Power Point Lessons for LOWER SIX


SMJK Perempuan China Pulau Pinang

• Eukaryotic heterotrophs • Secrete digestive enzymes onto food
• then absorb predigested food

• Cell walls with chitin

Fungi Structures
• Fungi include
• unicellular yeast • filamentous, multicellular mold

• Most multicellular fungi
• have long, threadlike filaments (hyphae) • branch and form a tangled mass (mycelium)

• In most fungi
• perforated septa (cross walls) divide hyphae into individual cells

• In some fungi
• zygomycetes and glomeromycetes • hyphae are coenocytic (form elongated, multinuclear cell)

Fungus Body Plan

• Most fungi reproduce sexually and asexually by spores • Spores
• • produced on aerial hyphae land in suitable spot and germinate

Germination of a Spore

Bud development

Asexual Reproduction

• Fungi of two different mating types meet, hyphae fuse
• • cytoplasm fuses nuclei remain separate

• Fungi enter dikaryotic (n + n) stage
• each new cell has one nucleus of each type

• Fusion of nuclei
• takes place in hyphal tip • results in diploid (2n) zygote nucleus

Genetic Divisions
• Meiosis
• produces 4 different haploid (n) nuclei • each nucleus becomes part of a spore

• Mitosis
• forms new mycelia when spores germinate

Asexual Spores • Can be produced by mitosis • genetically similar • When these spores germinate • they also develop into mycelia

7 Large numbers of haploid (n) spores are produced by mitosis. Asexual reproduction

8 Spore germinates and forms mycelium by mitosis.

Spores germinate 1 and form mycelia by mitosis. 6 Spores are released.


Mycelia of two different mating types fuse at their 2 tips, and plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) occurs.


Sexual reproduction Haploid stage (n) Dikaryotic stage (n + n) Diploid stage (2n) Zygote nucleus (2n)


5 Meiosis results in four genetically different haploid ( n ) nuclei. Spores develop around nuclei.

3 Dikaryotic (n + n) mycelium develops. Dikaryotic mycelium



Fungal Life

4 Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) occurs, forming a diploid (2 n ) zygote nucleus.

Flagellate Cells
• Animals and fungi have flagellate cells
• Example: chytrid gametes and spores

• Flagellate cells propel themselves
• with single posterior flagellum

Platelike Cristae
• Like animal cells, fungal cells have platelike cristae in their mitochondria

• Fungi are opisthokonts
• along with animals and choanoflagellates • based on chemical and structural characteristics



Evolution of ascospores Evolution of basidiospores Evolution of dikaryotic stage

Loss of flagellum Common flagellate ancestor





Zygomycetes 1
• Rhizopus (black bread mold) • forms haploid thallus • produces asexual spores and sexual spores • Asexual spores germinate • form new thalli

Zygomycetes 2
• In sexual reproduction • hyphae of 2 different haploid mating types form gametangia • Plasmogamy occurs • as gametangia fuse

Zygomycetes 3
• Karyogamy occurs
• diploid zygote forms • from which zygospore develops

• Meiosis
• produces recombinant haploid zygospores

Zygomycetes 4
• When zygospores germinate
• each hypha develops a sporangium at its tip

• Spores are released
• develop into new hyphae

Zygomycete Life Cycle

• Microsporidia (now zygomycetes)
• are opportunistic pathogens • penetrate and infect animal cells with long, threadlike polar tubes

Microsporidian cell Polar tube

Infection by Microsporidium

Host cell

1. Spore of microsporidium has coiled polar tube.

2. Spore ejects its polar tube and penetrates host cell.

3. Infective cytoplasm is injected into host cell.

Ascomycetes 1
• Produce asexual spores (conidia) • Produce sexual spores (ascospores) in asci • Asci line a fruiting body (ascocarp)

• Conidia

• Ascocarp

• Asci

Ascomycetes 2
• Haploid mycelia of opposite mating types produce septate hyphae • Plasmogamy occurs, nuclei exchanged • Dikaryotic n + n stage occurs
• hyphae form, produce asci and ascocarp

