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SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Int roduct i on
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Shell & tube heat exchangers are the most v ersatile ty pe of heat exchangers.

Theyare used in process industries, in conv entional and nuclear power


stations, steam generators, etc

Theyare used in manyalternativ e energy applications including ocean,


thermal and geothermal.
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Shell & tube heat exchangers prov ide relativ elylarge ratios of heat transfer area to v olume. Theycan be easilycleaned.

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Shell & Tube Hea tEx cha ngers


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Shell & tube ty pe heat exchangers are built of tubes (round or rectangular in general) mounted in shells (cy lindrical, rectangular or arbitraryshape). M anyv ariations of this basic ty pe is av ailable.

The differences lie mainlyin the detailed features of construction and prov isions
for differential thermal expansion between the tubes and the shell.

Shell inlet

Tube inlet

Tube outlet

Shell outlet

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Shell & Tube Hea tEx cha ngers

U-Tube, ba f f led , sing le p a ss shell & tube hea t ex c ha ng er

Two p a ss tube, ba f f ledsing le p a ss shell & tube hea t ex c ha ng er

Two p a ss tube, f loa tinghea d , ba f f led sing le p a ss shell & tube hea t ex c ha ng er
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 4

Shell Types
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TEM A (the Tubular Exchangers M anufacturers Association) publishes standards defining how shell and tube exchangers should be built. They define a naming sy stem that is commonlyused. Shells are also ty picallypurchased in standard siz es to control costs. Inside the shell, baffles (div iders) are installed to direct the flow around the tubes, increase v elocity , and promote cross flow. Theyalso help support the tubes. The baffle cut is the ratio of the baffle window height to the shell diameter. Ty pically , baffle cut is about 20 percent. It effects both heat transfer and pressure drop. Designers also need to specifythe baffle spacing; the maximum spacing depends on how much support the tubes need.
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TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

M ult iShell & Tube Pa sses

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Tube t o Hea der Pla t e Connect i on


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Tubes are arranged in a bund le and held in place byhea d er p la te (tube sheet). The number of tubes that can be placed within a shell depends on

H ea d er Pla te

Tube lay out, tube outside diameter, pitch,


number of passes and the shell diameter.
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When the tubes are to close to each other, the header plate becomes to weak . M ethods of attaching tubes to the header plate

H ea d er Pla te Tube

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Ba f f le Type & Geom et ry


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B affles serv e two functions:

Sup p or t the tubes for structural


rigidity , prev enting tube v ibration and sagging

D iv er t the f low across the bundle


to obtain a higher heat transfer coefficient.

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Segm ent a l CutBa f f les


Baffle Type & Geometry
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The single and double segmental baffles are most frequentlyused. They div ert the flow most effectiv elyacross the tubes. The baffle spacing must be chosen with care.

O ptimal baffle spacing is somewhere between 40% - 60% of the shell diameter. B affle cut of 25%-35% is usuallyrecommended.
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The triple segmental baffles are used for low pressure applications.

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Di sc & Ri ng Ba f f les
Baffle Type & Geometry
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Disc and ring baffles are composed of alternating outer rings and inner discs, which direct the flow radiallyacross the tube field.

The potential bundle-to-shell by pass stream is eliminated This baffle ty pe is v eryeffectiv e in pressure drop to heat transfer
conv ersion
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Disc

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Ori f i ce Ba f f le
Baffle Type & Geometry
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In an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows through the clearance between tube outside diameter and baffle-hole diameter.

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Num ber ofTubes


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The number of tubes in an exchanger depends on the

Fluid flow rates Av ailable pressure drop.


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The number of tubes is selected such that the

Tube sid ev eloc ityfor water and similar liquids ranges from
0.9 to 2.4 m/ s (3 to 8 ft/ sec)

Shell-sid ev eloc ityfrom 0.6 to 1.5 m/ s (2 to 5 ft/ sec).


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The lower v elocitylimit corresponds to limiting the f ouling , and the upper v elocitylimit corresponds to limiting the rate of er osion. When sand and silt are present, the v elocityis k ept high enough to prev ent settling.

