technique for
the fast subsystem, taking account of the model
uncertainty and outside disturbance. The simulation
resultsshowthecompositecontrolcaneffectivelyachieve
fastandaccuratetrackingcontrol.
Inthisstudy,theAMMbasedsubstructuretechniqueand
the Lagrange principle are applied to formulate the
dynamic modelling of a 2DOF flexiblelink parallel
manipulator towards the end of achieving realtime
control; then, an SPT form offlexible dynamic modelling
isdevelopedtodividethenonlineardynamicsysteminto
two subsystems for the design of a reducedorder
controller. Subsequently, the SPT is proposed to
transform the nonlinear DAE constraints into explicit
ODEs for the flexible parallel manipulator, in order to
reduce computation cost. In order to obtain accurate
trajectory tracking performance, novel composite control
concepts are developed for the two respective
subsystems; the slow subsystem controller is designed
usingthewellknowncomputedtorquecontroltechnique
for rigid motion control, while the fast subsystem
controller is designed using the H
2.Flexibledynamicmodelling
2.1Structuredescription
The structure shown in Figure 1 has two degrees of
freedom, and is an example of the PRR (Prismatic
Revolute Revolute) type parallel mechanism. Two
lineardirectdrivingmotors,representedas
i
A ,canmove
along the guide rails, which are the actuated joints with
coordinates { }
i
y with respect to fixed coordinate OXY .
This manipulator can realize highspeed positioning and
manipulating in the predefined region of the XY plane.
{ }
i
w and { }
i
u represent the flexural and axial
displacementoftheflexiblelinkiwithrespecttofloating
coordinate
i i i
A X Y ,respectively; ' C C
represents the
deflection of the end effector, and { }
i
represents the
passive joint angle of link i with respect to the fixed
coordinate. It is assumed that
i
m represents the lump
mass of the driving part and
0
m the end effectors
payload.
1
2
A
F
B
F
2
u
1
w
2
w
1
y
2
y
1 1
( ) A m
2 2
( ) A m
X
Y
O
1
l
2
l
1
u
2
u
0
( ) C m
' C
1
u
(1) Payload;(2)flexiblelink;(3)and(4)linemotors
Figure1.Twodegreesoffreedomparallelmanipulator
2.2Dynamicmodellingofclosedchainflexiblemechanism
For an open chain mechanism, the flexible link dynamic
modelling of the serial manipulators can be written as
follows[11]:
1
2
f ( ) 0
M( ) + + =
f ( ) K 0
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
y y, y, q, q
y, q q
q y, y, q, q
(1)
0
M ( ) + + 0 = 0 +A
K 0
f( )=0
' ( ' ( ( (
(
( ( (
' '
(
( ( (
`
(
( ( (
)
1
2
2
y
f
y , q f q
q f
y, , q
(2)
where
istheconstrainedforceand ( ) 0 = f y, , q is
theconstraintfunctions.
1
F
2
F
1
y
2
y
1
O 2
O
2
A
1
Y
1
X
2
X
2
Y
1 l
2
l
1
A
1
u
2
u
Figure2.Freesystemoftheparallelmanipulator
i i i i
i i i i i
(x+u )cos w sin
=
y +(x+u )sin +w cos
(
(
i
r , i=1,2 (3)
where w
i
and u
i
are the bending displacement and the
axialdisplacement, respectively. Then,the kineticenergy
ofthesystemcanbeobtainedas:
}
li
2 n
T T T
i i i i i0 i0 0 1m 1m
i=1 i=1
0
1 1 1
T= dx+ m + m
2 2 2
r r r r r r (4)
whereadotdenotesthederivativeinrelationtotime;
i
,
i
m ,
0
m are the linear density of the two flexible link, the
lump mass of the two driving ends, and mass of the
payload,respectively.Velocityvector
i
r isexpressedas:
i i i i i i i i i
i
i i i i i i i i i i
(u cos w sin )((x+u )sin +w cos )
=
(y +u sin +w cos )+((x+u )cos w sin )
(
(
(
r
(5)
Importantly,
0
 x=0
i i
= r r ,
1

