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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

PROJECT REPORT On Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

SUBMITTED BY Name
1. SUHAIL ABROL 2. ANSHUL MAHAJAN 3. VIVEK KUMAR 4. SUMIT KISHOR 5. ASHWANI SINGH 6. JIGAR CHOUDHARY

En. No.
92/08 106/08 184/08 191/08 321/08 327/08

PROJECT GUIDE
Mr.Mohd. Hanief Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SRINAGAR

_________________CERTIFICATE________________
This is to certify that Suhail Abrol (92/08), Anshul Mahajan (106/08), Sumit Kishor (191/08), Vivek kumar (184/08), Jigar Choudhary (327/08) and Ashwani Singh(321/08) have successfully completed the final year proJect on Fabrication of press for ceramic powder by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack during their period of study in the Mechanical Engineering department in 7th and 8thsemester under my supervision in partial fulfillment to the reward of B.Tech degree in Mechanical Engineering and the work carried out under above mentioned quote has not been submitted partially or wholly elsewhere simultaneously or earlier for the reward of the said degree. Their performance has been excellent so as to fulfill all the requirements for successful completion of the B.Tech Project. This report is a bonafide testimony of the work carried out by them throughout the year.

DATE: _____________

Project guide Mr. Mohd. Hanief Mechanical department N.I.T SRINAGAR

Department of Mechanical Engineering

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ________________________________________________________
During the four years course of Engineering, most of the students spend first three years in gaining valuable theoretical knowledge from our various courses and build up a strong foundation of various concepts. After three years of consistent learning, we develop excellent design and analysis concepts which are essential for every engineer to succeed in engineering field. Final year major projects provide us an excellent opportunity to bring out our engineering skills, theoretical knowledge and innovative concepts where we play & employ excellent ideas to develop engineering marvels. So major projects are indeed one of the most important aspects for all of us pursing B.Tech in all the way adding up to our practical knowledge, engineering concepts and handling difficulties while implementation. We group of six students, after so much of discussion choose to build a compaction press. Apart from the efforts of our group, the success of this project largely depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many other people. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been instrumental and a boaster in the successful completion of this project. We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to our Guide Mr.Mohd. Hanief for his able guidance and useful suggestions, which helped us in completing the project work in time.He, provided us with the opportunities of studying, learning and gaining practical experience in various fields of hydraulic design and analysis during entire project work. His invaluable suggestions not only helped us to reach the successful completion of the project, but also made us learn a lot and enhance our engineering skills. We take immense pleasure in thanking Prof. M.F. Wani, Head of Department Mechanical Engineering for having permitted us to carry out this project. Apart from that, he helped us at every instant while going through formalities prior to commencement of project. We specially want to thanks people who had been a source of inspiration all the time and for their timely guidance in the conduct of our project work. We would like to duly acknowledge our beloved parents for their blessings, and heartfelt thanks to our friends/classmates for their help and wishes for the successful completion of this project.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Lastly we are extending our sincere thanks to all technicians of the central workshop who always offered support and cooperation whenever we were in need of it. We apologize to those, whose names we might have inadvertently missed. The moments spend during the project were worth cherishing as we have always reciprocated very positively with warm hospitality and care from entire engineering department

SUBMITTED BY:1. SUHAIL ABROL 2. ANSHUL MAHAJAN 3. VIVEK KUMAR 4. SUMIT KISHOR 5. ASHWANI SINGH. 6. JIGAR GHOUDHARY 92/08 106/08 184/08 191/08 321/08 327/08

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

2. ABSTRACT

The aim of the project is to develop ceramic tablets for tribology lab in nit Srinagar by compacting the ceramic powder by using 2 tonne hydraulic jack. This project discusses quantitative relationship between the load carried by jack and pressure required for crushing the ceramic powder. It makes use of a motor of 0.5 KW to drive the crank mechanism which is just after the pulley-belt arrangement for reducing the revolution per minute of the shaft & power of motor is utilized for lifting the rod of jack. This project also involves study of calculating lifting load & stiffness of leaf spring over the system. To estimate the required load for ceramic powder, the stiffness of the leaf spring is

evaluated & multiplied by the displacement of leaf spring & this displacement guides the link which is used as a sensor for measuring pressure .Moreover any required value of pressure can be set up to which the jack automatically stops, by breaking the circuit of motor . This is achieved by automatic pressing of the flip-flop switch actuated by the link. Compacting Press are mostly used to compact mixture of powders such as Cobalt, Iron, Copper, Tin, Silver, Tungsten, Metal Carbide etc. including diamond grit in dies through down stroke plunger. These machines can utilize multiple die system or single die for compacting operation to get segment / wire saw to be hot sintered thereafter. Compacting Presses are capable of forming complex shape moulded parts with uniform density throughout a varying cross section and can handle different range of powder materials. In these presses, powder is automatically fed into the cavity and the compounded into desired shape. Santec's powder compacting machines can efficiently handle different kind of raw materials such as iron, copper, ferrite, ceramic, tungsten carbide, etc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Acknowledgement..3 Abstract..5 Introduction.9 History..10 Literature survey...11 Components of compaction press...(15-27) Mild steel frame 7.a) Processes used for fabricating frame 7.a.1) Cutting 7.a.2)Finishing &super finishing 7.a.3)Threading 7.a.4)Drilling 7.a.5)boring 8. Hydraulic jack(27-32) 8.a)How hydraulic jack works 8.b)Fabrication of hydraulic jack 8.b.1) Cylinders 8.b.2)Pistons 8.b.3)Oil 8.b.4)seals 8.b.5)Non return valve 8.b.6)Pipe 9. Pulley belt system.(36-45) 9.a)How it works 9.b)Specifications 9.c)Vee belts 9.d)Power transmission 9.e)Selection criteria