Ascomycetes 3
• Karyogamy occurs
• followed by meiosis

• Recombinant nuclei divide by mitosis
• produce 8 haploid nuclei that develop into ascospores

• When ascospores germinate
• can form new mycelia

Ascomycetes 4
• Ascomycetes include
• • • • • yeasts cup fungi morels truffles pink, brown, and blue-green molds

• Some ascomycetes form mycorrhizae
• others form lichens

In asexual reproduction,10 hyphae produce haploid conidia that can develop into new mycelia. Conidiophore When released, 9 ascospores germinate and form new haploid mycelia. 8 Each nucleus becomes incorporated into an ascospore. Mature ascus has eight haploid ascospores Second meiotic division (+) mating type (–) mating type


Haploid (n)

Germinating conidium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (by conidia) Haploid mycelia of 1 opposite mating types both produce coenocytic sexual hyphae.


Plasmogamy occurs as hyphae of the two mating SEXUAL types fuse and nuclei are REPRODUCTION exchanged. 3 HAPLOID ( n ) STAGE Mitosis DIKARYOTIC produces eight STAGE Hyphae 7 haploid nuclei. (n + n) form an First meiotic division
DIPLOID (2n) STAGE Nuclei Zygote fuse

Plasmogamy Nuclei migrate

4 ascocarp.

Dikaryotic hyphae form and produce asci.

Developing ascus with n+n nuclei

Meiosis 6 Meiosis occurs, forming four haploid nuclei.

Ascocarp Karyogamy

5 Mycelium Karyogamy occurs in each ascus. Two haploid nuclei fuse, forming a diploid zygote nucleus.

Ascomycete Life Cycle

Basidiomycetes 1
• Produce sexual spores (basidiospores)
• on outside of basidium

• Basidia develop
• on surface of gills in mushrooms • a type of basidiocarp (fruiting body)

• Hyphae in this phylum have septa

Basidiomycete Fruiting Bodies

Basidiomycetes 2
• Plasmogamy occurs
• fusion of 2 hyphae of different mating types

• Dikaryotic secondary mycelium forms • Basidiocarp develops
• basidia form

Basidiomycetes 3
• Karyogamy occurs
• producing diploid zygote nucleus

• Meiosis produces 4 haploid nuclei
• become basidiospores

• When basidiospores germinate
• form haploid primary mycelia

Basidium with Basidiospores

Basidiomycetes 4
• Basidiomycetes include
• • • • • mushrooms puffballs bracket fungi rusts smuts

• Most fungi are decomposers
• break down organic compounds • dead organisms, leaves, garbage, wastes • into simpler nutrients that can be recycled

Mycorrhizae 1
• Mutualistic relationships between fungi and roots of plants • Fungus supplies water and nutrient minerals to plant • Plant secretes organic compounds needed by fungus

Mycorrhizae 2
• Glomeromycetes form endomycorrhizal associations with roots • Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes form ectomycorrhizae with tree roots
• do not penetrate root cells

• Symbiotic combination of fungus and photoautotroph (alga / cyanobacterium) • Photoautotroph provides fungus with organic compounds, shelter, water, minerals


Useful Fungi
• Fungi are used
• • • • as foods (mushrooms, morels, truffles) in production of beer, wine, bread (yeasts) to produce cheeses and soy sauce to make citric acid and other industrial chemicals

Edible Ascomycetes

• Fungi are model organisms for molecular biology and genetics
• • yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae other fungi

• Biological control of insects
• such as mosquitoes that transmit malaria

• Fungi are used to make medications
• penicillin, other antibiotics

• Fungi are opportunistic pathogens in humans
• • • • ringworm athlete’s foot candidiasis histoplasmosis

• Some fungi produce mycotoxins
• such as aflatoxins • cause liver damage and cancer

Fungal Plant Diseases
• Fungal hyphae infect plants through stomata
• • hyphal branches (haustoria) penetrate plant cells obtain nourishment from cytoplasm

• Include
• • • wheat rust Dutch elm disease chestnut blight

Fungal Infection of Plants

Fungal Plant Diseases

• Fungi are of major ecological, economic, biological, and medical importance

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