Hunger and World Poverty About 21,000 people die every day of hunger or hunger-related causes, according

to the United Nations. This is one person every four seconds, as you can see on this display. Sadly, it is children who die most often. Yet there is plenty of food in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lack the money to buy enough food to nourish themselves. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and often sick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier. This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families. There are effective programs to break this spiral. For adults, there are “food for work” programs where the adults are paid with food to build schools, dig wells, make roads, and so on. This both nourishes them and builds infrastructure to end the poverty. For children, there are “food for education” programs where the children are provided with food when they attend school. Their education will help them to escape from hunger and global poverty. AIDS AIDS is now second only to the Black Death as the largest epidemic in history. AIDS kills roughly 1.5 million people a year, or about one person every 20 seconds, as you can see here. This death toll surprisingly includes a lot of children, who are often infected with the HIV virus during pregnancy or through breastfeeding. The toll is worst in Africa, where millions of parents have died, leaving children as orphans. Often teachers have died as well, leaving schools empty. Doctors and nurses have died, leaving hospitals and medical clinics with nothing. Farmers have died, leaving crops in the fields. Entire villages have been devastated. Yet AIDS is a preventable and increasingly treatable disease. The huge majority of deaths can be stopped. Through education, the use of condoms, and proper medicine, AIDS has been brought under control in the developed countries. The same can be true in Africa and other poor areas of the world. Tuberculosis In the entire history of humankind, it is believed that tuberculosis has killed more people than any other disease (in shorter periods of time, the epidemics of the Black Death and AIDS have killed more). Tuberculosis dates back to at least 4000 BC and was present in ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, and India. Known as consumption, it was responsible for one in five deaths in 17th century London. Tuberculosis is highly contagious and spreads through the air from coughing. If not treated, a person with TB infects an average of 10 to 15 new people each year. Approximately a million people die annually from tuberculosis in developing countries. In 1995 the World Health Organization launched a multi-pronged tuberculosis program called DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy). Since then it has successfully treated many millions of tuberculosis patients. Funding is needed so that this effective program can expand to reach all the people who need it.

with 1 million fatalities: Africa accounts for 90 percent of malarial deaths and African children account for over 80 percent of malaria victims worldwide.”Source 4 Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. far removed from the scrutiny and the conscience of the world. 22. compared with 25% for the poorest 20%. Access to piped water into the household averages about 85% for the wealthiest 20% of the population. with one in three living on less than $1 a day. about 72 million children of primary school age in the developing world were not in school in 2005. consume around 20 litres per day.Source 9 Water problems affect half of humanity: Some 1. and 2.Source 5 Based on enrollment data.Source 8 Infectious diseases continue to blight the lives of the poor across the world. Almost two in three people lacking access to clean water survive on less than $2 a day. If current trends continue. and more than 385 million on less than $1 a day. the Millennium Development Goals target of halving the proportion of underweight children will be missed by 30 million children.At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day.Source 3 According to UNICEF. 57 per cent of them were girls. but not in their house or yard. 1. And these are regarded as optimistic numbers. with 3 million deaths in 2004. Being meek and weak in life makes these dying multitudes even more invisible in death. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income.8 billion people who have access to a water source within 1 kilometre. Every year there are 350–500 million cases of malaria.Source 1 More than 80 percent of the world’s population lives in countries where income differentials are widening.6 billion lack basic sanitation. largely because of slow progress in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. More than 660 million people without sanitation live on less than $2 a day.000 children die each day due to poverty.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water. In the United Kingdom the average person uses more than 50 litres of . The two regions that account for the bulk of the deficit are South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.Source 2 The poorest 40 percent of the world’s population accounts for 5 percent of global income. And they “die quietly in some of the poorest villages on earth.Source 7 Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn’t happen.Source 6 Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names. An estimated 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS.

