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Recognition System for Power Quality Events

M. V. Chilukuri, Member, IEEE, and P. K. Dash, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—The paper proposes a novel fuzzy pattern recogni- chosen apriori and this imposes limitations for the analysis of

tion system for power quality disturbances. It is a two-stage system low-frequency and high-frequency nonstationary signals at the

in which a mulitersolution S-transform is used to generate a set same time. In contrast to Fourier transform-based technologies,

of optimal feature vectors in the first stage. The multiresolution

S-transform is based on a variable width analysis window, which the wavelet transform [2]–[7] uses short windows at high fre-

changes with frequency according to a user-defined function. Thus, quencies and long windows at low frequencies; thus closely

the resolution in time or the related resolution in frequency is a monitoring the characteristics of nonstationary signals. These

general function of the frequency and two parameters, which can characteristics of the wavelet transform provide an automated

be chosen according to signal characteristics. The multiresolution detection, localization, and classification of power quality dis-

S-transform can be seen either as a phase-corrected version of the

wavelet transform or a variable window short time Fourier trans- turbance waveforms.

form that simultaneously localizes both real and imaginary spectra Although wavelet multiresolution analysis combined with a

of the signal. The features obtained from S-transform analysis of large number of neural networks provides efficient classification

the power quality disturbance signals are much more amenable for of power quality (PQ) events, the time-domain featured distur-

pattern recognition purposes unlike the currently available wavelet bances, such as sags, swells, etc. may not easily be classified [8],

transform techniques. In stage two, a fuzzy logic-based pattern

recognition system is used to classify the various disturbance wave- [9]. In addition, if an important disturbance frequency compo-

forms generated due to power quality violations. The fuzzy ap- nent is not precisely extracted by the wavelet transform, which

proach is found to be very simple and classification accuracy is consists of octave band-pass filters, the classification accuracy

more than 98% in most cases of power quality disturbances. may also be limited. This paper, therefore, presents a general-

Index Terms—Fuzzy logic, multiresolution analysis, pattern ized S-transform derived from STFT [10] for the detection, lo-

recognition, power quality, S-transform, short time Fourier calization of PQ disturbance signals. The S-transform is essen-

transform, variable window, wavelet transform. tially a variable window STFT whose window width varies in-

versely with the frequency. The S-transform produces a time-

I. INTRODUCTION frequency representation of a time varying signal by uniquely

combining the frequency dependent resolution with simultane-

concern for electric utilities and their customers over

the last decade. Poor quality is attributed due to the various

ously localizing the real and imaginary spectra. The S-transform

is similar to the wavelet transform but with a phase correction

and here both the amplitude and phase spectrum of the signal are

power line disturbances like voltage sag, swell, impulsive, and obtained. Since the S-transform provides the local spectrum of a

oscillatory transients, multiple notches, momentary interrup- signal, the time averaging of the local spectrum gives the Fourier

tions, harmonics, and voltage flicker, etc. In order to improve transform. The S-transform of a PQ disturbance signal provides

the quality of electrical power, it is customary to continuously contours, which closely resemble the disturbance pattern unlike

record the disturbance waveforms using power-monitoring the wavelet transform, and hence, the features extracted from

instruments. Unfortunately, most of these recorders rely on it are very suitable for developing highly efficient and accurate

visual inspection of data record creating an unprecedented classification scheme. Further, the S-transform analysis of time

volume of data to be inspected by engineers. varying signal yields all of the quantifiable parameters for local-

The Fourier transform (FT) [1] has been used as an analyzing ization, detection, and quantification of the signal. This paper

tool for extracting the frequency contents of the recorded sig- also presents the design of a simple fuzzy-based classification

nals. However, due to constant bandwidth, the FT is not an effi- scheme using the features from the S-transform and the clas-

cient technique for capturing short-term transients like impulses sification accuracy is very high even in the presence of random

and oscillatory transients in a power system. noise. Several simulated PQ waveforms are tested using this new

Also, the time-evolving effects of the frequency in nonsta- classifier.

tionary signals have not been considered in FT analysis. Al-

though the short time Fourier transform (STFT) can partly al-

leviate the problem, it has the limitation of fixed window width II. MULTIRESOLUTION S-TRANSFORM

The Fourier transform of a time varying signal is given

Manuscript received August 12, 2002. by

The authors are with the Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia Uni-

versity, Cyberjaya 63100, Malaysia. (e-mail: mvchilukuri@ieee.org;

pradipta.dash@mmu.edu.my). (1)

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2003.820180

324 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 19, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004

The spectrum is referred to as the “time-averaged and discrete version of the S-transform of is obtained as

spectrum.” If the signal is multiplied point by point with (by letting and )

window function , then the resulting spectrum is

(11)

(2)

function in the form of a normalized Gaussian as

(12)

(3) , , , and , and total

number of samples.

and then allowing the Gaussian to be a function of translation The discrete inverse of S-transform is obtained as

and dilation (window width) . The window width is made

proportional to the inverse of frequency and is chosen as

(13)

(4)

The computation of the multiresolution S-transform is very ef-

If , denotes S-transform and for , ficient using convolution theorem and FFT. The computational

denotes a STFT. A typical value of b varies between 0.333 to steps are outlined as follows.