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

9.f)Speed reduction principle 9.g)Pulley system used 9.h)Side plate for pulley system 10. The slider crank mechanism....(46-50) 10.a)Introduction 10.b)Mechanics 11. Leaf spring.53 11.a)Characteristics 12. Electric motor.54 13. Working of compaction press.55 14. 2-D Model. 15. Applications.57 16. Calculations.59 17.Conclusion... 18. Bibliography.61

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

List of Figures

Figure No. 1.1 1.2 1.3


1.4

Figure Name Integration of all the engineering disciplines Block diagram of the setup FESTO Conveyor Station FESTO Sorting Gate Module Circuit Diagram of Object Rejection System Circuit Diagram of Object Counting System Pin Configuration for AT89C52 Block Diagram of AT89C52 Timer in Capture Mode Interrupt sources Programming the flash memory Verifying the flash memory Flash Programming and Verification Waveforms-High Voltage Mode (Vpp=12V)

Page No. 3 4 5 6 9 11 14 15 21 23 26 26 27

2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

3.8

Flash Programming and Verification Wave forms-Low Voltage Mode (Vpp=5V)

27

4.1

Transmitter-receiver set -up at the Entrance of the passage Power supply circuit Pin configuration of L14FI and transistor 2N3904 Circuit diagram of AT89C52 PCB

29

4.2 4.3 4.4

31 31 34

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

3. INTRODUCTION
Up till today usually the quasi static and dynamic properties of pristine ceramics are used to describe impact events and to simulate dynamic loading history. On the other hand its wellknown that in a case of rapid impact loading the strong shock waves in front of a penetrator causes local failure and fragmentation of the ceramic target
Ceramic powders are commonly pressed into dies to produce near-net-shape green bodies prior to final sintering. Density gradients in the resulting compacts may cause distortions in the shape of the Parts during sintering, necessitating expensive machining or grinding operations to obtain the desired final shape. No uniform shrinkage may even generate internal stresses that are sufficiently large to cause fracture of the parts during sintering. Equally importantly, these density gradients can result in green bodies that break during ejection from the die or that are too fragile to be handled. Increasingly, finite element methods are being used to analyze the causes for density gradients in green compacts. The ultimate objective is to develop comparatively inexpensive numerical models for the pressing process that can optimize the die geometry and pressing method (e.g., single- versus double acting punches) for a given powder before a single part is even pressed.

Die compaction of powders is a process which involves filling a die with powder, compression of the powder using rigid punches to form a dense compact, and ejection from the die. The choice of powder composition and selection of process parameters determine the microstructure and final properties of the compacts. The practical issues in the powder-forming industries (powder metallurgy, ceramics, hard metals, pharmaceuticals, detergents, etc.) are related to mechanical strength, control of microstructure, avoidance of cracks and defects, content uniformity, etc. We review the modelling strategies used for powder compaction. The main focus is on the constitutive model development for finite element analysis. Knowledge of the following input factors is required:

1. Constitutive equations which describe the deformation of a volume of powder under the loads applied during compaction 2. Friction interaction between powder and tooling 3. Geometry of die and punches 4. Pressing schedule, e.g. sequence of punch motions 5. Initial conditions that relate to the state of the powder in the die after die fill Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

The constitutive model and friction relate to fundamental properties of the material and are reviewed in more detail. The methodologies used for model calibration are also described. The remaining factors (geometry, pressing schedule and initial conditions) are specific to particular problems. Their relative effect is discussed by presenting examples for a range of powder materials. We show how compact microstructure can be manipulated by changing the factors discussed above and illustrate the effect of microstructure on final properties. The model predictions are validated using experimental data. The use of numerical analysis in powder formulation design and optimisation of the process parameters is discussed.

4. HISTORY
In 1961 Heckel postulated a linear relationship between the relative porosity (inverse density) of a powder and the applied pressure. The slope of the linear regression is the Heckel constant, a material-dependent parameter inversely proportional to the mean yield pressure (the minimum pressure required to cause deformation of the material undergoing compression). Large values of the Heckel constant indicate susceptibility to plastic deformation at low pressures, when the tablet strength depends on the particle size of the original powder This article is designed to facilitate the understanding of the general principles of tablet press instrumentation and the benefits thereof by the formulators, process engineers, validation specialists, and quality assurance personnel, as well as production floor supervisors who would like to understand the basic standards and techniques of getting information about their tableting process.

HISTORY OF TABLET PRESS INSTRUMENTATION In 19521954 Higuchi and his group have instrumented upper and lower compression, ejection, and punch displacement on an eccentric tablet press, and pioneered the modern study of compaction process. This work was followed by Nelson, who was the member of the original group. In 1966, a U.S. patent was granted to Knoechel and co-worker for force measurement on a tablet press. This patent was followed by two seminal articles in Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences on the practical applications of instrumented rotary tablet machines. Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack A number of other patents related to press instrumentation and control followed from 1973 on ward

Upper and Lower Compression


A typical set of upper and lower compression profiles. One can see that the lower trace is smaller than the upper. On a single station press, only the upper punch is usually moving, and the difference is caused, mainly, by the friction of the compressed powder inside the die.

Powder compaction can be described as a large irrecoverable deformation during which the material is transformed from a powder state into a dense compact. This process can be modelled using two main approaches: 1. Discrete method, where the behaviour and interaction of individual particles are considered 2. Continuum method, where the powder is regarded as a mechanical continuum