or some $28. norms. Dominic Abrams. The highest average water use in the world is in the US. leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision making. restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group.8 million child deaths each year as a result of diarrhoea The loss of 443 million school days each year from water-related illness.[12][13] Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. concluded that Ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population. productivity losses and labour diversions … are greatest in some of the poorest countries. controversial attempts such as quotas or affirmative action have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination themselves.[15] . This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination.) Some 1.… The costs associated with health spending. Sub-Saharan Africa loses about 5% of GDP." It involves the group's initial reaction or interaction. Age Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone's age. policies. To these human costs can be added the massive economic waste associated with the water and sanitation deficit. found that firms are more than 40% more likely to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job applicant. Close to half of all people in developing countries suffering at any given time from a health problem caused by water and sanitation deficits. "in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world. at 600 liters day. even in ones where discrimination is generally looked down upon. professor at The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M.[14] In a survey for the University of Kent. Discriminatory traditions. influencing the individual's actual behavior towards the group or the group leader. and values which used to justify discrimination and/or subordination based on someone's age. 29% of respondents stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. In some places. Joanna Lahey. practices. England. a figure that exceeds total aid flows and debt relief to the region in 2003.Source 10 Discrimination Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category.4 billion annually.water a day flushing toilets (where average daily water usage is about 150 liters a day. ideas. or adolescents and children.[11] Ageism is most often directed towards old people.[10] It is a set of beliefs. social psychology professor at the university. Millions of women spending several hours a day collecting water.

or disallowing one from applying for a job.Disability Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism. and social work that are built to serve 'standard' people. gender identity. (According to a recent report. and multiculturalism in more than two languages. the Americans with Disabilities Act mandates the provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is paralleled by similar acts in other countries. height. to prohibitions of firing. Still unrelated to the requirements of the position. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality.. Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or logocism[by whom?] Anti-discriminatory and inclusive efforts to accommodate persons who speak different languages or cannot have fluency in the country's predominant or "official" language. Commonly. asking questions regarding origin. which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of ‘normal living’. education. thereby excluding those with various disabilities. is often recognized as employment discrimination when the grounds for such an exclusion is not related to the requirements of the position. religion. and weight. 2013) [21] Language Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity. the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups. forced retirement. based on nationality. nationality. people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group. It is sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination[37] although it can be separate. sexual orientation. disability.[dubious – discuss] However. and protected characteristics may include age.[37] Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a "level of acceptance" in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team members. gender. ethnicity. is bilingualism such as official documents in two languages. compensation and pay. only 9% of Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) are women while they are over 60% among accountants and auditors.[citation needed] Employment Denying someone employment. such as the Equality Act 2010 in the UK. etc. class or category. skin color.[dubious – discuss] Discrimination exists if there is prejudicial treatment against a person or a group of people who speak a particular language or dialect.[38] .[citation needed] In the United States. results in public and private places and services. Nationality Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment laws[36] (see below section for employment discrimination specifically). And yet those who reach a high responsibility position are paid on average 16% lower than their male colleagues. Disability discrimination.

Within the criminal justice system in the United States. but account for 18% of the federal prison population as of 2000. By identifying where someone comes from. minorities are convicted and imprisoned disproportionately when compared to the majority. training programs and employment agencies based on race or color. not black enough to be black.[48] Discrimination against racially mixed people: The notion that people can be split into clean categories of race has turned into an unchallenged and non-debated assumption.[49] . Many applications and forms continue to allow only one box to be checked when it comes to race.Not white enough to be white. the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. gender. this makes them easier to identify. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited. Māori made up just 15% of the total population of New Zealand but 49.[40] In the United States. For example. on probation or parole on any given day in the United States. The assumption that race is immutable is deeply embedded in the social and legal construction of race today. testifying.[45] According to the Australian government's June 2006 publication of prison statistics. and national origin.Racial or ethnic Racial discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial differences and has been official government policy in several countries.the feeling of not belonging to or being accepted by one group because you are part of another. yet society let's it determine much of our lives.*47+ A quarter of the people in England's prisons are from an ethnic minority. People of more than one race are not only overlooked by society but often misjudged and represented. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute.[44] Native Americans make up about 2% of Canada's population. judgments can be made. religion.[41] As early as 1866. Experts and politicians said over-representation of black men was a result of decades of racial prejudice in the criminal justice system. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers. or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. assisting. or for making a charge. Race is something created by society.[46] In 2004.5% of prisoners. Racially mixed people can also experience "otherness". such as South Africa in the apartheid era. Māori were entering prison at 8 times the rate of non-Māori. racial profiling of minorities by law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. People of mixed race are constantly subdued to judgment to be put in a category. nearly one out of three black men between the ages of 20-29 were in prison or jail. labor organizations. The Equality and Human Rights Commission found that five times more black people than white people per head of population in England and Wales are imprisoned.[42][43] In 1998. Aborigines make up 24% of the overall prison population in Australia. Discriminatory policies towards ethnic minorities include the race-based discrimination of ethnic Indians and Chinese in Malaysia[39] or discrimination of ethnic Uighurs in China.