5, giving different frequency resolutions. For low frequencies, a 1) Denote , , , and as , , , and ,

higher value of b is chosen and for high frequencies, lower value respectively, for all of the computations.

of b is chosen to provide suitable frequency resolutions. 2) Obtain discrete Fourier transform of the original

The FT of the window function is obtained as time-varying signal , with points and sample in-

terval , using FFT routine from (10).

(5) 3) Compute the localizing Gaussian for the required

frequency using (12).

S-transform produces a multiresolution analysis like a bank of

4) Shift the spectrum to for the frequency

filters with a constant relative bandwidth (constant analysis).

by using convolution theorem.

The analysis window is Gaussian and

5) Determine .

6) Compute inverse Fourier transform of from to

(6) to give the row of corresponding to the frequency

.

Therefore 7) Repeat steps 3, 4, and 5 until all of the rows of

corresponding to all discrete frequencies have been ob-

(7) tained.

The total number of operations for computing S-transform is

Substituting (3) and (4) in (2), we get the S-transform of .

as The multiresolution S-transform output is a complex matrix,

the rows of which are the frequencies and the columns are the

(8) time values. Each column thus represents the “local spectrum”

for that point in time. Also, frequency-time contours having the

Since is complex, it can also be written as same amplitude spectrum are obtained to detect, and localize

power disturbance events. A mesh three-dimensional (3-D) of

(9) the S-transform output yields frequency-time, amplitude-time,

and frequency-amplitude plots. The original software code de-

where is amplitude S-spectrum and is the phase veloped by Stockwell [10] in Matlab has been modified by the

S-spectrum. It can be noted that the S-transform improves the authors for power quality waveform studies.

STFT in that it has a better resolution in phase space (i.e., a To illustrate the use of multiresolution S-transform for non-

more narrow time window for higher frequencies) giving a fun- stationary signal analysis, a 50% voltage sag of three-cycles du-

damentally more sound time frequency representation. The dis- ration is created for a pure sinusoidal voltage waveform in a

crete version of the S-transform is calculated by taking the ad- data window of eight cycles (using a sampling rate of 32 sam-

vantage of the efficiency of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and ples/cycle). The time-frequency contours and 3-D mesh for the

the convolution theorem. The discrete Fourier transform of the signal shown in Fig. 1(a) are shown in Fig. 1(b) and (c), respec-

sampled signal , is tively. From the 3-D plot, one can find the magnitude, frequency,

and time informations to detect, localize, and visually classify

(10) the event. Also, it is observed that the increase or decrease of

the signal magnitude can be deduced from the innermost (or the

CHILUKURI AND DASH: MULTIRESOLUTION S-TRANSFORM-BASED FUZZY RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR POWER QUALITY EVENTS 325

Fig. 1. (a) Fifty-percent voltage sag. (b) S-transform contours of 50% voltage voltage swell. (c) 3-D S-transform plot of 50% voltage swell.

sag. (c) 3-D S-transform plot of 50% voltage sag.

lowest level) contour. Similar plots are shown for three-cycle

and these contours clearly reveal the nature of the disturbances

duration voltage swell in a pure sinusoidal voltage waveform in

in the presence of noise. For example, Fig. 3(a) presents the ac-

Fig. 2. In all of the plots, the frequency magnitude is nor-

tual signal showing nearly three-cycles voltage sag. In Fig. 3(b),

malized with respect to the sampling frequency and is given

the normalized time-frequency contour obtained from S-trans-

by . From these results, it is quite obvious that in case of

form is shown. This contour gives the maximum output of the

S-transform output, one can detect, localize, and quantify the

normalized frequency-time graph, although other contours are

disturbance completely. However, the wavelet transform alone

generated showing the pattern of a contour magnitude reduction

cannot give all of the information which is extracted from the

during voltage sag. Fig. 3(c) gives the magnitude-time spectrum

S-transform and requires the use of Fourier transform [8], [9]

obtained by searching rows of S-transform matrix.

for quantifications of the signal magnitude, total harmonic dis-

This figure clearly shows the voltage sag amplitude and

tortions, etc.

the time of its occurrence. In Fig. 3(d), the normalized

frequency-time plot is shown, which gives the maximum

III. S-TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF PQ EVENTS

frequency content of the voltage signal shown in Fig. 3(a).

