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1.

What is the source of the oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis?
A.

Chlorophyll

B.

Carbon dioxide only

C.

Water only

D.

Both water and carbon dioxide


(Total 1 mark)

2.

The diagram below summarizes the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis. What is


occurring at X?

Electrons
X
Electrons
Light
Photosystem I
Light

Photosystem II

A.

ADP + phosphate ATP

B.

NADP+NADPH + H+

C.

H2O O2 + 2H+

D.

NADPH + H+ NADP+
(Total 1 mark)

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3.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw a labelled diagram showing the structure of a plasma membrane.


(4)

(b)

Outline the role of chlorophyll and the effects of temperature, light intensity and carbon
dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.
(6)

(c)

Explain the production of energy during aerobic respiration from pyruvate that has been
produced by glycolysis.
(8)
(Total 20 marks)

4.

(a)

State the property of stem cells that makes them useful in medical treatment.
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(1)

(b)

Explain how multicellular organisms develop specialized tissues.


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(2)

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(c)

Outline some of the outcomes of the sequencing of the human genome.


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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

5.

What conclusion can be drawn from examining the action spectrum for a green plant shown
below?

A.

Yellow light is the most effective at promoting photosynthesis.

B.

Every colour of light is equally effective at promoting photosynthesis.

C.

Light of wavelength 550 nm is least effective at promoting photosynthesis.

D.

Light in the green range is the most effective at promoting photosynthesis.


(Total 1 mark)

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6.

The graph below shows the results of an experiment to determine the effect of salt (NaCl)
concentration on photosynthesis of the freshwater green alga Chlorella vulgaris. The
experiment attempted to determine the effect of salt concentration on the light-dependent
reactions overall and separately on photosystem I and photosystem II.

[Source: M M El-Sheekh, Inhibition of the water splitting system by sodium chloride stress in the green alga
Chlorella vulgaris, Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, Volume 16, Issue 1, Figure 1, (2004)]

(a)

Describe the effect of salt concentration on the activity of the light-dependent reactions
overall.
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(1)

(b)

Compare the effect of increasing salt concentration on photosystem I with the effect on
photosystem II.
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(1)

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(c)

When salt concentration is increased, some algal cells increase their rates of cyclic
photophosphorylation. Deduce the reasons for this.
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(2)

(d)

Using the graph, predict the effect of high salt concentration on the growth of Chlorella
vulgaris. Give a reason for your answer.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

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7.

The rate of photosynthesis in the marine seagrass, Zostera marina, was investigated under a
range of pH conditions. After a period of darkness, the plants were illuminated at a constant
light intensity at 15C and the rate of photosynthesis was measured. Zostera marina can use
both dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen carbonate ions for photosynthesis. The rate
of photosynthesis is plotted on the y-axis on the left. In addition, the concentration of carbon
dioxide was measured for each pH investigated and is plotted on the y-axis on the right.

[Source: Plant physiology by AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGISTS. Copyright 2008 Reproduced
with permission of AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT BIOLOGISTS in the format CD ROM via Copyright
Clearance Center.]

(a)

State the carbon dioxide concentration at pH 7.2.


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(1)

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(b)

Calculate the percentage decrease in the rate of photosynthesis from pH 7 to pH 7.5.


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(1)

(c)

Outline the relationship between pH and the rate of photosynthesis.


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(2)

(d)

Suggest how Zostera marina can perform photosynthesis even at very low carbon
dioxide concentrations.
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(1)

(e)

Based on the information and data provided, discuss the role of one limiting factor, other
than carbon dioxide, and suggest how this would affect the rate of photosynthesis.
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

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8.

What is the first identifiable product of carbon dioxide fixation in photosynthesis?


A.

Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)

B.

Glycerate3-phosphate (GP)

C.

Triose phosphate (TP)

D.

Acetyl CoA
(Total 1 mark)

9.

What happens in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?


A.

Splitting of water molecules

B.

ATP synthesis

C.

Reduction of NADP

D.

Reduction of CO2
(Total 1 mark)

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10.

The effect of temperature on photosynthesis was studied in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using
leaf discs. The production of oxygen was used to measure the rate of photosynthesis.
Gross photosynthesis refers to the sum of net photosynthesis and respiration. Net
photosynthesis was calculated by subtracting the rate of respiration in the dark from gross
photosynthesis.

[Source: Adapted from R Ribeiro et al. 2006. Cincia e Agrotecnologia. Vol 30. Pp 670678.]

(a)

Identify the optimum temperature for photosynthesis in this plant.


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(1)

(b)

Determine the difference between gross photosynthesis and net photosynthesis at 40C
and 50C.
40C: ..........................................................................................................................
50C: ..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Deduce what happens to the rate of respiration as the temperature increases between
40C and 50C.
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(1)

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(d)

(i)

Describe the general pattern of change in photosynthesis in sweet orange as the


temperature increases.
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(1)

(ii)

Compare the effect of temperature on photosynthesis with the effect of


temperature on respiration in sweet orange.
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

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11.

Which graph best represents the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis of a plant?

(Total 1 mark)

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12.

Which of the following graphs represents the effect of changing light intensity on the rate of
oxygen production by a green plant?

(Total 1 mark)

13.

What is produced by the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and used in the Calvin
cycle?
A.

Hydrogen and oxygen

B.

ATP and NADPH

C.

NADPH and oxygen

D.

ATP and CO2


(Total 1 mark)

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14.

Global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are rising. A study was carried out to test if the
temperature dependence of photosynthesis was altered by elevated atmospheric CO2.
Maize plants were grown in natural sunlight in controlled environmental chambers at different
temperatures using current atmospheric and doubled CO2 levels.
The graph below shows daily patterns of CO2 exchange at three different temperatures.
Open shapes (, , ) represent current atmospheric CO2 levels and closed shapes (, , )
represent elevated CO2 levels.

[Reprinted from: Kim, S H et al. 2007. Temperature dependence of growth, development, and photosynthesis in
maize under elevated CO2. Environmental and Experimental Botany. Vol 61. Pp 224236.]

(a)

(i)

State the time at which carbon dioxide exchange rate is maximal.


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(1)

(ii)

Explain the reasons for maximum carbon dioxide exchange rate at this time.
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(2)

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(b)

State the temperature that resulted in the highest rate of photosynthesis under current
atmospheric conditions.
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(1)

(c)

Using the data in the graph, discuss whether rising carbon dioxide levels in the
atmosphere will increase growth rates in maize.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

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15.

Where are the light-dependent and light-independent reactions taking place in the diagram
below?

Light-dependent

Light-independent

A.

IV

B.

II

III

C.

III

II

D.

IV

I
(Total 1 mark)

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