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Type of Electrical Power Distribution systems September 5, 2011 1 Comment Type of Electrical Power Distribution Systems: Electrical power

power is distribution either three wires or Four wires (3 wire for phases and 1 wire for eutral!" #olta$e between %hase to %hase Called &ine #olta$e and #olta$e between %hase and eutral is Called %hase #olta$e" 'his Forth wire ma( or ma( not be distributed in )istribution S(stem and Same wa( this neutral ma( or ma( not be earthed )ependin$ of this neutral condition (Earthed*not Earthed*access*not access! there are +arious t(pe of earthin$ S(stem" 'he neutral ma( be directl( connected to earth or connected throu$h a resistor or a reactor" 'his s(stem is called directl( earthed or Earthed S(stem" ,hen a connection has not been made between the neutral point and earth, we sa( that the neutral is unearthed" -n a networ., the earthin$ s(stem pla(s a +er( important role" ,hen an insulation fault occurs or a phase is accidentall( earthed, the +alues ta.en b( the fault currents, the touch +olta$es and o+er +olta$es are closel( lin.ed to the t(pe of neutral earthin$ connection" / directl( earthed neutral stron$l( limits o+er +olta$es but it causes +er( hi$h fault currents, here as an unearthed neutral limits fault currents to +er( low +alues but encoura$es the occurrence of hi$h o+er +olta$es" -n an( installation, ser+ice continuit( in the e+ent of an insulation fault is also directl( related to the earthin$ s(stem" /n unearthed neutral permits ser+ice continuit( durin$ an insulation fault" Contrar( to this, a directl( earthed neutral, or low impedance*earthed neutral, causes trippin$ as soon as the first insulation fault occurs" 'he choice of earthin$ s(stem in both low +olta$e and medium +olta$e networ.s depends on the t(pe of installation as well as the t(pe of networ." -t is also influenced b( the t(pe of loads and ser+ice continuit( re0uired" 'he 1ain ob2ecti+es of an earthin$ s(stem are %ro+ide an alternati+e path for the fault current to flow so that it will not endan$er the user, Ensure that all e3posed conducti+e parts do not reach a dan$erous potential, 1aintain the +olta$e at an( part of an electrical s(stem at a .nown +alue and pre+ent o+er current or e3cessi+e +olta$e on the appliances or e0uipment" )ifferent earthin$ s(stems are capable of carr(in$ different amounts of o+er current" Since the amount of o+er current produced in different t(pes of installation differs from each other, re0uired t(pe of earthin$ will also differ accordin$ to the t(pe of installation" so in order to ensure that the installation $oes with the e3istin$ earthin$ s(stem or else to do an( modification accordin$l(, we need to ha+e a proper idea of the present earthin$ s(stem" -t would enhance the safet( as well as the reliabilit( /s per -EC 40345*3 'here are three t(pes of s(stems:

(1! 6nearthed S(stem: -' S(stem"

(2! Earthed S(stem:

'' ' (' *S, ' *C, ' *C*S!" 'he first letter defines the neutral point in relation to earth:

1" ' 7 directl( earthed neutral (from the French word 'erre! 2" - 7unearthed or hi$h impedance*earthed neutral (e"$" 2,000 8! 'he second letter defines the e3posed conducti+e parts of the electrical installation in relation to earth:

1" ' 7directl( earthed e3posed conducti+e parts 2" 7e3posed conducti+e parts directl( connected to the neutral conductor 6nearthed S(stem: (1) IT system unearthed (High Impedance earthed neutral) First &etter -7 the neutral is unearthed at 'ransformer or 9enerator side" Second &etter '7 Frame parts of the loads are interconnected and earthed at &oad Side

-t is compulsor( to install an o+er +olta$e limiter between the 1#:&# transformer neutral point and earth" -f the neutral is not accessible, the o+er+olta$e limiter is installed between a phase and earth" -t runs off e3ternal o+er +olta$es, transmitted b( the transformer, to the earth and protects the low +olta$e networ. from a +olta$e increase due to flasho+er between the transformer;s medium +olta$e and low +olta$e windin$s"

d!antages" 1" S(stem pro+idin$ the best ser+ice continuit( durin$ use" 2" ,hen an insulation fault occurs, the short*circuit current is +er( low" 3" <i$her operational safet( onl( a capaciti+e current flows, which is caused b( the s(stem lea.a$e capacitance if an earth fault occurs"