5. LITERATURE REVIEW
PRINCIPLES OF FLUID POWER
Fluid power is the technology that with the generation, control and transmissions of power, using pressurized fluids. It can be said that fluid power is used to push, pull& regulate or drive virtually all the machine of modern industry. Fluid power, fluid power steer and brakes automobiles, launches space craft, moves earth ,harvest crops ,mines coal ,drives machine tools, control airplanes, processes fluid and even drills teeth.in fact, it is almost impossible to find a manufactured product that has not been fluid powered in some way at some stage of its production or distribution. Fluid power is called hydraulics when the fluid is a liquid and is called pneumatics when the fluid is gas. The fluid power is general term used for both hydraulics and pneumatics. Hydraulics system uses liquids such as petroleum oils, synthetic oils and water .The first hydraulics fluid to be used in water because it is readily available. However water has many deficiencies. It freezes readily, is a relatively poor lubricant, and tends to rust metal components. Hydraulics oils are far superior and hence are widely used in lieu of water.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Pneumatic systems use air as the gas medium because it is very abundant and can be readily exhausted into the atmosphere after completing it assigned tasks. There are actually two different types of fluid systems; fluid transport and fluid power. Fluid transport has had their objective of the delivery of the fluid from one location to another to accomplish some useful purposes. Examples include pumping stations for pumping water to home, cross country gas lines, and systems where chemical processing takes places as various fluids are brought together. Fluid power systems are designed specifically to perform work. The work is accomplished by a pressurized fluid bearing directly on a operating fluid cylinder or fluid motor. A fluid cylinder produces a force resulting in linear motion; whereas a fluid motor produces a torque resulting in rotary motion. Thus in fluid power system, cylinders and motors (which are also called actuators) provide the muscle to do the desired work. Of course control components such as walls are needed to ensure that the work is done smoothly, accurately, efficiently and safely. In 1750, Bernoulli developed his law of conservation of energy for a fluid flowing in a pipeline. Pascals law and Bernoullis law operate at the very heart of all fluid power applications and are used for analysis purposes. However it was not until the industrial revolution of 1850 in Great Britain that these laws would actually be applied to industry. Up to that time electrical energy had not been developed to power the machine of industry. Instead it was fluid power that by 1870 was being used to drive hydraulic equipment such as cranes, presses, winches, extruding machines, hydraulic jacks , shearing machines and riveting machines .In these system, steam engine droves hydraulic water pumps which delivered at moderate pressure through pipes to industrial plants for powering the various machines. These early hydraulic system has a number of deficiencies such as sealing problems because the design had evolved more as an art than a science. The modern era of fluid is considered to have begun in 1906 when a hydraulic system was developed to replace the electrical system for elevating and controlling guns on the battle ship USS Virginia. For this application the hydraulic system developed used oil instead of water.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack In world war second the aviation and aerospace industry provides the impetus for many advances in fluid power technology examples include hydraulic actuated landing gears, cargo doors, gun drives and flight control devices such as rudders, ailerons and elevons for aircraft. Today a fluid power is used extensively impractically every branch of industry. Some typical applications are in automobiles, tractors, airplanes, missiles, boat, robot and machine tools. In the automobile alone fluid power is used in hydraulic brakes, automotive transmissions and power steering. Power breaks, air conditioning, lubrication water cooling and gasoline pumping system.

History of fluid power


Fluid power is a probably as old as civilization itself. Ancient historical accounts show that water was used for centuries to produce power by means of water wheels and air was used to turn wind mills and propel ships. However, this early uses of fluid power required the movement of huge quantities of fluid because of relatively low pressure provide by nature. Fluid power technology actually began in 1650 with the discovery of Pascals law: pressure is transmitted undiminished in a confined body of fluid

Advantages of fluid power


The secret of fluids power success and widespread use is its versatility and manageability. Fluid power is not hindered by the geometry of the machine, as in the case of mechanical system. Also, power can be transmitted in almost limitless quantities because fluid systems are not so limited by the physical limitation of materials as are electric systems. For example, the performance of an electromagnet is limited by the saturation limit of steel. On the other hand, the power capacity of fluid system is limited only by the physical strength of the material (such as steel) used for each component. Industry is going to depend more and more on automation in order to increase productivity. This includes remote and direct control of production operations, manufacturing processes and material handling. Fluid power is well suited for these automation applications because of advantages in the following four major categories.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

Easy and accuracy of control


By the use of simple levers and push buttons, the operator of a fluid power system can readily start, stop, speed up or slow down as one ten-thousand of a inch.

Multiplication of force
A fluid power system (without using cumbersome gears , pulley , and levers) can multiply forces simply and efficiently from a fraction of a ounce to several hundred tons of output.

Constant force or torque


Only fluid power systems are capable of providing constant force or torque regardless of speed changes. This is accomplished whether the work output moves a few inches per hour, several hundred inches per minute , a few revolutions per hour or thousands of revolutions per minute.

Simplicity, safety, economy


In general fluid power uses fewer moving parts than comparable, mechanical or electrical systems. Thus they are simpler to maintain and operate. Thus in turn, maximizes safety, compactness and reliability. Additional benefits of fluid power systems include instantly reversible motion, automatic protection against overloads and infinitely variable speed control. Fluid power systems also have the highest power-per-weight ratio of any unknown power source.

Drawbacks of fluid power


In spite of all previously mentioned advantages of fluid power, it is not a panacea for all power transmission applications. Fluid power systems also have some drawbacks. For example, hydraulic oils are messy and leakage is impossible to eliminate completely. Hydraulic lines can burst, possibly resulting in injuries to people due to high speed oil jets and flying pieces of metal if proper design is not implemented. Prolonged exposure to noise, such as that eliminating from pumps, can result in loss of hearing. Also most hydraulic oils can cause fires if an oil leak occurs in an area of hot equipment. In pneumatic systems components such as compressed air tanks and accumulators are potentially explosive if the

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack pressure is allowed to increase beyond safe design limits. Therefore each application must be studied thoroughly to determine the best overall system to employ.

6. COMPONENTS OF COMPACTION PRESS


7. MILD STEEL FRAME
Mild steel is a type of steel that only contains a small amount of carbon. It is softer and more easily shaped. It also bends instead of breaking. It is used in nails and some types of wire. It can also be used to make bottle openers. Here is a list of mild steel properties and its uses in various fields of technology. Mild steel is the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.050.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0.160.29% carbon; making it malleable and ductile, but it cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing

A high amount of carbon makes mild steel different from other types of steel. Carbon makes mild steel stronger and stiffer than other type of steel. However, the hardness comes at the price of a decrease in the ductility of this alloy. Carbon atoms get affixed in the interstitial sites of the iron lattice and make it stronger.