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Tube Pa sses
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Ap a ss is when liquid flows all the wayacross from one end to the other of the exchanger. We will count shell passes and tube passes.

An exchanger with one shell pass and two tube passes is a 1-2
exchanger. Almost alway s, the tube passes will be in multiples of two (1-2, 1-4, 2-4, etc.)

O dd numbers of tube passes hav e more complicated mechanical


stresses, etc. An exception: 1-1 exchangers are sometimes used for v aporiz ers and condensers.
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A large number of tube passes are used to increase the tube side fluid v elocityand heat transfer coefficient and minimiz e fouling.

This can onlybe done when there is enough pumping power since the
increased v elocity and additional turns increases the pressure drop significantly .

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Tube Pa sses - Cont i nued


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The number of tube passes depends on the av ailable pressure drop.

Higher v elocities in the tube result in higher heat transfer coefficients,


at the expense of increased pressure drop.
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Therefore, if a higher pressure drop is acceptable, it is desirable to hav e fewer but longer tubes (reduced flow area and increased flow length).

L ong tubes are accommodated in a short shell exchanger bymultiple


tube passes.
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The number of tube passes in a shell generallyrange from 1 to 10

The standard design has one, two, or four tube passes. An odd number of passes is uncommon and mayresult in mechanical
and thermal problems in fabrication and operation.

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Tube M a t eri a ls
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Ma ter ia ls selec tion and compatibilitybetween construction materials and work ing fluids are important issues, in particular with regard to c or r osion and/ or operation at elev a tedtemp er a tur es. R equirement for low cost, light weight, high conductiv ity , and good joining characteristics often leads to the selection of aluminum for the heat transfer surface. O n the other side, stainless steel is used for food processing or fluids that require corrosion resistance. In general, one of the selection criteria for exchanger material depends on the corrosiv eness of the work ing fluid. A summaryTable is prov ided as a reference fo rcorrosiv e and noncorrosiv e env ironments

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Ma t eri a ls f or Corrosi ve & Noncorrosi ve Servi ce

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Tube W a ll Thi ckness


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The wall thick ness of heat exchanger tubes is standardiz ed in terms of B irmingham Wire Gage B WG of the tube. Small tube diameters (8 to 15mm) are preferred for greater area to v olume densitybut are limited for the purposes of cleaning. L arge tube diameters are often required for condensers and boilers.

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Tube Out si de Di a m et er
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The most common plain tube siz es hav e 15.88,19.05, and 25.40 mm (5/ 8, , 1 inche) tube outside diameters. From the heat transfer v iewpoint, smaller-diameter tubes y ield higher heat transfer coefficients and result in a more compact exchanger. Howev er, larger-diameter tubes are easier to clean and more rugged. The foregoing common siz es represent a compromise.

For mechanical cleaning, the smallest practical siz e is 19.05 mm. For chemical cleaning, smaller siz es can be used prov ided that the
tubes nev er plug completely .

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Tube Lengt h
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Tube length affects the cost and operation of heat exchangers.

L onger the tube length (for anygiv en surface area),


Fewer tubes are needed, requiring less complicated header plate with fewer

holes drilled Shell diameter decreases resulting in lower cost


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Ty pically tubes are employ ed in 8, 12, 15, and 20 foot lengths. M echanical cleaning is limited to tubes 20 ft and shorter, although standard exchangers can be built with tubes up to 40 ft. There are, lik e with any thing limits of how long the tubes can be.

Shell-d ia meter -to-tube-leng th r a tio should be


within limits of 1/ 5 to 1/ 15
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M aximum tube length is dictated by

Architectural lay outs Transportation (to about 30m.)


