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Allergens are substance that cause the immunity system to trigger and fight against it.

In normal cases, and in the majority this happens when foreign bodies such as bacteria, enter our body. However, innocent and harmless bodies (proteins) such as pollen, peanuts, milk, penicillin etc. may not be recognised by out immune system and keep thinking of them being a harmful foreign body. On the other hand, wasps and other insects produce allergens as a self defence for themselves. elow are three lists consisting of ! ". #atural $ommon %llergens &. $hemical %llergens 3. '(#umbers and )ood %dditives Natural Common Allergens %irborne *rass +ollen ,ree +ollen -ould .pores %nimal /ander )oods /airy +roducts 'ggs .trawberries )ish and .hellfish $ereals

Allergenic substances and products 0easts .ugars -annitol .orbitol +olysorbates 1ice -altode2trins $itrus ioflavonoids 3actose %rificial +resevatives %rtificial $olours $itrus +ectin ,alc .oy 3ecithin +eanuts

$orn )lour *luten .oy )lour 1ice )lour %lfalfa +otato .tarch %cacia *um

Chemical Allergens and Others 1. Nickel sulphate #ickel is one of the most common metals in our environment, and is the most common contact sensitises world( wide. %bout "45 of all women are sensitive to nickel sulphate and react to metal objects in direct contact with the skin. 2. Wool alcohols 6ool fat and wool alcohols are e2tensively used in cosmetic products and topical medicaments such as ointments, creams, lotions and soaps. 6ool alcohol is the fraction of lanolin in which the allergen(s) are found. ,he structure of the allergen is unknown. %lthough lanolin is a weak sensiti7er, allergy is not uncommon because of its fre8uent use on inflamed skin or as an emollient. 3. Neomycin sulphate #eomycin sulphate is an antibiotic in the aminoglycoside group that is used topically in ointments, creams, ear drops and nose drops. #eomycin sulphate consists of three different chemical substances, all of which are sensiti7ers. ,he neomycin sulphate patch test reaction often develops slowly and should be evaluated 9(: days after application if possible. 4. Potassium dichromate .oluble chromium salts may cause contact dermatitis and are found in wet cement, chrome tanned leather, welding fumes, cutting oils and anti rust paints. -etallic chromium has an o2idi7ed surface and no soluble chromium is released. ,he metal is thus non(allergenic. . Caine mi! $aine mi2 contains three anaesthetics for topical use ( ben7ocaine, dibucaine hydrochloride and tetracaine hydrochloride. $aine mi2 anaesthetics are used in medicaments that reduce pain, itching and stinging. ,hey are also found in haemorrhoidal preparations and cough syrups. $aines are moderate sensiti7ers, but are often used on inflamed skin, and therefore allergic sensiti7ation is not uncommon.

". #ragrance mi! )ragrance mi2 contains eight common fragrances, also known to be sensiti7ers ( cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, alpha(amylcinnamic aldehyde, isoeugenol, geraniol, hydro2ycitronellal and oak moss. ,he perfumes of the fragrance mi2 occur in most toiletries, soaps, after shave lotions, shampoos, scented household products and in many industrial products such as cutting fluids. $. Colophony $olophony is a resin obtained from different conifer species. It is found in adhesive, tape, sticker sealant, lac8uers, varnishes, cosmetics, soldering materials, and many industrial products. +aper contains small amounts of colophony. ,he allergens of colophony are not altogether known, but are assumed to be present among the resin acids, which are main ingredients of colophony or among their o2idation products. % mi2ture of colophonies of different origin is an e2cellent clinical indicator of colophony allergy. %. &po!y resin 'po2y resin is the diglycidylether of bisphenol(% and is found in strong, two(part plastic adhesives. Only the resin ( the uncured epo2y ( is sensiti7ing, and the ;94 monomer the essential sensiti7er. '. (uinoline mi! <uinoline mi2 contains clio8uinol and chloro8uinadol, two antimicrobials used in medicated creams and ointments for wound infections and infected ec7emas. <uinolines are not uncommon sensiti7ers in countries where they are used. 1). *alsam o+ Pe, alsam of +eru is a wood e2tract from the .outh %merican tree Myroxylon pedere. In the past, it was commonly incorporated as fragrance in cosmetics, medical creams and ointments and used as flavouring in teas, tobaccos, cough syrups, colas, ice creams, baked goods and many other foods. It is decreasingly used, but gives a good indication of fragrance sensitivity, as it includes several different fragrances that sensiti7e, such as ben7yl cinnamate, ben7ylben7oate, cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol. 11. &thylenediamine dihydrochloride 'thylenediarnine is an emulsifier and stabili7er found in both medicated and non(medicated topical preparations such as creams and nose drops. It is used industrially as a solvent, curing and anticorrosive agent. 12. Cobalt chloride -etallic cobalt and cobalt salts are strong sensiti7ers, and are found in many metal plated objects including buckles, buttons and 7ips, but also in artists= paints, wet cement and hard metal. $obalt is often found together with nickel, and allergy occurs to both these metals in &:5 of nickel sensitivity. ,his is not regarded as true cross sensitivity. 13. p-tert-butylphenol +ormaldehyde resin p(tert(butylphenol formaldehyde resin is a condensation product of formaldehyde and p(tert(butylphenol. It is a source material for many waterproof glues and finishes, and is fre8uently used in the construction and shoe industries. It is found in leather goods, furniture, rockwool, hard board, high 8uality paper and glossy fabrics. +henolformaldehyde resins are a group of more or less condensed substances. -any of them sensiti7e. +(tert( butylphenol formaldehyde resin indicates most of this sensitivity. 14. Paraben mi! ,he mi2ture contains five different parabens> methyl(, ethyl(, propyl(, butyl( and ben7yl(parahydro2yben7oate. +arabens are the most used topical preservatives worldwide. +arabens are found in several medical creams, lotions, pastes, and in several cosmetics and skin care products. +arabens are used as food preservatives and industrially in oils, fats and glues. .ensitivity to parabens is not uncommon although rare in relation to their widespread usage. +arabens are lipophilic and have low irritant and sensiti7ing potential. 1 . Carba mi! ,hree rubber chemicals, " .;(diphenylguanidine, 7inc diethyldithiocarbamate and 7inc dibutyldithiocarbamate are contained in this mi2ture. ,hese chemicals are strong antimicrobials and antio2idants, and are used to stabili7e rubber. ,hey are found in almost all rubber products including shoes, tool handles, electric cords, etc. ,hey are also found in adhesives for leather, some vinyl products and are ingredients of pesticides. /ithiocarbamates transform to thiurams on e2posure to o2ygen. ,herefore, carbamate and thiuram allergic reactions often occur in parallel. 1". *lack rubber mi! #.isopropyl(#"(phenyl paraphenylenediamine? #cyclohe2yl(#"(phenyl paraphenylenediamine and #,#"(diphenyl paraphenylene diamine are antio2idants and polymeri7ation inhibitors found in almost all black rubber products