What is known as mildest grade of carbon steel or 'mild steel' is typically carbon steel, with a comparatively mild amount of carbon (0.16% to 0.19%). It has ferromagnetic properties, which make it ideal for manufacture of electrical devices and motors.

The calculated average industry grade mild steel density is 7.85 gm/cm3. Its Young's modulus, which is a measure of its stiffness, is around 210,000 MPa.

Mild steel is the cheapest and most versatile form of steel and serves every application which requires a bulk amount of steel.

The high amount of carbon also makes mild steel vulnerable to rust. Naturally, people prefer stainless steel over mild steel, when they want a rust free technology. Mild steel is

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack also used in construction as structural steel. It is also widely used in the car manufacturing industry.

It is a popular type of steel because it is cheap and its material properties fit into many product applications.

Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable and its surface hardness can be increased through carburiz

Mild steel is the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.050.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0.160.29% carbon; making it malleable and ductile, but it cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing It is often used when large quantities of steel are needed, for example as structural steel The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3(7850 kg/m3 or 0.284 lb/in3)and the Young's modulus is 210 GPa (30,000,000 psi).

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack TENSILE TEST ON MILD STEEL SPECIMEN

One basic ingredient in the study of the mechanics of deformable bodies is the resistive properties of materials. These properties relate the stresses to the strains and can only be determined by experiment. Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack One of the simplest tests for determining mechanical properties of a material is the tensile test. In this test, a load is applied along the longitudinal axis of a circular test specimen. The applied load and the resulting elongation of the member are measured. In many cases, the process is repeated with increased load until the desired load levels are reached or the specimen breaks. Load-deformation data obtained from tensile and/or compressive tests do not give a direct indication of the material behaviour, because they depend on the specimen geometry. However, using the relationships we previously discussed, loads and deformations may be converted to stresses and strains. P A =L = = normal stress on a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the specimen P = applied load A = original cross sectional area = normal strain in the longitudinal direction = change in the specimens gage length L = original gage length The resulting stress-strain curve or diagram gives a direct indication of the material properties. Load-deformation data Stress-strain data

Note: Stress-strain diagrams are typically based upon the original cross sectional area and the initial gage length, even though these quantities change continuously during the test. These changes have a negligible effect except during the final stages of the test. 2017-T451 Aluminium Alloy

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack DUCTILE MATERIAL TEST SPECIMEN TRUE

True stress and true strain are based upon instantaneous values of cross sectional area and gage length

As shown in the previous diagram, the initial portion of the stress-strain diagram for most materials used in engineering structures is a straight line. For the initial portion of the diagram, the stress is directly proportional to the strain .

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Therefore, for a specimen subjected to a uniaxial load, we can write = E This relationship is known as Hookes Law and was first recorded by Robert Hooke, an English mathematician, in 1678. Note: Hookes Law describes only the initial linear portion of the stress-strain curve for a bar subjected to uniaxial extension. The slope of the straight-line portion of the stress-strain diagram is called the Modulus of Elasticity or Youngs Modulus. E = / (normal stress strain) G = / (shear stress strain) E = Elastic Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity G = Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity

RESULTS:
Typical tensile strengths of mild steel

Material

Yield strength (MPa)

Ultimate strength (MPa)

Density (g/cm)

Mild steel

250

400

7.58

The Ultimate Tensile Strength of Mild Steel is 400 N/mm2. Yield stress is 250 N/mm2. But remember NEVER to design a component by looking at its ultimate tensile strength (UTS). You should always design with respect to the stress at proportional limit or w.r.t. yield point stress, that too WITH a certain factor of safety. If you use the UTS spec, the factor of safety has to increase by a substantial amount. The stress thus considered, including the factor of safety, is the working stress (allowable stress).

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

7.a) Processes used for fabricating frame: 7.a.1) Cutting:


Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two or more portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. Implements commonly used for cutting are the knife and saw, or in medicine like lathe. Cutting operation is done for cutting the supporting rods to 440mm.we are using four rods of same dimension to join the upper and lower plate by means of nuts and bolts.

7.a.2) Finishing &Super finishing :


After a metal piece is ground to an initial finish, it is super finished with the help of material finer grit solid abrasive. The abrasive is oscillated or rotated while the work piece is rotated in the opposite direction; these motions are what cause the cross-hatching. The geometry of the abrasive depends on the geometry of the work piece surface; a stone (rectangular shape) is for cylindrical surfaces and cups and wheels are used for flat and spherical surfaces. A lubricant is used to minimize heat production, which can alter the metallurgical properties, and to carry away the swarf; kerosene is a common lubricant. The abrasive cuts the surface of the work piece in three phases. The first phase is when the abrasive first contacts the work piece surface: dull grains of the abrasive fracture and fall away leaving a new sharp cutting surface. In the second phase the abrasive "self dresses" while most of the stock is being removed. Finally, the abrasive grains become dull as they work which improves the surface geometry. The average rotational speed of abrasive wheel and/or work piece is 1 to 15 surface m/min, with 6 to 14 m/min preferred; this is much slower compared to grinding speeds around 1800 Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack to 3500 m/min. The pressure applied to the abrasive is very light, usually between 0.02 to 0.07 MPa (3 to 10 psi), but can be as high as 2.06 MPa (299 psi). Honing is usually 3.4 to 6.9 MPa (490 to 1,000 psi) and grinding is between 13.7 to 137.3 MPa (1,990 to 19,910 psi). When a stone is used it is oscillated at 200 to 1000 cycles with amplitude of 1 to 5 mm (0.039 to 0.20 in). Super finishing can give a surface finish of 0.01 m.