The diameter of the two booster rock ets is dictated bythe smallest highway

tunnel siz e between the location of manufacturer and Florida. Scientific hah!
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Tub e & Header Plate Deformati on


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Tube Lengt h

Thermal expansion of tubes needs to be tak en into account for heat exchangers operating at elev ated temperatures Tube elongation due to thermal expansion causes:

Ma g nif iedD isp la c ement of aShell & Tube H ea tE x c ha ng er E lements Und er Ther ma lL oa d
Und ef or med Shell Wa ll Shell Wa ll D ef or ma tion

Header plate deformation Shell wall deformation near the


header plate
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Fatigue strength of the tube, header plate and shell joint needs to be considered when using

L onger tubes High operating tube side


temperatures

C y clic thermal loads


TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

H ea d er Pla te D ef or ma tion

Undeformed Header Plate Shape

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Tube La yout
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Tube lay out is characteriz ed bythe included angle between tubes.

R ota tedSq ua r e Tr ia ng ula r

Two standard ty pes of tube lay outs


are the sq ua r e and the eq uila ter a l tr ia ng le.
Triangular pitch (30o lay out) is better for
PT PT

heat transfer and surface area per unit .) length (greatest tube density
Square pitch (45 & 90 lay outs) is needed

for mechanical cleaning.

Note that the 30,45 and 60 are


staggered, and 90 is in line.
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Sq ua r e R ota tedTr ia ng le

For the identical tube pitch and flow rates, the tube lay outs in decreasing order of shell-side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are: 30,45,60, 90.

Tr ia ng ula r
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TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Tube La yout- Cont i nued


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The 9 0 la y out will hav e the lowest heat transfer coefficient and the lowest pressure drop. The sq ua r ep itc h (90 or 45) is used when jet or mechanical cleaning is necessary on the shell side. In that case, a minimum cleaning lane of in. (6.35 mm) is prov ided.

The square pitch is generallynot used in the fixed header sheet design
because cleaning is not feasible.
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The tr ia ng ula r p itc h prov ides a more compact arrangement, usually resulting in smaller shell, and the strongest header sheet for a specified shell-side flow area.

It is preferred when the operating pressure difference between the two


fluids is large.

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Tube Pi t ch
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The selec tion of tube p itc h is a compromise between a

C lose p itc h (small v alues of Pt/ do) for increased shell-side heat transfer
and surface compactness, and an

Op en p itc h (large v alues of Pt/ do) for decreased shell-side plugging and
ease in shell-side cleaning.
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Tube pitch PT is chosen so that the p itc hr a tio is 1.25 <PT/ do <1.5

When the tubes are to close to each other (Pt/ do less than 1.25) , the
header plate (tube sheet) becomes to weak for proper rolling of the tubes and cause leak y joints.
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Tube lay out and tube locations are standardiz ed for industrial heat exchangers.

Howev er, these are general rules of thumb and can be v iolated for
custom heat exchanger designs.

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Tube & Shell Ex ha ustGa s Cooler

Atube a ndshell ex ha ust g a sc ooler is usedon d iesel eng ines to r ed uc e the N O xemissions. Ar ec ta ng ula r c loselyp a c k edtube a r r a ng ement is usedr esultingin ar ec ta ng ula r shell.
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Ba si c Desi gn Procedure
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Heat exchanger must satisfy the

Heat transfer requirements (design or


process needs)

Allowable pressure drop (pumping


capacityand cost)
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Steps in designing a heat exchanger can be listed as:

Identifythe problem Select an heat exchanger ty pe C alculate/ Select initial design


parameters

R ate the initial design


C alculate thermal performance and

pressure drops for shell and tube side

Ev aluate the design


Is performance and cost acceptable?
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Si z e ofHea tEx cha nger


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The initia l siz e( sur f a c ea r ea ) of a heat exchanger can be estimated from

Ao =

q q = U o DTm U o FDTlm ,cf

where
Ao q Uo F ? Tm ? Tlm

O utside tube surface area Heat duty heat exchange between tube and shell side O v erall heat transfer coefficient C orrection factor F= 1.0 for cross flow heat exchanger True mean temperature ? Tm = F ? Tlm L og mean temperature difference (Est of true mean temperature)

C or r ec tion F a c tor Fis be cov ered in module TFD-HE4 L og-M ean Temperature Difference