[51] The number of Jews permitted to reside in different places was limited. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to Jews. Whereas religious civil liberties. public services and facilities. opportunity.Religious Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. occupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil".*55+ As with other forms of unlawful discrimination there are two types of sex discrimination – direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. an employee based on his or her gender. loan. program. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries. where an unnecessary requirement puts . may have legal consequences. but indirect sex discrimination. and gender-identity Though gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person. equality of status under the law. and public accommodation because of their exercise of their right to religious freedom.[50] Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities. contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on his or her gender. the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Direct sex discrimination is fairly easy to spot – ‘Barmaid wanted’. In a 1979 consultation on the issue. housing. Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking. religious discrimination occurs when someone is denied " the equal protection of the laws. the indigenous Christian population of Balkans (known as "rayah" or "protected flock") lived under the Ottoman Kanun–i–Rayah. education. and equality of opportunity and access to employment. such as the right to hold or not to hold a religious belief. the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending. gender. pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior. The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather than 'flock' or 'subjects' to emphasize the inferior status of the rayah. For instance. carry any legal consequences. In the housing setting there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house. student group. unequally paying. or wrongfully terminating. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. Sex discrimination. equal treatment in the administration of justice. In an educational setting there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution. for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. they were concentrated in ghettos and were not allowed to own land. or scholarship because of his or her gender. such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not."[52] Sex. For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview. normally. Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. are essential for Freedom of Religion (in the United States secured by the First Amendment). on the other hand. or by an employer not hiring or promoting.

violent attacks against them.[63] The PwC research found that among FTSE 350 companies in the United Kingdom in 2002 almost 40% of senior management posts were occupied by women.[59] The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a "glass ceiling" and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. both male to female and female to male.[citation needed] The case actually involves alleged discrimination against both men and blacks in childcare. and human resource managers. They outnumbered men in such occupations as public relations managers. the number of senior management posts held by women had fallen to 22%. refused approval of credit/loan process. especially sex discrimination. which is the consideration of an employee's gender and race in hiring and promotion decisions.[58] However. Nevertheless. the Glass Ceiling Commission. and if there is a burden of unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. and. stated: "Over half of all Master’s degrees are now awarded to women.[62] In 2008. sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women. there are also some psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and emotional perceptions and reactions that may relate to hormones and the successful characteristics of each gender during longstanding roles in past primitive lifestyles.[60] The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination. in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. social isolation. as of fall 2009. yet 95% of senior-level managers. When that research was repeated in 2007. financial managers. it recommended affirmative action. and related occupations.[61] In the United States in 1995.*56+ Another setting where there is usually gender discrimination is when one is refused to extend his or her credit. even when they pass the same strict background tests and other standards of employment. professional. major reviews of the academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women. a government-funded group. difficulty in finding a job. Socially. Men are often the victim in certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and childcare settings traditionally perceived as "women's jobs". as a means to end this form of discrimination. although some are obvious – ‘Bar person wanted – must look good in a mini skirt’. Of them. underachievement. Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society. of the top Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 service companies are men. . It is currently being contended in federal court. One such situation seems to be evident in a recent case concerning alleged YMCA discrimination and a Federal Court Case in sex at a disproportionate disadvantage compared to the opposite sex. and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference. 97% are white. women accounted for 51% of all workers in the high-paying management. is sometimes less easy to spot. occasionally.[65] Transgender individuals." In its report. often experience transphobic problems that often lead to dismissals. the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at transgender individuals or with women.[57] While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women.