1m 1
x=l = r r .Itcanbeseenfrom
theaboveequationthatnotonlytheaxialdisplacement
i
u ,
but also the axial displacement velocity
i
u is taken into
accountinthedynamicmodelling.
Thepotentialenergyofthesystemcanbeexpressedas:
2
2 l l 2 2 2
i i
2
i=1 i=1
0 0
1 w 1 u
V= EI dx+ EA dx
2 x 2 x
  c c  
 
c c
\ .
\ .
} }
(6)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
i ij i ij
j=1
i i i i
w = x q t i=1,2
u = x t i=1,2
(7)
 

\ .
`
)
j
ij i
i
j
i
i i
i
x
(x )= i=1,2,j=1,2
L
x
(x )= i=1
L
(8)
Forsimplicity,define  
11 12 21 22 1 2
q q q q
T
= q .
Hence,theequationsofmotionforthetwoDOFflexible
manipulatorsareobtainedbyusingthefollowinggeneral
Lagrangeapproach:
T
d T (TV)
( ) =F+A
dt
c c
c c
X X
(9)
where
T
=[ ] X y, , q is the generalized coordinate vector, F
is the generalized force vector, and
T
A is the
generalizedconstraintforcevector.
)
(10)
canbeobtained:
2 2
2 2
y yy
1
y yy
y+ y + + =0
= ( y+ y + )
(11)
where
y
and
representpartialderivativesof y and ,
and
yy
and
1m 1 1 1m 1
2m 2 2 2m 2
1m 1 1 1m 1
2m 2 2m 2 2
u sin( + )+w cos
=u sin( + )+w cos
u cos( + )w sin
=w sin u cos( + )
)
(12)
where
i
im i x=l
u =u ,
i
im i x=l
w =w ,
i
i
i
x=l
w
=
x
c
c
aretheaxial
displacement,flexuraldisplacementandflexuralanglein
payloadposition,respectively.
Because
im
u ,
im
w and
i
are all small variables
comparedtorigidmotion,fromtheTaylorserialequation
wecanobtain:
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
sin( + ) sin + cos
cos( + ) cos sin
~
`
~
)
(13)
  
31 31 u c
B B =0 q q (14)
where
1 1 2 2
31
1 1 2 2
cos cos cos cos
B =
sin sin sin sin
(
(
,
1 2
32
1 2
sin sin
B =
cos cos
(
(
,  
T
u 1 2 3 4
= q q q q q
 
T
c 5 6
= q q q
ThroughEquation(14),theaxialmodes
c
q canbeexpressed
bytheflexuralmodes
u
q ,whereby q canberewrittenas
u
=B q q (15)
where
1
32 31
I
B=
B B
(
(
Substitute Equations (5), (6), (7), and (8) into Equation (9).
Theequationsofmotionofthesystemcanbeobtainedthus:
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
1
2
T
3
3
m m m
m m m + +
m m m
B 0
0 = 0 + B
K 0
B
B q=0
(y,)=0
(
( (
(
( (
(
( (
(
( (
(
( (
`
(
( (
(
( (
(
( (
)
1
2
3
1
1
2
y
f (y, y, q, q)
f (y, y, q, q)
q f (y, y, q, q)
q
(16)
11 12 13
21 22 23
T T T
31 32 33
1 1
2 2
T T
3
m m m
m m m +
B m B B m B B m B
f ( B B ) B 0
f ( B B ) + 0 = 0 + B
0 0 B KB B f ( B B )
(y,)=0
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
( ( ( (
`
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
)
u
u u 1
u u u 1
u u
y
q
y, y, q , q
y, y, q , q q
y, y, q , q
(17)
FromEquation(17),Lagrangemultipliervector
1
canbe
expressedthus:
1
2 21 22 23
=B (m +m +m + )
1 u 2
y q f
(18)
BasedonEquation(18),thedynamicmodellingofEq.(17)
canbereducedto:
11 12
21 22
T
M M
+ +
M M
0
=
0 B KB
' ( ( (
( ( (
'
`
( (
( (
)
1 u u
u 2 u u
y f (y, y, q , q )
q f (y, y, q , q )
q
(19)
where
1 1 1 T
11 11 1 2 21 12 1 2 22 1 2
M =m B B m (m B B m )(B B )
1
12 13 1 2 23
M =m B B m
T T 1 T
21 31 32 1 2
M =B m BB m B(B B )
T
22 33
M =B m B
( )( )
( )
T
1 1 1
1 2 12 1 2 22 2 2
T
T T 1
2
32 2 2
B B m B B m B B
=
B B m B B B
(
'
(
(
(
(
'
(
1 2
1
3
f f
f
f
f
,directintegrationmay
cause error accumulation. The SPTbased technique will
beintroducedinSection3.
2.3Singularperturbationdynamicmodel
When the flexure modes of each link introduce
independent variables and the degrees of freedom of
flexible manipulators are more than the driving forces,
the obvious difficulty is that the inverse dynamic and
control of the flexible manipulators is quite complex. To
solve this problem effectively, the singular perturbation
technique has been successfully used in flexible link or
flexible joint serial manipulators, dividing the dynamic
system into several subsystems in different time scales.
Based on previous work [13], this method will be
extendedtoparallelmanipulators.
11 12
21 22
0 H H
=
H H 0 K
'   ( ( ( ( (