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Overa ll Hea tTra nsf er Coef f i ci ent


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The ov er a ll hea t tr a nsf er c oef f ic ient Uo based on the outside diameter of tubes can be estimated from:

The indiv idual heat transfer coefficients (h) Shell wall, outside & inside tube fouling resistances (R w, R fo, R fi) O v erall surface efficiency(? i & ? o)
R fi R fo Ao 1 1 1 + + + A R = + o w U o Ai h o ho i o i i

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Hea tBa la nce of Shell & Tube Hea tEx cha nger
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Heat load of a heat exchanger can be estimated from heat balance:

& c p )c (Tc ,o - Tc ,i ) = (m & c p )h (Th ,i - Th ,o ) q = (m


If three of the temperatures are giv en, the fourth can be calculated
using the abov e equation.

The abov e equation assumes no phase change in any of the fluids.


Tc ,i
Shell inlet

Tube inlet

Tube outlet

Th,i
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Tc ,o

Shell outlet

Th,o
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Ot her TFD M odules Support i ng Shell & Tube Hea tEx cha ngers
q q q

O v erall heat transfer coefficient is cov ered in module TFD-HE01 L og-mean temperature difference is cov ered in module TFD-HE4 Heat transfer from finned surfaces is cov ered in module TFD-HE11

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Tot a l Num ber ofTubes


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O nce the total tube outside surface area Ao is estimated a cost effectiv e heat exchanger configuration needs to be calculated. N umber of tubes N t is dependent on tube side flow conditions. It is related to the shell d ia meter ( D th ( L ) and tube s), tube leng d ia meter ( d o) together with the allowable pressure drop and the total tube side flow rate hence the heat transfer coefficient.

Ao = d o N t L

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Tot a l Num ber ofTubes


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The total number of tubes can be predicted as a function of the shell diameter bytak ing the shell circle Ds and div iding it bythe projected area of the tube lay out pertaining to a single tube A1

Ds2 N t = (CTP) 4 A1
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A1 = (CL) PT2

C TP is the tube count constant which accounts for the incomplete cov erage of the shell diameter bythe tubes due to necessary clearances between the shell and the outer tube circle.
C TP= 0.93 C TP= 0.90 C TP= 0.85
O ne tube pass Two tube passes Three tube passes

C L- Tube L a y out C onsta nt

C L = 1.00 C L = 0.87

for 90 & 45 square pitch for 30 & 60 equilateral tri pitch

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Shell Di a m et er
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Shell diameter in terms of main constructional diameters can be expressed as:


2 CTP Ds N t = 0.785 2 CL PT 2 d do o

CL Ao (PT d o ) d o Ds = 0.637 CTP L


2

Ao = d o N t L

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Ra t i ng oft he Hea tEx cha nger Desi gn


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R a tinga n ex c ha ng er mea ns to ev aluate the thermo-hy draulic performance of a f ullysp ec if iedexchanger.


Input to the rating process is heat exchanger g eometr y(constructional design parameters), p r oc ess c ond itions (flow rate, temperature, pressure) and ma ter ia l/ f luidp r op er ties (density , thermal conductiv ity ) F ir st outp ut from the rating process is either the outlet temperature for fixed tube length or the tube length itself to meet the outlet temperature requirement. Sec ondoutp ut from the rating process is the pressure drop for both fluid streams hence the pumping energyrequirements and siz e.

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Insuf f i ci entTherm a l Ra t i ng
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If the output of the rating analy sis is not acceptable, a geometrical modification should be made If the required amount of heat cannot be transferred to satisfy specific outlet temperature, one should find a wayto increase the heat transfer coefficient or increase exchanger surface area

O ne can increase the tube side heat transfer coefficient byincreasing


the fluid v elocity - Increase number of tube passes

O ne can increase the shell side heat transfer coefficient by decreasing


baffle spacing and/ or baffle cut

O ne can increase the surface area by


Increasing the heat exchanger length Increasing the shell diameter M ultiple shells in series

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Insuf f i ci entPressure Drop Ra t i ng


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If the pressure drop on the tube side is greater than the allowable pressure drop, then

the number of tube passes can be decreased or the tube diameter can be increased which mayresult to
decrease the tube length (Same surface area) increase the shell diameter and the number of tubes

If the shell side pressure drop is greater than the allowable pressure drop then baffle spacing, tube pitch, and baffle cut can be increased or one can change the baffle ty pe.