According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) 20. with biggest numbers in South East Asia. forced into lives of servitude often accompanied by physical violence and have no realistic choice of leaving the marriage. WHAT TYPES OF SLAVERY EXIST TODAY? Bonded labour affects millions of people around the world. which can even be passed down on to their children. women and children around the world are in slavery. however only one needs to be present for slavery to exist. They are forced to work without pay. treated as a commodity or bought and sold as 'property'. Although that slavery was abolished in 19th century. mines. factories. businesses or governments and forced to work . Some slaves are marched to work at gunpoint.9 million men. slavery still exists today. Many slaves have been tricked by traffickers who lure vulnerable people with false promises of good jobs or education. when we talk about slavery we do not use a metaphor. and they’re unable to walk away.usually under the threat of violence or other penalties. but due to penalties and exorbitant interest rates. farm fields. but it happens nearly everywhere. physically constrained or has restrictions placed on his/her freedom of movement. In the 21st century people are still sold like objects.5 million children around the world. Although its modern forms are different.Slavery There are 21-30 million people in slavery today. no matter how hard they work they are never able to pay off the loan. Child Slavery affects an estimated 5. forced to work for little or no pay and at the complete mercy of their 'employers'. Slavery is illegal everywhere. Someone is in slavery if they are:     forced to work . . There are many different characteristics that distinguish slavery from other human rights violations.through mental or physical threat. or being tricked into taking. Some bonded labourers receive basic food and shelter as 'payment' for their work. Others are trapped by phony debts from unscrupulous moneylenders. gender and races. Forced labour affects people who are illegally recruited by individuals. owned or controlled by an 'employer'. construction sites and private homes. captured Africans. Early and forced marriage predominately affects women and girls who are married without choice. a loan for which they are unable to ever pay off. Contemporary slavery takes various forms and affects people of all ages. You can find them in brothels. Child slavery includes the worst form of child labour and child trafficking. dehumanised. People become bonded labourers by taking. under threat of violence. transported to the West Indies and America to work mainly in the sugar plantations. WHAT IS MODERN SLAVERY? When we think about slavery what comes to mind is the Trans-Atlantic Slavery Trade. restaurants. usually through mental or physical abuse or the threat of abuse.

trafficking. such as forced begging. petty theft. pornography and other illicit activities (ILO 2002) CHILD WORK. Child domestic workers. factories. the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that there are some 8. debt bondage and other forms of forced labour. Trafficking involves transporting people between borders but can also affect Many forms of slavery involve more than one element or form listed above. bars. In these cases. 53 million children under 15 years old are in hazardous work and should be "immediately withdrawn from this work" (ILO 2010). Once at the destination. in prostitution or pornography . Children involved in conflict are severely affected by their experiences and can suffer from long-term trauma. the debt incurred serves as an element of controlling the victims as they are told they cannot leave the job until the debt is paid off . They don't only include child soldiers but also porters or girls taken as “wives” for soldiers and militia members. for example in agriculture.Descent-based slavery involves people who are either born into a 'slave' class or are from a 'group' that society views can be used for slave labour. for little or no pay. as well as being in a hazardous situation. This group of children includes: Children who are used by others who profit from them. illicit activities. restaurants or tourists environment Children who are forced to take part in armed conflict. 8. abuse and threats. CHILD SLAVERY Despite the fact that many people believe that slavery no longer exists.4 million children in slavery or practices similar to slavery (ILO. 115 million children work in the worst forms of child labour (ILO 2010). in hazardous and often abusive environments. and the drug trade.000 child soldiers involved in over 30 areas of conflict worldwide. mines. trafficking often involves an advance payment for the trip and organising a promised job abroad which is borrowed from the traffickers. Although the ILO acknowledged that the data on which these estimates were based was “partial and incomplete”. often through violence. For example. They are all in child slavery.2002). HOW BIG IS THE PROBLEM? There are 215 million child labourers aged between 5 and 17 years old (ILO 2010).4 million children are in slavery. CHILD SLAVERY? . as defined by the 1956 UN Supplementary Slavery Convention. prostitution. CHILD LABOUR. construction. brick kilns. Forced child labour. many of whom are forced to work long hours. There are about 300. Trafficking involves the transport of any person from one area to another for the purpose of forcing them into slavery conditions. there is an intention to exploit these children for someone else’s gain. some even younger than 10 years old. and often far from home. forced recruitment for armed conflict.