( ( ( ( (

'
\ .
1 u u
u
u 2 u u
y f (y, y, Bq , Bq )
q
q f (y, y, Bq , Bq )
(20)
where
T
K =B KB
Toobtainsingularperturbationequations,aperturbation
parameter should be introduced first. Usually the
stiffness parameter
K is comparatively large. Defining
the minimum stiffness
c
k =min(K ) as the scale factor, the
stiffness parameters can be scaled by the scale factor;
substituting
c
K=K /k
,
c
=1/K and
u
=q into Equation
(20)gives:
11 11
12 12
21 21
22 22
=H H
H H K
=H H
H H K
1
2
1
2
y f (y, y, , )
f (y, y, , )
f (y, y, , )
f (y, y, , )
(21)
1 2 1 3 4 3
x =y,x =x ,x =,x =x (22)
11 11
12 12
21 21
22 22
=
=H H
H H K
=
=H H
H H K
1 2
2 1
2
3 4
4 1
2
x x
x f (y, y, , )
f (y, y, , )
x x
x f (y, y, , )
f (y, y, , )
(23)
Assuming K , issettozero,theslowsubsystem
canbeobtained:
22
1 1
21 21 22
( K H H H H
=
22
11 11 12
1
12 21 21 22
1
11 12 22 21
1
11
H H H
H H (H H H )
=(H H H H )( )
=M ( )
s 1 2
s 1 2
s 1 2
s 1
s 1
f f
y f f
f f
f
f
(24)
Thefasttimescalecanbeobtainedby
f
t =t/ , =
f1
x and
=
f2
x
21 21
22 22
=
d
=H H
dt
H H K
)
f1
f2
f2
f 1 1 2
2 1 2 f1
dx
x
dt
x
f (x , x , 0, 0)
f (x , x , 0, 0) x
(25)
f f
=A +B
f f f
x x (26)
where
T
=[ ]
f f1 f2
x x x
(
(
f
22
0 E
A =
H K 0
,  
T
f 21
B = 0 H
3.SingularPerturbationBasedKinematic
ConstraintsEquationTransformation
FromEquations(10),(24)and(26),thestatefunctionof
flexibleparallelmanipulatorscanbewrittenas:
=
=
0=
1 s
f 2 f f
y g (y, , )
x g (x , , )
(y, )
(27)
These are a form of nonlinear algebraic differential
equations, which are timeconsuming for realtime
control if a conventional NewtonRaphson numerical
interactive technique is applied. In [14], the author
successfully employed SPT in the rigid parallel
5 Chen Zhengsheng, Kong Minxiu, Liu Ming and You Wei: Dynamic Modelling
and Trajectory Tracking of Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Link
www.intechopen.com
manipulator, and the result showed high accuracy and
robustness to the initial value. Based on previous work,
the SPTbased flexible parallel manipulator will be
analysed. According to the reasoning of [5], an auxiliary
variablewiswrittenas:
w= (y,) (28)

1
1
w w
= (29)
where
1
isasmallpreselectedsmallpositivenumber.