TH E R EI SA L WA Y S ATR A D E -O F FB E TWE E N TH E R MA L& PR E SSUR ED R O PR A TI N G S!

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The Tra de-Of f


Between Thermal Balanc e & Flow Los s
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Heat transfer and fluid friction losses tend to compete with one another. The total energyloss can be minimiz ed byadjusting the siz e of one irrev ersibilityagainst the other . These adjustments can be made byproperlyselecting phy sical dimensions of the solid parts (fins, ducts, heat exchanger surface). It must be understood, howev er, that the result is at best a thermody namic optimum.

C onstraints such as cost, siz e, and reliability enter into the


determination of truly optimal designs.

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Shell Si de Hea tTra nsf er Coef f i ci ent


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There are three r a tingmethod s to calculate the shell side heat transfer coefficient:

K er n methodis a simplified approach suitable for shell side flow without


baffles

Ta bor ekmethod B ell D ela wa r e method is the most complex but accurate wayof rating a
heat exchanger with baffles

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SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT W ITH BAFFLES

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Shell Si de Hea tTra nsf er


Baffled Flow
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When the tube bund le emp loy s ba f f les, the heat transfer coefficient is higher than the coefficient for undisturbed flow around tubes without baffles. For a baffled heat exchanger

the higher heat transfer coefficients result from the inc r ea sed
tur bulenc e.

the v eloc ityof f luidf luc tua tes because of the constricted area
between adjacent tubes across the bundle.
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O nlyp a r t of the f luidta k es the d esir edp a th through the tube bundle (Stream B ), whereas a potentiallysubstantial portion flows through the leak age areas (Streams A, C , E & F)

Howev er, these clearances are inherent to the manufacturing and


assemblyprocess of shell-and-tube exchangers, and the flow distribution within the exchanger must be tak en into account.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 40

Ma i n & Lea ka ge Flow St rea ms


Baffled Heat Ex c hang er
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There are fiv e different shell side flow streams in a baffled heat exchanger

Str ea m Ais the leak age stream in the


orifice formed by the clearance between the baffle tube hole and the tube wall.

Str ea m Bis the main effectiv e crossflow stream, which can be related to flow across ideal tube bank s.

Str ea m Cis the tube bundle by pass stream in the gap between the tube
bundle and shell wall.

Str ea m Eis the leak age stream between the baffle edge and shell wall. Str ea m Fis the by pass stream in flow channel partitions due to omissions
of tubes in tube pass partitions.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 41

Ma i n & Lea ka ge Flow St rea ms


Baffled Heat Ex c hang er

Pa ss 2

Pa ss 1

Str ea mA Str ea mE Str ea mF


Str ea m Fhappens in a multiple pass (1-2, 1-4) heat exchanger

Str ea mC

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Heat Trans fer Coeffi c i ent & Correc ti on Fac tors


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Bell Dela wa re M et hod

In the Delaware method, the fluid flow in the shell is div ided into a number of indiv idual streams A through F as defined before. Each of the abov e streams introduces a correction factor to the heat transfer correlation for ideal cross-flow across a bankof tubes. 2 0.14 3 s m & s ks ho = hideal J c J l J b J s J r hideal = ji c ps c A s ps s s ,w

hideal Jc Jl Jb Js Jr

heat transfer coefficient for pure cross-flow in an ideal tube bank for baffle cut and spacing for leak age effects bundle by pass flow C& F streams for v ariable baffle spacing in the inlet and outlet sections

ji As

C olburn j-factor C ross flow area at the centerline of shell for one cross flow between two baffles Stands for shell Wall temperature

s w

for adv erse temperature gradient build-up The c ombinedef f ec ts of a ll these c or r ec tion f a c tor sf or ar ea sona ble well-d esig nedshell-a nd -tube hea t ex c ha ng er is of the or d er of 0 . 6 0
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TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Bell Dela wa re M et hod Jc Correc ti on Fac tor


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Jc is the correction factor for baffle cut and spacing. This factor tak es into account the heat transfer in the window and calculates the ov erall av erage heat transfer coefficient for the entire heat exchanger. It depends on the shell diameter and the baffle cut distance from the baffle tip to the shell inside diameter.

