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has shown in fig. Either all fiber or integrated optics devices can be analysed in terms of the scattering matrix also called the propagation matrix S, which defines the relationship between the two input field strengths a1 and a2 , and the two output field strengths b1 and b2. by definition where here represents the coupling coefficient of optical power transfer from input port i to output port j , with s being the magnitude of s and 6 being its phase at port j relative to port i

for an actual physical device, two restrictions apply to the scattering matrix s. one is a result of the reciprocity condition arising from the fact that maxwell equations are invariant for time inversion that is they have two solutions in

generic 2x2 guided wave coupler here a1 and b1 represent the field strengths of input port, and output port j, respectively and the s are the strengths matrix parameters

opposite propagating directions through the device, assuming single mode operation the other restriction arises from energy conservation principles under the assumption that the device is lossless from the first condition, it follows that

if we now assume that the coupler has been constructed so that the fraction 66 of the optical power from input i, appears at output port i, with the remainder e going to port 2 then we have 11 which is a real number between 0 and 1, here we have assumed without loss of generality that the electic field at output I has a zero phase , shift relative to the input at port I , that is 000 since we are interested in the phase change that occurs when the coupled optical power from input I emerges from port 2 , we make the simplifying assumption that the coupler is symmetric then analogous to the effect at port I , we have 22 with 22 using these expressions we can determine the phases 12 of the coupled outputs when both input ports are receiving signals

inserting the expressions for 11 and 22 into 1012 and letting 12 where 12 is the magnitude of 12 and 12 is its phase we have

example assume we have a 3-dB coupler so that half of the input power gets coupled to the second fiber then e=0,5 and the output field intesities eout1 and eout2 can be found from the input intensities ein1 and ein2 and the scattering matrix

letting ein1 0 we have eout1 1 and 2 the output powers are then given by

so that half the input power appears at each output of the coupler

it is also important to note that when we want a large portion of the input power from say port I , to emerge from output I , we need e be small however this in turn means that the amount of power at the same wavelength coupled to output I from input 2 is small consequently if one is using the same wavelength it is not possible in a passive 2x2 coupler to have all the power from both inputs coupled simultaneously to the same output the best that can be done is to have half of the power from each input it is possible to couple la large portion of both power levels onto the same fiber so that the scattering matrix from becomes

from the second restriction it the device is lossless the sum of the output intensities I0 must equal the sum of the input intensities Ii

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