7.a.3) Threading :
Threading material in a lathe can be done several ways. When using a CNC (computer numerical control) machine, the program will use a threading insert in a tool block to make the threads after it has turned the material down to the proper diameter. In a manual lathe, you can turn the material down using a tool block first and use a threading handle and die insert to cut the thread on the material manually. Procedure : Place the material to be threaded in the lathe chuck. Turn the chuck key clockwise to tighten the jaws. Make sure you have ample clearance past the area to be threaded for the die. You will use a hand tap on the machined rod to create the threading manually. Cut the area to be threaded to the major dimension. This is the outer dimension of the thread. The die will create the minor diameter when you thread the material. The minor dimension is the bottom of each of the individual threads. Lock the chuck by placing the manual lathe in neutral gear. Place a die in a threading handle and thread the rod while it is still in the lathe chuck. Turn the threading handle clockwise to cut the thread, adding tapping fluid every couple of turns for lubricant to make the tapping process easier.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack We have made threads on both ends of each rod up to 150-160mm.

7.a.4) Drilling:
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular crosssection in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips from what will become the hole being drilled. Drilled holes are characterized by their sharp edge on the entrance side and the presence of burrs on the exit side (unless they have been removed). Also, the inside of the hole usually has helical feed marks. Drilling may affect the mechanical properties of the work piece by creating low residual stresses around the hole opening and a very thin layer of highly stressed and disturbed material on the newly formed surface. This causes the work piece to become more susceptible to corrosion at the stressed surface.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

7.a.5) Boring
Boring is also called internal turning, is used to increase the inside diameter of a hole. The original hole is made with a drill, or it may be a cored hole in a casting. Boring achieves three things:
Sizing:

Boring brings the hole to the proper size and finish. A drill or reamer can only be used if the desired size is "standard" or if special tools are ground. The boring tool can work to any diameter and it will give the required finish by adjusting
An adjustable boring bar for making precision holes. (Photo by courtesy of National Acme Co. div. of DeVlieg-Bullard Inc.) Straightness:

speed, feed and nose radius. Precision holes can be bored using micro adjustable boring bars.

Boring will straighten the original drilled or cast hole. Drills, especially the longer ones, may wander off-centre and cut at a slight angle because of eccentric forces on the drill, occasional hard spots in the material, or uneven sharpening of

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack the drill. Cored holes in castings are almost never completely straight. The boring tool being moved straight along the ways with the carriage feed will correct these errors.

Concentricity:

Boring will make the hole concentric with the outside diameter within the limits of the accuracy of the chuck or holding device. For best concentricity, the turning of the outside diameter and the boring of the inside diameter is done in one set-up-that is, without moving the work between operations.

2-D MOLEL OF FRAME

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

Dimensional specifications:
Dia. of upper plate : 44cm Dia. of lower plate : 50cm Length of rod: 44cm Length of upper thread on rod : 10cm Length of lower thread on rod: 6cm Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Gap between two supporting rod: 33cm Thickness of the upper & lower plate: 2.5cm Dia. of rod: 2.5cm

Other details: Material of plate: mild steel Material of rod: mild steel Type of nut used: hexagonal nut

8. HYDRAULIC JACK:
A jack is a mechanical device used to lift heavy loads or apply great forces. Jacks employ a screw thread or hydraulic cylinder to apply very high linear forces. A mechanical jack is a device which lifts heavy equipment. The most common form is a car jack, floor jack or garage jack which lifts vehicles so that maintenance can be performed. More powerful jacks use hydraulic power to provide more lift over greater distances. Mechanical jacks are usually rated for a maximum lifting capacity (for example, 1.5 tons or 3 tons).

Hydraulic jack

Figure 1 Hydraulic jack

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Hydraulic jacks are typically used for shop work, rather than as an emergency jack to be carried with the vehicle. Use of jacks not designed for a specific vehicle requires more than the usual care in selecting ground conditions, the jacking point on the vehicle, and to ensure stability when the jack is extended. Hydraulic jacks are often used to lift elevators in low and medium rise buildings. A hydraulic jack uses a fluid, which is incompressible, that is forced into a cylinder by a pump plunger. Oil is used since it is self lubricating and stable. When the plunger pulls back, it draws oil out of the reservoir through a suction check valve into the pump chamber. When the plunger moves forward, it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve into the cylinder. The suction valve ball is within the chamber and opens with each draw of the plunger. The discharge valve ball is outside the chamber and opens when the oil is pushed into the cylinder. At this point the suction ball within the chamber is forced shut and oil pressure builds in the cylinder.

In a bottle jack the piston is vertical and directly supports a bearing pad that contacts the object being lifted. With a single action piston the lift is somewhat less than twice the collapsed height of the jack, making it suitable only for vehicles with a relatively high clearance. For lifting structures such as houses the hydraulic interconnection of multiple vertical jacks through valves enables the even distribution of forces while enabling close control of the lift. In a floor jack (aka 'trolley jack') a horizontal piston pushes on the short end of a bell crank, with the long arm providing the vertical motion to a lifting pad, kept horizontal with a horizontal linkage. Floor jacks usually include castors and wheels, allowing compensation for the arc taken by the lifting pad. These mechanisms provide a low profile when collapsed, for easy manoeuvring underneath the vehicle, while allowing considerable extension

8.a) How hydraulic jack works:


The first step in designing and fabricating a hydraulic jack is to understand how a hydraulic jack works. If you already know how a hydraulic jack works you can skip this section. Hydraulic jacks work on Pascal's law which states that "a change in the pressure of an enclosed incompressible fluid is conveyed undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the surfaces of its container."

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Let A1 be the area of larger piston and A2 be the area of smaller piston of a hydraulic jack, while p1 and p2 are the pressures applied on the larger and smaller pistons respectively. In equation form:

In above equation you can easily see that the force F1 is the product of two terms: F2 and A1/A2. We can get force of F1 on the piston 1by either having a large F2 and small A1/A2 or a large A1/A2 and small F2. The latter case is what is done in case of hydraulic jack. Lets try to understand it with the help of an example. Suppose we want to lift a weight of 300 lbs (i.e. F1 = 300) and if we use an area ratio of 3 (A1/A2 = 3) we will need to apply a force of only 100 lbs at piston 2 (300/3 = 100).