For a large baffle cut, this v alue maydecrease to a v alue of 0.53 it is equal to 1.0 for a heat exchanger with no tubes in the window It mayincrease to a v alue as high as 1.15 for small windows with a
high window v elocity .

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Bell Dela wa re M et hod Jl Correc ti on Fac tor


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Jl is the correlation factor for baffle leak age effects including tubeto-baffle and shell-to-baffle leak age (A- and E-streams). If the baffles are put too close together, then the fraction of the flow in the leak age streams increases compared with the cross flow. JI is a function of the

ratio of total leak age area per baffle to the cross flow area between
adjacent baffles

ratio of the shell-to-baffle leak age area to the tube-to-baffle leak age
area.
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A ty pical v alue of Jl is in the range of 0.7 and 0.8.

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Bell Dela wa re M et hod Jb Correc ti on Fac tor


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Jb is the correction factor for bundle by passing effects due to the clearance between the outermost tubes and the shell and pass div iders (C - and F-streams).

For relativ ely small clearance between the outermost tubes and the shell
for fixed tube sheet construction, Jb = 0.90.

For a pull-through floating head, larger clearance is required, Jb =0.7. The sealing strips (see figure8.14) can increase the v alue of Jb

Str ea mF
Pa ss 2 Pa ss 1

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

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Bell Dela wa re M et hod Js & Jr Correc ti on Fac tors


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Js is the correction factor for v ariable baffle spacing at the inlet and outlet. B ecause of the noz z le spacing at the inlet and outlet and the changes in local v elocities, the av erage heat transfer coefficient on the shell side will change. The Js v alue will usuallybe between 0.85 and 1.00. Jr applies if the shell-side R ey nolds number, R es, is less than 100.

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If R es < 20, it is fullyeffectiv e. This factor is equal to 1.00 if R es> 100.


The c ombinedef f ec t of a ll these c or r ec tion f a c tor s f or awell-d esig nedshell-a nd -tube hea t ex c ha ng er is of the or d er of 0 . 6 0
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 47

Bell Dela wa re M et hod


Heat Trans fer Coeffi c i ent - Colb urn j -fac tor
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C olburn-j factor is used in heat transfer in general and free and forced conv ection calculations in particular.
3) where St is Stanton number It is equiv alent to (St.Pr2/

where Stanton Number is defined as

h h h = = St = & m Gc p (Vmax)c p cp Ami n


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G is the mass v elocity Amin is the min free flow x-sec area regardless where it occurs

C olburn j-factor is a function of:

Shell sid eR ey nold s number based on the


outside tube diameter and on the minimum cross section flow area at the shell diameter

&s d om Re s = s As

Tube lay out Pitch siz e


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Numeri c al Formsof Colb urn ( j )& Fri c ti on ( f)Fac tors


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Bell Dela wa re M et hod

Although the ideal v alues of j and f are av ailable in graphical forms, for computer analy sis, a set of curv e-fit correlations are obtained in the following forms:
C olbur nj -f a c tor

1.33 a2 ( Re ) ji = a1 s P d T o a3 a= a4 1 + 0.14(Re s)
F r ic tion f a c tor
b

1.33 b2 f = b1 ( Re ) s P d T o

b=

b3 b4 1 + 0.14(Re s)
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TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT W ITHOUT BAFFLES


SHEL L -and-TUB E HEAT EX C HANGER

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Shell Si de Hea tTra nsf er Coef f i ci ent


