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For

Second Year

(Electrical Engineering)

Name of Student: __________________________________ Class: Discipline: _______________Batch:______________ __________________________________

Class Roll No.: _________Examination Seat No.________

Complied by: Engr. Muhammad Amir Qureshi (Lab engineer) Supervised by: Engr. Shoaib Siddiqui (Assistant Professor)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

Q and -Q located at (x. 7.-1). 4. To construct and study the behavior of yagi-uda antenna . 6. Take Q / 4πε = 1 and ∆ I = 0.SR.1) and (-1. NO 1. (1. To write a program which takes a vector in Cartesian components and convert it into spherical or cylindrical at a given point.0) and (1. 8. To sense the presence of electromagnetic field / radiation in the atmosphere. To develop a computer program to plot the electric field and equipotential lines due to: (a) Two point charges Q and -4Q located at (x. REMARKS 2.1 Consider the range -5 ≤ x. DATE EXPERIMENT To write a computer program to convert coordinates of a point from one coordinate system to other. To sketch the electrical field lines of point charge using the computer program. (b) Four point charges Q.y) = (-1.y) = (-1. 3. -Q. To construct and study the behavior of Rhombic antenna .-1).1) respectively. To sketch the equipotential and electric field lines for the electric dipole using the computer program. (1.0) respectively. 5.y ≤ 5 .

z) .θ. ρ = x2 + y2 φ = Tan−1 y / x These equations are used to transform a point from Cartesian system to cylindrical system. z represents the planes of infinite extent.φ) . In spherical system the coordinate point are (r. R = x2 + y2 + z 2 z=z θ = Cos −1 ( z / r ) φ = Tan −1 ( y / x) And for converting from spherical to Cartesian system we use . In cylindrical system the coordinate point are (ρ. Now it is frequently required to convert a point from one coordinate system to other. x = ρ cosθ y = ρsinθ z=z So a point in cylindrical system can be converted into Cartesian system. φ describes the plane with limits from 0 to 2π and z describes the another plane with limits from −∞ to +∞ .EXPERIMENT NO 1 OBJECT: To write a computer program to convert coordinates of a point from one coordinate system to other. ρ describes the radius of cylinder from 0 to ∞ .Our concern in EMF is the charge densities for example point charge and sheet of charge. Floppy disk. For converting a point from Cartesian to spherical system. we used the following equations. Similarly. and C-Language compiler. z) with limits from −∞ to +∞ each . APPARATUS: Computer. Here x.φ. θ describes the cone with limits 0 to π and φ describes the plane with limits 0 to 2π. in the of point charge the preferred coordinate system will be spherical because of symmetry. for line charge we consider cylindrical coordinate system and for sheet of charge the Cartesian coordinate system is used for analysis. These charge densities are well explained and analyze with the help of coordinate system. THEORY: Coordinate system is mathematical tools with which the concepts of electromagnetic field are explained . for instance. y. for which the following equations are used. r represents radius of sphere with limits 0 to ∞ . In Cartesian system the coordinate point are (x. y.

x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ cos φ z = r cos θ PROCEDURE: In this experiment it is required to transform a point of one coordinate system to another system. . For which students are required to write a program in Clanguage. RESULT : Source code of the program is attached. which can take a point of any coordinate system and transform it to the required coordinate system.

the values of Aρ . Aρ = A . az + Az az . az = Ax ax . floppy disk. For which we follow the procedure as given below. aØ + Az az . AØ = A . aρ +Az az .EXPERIMENT NO. aØ + Ay ay . aØ = Ax ax . it is often required to transform a vector from one coordinate system to another. az ____________ (5) So as we see from equations( 3) to (5) that there is dot product between unit vector of dissimilar coordinates system which are summarized in tabular form as under aρ ax ay az CosØ SinØ 0 aØ -SinØ CosØ 0 az 0 0 1 . To find “Aρ” we take dot product between A (Cartesian) and unit vector aρ (which is of desired direction). EQUIPMENT: Computer. az + Ay ay . A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az Now it is required to transform it into cylindrical system i:e A = Aρ aρ + AØ aØ + Az az (2) (1) So.AØ and Az will be required. Transforming from Cartesian to Cylindrical System: Let a vector is given in Cartesian system. aρ + Ay ay . 2 OBJECT: To write a program which takes a vector in Cartesian components and convert it into spherical or cylindrical at a given point. C-language compiler THEORY: For the analysis of electromagnetic filed. aρ _________(3) Similarly to find “AØ” we take dot product between A( Cartesian) and unit vector aØ. aρ = Ax ax . aØ _________ (4) Similarly to find “Az” Az = A .