2010). but nevertheless hinders children’s education.4 million children in slavery and slavery-like practices. Child labour is not slavery. who are also subject to exploitation by others. it is merely the act of transporting them into exploitative work which constitutes trafficking. including the impact of marriage on children’s education. especially for girls. When children are trafficked. including servile marriage. Estimates suggest that 11 per cent of women aged between 20 and 24 worldwide were married before reaching the age of 15 (UNICEF 2012).” otherwise known as the worst forms of child labour (ILO. Child marraige Marriage involving children under 18 years old remains a widely culturally accepted practice in many corners of the globe. deception or coercion needs to be involved. Child labour According to the ILO. child servitude. However. through. for example. The worst forms of child labour also include the 8. however. children are also bought and sold within and across national borders. for begging. and may even endanger their lives. There has been growing awareness about the negative consequences of child marriage. Estimates for the number of boys in marriage and information on their experiences are notably scarce. children who are working below the legal minimum age for employment. and for work on construction sites. child trafficking and forced labour. This is work that irreversibly threatens children’s health and development. Worst forms of child labour Of the children in child labour. Work can help children learn and develop particular skills that will benefit them and the rest of society. there are over 200 million child labourers around the world. or coercion so they can be exploited as forced or enslaved workers for sex or labour.Child work Some types of work make useful. particularly between couples aged 16 to 18 years. Child marriage can also often operate as a shield behind which slavery and slavery-like practices occur with apparent impunity. Child Trafficking Trafficking involves transporting people away from the communities in which they live. plantations and into domestic work. The vulnerability of these children is even greater when they arrive in another country. some 115 million are engaged in “hazardous work. They are trafficked for sexual exploitation. development and future livelihoods. Often. and risks to their physical and psychological health. and are the priority for us all to address. work is a vital source of income that enables children to help sustain their families. Often they do not have contact with their families and are at the mercy of their employers. many married children can experience levels of suffering. positive contributions to a child's development. exposure to dangerous machinery or toxic substances. Many marriages involving children will not amount to slavery. deception. no violence. For example. . coercion and control that meet international legal definitions of slavery and slavery-like practices. Increasingly. by the threat or use of violence.