5" =etter accident pre+ention the fault current is limited b( the bod( impedance, earthin$ resistance and the hi$h impedance of the earth fault loop" Disad!antages" 1" >e0uires presence of maintenance personnel to monitor and locate the first fault durin$ use" 2" >e0uires a $ood le+el of networ. insulation (<i$h lea.a$e current must be supplied b( insulatin$ transformers!" 3" ?+er+olta$e limiters must be installed" 5" >e0uires all the installation;s e3posed conducti+e parts to be Same #olta$e le+el" -f this is not possible >C)s must be installed" 5" &ocatin$ faults is difficult in widespread networ.s" 4" ,hen an insulation fault with reference to the earth occurs, the +olta$e of the two health( phases in relation to the earth ta.e on the +alue of the phase*to* phase +olta$e So when Select Si@e of e0uipments it is need to hi$her insulation le+el of the E0uipments" A" 'he ris. of hi$h internal o+er +olta$es$ it ad+isable to reinforce the e0uipment insulation" B" 'he compulsor( insulation monitorin$, with +isual and audible indication of the first fault if trippin$ is not tri$$ered until the second fault occurs" C" %rotection a$ainst direct and indirect contact is not $uaranteed" 10" 10" Short*circuit and earth fault currents ma( cause fires and destro( parts of the plant" Earthed S(stem: (1! '' s(stem directl( earthed neutral First letter '7the neutral is directl( earthed" Second letter '7 the e3posed conducti+e parts of the loads are interconnected and earthed" 'he transformer neutral is earthedD 'he frames of the electrical loads are also connected to an earth connection

System characteristics" 1" <i$h earth fault loop impedance 2" &ow earth fault current 3" 6tilit( compan( need not to pro+ide earth for consumer

d!antages" 1" sa+e earth wires 2" 'he bi$ ad+anta$e of the '' earthin$ s(stem is the fact that it is clear of hi$h and low fre0uenc( noises that come throu$h the neutral wire from +arious electrical e0uipment connected to it" 3" '' has alwa(s been preferable for special applications li.e telecommunication sites that benefit from the interference*free earthin$ 5" )oes not ha+e the ris. of a bro.en neutral" 5" 'he simplest s(stem to desi$n, implement, monitor and use" 4" Easil( find location of faults" A" 6pon occurrence of an insulation fault, the short*circuit current is small" B" >educes the ris. of o+er +olta$es occurrin$" C" /uthori@es the use of e0uipment with a normal phase to earth insulatin$ le+el" Disad!antages" 1" 2" 3" 5" 5" 4" A" <i$h demand of E:F rela(s" -ndi+idual earth s(stem needs hi$her in+estment" <i$her touch +olta$e" -nduce %otential $radient" Switchin$ upon occurrence of the first insulation fault" 6se of an >C) on each out$oin$ feeder to obtain total selecti+it(" Special measures must be ta.en for the loads or parts of the installation causin$ hi$h lea.a$e currents durin$ normal operation in order to a+oid spurious trippin$ (feed the loads b( insulatin$ transformers or use hi$h threshold >C)s, compatible with the e3posed conducti+e part earth resistance!" B" #er( hi$h fault currents leadin$ to ma3imum dama$e and disturbance in telecommunication networ.s" C" 'he ris. for personnel is hi$h while the fault lastsD the touch +olta$es which de+elop bein$ hi$h" 10" >e0uires the use of differential protection de+ices so that the fault clearance time is not lon$" 'hese s(stems are costl(" (#)T$ System" $eutral%connected e&posed conducti!e part First &etter ' 7 the neutral is directl( earthed at 'ransformer" Second &etter 7the Frames of Electrical loads are connected to the neutral Conductor" 'here are two t(pes of ' s(stems, dependin$ on whether the neutral conductor and Earth conductor are combined or not:

(a)T$%'" -n ' C S(stem (the third letter C7combined eutral and Earth Conductor!, the neutral and Earth conductors are combined in a sin$le conductor and earthed at source end" 'his Combined eutral*Earth wire is than distributed to &oad side"

-n 'his S(stem Earthin$ connections must be e+enl( placed alon$ the len$th of the eutral*(Earth! conductor to a+oid potential rises in the e3posed conducti+e parts at &oad Side if a fault occurs" 'his s(stem must not be used for copper cross*sections of less than 10 mmE and aluminum cross*sections of less than 14 mmE, as well as downstream of a ' S s(stem (/s per -EC 40345*5!"