The various power quality disturbance signals considered for Figs. 3–10(a)–(d) show similar plots as in Fig. 3 obtained from

the S-transform analysis are voltage sag, swell, interruption, os- the S-transform analysis. The time-frequency contours of the

cillatory transients, spike (single and multiple), notch (single S-transform output shows a decrease or increase in magni-

and multiple). These signals are simulated using Matlab code tude for voltage sag and swell, and multiple high-frequency

and are mixed with random white noise of zero mean having contours in case of transients, which provide a better visual

signal to noise ratio (SNR) varying from 50 to 20 dB. For a classification strategy in comparison to the wavelet transform

typical noise of dB, the peak noise magnitude is (similar to time versus rms or peak value of voltage). The

3.5% of the peak signal magnitude. The sampling frequency magnitude versus time graph in Figs. 3–5 quantify the sag,

of 1.6 kHz is chosen for the PQ event analysis in this paper. swell, and interruption. In all other cases like notches, voltage,

Figs. 3–10 show the time-frequency contours of some of the and oscillatory transients, etc., there is either a fall or rise from

326 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 19, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004

the normal value in the magnitude versus time graph (graph voltage impulses, etc., it will be useful to get S-transform

of Figs. 6, 7, and 10). In analyzing oscillatory transients, output for another window width . component in the

CHILUKURI AND DASH: MULTIRESOLUTION S-TRANSFORM-BASED FUZZY RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR POWER QUALITY EVENTS 327

2) , with where , ,

are standard deviations of contours 1, 2, 3 designated

as , , , respectively.

3) An amplitude factor is obtained as

(14)

where

max (max (abs(s))) with PQD;

min (max (abs(s'))) with PQD;

max (max (abs(s))) with no PQD;

min (max (abs(s'))) with no PQD;

power quality disturbance;

S-transform matrix (complex);

transpose of S-transform matrix.

4) instant of occurrence of the disturbance (obtained

Fig. 9. Voltage harmonics. from the first peak of the time-frequency contour );

5) duration of occurrence of the disturbance (duration

between two peaks of contour ).

The standard deviations of the time-frequency representa-

tions of the signal in the form of contours can be considered as

a measure of the energy for a signal with zero mean. Instead of

taking all of the contours to give overall measure of standard

deviation, only the most significant contour is chosen for

classification of the disturbance in this paper. The amplitude

factor provides the accurate quantification of signal mag-

nitudes during short-duration steady-state power frequency

disturbance events. However, this factor is also very significant

as it is able to distinguish transient events, steady state events,

and harmonic distortions. To illustrate the relative values of

these features, several typical PQ events like voltage sag, swell,

interruption, transients, spike, notch, etc., are simulated using

Matlab code and a random noise level of 3.5% of the signal is

added to all of these disturbances. Table I shows the features at

Fig. 10. Switching transient. two different window widths ( and ).

The features described in Table I are used to convert the visual

power quality disturbance waveform. The S-transform output recognition of these time graphs to an automated pattern recog-

at different frequency resolutions will be required for classi- nition system by using fuzzy logic or neural network approach.

fication of high-frequency transients, impulses, notches, etc., From the table, it is quite obvious that for low-frequency and

since it yields some more parameters for discriminating various power frequency steady state disturbances (voltage sag, swell,

types of transient disturbances. It is observed that the standard interruption, and harmonics) , are small and less than 0.05.

deviation of second contour at is an important parameter In case of oscillatory transients, both , , where

to distinguish between transients, impulses, and notches. as in case of spikes and notches and .

The amplitude factor clearly distinguishes steady state power

IV. PQ DISTURBANCE RECOGNITION SYSTEM frequency voltage disturbances and harmonics from the tran-

sients in that its value quantifies the type of disturbance. For

Power quality disturbance recognition is a difficult problem,

example, for voltage sag of 10% in the presence of 30 dB noise,

because it involves a broad range of disturbance categories

and for 90% sag, . With noise level of

and varying degree of irregularities. Description of PQ events

40 dB, , for 10% sag and for 90% sag. Sim-

considered for recognition is outlined in Section III. The

ilarly, for voltage swell of 90% and for 10% swell

generalized S-transform generates the time frequency con-

. After analyzing these features, an automated distur-

tours, which clearly display the disturbance pattern for visual

bance recognition system is presented below.