For this reason we will use the broader term of family violence. frustration. EFFECTS OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN For some New Zealand children. but around a third of all trafficked people are used exclusively for labour exploitation (for example. Children and young people who experience violence in their families and whānau are more likely than children who have not experienced any form of family violence to: • develop severe behavioural problems • become violent as adolescents • continue the cycle of violence. agricultural work.5 million people who have been trafficked and are being subjected to sexual or labour exploitation. but trafficking for labour exploitation also affects women more than men (56 per cent being women and girls). but the International Labour Organisation (ILO) estimates that at any one time there are some 2. same sex couples. Family violence encompasses inter-generational violence and abuse and recognises all victims. household or community – especially children. Trafficking affects countries and families on every continent. Because of its hidden nature. WHAT IS FAMILY VIOLENCE? The term domestic violence has been used for many years and usually refers to the violence that occurs between two people living in a close relationship including spouses. It refers to the harm caused when an individual physically or psychologically tries to dominate or control another family member. de facto couples. domestic work. family members or even flat-mates. It is only relatively recently that it has been recognised that the violence between those two people impacts greatly on other members of the family. They may display failure to thrive symptoms even as infants. deception or coercion. anger. Research shows that children of all ages are affected if there is violence or abuse between their caregivers and extended family members. cruelty and violence. deception or coercion needs to be involved: simply transporting them into exploitative conditions constitutes trafficking. When children are trafficked.WHAT IS TRAFFICKING IN PEOPLE? Trafficking involves transporting people away from the communities in which they live and forcing them to work against their will using violence. . it is difficult to get accurate statistics on the numbers affacted. There are a number of factors shared by children who have been exposed to domestic violence. no violence. People are trafficked both between countries and within the borders of a state. Most coverage of the trafficking issue has focused on trafficking for sexual exploitation. Trafficking for sexual exploitation almost exclusively affects women and girls (98 per cent). catering or packing and processing). life is like living in a war zone! They live in an environment characterised by fear.

They are more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs. They blame themselves for the violence or their inability to stop it and protect the victim parent. Toddlers • Become very distressed when witnessing violence. • Poor health and development. They may have a fear and distrust of close relationships. They may wet the bed. They often suffer from low self-esteem. They are more often abducted by the abuser parent than other children. stuttering and anxiety. They kill themselves more often than children who do not live with abuse. most often by the abuser parent but sometimes by the victim. . predictability of the violence. They often experience academic problems. • Cry and scream more than normal.They may be aggressive or violent towards siblings or the victim parent in ways similar to the abusive parent. They may experience psychosomatic complaints. They are more likely to commit sexual assaults and other crimes. Children will be affected in different ways depending on a number of factors including their age. The following is only a guide as to some ways in which the harm may affect them: Infants • Poor brain development. They can have a disrupted home life when the victim is forced to flee the home. have low self esteem. They may have poor impulse control. such as stomach pains. headaches. amount of support from other family members. • Be severely shy. resilience. They are more likely to be victim of child physical and sexual abuse. They don’t always recognise socially acceptable or correct behaviour. • Poor sleeping patterns.

• Strong possibility of depression (especially girls). • Continue cycle of violence. • Become rebellious. • Become very withdrawn. • Become aggressive towards victim or other family members (especially boys). • Have the highest levels of depression and aggression (especially girls). WHAT IS HIV? To understand what HIV is. . • Show verbal and physical aggression. kick. • Are argumentative. Pre-schoolers • Blame themselves for the violence. Adolescents • Develop other social networks outside of the family. I – Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. let’s break it down: H – Human – This particular virus can only infect human beings. A "deficient" immune system can't protect you. hit. • Become very distressed. • Regard the victim of the violence as being responsible. • Have difficulty concentrating. pull other children’s hair. Primary school children • Begin to learn that violence is a way of resolving conflict. • Have difficulty at school. V – Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host. • Become anxious and withdrawn.• Bite. • Development and future adult behaviour affected.