Wi th ou t Baffles F low Alon gth e Tu b e Ax i s
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The heat transfer coefficient outside the tube bundle is referred to as the shell-side heat transfer coefficient. If there are no baffles, the flow will be along the heat exchanger inside the shell. Then, the heat transfer coefficient can be based on the equiv alent diameter, De (Same as a double-pipe heat exchanger)

ho De 0.55 1/ 3 b = 0.36 Re P r k w D G ho De = 0.36 e s k


0.55 1/ 3

0.14
q q

De Gs b w

Equiv alent shell diameter Shell side mass v elocity B ulkfluid temperature Wall temperature

c p b k w
DeGs < 106

0.14

q q

2 103 < Re s =

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Equi va lentShell Di a m et er - De
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The equiv alent diameter of the shell is tak en as four times the net flow area as lay out on the tube sheet (for mypitch lay out) div ided bythe wetted perimeter:
R ec ta ng ula r Pitc h
2 4( PT2 - d o / 4) De = d o

De =

4f r e ef l o wa r e a we t t e dp e r i me t e r

Tr ia ng ula r Pitc h
2 4( PT2 3 - d o / 8) De = d o / 2

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

52

Shell Si de M a ss Veloci t y - Gs
q q

There is no free-flow area on the shell side bywhich the shell-side mass v elocity , Gs, can be calculated. For this reason, fictional v alues of Gs can be defined based on the bundle cross flow area at the hy pothetical tube row possessing the maximum flow area corresponding to the center of the shell. V ariables that affect the v elocityare:

Shell diameter ( D s)
Pitch siz e( PT)
q

C learance between adjacent tubes ( C ); B affle spacing ( B )

The width of the flow area at the tubes located at center of the shell PT) Cand the length of the flow area is tak en as the baffle is (Ds/ spacing, B .

Therefore, the bundle cross flow area As,


at the center of the shell is
q

As =

Ds CB PT

Shell side mass v elocityis

Gs =

& m As
53

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Shell Si de Pressure Drop


q

The shell-side pressure drop depends on the number of tubes the fluid passes through in the tube bundle between the baffles as well as the length of each crossing.

If the length of a bundle is div ided by four baffles, for example, all the
fluid trav els across the bundle fiv e times.
q

A correlation has been obtained using the product of distance across the bundle, tak en as the inside diameter of the shell, Ds and the number of times the bundle is crossed. Lis the heat exchanger length, Bis the
baffle spacing

L fGs2 - 1 + 1 Ds B Dp s = 0.14 2 De (b w )

Shell sid ef r ic tion c oef f ic ient f includes the entrance and exit losses

f =e x p { 0.576 - 0.19l n (Re s )}


54

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

TUBE SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICENT & FRICTION FACTOR


SHEL L -and-TUB E HEAT EX C HAGER

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

55

Tube Si de Hea tTra nsf er Correla t i ons


q

E x tensiv e ex p er imenta la ndtheor etic a l ef f or ts hav e been made to obtain the solutions for turbulent forced conv ection heat transfer and flow friction problems in ducts because of their frequent occurrence and application in heat transfer engineering. There are a la r g e number of c or r ela tions a v a ila ble in the literature for the fullydev eloped (hy dro-dy namically and thermally ) turbulent flow of single-phase Newtonian fluids in smooth, straight, circular ducts with constant and temperature-dependent phy sical properties. The objectiv e of this section is to hig hlig ht some of the ex isting c or r ela tions to be used in the design of heat exchange equipment and to emp ha siz e the c ond itions or limita tions imposed on the applicabilityof these correlations. Extensiv e efforts hav e been made to obtain empirical correlations that represent a best-fit curv e to experimental data or to adjust coefficients in the theoretical equations to best fit the experimental data.
56

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Flow M a ldi st ri but i on& Hea der Desi gn


q

O ne of the common assumptions in basic heat exchanger design theoryis that fluid be distributed uniformlyat the inlet of the exchanger on each fluid side and throughout the core.