inspection. These contours provide features, which can be used

by a fuzzy logic or neural network-based pattern recognition

V. FUZZY RECOGNITION OF POWER QUALITY EVENTS

systems for classifying these disturbance frequency regions for

amplitude frequency and amplitude time plots. Although the neural network classifiers for PQ event recog-

The following important features are used for pattern classi- nition have been extensively studied by several researchers,

fication: the fuzzy logic-based recognition scheme offers a very simple

328 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 19, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004

TABLE I

MULTIRESOLUTION S-TRANSFORM FEATURES FOR FUZZY

RECOGNITION SYSTEM

wavelet-based neural classifier (12 neural networks are used)

Fig. 12. Membership functions of standard deviation of contour 1 for b = 1=3.

[6] or fuzzy neural classifiers [7] (180 rules are used), the

S-transform-based fuzzy classifier is constructed with just 15

strength of the rules as , , , , , .

to 20 rules. The trapezoidal membership functions are used to

Here, the suffix N, SA, SW, etc., denote the class of the wave-

fuzzifying the features (or ) and . Figs. 11–13 show

form like normal, sag, swell, etc. The maximum of the above

the fuzzy sets , , , , , , , and for the

firing strengths is found as

above features. The following fuzzy rule base is used:

R1: If is and is , then ; (16)

R2: If is and is , then ;

R3: If is and is , then ; The value of in the above string, which becomes is

R4: If is and is , then ; the waveform class. Although 14 rules were adequate for clas-

R5: If is and is , then ; sifying some of the important power quality violations, many

R6: If is and is , then ; other rules may be required for practical waveforms and wave-

R7: If is and is , then ; forms corrupted with large amounts of noise. The duration of the

R8: If is and is , then ; disturbance signal can be used to identify whether the dis-

R9: If is and is , then ; turbance class belongs to instantaneous, momentary, or tempo-

R10: If is and is , then ; rary category. The classification results are presented in Table II

R11: If is and is , then ; for different noise levels in the signal varying from 40 to 20

R12: If is and is , then ; dB. The total number of simulated events is nearly 800 and the

R13: If is and is , then ; number of events belonging to each class is 100.

R14: If is and is , then . As seen from Table II, the classification accuracy for 20-dB

From the above fuzzy rule base, the strength of each rule noise is found to be lowest and as the noise level reduced to

is evaluated by Zadeh’s AND or product 30 dB, the classification accuracy improves considerably and is

rules. In case where there are several rules having the same 96.5% average.

consequent part, Zadeh’s OR rules is used. For example, if a

product rule is used for firing strength calculation VI. DISCUSSIONS

From Figs. 1–3, the S-transform contours and associated

magnitude versus sampling counts and normalized frequency

For th rule (15)

versus amplitudes clearly reveal the nature of steady state power

quality disturbance patterns. This is due to the fact that the

where is the membership grade of the th feature with respect S-transform uses the FFT routine to generate the contours of the

to the th fuzzy set. Finally, the rules having the same conse- disturbance signals. Unlike the wavelet transform, these patterns

quent are combined using OR rule to yield the resultant firing are easier to classify by simply using a couple of features

CHILUKURI AND DASH: MULTIRESOLUTION S-TRANSFORM-BASED FUZZY RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR POWER QUALITY EVENTS 329

tion system may be limited if an important disturbance

frequency component has not been precisely extracted

by using multiresolution wavelet analysis.

3) The wavelet transform-based recognition system is highly

sensitive to the presence of noise, and misclassification

occurs beyond a noise level of 1.2% [7], [11] and in

case of S-transform, the results are found to be quite

satisfactory up to a noise level of nearly 3.5%.

VII. CONCLUSION

TABLE II This paper has proposed a new approach for detection, lo-

S-TRANSFORM CLASSIFICATION RESULTS calization, and classification of power quality disturbances in a

power distribution system. The generalized S-transform with a

variable window as a function of PQ signal frequency is used to

generate contours and feature vectors for pattern classifications.

Unlike the wavelet transform techniques, the new classifier pro-

vides a complete characterization of both steady state and tran-

sient PQ signals using fuzzy logic-based decision systems. The

fuzzy PQ classifier uses 14 rules based on trapezoidal member-

ship functions for most of the PQ disturbance events with an

accuracy rate close to 98% average.

REFERENCES

show the generalized S-transform contours for PQ violations

like transients, notches, and impulses of short durations. These [1] S. Santoso, E. J. Powers, W. M. Grady, and P. Hofmann, “Power quality

violations are clearly illustrated, as frequency changes in the assessment via wavelet transform analysis,” IEEE Trans. Power De-

contour and, thus, localization of these disturbances and optimal livery, vol. 11, pp. 924–930, Apr. 1996.