(7) . ar Ar = Ax ax . equations (3) . To find the values of “ Ar” we take the dot product between ‘A’ of Cartesian and ‘ar’. aθ __________________ (7) And . aØ Aθ = Ax ax . (8) becomes Ar = Ax Sinθ CosØ + Ay Sinθ SinØ + Az Cosθ ___________(9) Aθ = Ax Cosθ CosØ + Ay Cosθ SinØ + Az ( -Sinθ) ________(10) . aθ +Ay ay .e. ar ____________ (6) Similarly Aθ = A . aØ ________________ (8) Again there is a dot product between unit vectors of dissimilar coordinate system for which we use the following table. Transforming Cartesian to Spherical system: Now let same vector A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az is given and it is required to transform to Spherical coordinate system i. Aρ = Ax CosØ + Ay SinØ AØ = Ax ( -SinØ) + Ay CosØ +0 Az = Az ⇒ Ax CosØ + Ay SinØ ⇒ -Ax SinØ + Ay CosØ Now if we are given any vector in Cartesian form A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az And cylindrical point ( ρ . the equations (6) . ar ax ay az Sinθ CosØ Sinθ SinØ Cosθ Aθ Cosθ CosØ Cosθ SinØ −Sinθ aØ −SinØ CosØ 0 So . AØ = A . i. ar + Ay ay . aØ = ( Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az) . by using .So . z ) we can transform it to cylindrical system using above equations. aθ + Az az . aθ Aθ = Ax ax .e. the values of Ar . ar + Az az . Aθ and AØ are required . aØ +Ay ay . aθ = ( Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az) . aØ + Az az . Ø . Ar = A .(4) . (5) becomes. the table . ar = ( Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az) . A = Ar ar + Aθ aθ + AØ aØ So.

which get input in the form of Cartesian coordinate system and then transform it into cylindrical or spherical system. .AØ = Ax Cosθ + Ay (-Sinθ) + 0 ______________(11) Now given a point in spherical system ( r . PROCEDURE: In this experiment students are required to write a computer program in Clanguage. Ø) and a vector in Cartesian system can be easily converted into vector of spherical coordinate system . RESULT: Source code of the program is attached. θ .

oscilloscope . These electric and magnetic fields are emitted from the antenna and propagate through space over very long distance. At the same time the voltage will cause the current to flow in the antenna.EXPERIMENT NO 3 OBJECT: To sense the presence of electromagnetic field / radiation in the atmosphere. This current flow will produce a magnetic field. APPARATUS: Solenoid . THEORY: A radiowave is generally known as an electromagnetic wave because it is made up of combination of both electric and magnetic fields. an electric field will be set up. Whenever voltage is applied to antenna. The electric and magnetic field are at right angles to each other. PRACTICAL / PROCESS: RESULT: .

The driven element is a resosnant half wave dipole usually of metallic . Yagi-uda antenna consists of a driven element . PROCEDURE : RESULT : . yagi-uda antenna . GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF YAGI-UDI ANTENNA : 1) 2) 3) 4) With spacing of 0. ground plane antenna and yagi-uda antenna . THEORY: An antenna is made up of one or more conductors of a specific length that radiate radio waves wave generated by the transmitter or that collect radio waves at the receiver . a reflector and one or more director’s i. There are different types of antenna in use today .e yagi-uda antenna is an array of an driven element and ooooooone or more parasitic elements . It is usually a fixed frequency device . It provide gain of order of 8db and front to back ratio of about 20db . The parasitic elements receive their exitation from the induced voltage in them by the current flow in the driven element . By increasing the number of elements the directivity can be increased .15λ a frequency band of order 2% is obtained . APPARATUS : oscilloscope . Some of commonly used antenna are dipole antenna .1λ to 0.EXPERIMENT NO 4 OBJECT: To construct and study the behavior of yagi-uda antenna . folded dipole .