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

8.b) Fabrication of hydraulic jack:


The following drawing shows the basic idea of things that will be needed to make a hydraulic jack. Note that this is not a drawing of a real hydraulic jack. It simply shows which parts are needed and where they are needed:

We will need the following things:


Two cylinders Seals Oil Pistons Non-return valve Pipe

Moreover choose the maximum load that you will be lifting with your hydraulic jack. Then choose the area ratio.

8.b.1) Cylinders
They will be filled with the oil that's going to transmit force. You can either choose cylinders of an engine or heavy PVC pipe depending upon the forces involved. The selection of cylinders depends on the chosen area ratio. You will probably never get exactly your desired Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack area ratio but you can get closer if you search the cylinders in junkyard. Using PVC pipes as cylinders would give you much more flexibility as they are available in various standard sizes.

8.b.2) Pistons
They will be used to transmit the applied force to oil and from oil to the load that needs to be lifted

8.b.3) Oil
Oil will be the fluid thats going to transmit force. Lubricating oil used for car engines can be used.

8.b.4) Seals
Seals will be required to seal the gap between piston and cylinder. Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

8.b.5) Non-return valve


When using a conventional jack you must have observed that it is used by applying force for a small amount of time and you keep doing it till the load is completely lifted. For this to happen, you will need a non-return valve.

8.b.6) Pipe
A flexible pipe would connect the two cylinders

9. Pulley-belt system:
A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit power. A pulley is also called a sheave or drum and may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove. A belt and pulley system is characterized by two or more pulleys in common to a belt. This allows for mechanical power, torque, and speed to be transmitted across axles. If the pulleys are of differing diameters, a mechanical advantage is realized. A belt drive is analogous to that of a chain drive, however a belt sheave may be smooth (devoid of discrete interlocking members as would be found on a chain sprocket, spur gear, or timing belt) so that the mechanical advantage is approximately given by the ratio of the pitch diameter of the sheaves only, not fixed exactly by the ratio of teeth as with gears and sprockets.

9.a) How it works


The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys and lines are weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also assumed that the lines do not stretch.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack In equilibrium, the forces on the moving block must sum to zero. In addition the tension in the rope must be the same for each of its parts. This means that the two parts of the rope supporting the moving block must each support one-half the load.

Fixed pulley

Diagram 1: The load F on the moving pulley is balanced by the tension in two parts of the rope supporting the pulley.

Movable pulley

Diagram 2: A movable pulley lifting the load W is supported by two rope parts with tension W/2

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

9.b) Specifications
To fully specify a belt, the material, length, and cross-section size and shape are required. Timing belts, in addition, require that the size of the teeth be given. The length of the belt is the sum of the central length of the system on both sides, half the circumference of both pulleys, and the square of the sum (if crossed) or the difference (if open) of the radii. Thus, when dividing by the central distance, it can be visualized as the central distance times the height that gives the same squared value of the radius difference on, of course, both sides. When adding to the length of either side, the length of the belt increases, in a similar manner to the Pythagorean theorem. One important concept to remember is that as D1 gets closer to D2 there is less of a distance (and therefore less addition of length) until its approaches zero.

9.c) Vee belts:


Vee belts (also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage and alignment problem. It is now the basic belt for power transmission. They provide the best combination of traction, speed of movement, load of the bearings, and long service life. The V-belt was developed in 1917 by John Gates of the Gates Rubber Company.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack . They are generally endless, and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal. The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave), with the result that the belt cannot slip off. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as the load increases the greater the load, the greater the wedging action improving torque transmission and making the V-belt an effective solution, needing less width and tension than flat belts. V-belts trump flat belts with their small centre distances and high reduction ratios. The preferred centre distance is larger than the largest pulley diameter, but less than three times the sum of both pulleys. Optimal speed range is 10007000 ft/min. V-belts need larger pulleys for their larger thickness than flat belts. They can be supplied at various fixed lengths or as a segmented section, where the segments are linked (spliced) to form a belt of the required length. For high-power requirements, two or more vee belts can be joined side-by-side in an arrangement called a multi-V, running on matching multi-groove sheaves. The strength of these belts is obtained by reinforcements with fibres like steel, polyester or aramid (e.g. Twaron or Kevlar). This is known as a multiple-V-belt drive (or sometimes a "classical V-belt drive"). When an endless belt does not fit the need, jointed and link V-belts may be employed. However they are weaker and only usable at speeds up to 4000 ft/min. A link v-belt is a number of rubberized fabric links held together by metal fasteners. They are length adjustable by disassembling and removing links when needed. .

9.d) Power transmission:


Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that may not be axially aligned. Power transmission is achieved by specially designed belts and pulleys. The demands on a belt drive transmission system are large and this has led to many variations on the theme. They run smoothly and with little noise, and cushion motor and bearings against load changes, albeit with less strength than gears or chains. However, improvements in belt engineering allow use of belts in systems that only formerly allowed chains or gears.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

A multiple-V-belt drive on an air compressor. Power transmitted between a belt and a pulley is expressed as the product of difference of tension and belt velocity:

where, T1 and T2 are tensions in the tight side and slack side of the belt respectively. They are related as:

where, is the coefficient of friction, and is the angle subtended by contact surface at the centre of the pulley.