WHERE DID HIV COME FROM? Scientists believe HIV came from a particular kind of chimpanzee in Western Africa. you can become infected with HIV. If any of those fluids enter your body. AIDS is a syndrome. If you have AIDS. which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). uses them to make more copies of itself. certain cancers. D – Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient. Recent studies indicate that HIV may have jumped from monkeys to humans as far back as the late 1800s. Over time. HOW DO YOU GET HIV? HIV is found in specific human body fluids. When that happens. because it is a complex illness with a wide range of complications and symptoms. WHICH BODY FLUIDS CONTAIN HIV? HIV lives and reproduces in blood and other body fluids. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems. But there is an important difference – over time. I – Immuno – Your body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease. but HIV invades them. Scientists are still trying to figure out why. S – Syndrome – A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. or a very low number of CD4 cells. Your body has to have these cells to fight infections and disease. We know that HIV can hide for long periods of time in the cells of your body and that it attacks a key part of your immune system – your T-cells or CD4 cells. let’s break it down: A – Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. HIV can destroy so many of your CD4 cells that your body can't fight infections and diseases anymore. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the final stage of HIV infection." or isn't working the way it should. WHAT IS AIDS? To understand what AIDS is. You will be diagnosed with AIDS if you have one or more specific OIs. That isn't the case with HIV – the human immune system can't seem to get rid of it. see CDC’s Basic Information About HIV And AIDS. and then destroys them. We know that the following fluids can contain high levels of HIV: . Humans probably came in contact with HIV when they hunted and ate infected animals. You acquire AIDS after birth. your immune system can clear most viruses out of your body. including those that cause the "flu" or the common cold. you will need medical intervention and treatment to prevent death. HIV infection can lead to AIDS.Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lot like other viruses. For more information. rather than a single disease.

those body fluids can deliver the virus into your bloodstream through microscopic breaks or rips in the delicate linings of your vagina. sweat. if infected body fluids get in them. unless they have blood mixed in them and you have significant and direct contact with them. Rips in these areas are very common and mostly unnoticeable. or breastfeeding: Babies have constant contact with their mother’s body fluids-including amniotic fluid and blood-throughout pregnancy and childbirth. During pregnancy. rectum. saliva. HIV can also enter through open sores. Healthcare workers may be exposed to some other body fluids with high concentrations of HIV.      Blood Semen (cum) Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum) Breast milk Vaginal fluids Rectal (anal) mucous Other body fluids and waste products—like feces. or vaginal sex with a partner. As a result of injection drug use: Injecting drugs puts you in contact with blood-your own and others. you will usually have contact with your partner’s body fluids. or into an open sore or cut. if you share needles and “works”. . For more information. including: Amniotic fluid Cerebrospinal fluid Synovial fluid HOW IS HIV TRANSMITTED THROUGH BODY FLUIDS? HIV is transmitted through body fluids in very specific ways: During sexual contact: When you have anal. You need to know that it’s much easier to get HIV (or to give it to someone else). If your partner has HIV. or vomit—don’t contain enough HIV to infect you. or mouth. like those caused by herpes or syphilis. see CDC's The Role Of STD Detection And Treatment In HIV Prevention. childbirth. oral. you can come into contact with infected blood or other fluids through needle sticks or cuts. nasal fluid. A few healthcare workers have been infected when body fluids splashed into their eyes. As a result of occupational exposure: Healthcare workers have the greatest risk for this type of HIV transmission. if you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD). After birth. mouth. penis. infants can get HIV from drinking infected breast milk. As a result of a blood transfusion with infected blood or an organ transplant from an infected donor: Screening requirements make both of these forms of HIV transmission very rare in the United States. tears. urine. If you work in a healthcare setting. Needles or drugs that are contaminated with HIV-infected blood can deliver the virus directly into your body. vulva.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF HIV? The symptoms of HIV vary. Symptoms can include: Fever (this is the most common symptom) Swollen glands Sore throat Rash Fatigue Muscle and joint aches and pains Headache These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. vaginal or anal sex without a condom with a known HIV positive person or a partner whose HIV status you do not know or shared needles to inject drugs—get an HIV test. This is because of “highly active” combinations of medications that were introduced in the mid 1990s.HOW DO YOU GET AIDS? AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection. Conversely. Each of these symptoms can be caused by other illnesses. it is very important to let your provider know that you may have been recently infected with HIV and you would like to be tested for acute HIV. you should not assume you have HIV if you have any of these symptoms. people can live much longer . not everyone who is infected with HIV develops ARS. However. Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for 10 years or more. A new HIV test was approved in 2013 that can detect the presence of HIV in your body during this early stage of infection. But during this early stage your body is not yet producing these antibodies. Before the development of certain medications. but not all.” This is called “acute retroviral syndrome” (ARS) or “primary HIV infection. You cannot rely on symptoms to know whether you have HIV. EARLY STAGE OF HIV: SYMPTOMS Within 2-4 weeks after HIV infection. Currently.” and it’s the body’s natural response to the HIV infection. The only way to know for sure if you are infected with HIV is to get tested. people experience flu-like symptoms.with HIV before they develop AIDS. So no matter where you get tested. many. depending on the individual and what stage of the disease you are in. people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Traditional HIV tests detect HIV antibodies. If you think you have recently been exposed to HIV—if you have had oral. Read more about how HIV causes AIDS.even decades . often described as the “worst flu ever. Use the HIV/AIDS Testing and Services Locator to find a HIV testing site near you or enter your location here: . when a person’s immune system is severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers.