EXPERIMENT NO 5 OBJECT: To construct and study the behavior of Rhombic antenna . It is prominent in all radio communication facilities where space necessary for its structure is easily available . THEORY: Rhombic antenna is based on the principle of travelling wave radiator . The length of antenna and the angles between them are carefully chosen in order to cancel the side lobes . bearing only single main lobes lying along the main axis rhombus . The ground reflection tends to leave the main lope upwards into the sky and lift is proportional to the length of antenna used . This antenna is highly directional used for point to point sky wave propagation . By application of return conductor two wires are pulled at one point so that diamond or rhombic shape is formed . PROCEDURE : RESULTS : . A Rhombic antenna is a very effient antenna of board frequency capabilities . APPARATUS: oscilloscope and rhombic antenna .

THEORY: Electrical field lines for the vector electric field intensity are drawn with the help of steam lines equation given by: dy / dx = Ey / Ex Now we consider the electric field intensity due to line charge E = ρL / 2πεoρ ap Let for simplicity. lny = lnx + lnC lny = lnCx y=Cx Which is the stream line equation for point charge.EXPERIMENT # 06 OBJECT: To sketch the electrical field lines of point charge using the computer program. ρ= And Equation (2) becomes. C=1 ⇒ y=x C = -1 ⇒ y = -x C=0 ⇒ y=0 1/C=0 ⇒ x = 0 E = 1 / ρ ap (2) (1) x2 + y2 x2 + y2 aρ = {x ax + y ay} / . C-language compiler. E = ( xax + yay ) / ( x2 + y2 ) dy / dx = y / ( x2 + y2 ) x / ( x2 + y2 ) Solving. floppy disk. Equation (1) becomes. Now if. APPARATUS: Computer. ρL = 2πεo ⇒ Knowing.

PROCEDURE: Students are required to write a computer program which can draw electric field lines for the point charge taking different values of ‘C’ and show the result in a combined manner.Which can be plotted. . RESULTS: C 1 x 1 2 3 4 5 y 1 2 3 4 5 C=0 ⇒ y=0 1/C=0 ⇒ x = 0 C = -1 x y = -x 1 -1 2 -2 3 -3 4 -4 5 -5 Y-axis y=-x y=x X-axis Students are further required to make analysis report on the results of graph obtained from computer.

θ . φ ) are of spherical coordinate system. A format is given below. Students are further required to write an exclusive analytical report by changing the values of Q and d and observing the effect on the field.and then plot the graph. PROCEDURE: Students are required to write a computer program which can take input in the form of spherical point ( r. If Q = 5 µ C and d = 1mm r 2 4 6 8 10 12 If Q = 10 µ C and d = 0. Electric potential due to dipole is given by: V = Qd cos θ / 4π ε o r2 And electric field intensity due to dipole is given by: E = Qd / 4π ε o r3 ( 2 cos θ ar + sin θ ar ) Where ( r. THEORY: Electric dipole is the name given to two point charges of equal magnitude but opposite polarities separated by the distance which is small compared to distance to the point ‘p’ where the field is required.5mm r 2 4 6 8 10 12 θ 45 55 40 35 30 25 φ 55 65 60 50 45 40 E V θ 55 50 45 40 35 30 φ 65 60 55 50 45 40 E V . θ . φ ) the values of Q (charge) and d (separation between charges).EXPERIMENT # 07 OBJECT: To sketch the equipotential and electric field lines for the electric dipole using the computer program.

5 µ C and d = 3mm If Q = 1.25mm then repeat above If Q = 10 µ C and d = 1mm If Q = 5 µ C and d = 2mm If Q = 2.5 µ C and d = 4mm ANALYSIS: Write the observation in terms of strength of the field. RESULTS: .If Q = 20 µ C and d = 0. Write the value that gives the strongest field by the inspection of graphs.