Howev er, in practice, flow maldistribution is more common and can


significantlyreduce the desired heat exchanger performance.
q

Flow maldistribution can be induced byheat exchanger

Geometry- mechanical design features such as the basic geometry ,


manufacturing imperfections, and tolerances

O perating conditions - v iscosityor densityinduced mal distribution,


multi phase flow, and fouling phenomena

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

57

Tube-t o-Tube Veloci t y Va ri a t i on


q

In most cases, geometric flow entry & exit conditions to the headers promote a tube-2-tube v elocityv ariation

Flow v elocitydistribution ov er the header plate before tube entrance for a rectangular x-sec heat exchanger

X-sec tiona la r eaof the inlet p ip e to the hea d er p la te ma y be sma ller c omp a r edto the hea d er p la te a r ea

Header Plate
q
9 0d eg r ee f low tur nc r ea tes non-unif or mv eloc ity d istr ibution insid e the tubes

N usselt c or r ela tions p r esented in this mod ule a ssume a n eq ua llyd istr ibutedf low between tubes

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Sa me v eloc ityin ea c h tube! 58

Tube Si de Hea tTra nsf er Coef f i ci ent


q

Petuk hov& Pop ov s theoretical calculations for the case of fully dev eloped turbulent flow with constant properties in a circular tube with constant heat flux boundaryconditions fielded a correlation, which was based on the three-lay er turbulent boundarylay er model with constants adjusted to match the experimental data.

Petuk hovalso gav e a simplified form of this correlation as


Nub = r ( f / 2 ) Re b P b 0.5 23 1.07 + 12.7( f / 2) (P r - 1)
f = (1.58 l nRe b - 3.28 )
-2

Where the friction factor f is defined as:

This equation predicts results in the range of

104 <R e <5x106 & 0.5 < Pr < 200 with 6% error 104 <R e <5x106 & 0.5 <Pr <2000 with 10% error
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 59

Tube Si de Pressure Drop


q

The tube-sid ep r essur ed r opcan be calculated byk nowing the

Number of tube passes, Np L ength of the heat exchanger, L Mean fluid v elocity inside the tube, um
Dpt = 4 f
q

LN p di

1 u 2

2 m

2 Gtube Dpt = 4 f 2 di

LN p

The change of direction in the passes introduces an additional pressure drop, ? Pr due to sudden 2 expansions and contractions that the tube fluid Dp r = 4 N r 1 u m 2 experiences during a return

This is accounted with four v elocity heads per pass


q

Total pressure drop than becomes

LN p 2 Dptotal = 4 f + 4 N p 1 um 2 di
60

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

Roa dm a p To Increa se Hea tTra nsf er


q

Increase heat transfer coefficent

Tube Side
Increase number of tubes Decrease tube outside diameter

Shell Side
Decrease the baffle spacing Decrease baffle cut

Increase surface area

Increase tube length Increase shell diameter increased number of tubes Employmultiple shells in series or parallel
q

Increase L M TD correction factor and heat exchanger effectiv eness

Use counterflow configuration Use multiple shell configuration


TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 61

Roa dm a p To Reduce Pressure Drop


q

Tube side

Decrease number of tube passes Increase tube diameter Decrease tube length and increase shell diameter and number of tubes
q

Shell side

Increase the baffle cut Increase the baffle spacing Increase tube pitch Use double or triple segmental baffles

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

62

Ref erences
q

Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design R amesh K . Shah & Dusan Sek ulic John Wiley& Sons, 2003 C ompact Heat Exchangers, 3rd Edition W.M .K ay s & A.L .L ondon Heat Exchangers, Selection R ating & Design SadikK ak ac & Hongtan L iu C R CPress, 2nd Edition, 2002 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Design Software for Educational Applications. Int. J. Engng. Ed. V ol. 14, No. 3, p 217-224, 1998 K .C .L eong, K .C . Toh, Y .C .L eong Wolv erine Tube Heat Transfer Data B ook www.wolv erine.com
63

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

APPENDIX

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

64

Di m ensi ona l Da t aFor Com m erci a l Tubi ng

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

65

Di m ensi ona l Da t aFor Com m erci a l Tubi ng

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

66