(Read more about HIV treatment. eventually the HIV virus will weaken your body’s immune system. people infected with HIV may have the following symptoms: Rapid weight loss Recurring fever or profuse night sweats Extreme and unexplained tiredness Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits. During this late stage of HIV infection. brown. or eyelids . or only mild ones. or genitals Pneumonia Red. For this reason. Tests are available that can detect the virus at this stage. or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth. The onset of symptoms signals the transition from the clinical latency stage to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). it is very important to take steps to reduce your risk of transmission. although ART greatly reduces the risk of transmission.) For people who are not on ART. although it is still active. the HIV virus reproduces at very low levels. If you take antiretroviral therapy (ART). Use the HIV/AIDS Testing and Services Locator to find a HIV testing site near you. groin. PROGRESSION TO AIDS: SYMPTOMS If you have HIV and you are not taking HIV medication (antiretroviral therapy). this clinical latency stage lasts an average of 10 years. It is important to remember that people in this symptom-free period are still able to transmit HIV to others even if they are on ART.”) During the clinical latency stage. (This stage is sometimes called “asymptomatic HIV infection” or “chronic HIV infection. nose.It is important to remember that with or without symptoms. “Latency” means a period where a virus is living or developing in a person without producing symptoms. THE CLINICAL LATENCY STAGE After the early stage of HIV infection. but some people may progress through this phase faster. you are at particularly high risk of transmitting HIV to your sexual or drug using partners during this time because the levels of HIV in your blood stream are very high. pink. you may live with clinical latency for several decades because treatment helps keep the virus in check. the only way to know for sure if you are infected with HIV is to get tested. or neck Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week Sores of the mouth. people who are infected with HIV experience no HIV-related symptoms. Again. During the clinical latency stage. the disease moves into a stage called the “clinical latency” stage. anus.

Prevention has helped to reduce HIV prevalence rates in a small but growing number of countries and new HIV infections are believed to be on the decline. communities. Despite these challenges. most people living with HIV or at risk for HIV do not have access to prevention. particularly in the last decade. (Read more about opportunistic illnesses. Many of the severe symptoms and illnesses of HIV disease come from the opportunistic infections that occur because your body’s immune system has been damaged. So. food insecurity. and the development and economic growth of nations. and treatment. has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges: 33. care. Many of the countries hardest hit by HIV also suffer from other infectious diseases.) THE GLOBAL HIV/AIDS CRISIS TODAY HIV. the only way to know for sure if you are infected with HIV is to get tested. and other neurologic disorders. Each of these symptoms can be related to other illnesses.and middle-income countries. particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.4 million are currently living with HIV/AIDS. and other serious problems. the virus that causes AIDS. In addition. reaching an estimated 4 million by 2008. . The HIV epidemic not only affects the health of individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO). and another 2. as noted above. the number of people with HIV receiving treatment in resource poor countries has increased 10-fold since 2002. While cases have been reported in all regions of the world. depression. it impacts households. In 2008.Memory loss. New global efforts have been mounted to address the epidemic. and there is still no cure. 2 million people died due to HIV/AIDS. More than 25 million people have died of AIDS worldwide since the first cases were reported in 1981. almost all those living with HIV (97%) reside in low.7 million were newly infected. there have been successes and promising signs.

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