[2] S. Santoso, E. J. Powers, and W. M. Grady, “Power quality disturbance

features obtained from them have been used with a fuzzy data compression using wavelet transform methods,” IEEE Trans. Power

logic-based inferencing scheme to provide accurate classification Delivery, vol. 12, pp. 1250–1257, July 1997.

of the power quality disturbance waveforms. Once the fuzzy [3] P. Pillay and A. Bhattacharjee, “Application of wavelets to model short

term power system disturbances,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11,

recognition system provides the class of the disturbance of a pp. 2031–2037, Nov. 1996.

given PQ event, the next step is to obtain the exact time and [4] S. J. Huang, C. T. Hsieh, and C. L. Huang, “Application of morlet

duration of occurrence along with other detailed informations wavelet to supervise power system disturbances,” IEEE Trans. Power

Delivery, vol. 14, pp. 235–243, Jan. 1999.

like the magnitudes, phase angles, frequency, total harmonic [5] A. M. Gouda, M. M. A. Salama, M. R. Sultan, and A. Y. Chikhani,

distortions if any, etc. The features and provide the “Power quality detection and classification using wavelet multiresolu-

instant of occurrence and duration of the power disturbance tion signal decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, pp.

1469–1476, Oct. 1999.

event, respectively. Other parameters of interest can easily be [6] D. Borras, M. Castilla, N. Moreno, and J. C. Montano, “Wavelet and

obtained from the S-transform power disturbance recognition neural structure: A new tool for diagnostic of power system distur-

program developed by the authors. Thus, the overall advantage bances,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 37, pp. 184–190, Jan. 2001.

[7] A. Elmitwally, S. Farghal, M. Kandil, S. Abdelkader, and M. Elkateb,

of the S-transform-based fuzzy recognition system over the “Proposed wavelet-neurofuzzy combined system for power quality

wavelet one can be summarized as the following. violations detection and classification,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen.

Transm. Dist., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 5–20, Jan. 2001.

1) All of the important parameters of a power quality distur- [8] J. Chung, E. J. Powers, W. M. Grady, and S. C. Bhatt, “Power distri-

bance signal like its amplitude, frequency, total harmonic bution classifier using a rule based method and wavelet packet-based

distortion, phase, time of occurrence, duration, and its hidden Markov model,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp.

233–241, Jan. 2002.

class can be obtained from the S-transform output only. [9] M. Kezunovic and Y. Liao, “A novel software implementation concept

For oscillatory transients, both positive and negative peak for power quality study,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp.

magnitudes along with peak-to-peak deviations can also 544–549, Apr. 2002.

[10] R. G. Stockwell, L. Mansinha, and R. P. Lowe, “Localization of the com-

be obtained from the S-transform-based power quality plex spectrum: The S-transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.

assessment software. In case of wavelet transform, a FFT 144, pp. 998–1001, Apr. 1996.

procedure needs to be performed on the signal to ob- [11] A. M. Gouda, S. H. Kanoun, M. M. A. Salama, and Chikhani,

“Wavelet-based signal processing for disturbance classification and

tain several signal parameters in addition to the wavelet measurement,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen. Transm. Dist., vol. 149,

coefficients. no. 3, May 2002.

330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 19, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004

M. V. Chilukuri (M’01) was born on May 20, 1972, P. K. Dash (SM’90) is a Professor in the Faculty of

in Visakhapatnam, India. He received the M.E. Engineering at Multimedia University, Cyberjaya,

degree in power systems and automation from the Malaysia.

Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, in 1997. He is He was a Professor of Electrical Engineering and

currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at Multimedia Chairman at the Center for Intelligent Systems, Na-

University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia. tional Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India. Pro-

Currently, he is a Lecturer with the Faculty of fessor Dash had also been a visiting faculty in Sin-

Engineering at Multimedia University. In 1996, gapore, Canada, and the US. His research interests

he was Project Student at Central Power Research include power quality, FACTS, deregulation, and en-

Institute, Ultra High Voltage Research Laboratories ergy markets. He has published many research papers

(UHVRL), Hyderabad, India. From 1997 to 2001, he in international journals and conferences.

was Lecturer at GVP College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Prof. Dash is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering

University (JNTU), Visakhapatnam, India. His fields of interest include power (FNAE).

quality, intelligent signal processing, fuzzy expert systems, artificial neural

networks, soft computing, corona, and partial discharges.

Mr. Chilukuri is an Associate Member of the Institution of Electrical Engi-

neers in the U.K.

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