System 'haracteristics" 1" &ow earth fault loop impedance" 2" <i$h earth fault current" 3" 1ore than one earth fault loops" d!antages" 1" o earth wire re0uiredD allow of multi*point earth, 2" =etter earthin$ continuit(" 3" eutral ne+er ha+e float +olta$e" 5" -mpedance of earth fault loop could be predicted" 5" 'he ' C s(stem ma( be less costl( upon installation (elimination of one switch$ear pole and one conductor!" Disad!antages" 1" -f not multi*point earthed, and the neutral earth bro.en, the e3posed metallic part ma( ha+e float +olta$e" 2" <i$h earth fault le+el, 3" inter+ene the operation of earth fault protecti+e de+ice" 5" current operated t(pe de+ice is not appropriated, +olta$e detected t(pe could be emplo(ed" 5" 'hird and multiples of third harmonics circulate in the protecti+e conductor (' C s(stem!" 4" 'he fire ris. is hi$her and, moreo+er, it cannot be used in places presentin$ a fire ris. (' C s(stem!" (b)T$%S"

-n ' *S s(stem (the third letter S7Separate eutral and Earth Conductor! neutral of the source of ener$( is connected with earth at one point onl(, $enerall( near to the Source" 'he neutral and Earth conductors are separatel( distributed to load" -n 'his S(stem Earthin$ connections must be e+enl( placed alon$ the len$th of the eutral*(Earth! conductor to a+oid potential rises in the e3posed conducti+e parts at &oad Side if a fault occurs" 'his s(stem must not be used upstream of a ' C s(stem"

System characteristic" 1" &ow earth fault loop impedance 2" <i$h earth fault current d!antages" 1" 6se of o+er current protecti+e de+ices to ensure protection a$ainst indirect contact" 2" Earth fault protection de+ice operates faster" 3" /llow multi point earth, better earthin$ continuit(D minimi@e the use of earth fault rela( because of low earth fault loop impedance" Disad!antages" 1" Switchin$ on occurrence of the first insulation fault" 2" 'he ' C s(stem in+ol+es the use of fi3ed and ri$id$s 3" >e0uires earthin$ connections to be e+enl( placed in the installation so that the protecti+e conductor remains at the same potential as the earth" 5" / trippin$ chec. on occurrence of the insulation fault should be carried out, if possible, when the networ. is bein$ desi$ned usin$ calculations, and must be performed durin$ commissionin$ usin$ measurementsD this chec. is the onl( $uarantee that the s(stem operates both on commissionin$ and durin$ operation, as well as after an( .ind of wor. on the networ. (modification, e3tension!" 5" %assa$e of the protecti+e conductor in the same$s as the li+e conductors of the correspondin$ circuits" 4" hi$h earth fault le+el under earth fault condition, A" low power factor (hi$h inductance of lon$ cable! B" >e0uires e3tra e0ual potential bondin$"

C" ?n occurrence of an insulation fault, the short*circuit current is hi$h and ma( cause dama$e to e0uipment or electroma$netic disturbance" (c)T$%'%S System" 'he eutral and Earth wires are combined within the suppl( cable" '(picall( this will be a concentric cable, with the li+e as the central core, and a rin$ of wires around this for the combined neutral and earth" /t the propert(, the eutral and Earth are separated, with the earth terminal usuall( bein$ on the side of the cutout" -nside the cutout, the li+e and neutral are lin.ed" 'hrou$hout the suppl( networ., the combined earth:neutral conductor is connected to the $round in multiple places, either buried under$round or at the poles for o+erhead supplies" 'his multiple earthin$ is wh( a ' CS suppl( is often called %1E (%rotecti+e 1ultiple Earthin$!"

d!antages" Cost for core cable is cheaper than a 3 core " /s the outer sheath is usuall( plastic, there are no problems with corrosion"

Disad!antage" ,hen the combined earth:neutral conductor is bro.en" 'his results in a +olta$e appearin$ on the e3posed metalwor. in the customer;s propert(, which can be a shoc. ris." 'his happens as the earth and neutral are connected in the cutout, and there is no direct connection to the $round other than in the suppl( networ." -n the e+ent of a fault, the current flowin$ in the customer;s earthin$ conductors can be much $reater that for a ' S s(stem" -t is also possible to $et unusual circulatin$ earth currents between properties, particularl( where some properties ha+e metal water pipes and others ha+e plastic