9.e) Selection criteria


Belt drives are built under the following required conditions: speeds of and power transmitted between drive and driven unit; suitable distance between shafts; and appropriate operating conditions. The equation for power is: Power (kW) = (torque in newton-meters) (rpm) (2 radians)/(60 sec 1000 W) Factors of power adjustment include speed ratio; shaft distance (long or short); type of drive unit (electric motor, internal combustion engine); service environment (oily, wet, dusty); driven unit loads (jerky, shock, reversed); and pulley-belt arrangement (open, crossed, Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack turned). These are found in engineering handbooks and manufacturer's literature. When corrected, the horsepower is compared to rated horsepower of the standard belt cross sections at particular belt speeds to find a number of arrays that will perform best. Now the pulley diameters are chosen. It is generally either large diameters or large cross section that are chosen, since, as stated earlier, larger belts transmit this same power at low belt speeds as smaller belts do at high speeds. To keep the driving part at its smallest, minimum-diameter pulleys are desired. Minimum pulley diameters are limited by the elongation of the belt's outer fibres as the belt wraps around the pulleys. Small pulleys increase this elongation, greatly reducing belt life. Minimum pulley diameters are often listed with each cross section and speed, or listed separately by belt cross section. After the cheapest diameters and belt section are chosen, the belt length is computed. If endless belts are used, the desired shaft spacing may need adjusting to accommodate standard length belts. It is often more economical to use two or more juxtaposed V-belts, rather than one larger belt. In large speed ratios or small central distances, the angle of contact between the belt and pulley may be less than 180. If this is the case, the drive power must be further increased, according to manufacturer's tables, and the selection process repeated. This is because power capacities are based on the standard of a 180 contact angle. Smaller contact angles mean less area for the belt to obtain traction, and thus the belt carries less power.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

9.f) Speed reduction principle:


/ = /

9.g) PULLEY SYSTEM USED:

Dia of pulley P1 = 8cm Dia of pulley P2 = 16cm Dia of pulley P3 = 8cm Dia of pulley P4 = 20cm Dia of pulley P5 = 8cm Dia of pulley P5 = 20cm

RPM of pulley P1 = 650rpm Material of pulley = cast iron

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

9.h) Side plate for pulley system

Length= 42cm Breadth= 30cm Size of hole = 1.5cm

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

10. THE SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM


10.a) Introduction
The purpose of the slider-crank mechanism is to convert the linear motion of the piston to rotational motion of the crankshaft. One common application of This mechanism is in internal combustion engines. The rst aim of this experiment is to investigate and compare the theoretical Kinematic relationship between the displacement of the piston and the angle of The crankshaft with that measured for a single-cylinder engine. The other aim is to investigate the four-stroke cycle by simultaneously observing the motion of the piston and valves.

10.b) Mechanics:
The displacement of the end of the connecting rod is approximately proportional to the cosine of the angle of rotation of the crank, when it is measured from top dead centre (TDC). So the reciprocating motion created by a steadily rotating crank and connecting rod is approximately simple harmonic motion:

where x is the distance of the end of the connecting rod from the crank axle, l is the length of the connecting rod, r is the length of the crank, and is the angle of the crank measured from top dead centre (TDC). Technically, the reciprocating motion of the connecting rod departs slightly from sinusoidal motion due to the changing angle of the connecting rod during the cycle. The mechanical advantage of a crank, the ratio between the force on the connecting rod and the torque on the shaft, varies throughout the crank's cycle. The relationship between the two is approximately:

where

is the torque and F is the force on the connecting rod. For a given force on the

crank, the torque is maximum at crank angles of = 90 or 270 from TDC. When the crank is driven by the connecting rod, a problem arises when the crank is at top dead centre (0) or bottom dead centre (180). At these points in the crank's cycle, a force on the connecting rod causes no torque on the crank. Therefore if the crank is stationary and happens to be at Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack one of these two points, it cannot be started moving by the connecting rod. For this reason, in steam locomotives, whose wheels are driven by cranks, the two connecting rods are attached to the wheels at points 90 apart, so that regardless of the position of the wheels when the engine starts, at least one connecting rod will be able to exert torque to start the train

Crank Major axis = 4cm Crank Minor axis= 1.2cm Hole dia.1.5cm

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

11. LEAF SPRING:


Leaf spring sometimes referred to as a semi-elliptical spring or cart spring, it takes the form of a slender arc-shaped length of spring steel of rectangular cross-section. The centre of the arc provides location for the axle, while tie holes are provided at either end for attaching to the vehicle body. For very heavy vehicles, a leaf spring can be made from several leaves stacked on top of each other in several layers, often with progressively shorter leaves. Leaf springs can serve locating and to some extent damping as well as springing functions. While the interleaf friction provides a damping action, it is not well controlled and results in stiction in the motion of the suspension. For this reason manufacturers have experimented with mono-leaf springs. Advantage of a leaf spring over a helical spring is that the end of the leaf spring may be guided along a definite path

Elliptic type leaf spring Stiffness=13KN/mm

11.a) Characteristics
1. The leaf spring acts as a linkage for holding the axle in position and thus separate linkage are not necessary. It makes the construction of the suspension simple and strong. 2. As the positioning of the axle is carried out by the leaf springs so it makes it disadvantageous to use soft springs i.e. a spring with low spring constant. 3. Therefore, this type of suspension does not provide good riding comfort. The inter-leaf friction between the leaf springs affects the riding comfort. 4. Acceleration and braking torque cause wind-up and vibration. Also wind-up causes rearend squat and nose-diving. Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

12. ELECTIC MOTOR


An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo; some electric .motors can also be used as generators, for example, a traction motor on a vehicle may perform both tasks. Electric motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric machines.

Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current, e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle, or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid or inverter. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of ships, pipeline compressors, and water pumps with ratings in the millions of watts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give Power developed- 0.5KW Rpm of the motor- 650rpm
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

13. WORKING OF COMPACTON PRESS


The main purpose of the whole setup is to develop ceramic tablets by using hydraulic jack. This project discusses the quantitative relationship between load carrying by the jack and pressure required to compress the tablets.

Here 0.5 KW of motor is being used to lift the ram of the jack by the use of pulley-belt system to reduce the revolutions per minute so that the increased torque is available for the crank slider mechanism that will lift the ram of the jack.

When the ram of the jack is pushed upward, base plate is kept on that ram which will also move upward with the ram. Lower part of the die is kept on that base plate which will also move up along with the base plate. As the lower part of the die is moving upward, it will push other parts of the die set along with itself as shown in the above figure.