Partial difference equations are solved using the finite difference method or the finite element method. E= And N K =1 ∑ N QK [( x – xK ) ax + ( y – yK ) ay] 4πε [( x – xK )2 + ( y – yK )2]3/2 (3) K =1 V= ∑ QK / 4πε [( x – xK )2 + ( y – yK )2]1/2 (4) . (1.-1). The electric field intensity E and potential V at position vector ‘r’ are given respectively by: E= And V= ∑ N QK ( r – rK ) / 4πε | r – rK |3 (1) K =1 ∑ N QK / 4πε | r – rK |3 (2) K =1 If the charges are on the same plane ( Z = constant ). THEORY: In this practical a numerical technique is developed using an interactive computer programme. finite distance method. (d) Four point charges Q.1) respectively.EXPERIMENT # 08 OBJECT: To develop a computer program to plot the electric field and equipotential lines due to: (c) Two point charges Q and -4Q located at (x. Take Q / 4πε = 1 and ∆ I = 0.y) = (-1. -Q. Electric field lines are equipotential lines can be plotted for coplanar points sources with computer programmes. r2. It generates data points for electric field lines and equipotential lines for arbitrary configuration of point sources.1 Consider the range -5 ≤ x. r3……. C-language compiler. floppy disk.0) and (1. The most commonly used numerical methods in electromagnetic fields are moment method. the solutions are sufficiently accurate for engineering purposes.y ≤ 5 APPARATUS: PC.1) and (1.y) = (-1.0) respectively. Q and -Q located at (x.-1). Integral equations are solved using the moment method. Although numerical methods give approximate solutions. and finite element method. Suppose we have N point charges located at position vectors r1. (1. equation (1) and (2) becomes. rN.

y + ∆ y). A movement ∆ x and ∆ y along X and Y directions respectively. y ) to a new point (x + ∆ x.Calculate Ex and Ey at that point using equation (3) 3.Move a small step along the line perpendicular to electric field lines at that point. 4. 4. Join the points generated by hand and confirm the result by using computer programme. Utilize the fact that if a line has slope m. any starting point is likely to be on a field line. On completing the line. 1.Go back to step # 02 and repeat the calculation. 2.PROCEDURE: To plot the electric field lines follow these steps. ∆ x = . go back to step # 01 and choose another starting point. a perpendicular line must have slope -1/m.∆ l .Chose a starting point on the field lines.Take a small step along the field line to a new point in the plane as shown in fig. To plot the equipotential lines follow these steps: 1. Ex / [Ex2 + Ey2] 1/2 (8) Move along the equipotential line from the old line point ( x . Continue to generate new points until a line is completed with a given range of x and y. since an electric field line and an equipotential line meeting at a given point are mutually orthogonal there. Continue to generate new points until a line is completed within a given range of coordinates. they must be equal because the points are on the same equipotential line. Note that since there are an infinite number of infinite lines.Calculate the electric field ( Ex. Ey / [Ex2 + Ey2] 1/2 (5) (6) Move along the field line from the old point (x. 3. 2. The point generated can be plotted manually and by using the computer programme. go back to step # 01 and choose another starting point. Ex / [Ex2 + Ey2] 1/2 ∆ y = ∆ l .Go back to step # 02 and repeat calculations. .Choose a starting point. it is evident that ∆ x / ∆ l = Ex / Ey = or and ( Ex2 + Ey2) ∆ x = ∆ l . From the figure. After completing the line.y) to a new point x’ = x + ∆ x. as a way of checking the new point calculate the potential at the new and old points using equation (04). y’ = y + ∆ y. Ey ) at the point from equation (3). Ey / [Ex2 + Ey2] 1/2 (7) ∆ y = ∆ l .

y > 5 4. the more accurate the plots but it should be noted that the smaller the value of ∆ l. a line may consist of more than 1000 generated points. For example. the points are usually stored in a data field and a graphics routine is used to plot the data. CHECKS: For both the E-field and equipotential lines. 1.Check whether the equipotential line loops back to the starting point. 3. the more points generate and memory storage may be a problem.Check whether the point generated is too close to a charge location. Although the smaller the value of ∆ l.The value of incremental length ∆ l is crucial for accurate plots.Check whether the point is within the given range of -5 < x. In view of the large number of the points to be plotted. RESULTS: .Check for singularity point E=0 2. insert the following checks in the computer programme.

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