. ▪ Gainful employment in rural sector. ▪ Contribution to national energy pool ►INDIAN INITIATIVE ON BIODIESEL ● Indian Govt. has taken a serious note of Biodiesel ● Planning Commission has set up commitees on; ▪ Product development ▪ Engine studies ▪ Legal regulations ▪ Plantations ▪ Specifications ▪ Marketing ▪ Environmental issues