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack Hydraulic Powder Compacting Presses are commonly used for production of powder metallurgy parts, ceramic & cermet parts, carbon & carbide parts etc. Powder Compacting Presses are capable of forming complex shape moulded parts with uniform density throughout a varying cross section and can handle different range of powder materials. In these presses, powder is automatically fed into the cavity and the compounded into desired shape. Santec's powder compacting machines can efficiently handle different kind of raw materials such as iron, copper, ferrite, ceramic, tungsten carbide, etc Example of compaction press:

500 TON 4-POST PRESS EXAMPLE

Tonnage Capacity: 500 Type: Powder Compacting Industry: Defence Products Special Features: Intrinsically safe press; Dwell capability; Pneumatic safety stop; Oil heating & cooling system

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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack

14.

2-D MODEL

H- Hydraulic Jack M- Motor L- Lower Plate SP- Side Plate P- Pulley Belt System Rd- Supporting Rod U- Upper Plate LS - Leaf Spring C- Crank

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15. Applications
Compacting Press are mostly used to compact mixture of powders such as Cobalt, Iron, Copper, Tin, Silver, Tungsten, Metal Carbide etc. including diamond grit in dies through down stroke plunger. These machines can utilize multiple die system or single die for compacting operation to get segment / wire saw to be hot sintered thereafter. Some of the typical applications of Hydraulic Powder Compacting Press are:

Producing the Powder Metallurgy Parts. Producing the Iron-Base & Non-Ferrous- Base Sintered Structural Parts Producing the Ceramic & Cermet Parts Producing the Carbon & Carbide Parts Producing the Magnetic & Self - Lubricating Parts Producing the Stainless & Alloy Parts Producing parts for Automobile & Machines Producing parts for Aircraft & Aerospace Producing parts for Atomic Reactors.

16. CALCULATIONS
a) Speed Reduction
Diameter of the pulley 1(d1) = 0.08m Diameter of the pulley 2 (d2) = 0.16m Diameter of the pulley 3 (d3) = 0.08m Diameter of the pulley 4 (d4) = 0.20m Diameter of the pulley 5 (d5) = 0.08m Diameter of the pulley 6 (d6) = 0.20m 1. Speed reduction from pulley 1 to pulley 2:Rpm of pulley 1 = 650rpm Let rpm of pulley 2 = n2 Now, d1/d2=n2/n1 Or n2 = d1*n1/d2 =0.08*650/0.16 Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fabrication of COMPACTION PRESS FOR CERAMIC POWDER by using 2 Tonne hydraulic jack =325 Rpm of pulley 2 = 325 rpm

2. Speed reduction from pulley 2 to pulley 3:Rpm of pulley 2 = 325 rpm Rpm of pulley 3 = 325rpm

3. Speed reduction from pulley 3 to pulley 4:Rpm of pulley 3 = 325 rpm Let rpm of pulley 4 = n4 Now, d3/d4=n4/n3 0r n4 = d3*n3/d4 = 8*325/20 =130 Rpm of pulley 4=130rpm

4. speed reduction from pulley 4 to pulley 5:Rpm of pulley 4 = 130rpm Rpm of pulley 5 =130rpm

5. speed reduction from pulley 5 to pulley 6:Rpm of pulley 5 = rpm Let rpm of pulley 6 = n6 Now, d5/d6=n6/n5 0r n6 = 8*130/20 = 52rpm Rpm of pulley 6=52rpm The same rpm is provided to the crank shaft Hence, rpm of the crank shaft= 52rpm

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b. Stiffness of leaf spring


We know, F=-K dx or IKI=F/dX where, F= force applied dx = change in displacement K= stiffness of the leaf spring Now, vertical displacement in no load condition(x1) = 53.9mm Vertical displacing under a load of 390 kg = 53.6 mm Change in displacement (dx) = 53.9 53.6 =0.3mm Hence, the stiffness k = 390/0.3 = 13000N/mm = 13KN/mm

17. Conclusion
Compaction press is a contrivance used for die compaction of a given powder by means of mainly the hydraulic power of a fluid. The working of the compaction press can either be mechanically controlled or automated. Die compaction process involves filling a die with powder, compression of the powder using rigid punches to form a dense compact, which is subsequently ejected from the die. The range of operation of compaction press may vary from processes involving few tons of loads to processes involving 1000 tons of load The compaction press can be applied in vivid applications: 1. Powder metallurgical parts 2. Ceramic and cermet parts 3. Carbon and carbide parts The model that has been proposed by us includes motor for powering the hydraulic jack and leaf spring for calibrating the force requirement for compaction of the ceramic powder. Compaction press does not only compact the ceramic powder but it can also be used to compact mixture of other powders such as Cobalt, Iron, Copper, Tin, Silver, Tungsten, Metal Carbide etc. Compacting Presses is also capable of forming complex shape moulded parts with uniform density throughout a varying cross section and can handle different range of powder material

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18. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 FLUID POWER with Applications sixth edition by Anthony Esposito.

Theory of Machines by R.S.Khurmi.

3 Machines Elements in Mechanical Design by R.L.Mott, MacMillan, Inc, Singapore,

1992.

4 Handbook of Machine Design by Maitra Prasad, Tata McGraw Hill, India.

5 Mechanics of solids by Irving H. Shames, James H. Pitterasi published by PHI.

6 Production technology by R.K. Jain.

7 GATE 2009 EDITION Mechanical Engineering by G.K.Publishers.

8 Mechanical Engineering Design by J.E. Shigley published by Tata McGraw Hill,

India.

9 A Textbook of Machine Design by R.S.Khurmi and J.K. Gupta.

10 Manufacturing Technology by P.N.Rao.

11 Engineering Mechanics by R.S.Khurmi and J.K. Gupta

12 Fluid Mechanics and Hydraullic Machines by Jagdish Lal.

13 Hydraullic Cranes Manual by Coastal Cranes Ltd.

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