including tyres, handles, rubber washers, hoses and gloves. Hair dye products are related and may occasionally cross react. ,he black rubber chemicals are strong sensiti7ers. 1$. .sothia/olinones 01athon C23 % mi2ture of two allergens> .chloro(&(methyl%(isothia7olin(;(one and &(methyl(9(isothia7olin(;@ne, the chloromethyl derivative being the more sensiti7ing. Aathon $* is a widespread preservative in cosmetics and commercial household products such as shampoos, creams, lotions, cleaners and washing materials. It is also a widely used industrial preservative for cutting fluids. 1%. (uaternium-1 <uaternium(" :, " (;@hloroallyl)(;,:,B.tria7a(" (a7onium(adamantane chloride is a preservative found in cosmetics such as lotions, creams, shampoos and soaps. It is also found in commercial products such as polishes, cleaners, and in industrial products such as cutting fluids and paints. <uaternium(": is a formaldehyde releaser. Individuals reacting to this compound may either be allergic to formaldehyde or have a specific sensitivity. <uaternium(": has low potential to irritate and sensiti7ers. 1'. 4ercaptoben/othia/ole 04*53 -ercaploben7othia7ole is a vulcani7ation accelerator used in rubber products such as shoes, gloves, rubber bands, gaskets, electric cords. It is also found in adhesives and as a fungicide, bactericide and anticorrosive agent in cutting oils and greases. - , is a moderately strong sensiti7er and a moderately irritant chemical. 2). p-Phenylenediamine 0PP63 ++/ is a blue(black aniline dye. ,ogether with (elated compounds it is found in many dyed te2tiles, leather, and fur. +ermanent and semi(permanent hair dyes may contain ++/ or related chemicals, which to some e2tent cross react. It may also be found in dark cosmetics, black rubber, photographic developers and printing inks. ++/ is readily o2idi7ed in contact with atmospheric o2ygen, but this reduces the allergenic potency only marginally. It is an open 8uestion whether the dye itself or an o2idation product is the essential allergen. 21. #ormaldehyde 0N-hydrn!ymethyl succinimide3 )ormaldehyde is the initial component in the manufacture of several plastics and synthetic resins. 1esidual amounts of formaldehyde are released from such products. )ormaldehyde releasing disinfectants and preservatives are widely used in cosmetics, cleaning products and many industrial products. )ormaldehyde is found in glues, te2tiles and some types of paper. ,here is a significant e2posure to formaldehyde in the construction industry from paints, hardboard, rockwool, plastics and waterproof glues. 22. 4ercapto mi! -orpholinyl mercaptoben7othia7ol. #($yclohe2yl ben7othia7yl sulphonamide and diben7othia7yl disulphide are the allergens included. Cke mercaptoben7othia7ol these mercaptochemicals are vulcanisation accelerators used in rubber products. 23. 5hiomersal 0thimerosal7 merthiolate3 ,hiomersal is a preservative used in contact lens fluids and in particular cosmetics, such as eye shadows. It may also be used as a preservative for eye and nose drops, and for some injectable medicines, especially vaccines and gammaglobulin. ,hiomersal contains mercury, but cross reacts only marginally with metallic mercury and the relevance of positive reactions is often hard to establish. 24. 5hiuram mi! ,he thiuram mi2 includes three disulphides and one monosulphide. ,hey are strong antimicrobials and antio2idants. ,hey are found in almost all rubber products, including shoes, gloves, condoms, elastic bands, tool handles, gaskets and electric cables. ,hey are also found in adhesives for leather and vinyl products and are ingredients of pesticides, insect repellents, antiscabies medication, fungicides, wood preservatives, paint additives, lubricating oils and the drug disulfiram (%ntabuse). ,here is an interaction between the disulphides of the mi2 which form an e8uilibrium of si2 disulphides. ,he cross(reaction pattern of these disulphides has not yet been evaluated.