= =
=
)
y
1
1
y
1
1
w y+ w
1
( w y)
(30)
4.Compositecontroldesign
Figure3presentsthestructureofthecompositecontroller
based on twotime scale of the parallel manipulator with
the two flexible links given in Equations (24) and (26).
Following the composite control strategy, the composite
controltorque canbedeterminedasin[14]:
= +
s f
(31)
where
s
is the slow subsystem control torque and
f
is
thefastsubsystemcontroltorque.
11 p v
=M [ +K ( )+K ( )]+
s d d d 1
y y y y y f (y, y, 0, 0)
(32)
where
p
K and
v
K are diagonal position and velocity gain
matrices of the slow subsystem control, respectively, and
d
y representsthedesiredtrajectoriesofthetwolinks.
SubstituteEquation(32)intoEquation(24),andweobtain:
v p
+K +K =0 e e e (33)
where =
d
e y y
Byselectingappropriate
p
K and
v
K ,therigidmotionof
thesystemcanbeexponentiallystable.
d
y
,
d d
y y
+
s
t +
f
t
t
, y y
, y y
, q q
Figure3.Compositecontrolscheme
based
controllerwillbedesignedforthefastsubsystem.
strategy. Defining
thestrainrateY oftheflexiblelinkas:
2 2
2 2
T
1 2
1 2
w w
Y
x x
( c c
=
(
c c
(34)
SubstitutingEquation(7)intoEquation(34),wecanobtain:
=C
f
Y x (35)
( ) ( )
1
2
22 21
G s =C s IH K H
(36)
Definingtransferfunctionofthelimittorquemodestobe
( )
0
G s ,then:
( ) ( ) ( )
m 0
G s = I+ G s (37)
( ) ( )  ) 0,
m 2
j < W j ( e
(38)
where denotesthemaximumsingularvalue.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
2
W s S s
1
W s T s
(
< (
(
(39)
where ( )
1
W s , ( )
2
W s , ( ) S s and ( ) T s are the low pass
filter, high pass filter, transfer function between
disturbance and output, and transfer function between
disturbanceandcontrolinput,respectively.
Equation(39)canbeappliedtothestandard H
problem,
andthecontroller ( ) K s canthenbeobtained[15].
5.SimulationsandDiscussions
d 0
d 0
3 2
3 2
X =X +Rsin( )
Y =
4t +6t
4t +6t Y +Rcos( )
)
(40)
where ( )
d d
X ,Y and ( )
0 0
X ,Y are the desired tip point
position and initial position relative to the fixed
coordinate frame, respectively, and R is the radius of the
desired circle. The workspace of a twoDOF parallel
manipulator can be decomposed into four parts [16], but
hereweonlyconsiderthepartwhen
i
0< <
2
.Thedesired
jointposition
id
y canbeobtainedasfollows:
d
1d d 1
1
d
2d d 1
2
X
y =Y l sin(arccos )
l
LX
y =Y l sin(arccos )
l
)
(41)
Table1.Parametersoftheflexiblemanipulator
Figure4.Trackingperformanceofthedesiredcircle
Figure5.TrackingperformanceofXdirection
Figure6.TrackingperformanceofYdirection
Figure7.TrackingerrorofXdirection
Figure8.TrackingerrorofYdirection
N
2 2
d d
i=1
1
RSME= x i x i + y i y i
N
(42)
where
d
x i and
d
y i represent the X direction and Y
directionpositioncoordinatesatthe ith samplingtimeof
the desired trajectory, respectively; x i and y i
represent the X direction and Y direction position
coordinates at the ith sampling time of the actual
trajectory,respectively.
Controllers RSME
Compositecontroller 0.0158mm
CTC 0.0715mm
Table2.RSMEofcompositecontrollerandtheCTC
The RSME of the trajectory tracking simulation using
composite controller and CTC are given in Table 2.
AccordingtoTable2,theproposedcompositecontrolcan
decreasetheRSMEsignificantlycomparedwiththeCTC.
6.Conclusion
7.Acknowledgement
ThisworkwassupportedbytheNationalNaturalScience
FoundationofChina(GrantNo.51075086).
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9 Chen Zhengsheng, Kong Minxiu, Liu Ming and You Wei: Dynamic Modelling
and Trajectory Tracking of Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Link
www.intechopen.com